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Delusion across cultures

Maria Chiu, Michael Lebenbaum, Alice M Newman, Juveria Zaheer, Paul Kurdyak
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the sociocultural determinants of mental illness at hospital presentation. Our objective was to examine ethnic differences in illness severity at hospital admission among Chinese, South Asian, and the general population living in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a large, population-based, cross-sectional study of psychiatric inpatients aged from 19 to 105 years who were discharged between 2006 and 2014. A total of 133,588 patients were classified as Chinese (n = 2,582), South Asian (n = 2,452), or the reference group (n = 128,554) using a validated surnames algorithm (specificity: 99...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Vassilis Kontaxakis, George Konstantakopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Duncan McLean, Rangaswamy Thara, Sujit John, Robert Barrett, Peter Loa, John McGrath, Bryan Mowry
There is significant variation in the expression of schizophrenia across ethnically different populations, and the optimal structural and diagnostic representation of schizophrenia are contested. We contrasted both lifetime frequencies of DSM-IV criterion A (the core symptom criterion of the internationally recognized DSM classification system) symptoms and types/content of delusions and hallucinations in transethnic schizophrenia populations from Australia (n = 776), India (n = 504) and Sarawak, Malaysia (n = 259), to elucidate clinical heterogeneity...
September 2014: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
D Bhugra, K R Gupta, B Wright
Cross-cultural studies of depression have raised interesting issues in terms of symptoms and diagnosis in patients seeking treatment. To understand the symptom patterns of depression in a clinic population in north India, we studied 75 consecutive patients diagnosed as suffering from depression. They were asked to describe their symptoms, life events in the year before the onset of depression, and family history. Sleep disturbances, low mood and irritability were common symptoms. Suicidal intent was reported by 54% of the sample, and guilt by 56%...
1997: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Samuel Suk-Hyun Hwang, Yeni Kim, Jae Seung Chang, Da Young Yun, Yong Sik Kim, Hee Yeon Jung
BACKGROUND: Foulds' Delusions-Symptoms-State Inventory (DSSI) has been purported to be a reliable, systematic categorical measure to assess the patients with schizophrenia according to the degree of illness. However, further cross-validations using other clinical measures and diverse samples from other cultures have not been advanced recently. We aimed to examine the validity of the DSSI hierarchical class model using both Korean non-patient and patient (schizophrenia and depression) groups...
2013: BMC Psychiatry
David Raune, Suzanne Law
AIM: A modular symptom-specific (MSS) programme of early intervention group cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis might confer additional therapeutic benefits and clinical and financial efficiency, but the approach is empirically untested. Therefore, we devised a novel MSS programme to test - in a culturally diverse 'Real World' early intervention service - its relevancy, feasibility, acceptability and safety. METHOD: The MSS programme comprised six different groups across 33 sessions: Psycho-Education (3), Mood-Management (5), Delusions (8), Auditory Hallucinations (8), Past Auditory Hallucinations (3) and Negative Symptoms (6)...
May 2013: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Marek Krzystanek, Krzysztof Krysta, Adam Klasik, Irena Krupka-Matuszczyk
BACKGROUND: Different environmental factors are thought to be responsible for 15-20% of schizophrenia pathogenesis. Religion has long been considered a major force in human life, regardless of economic, social or political affiliation. How the perception of religion has changed over time, especially in the context of mental illness, was the focal point of this long-term comparative study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A random selection of 100 case histories from the years 1932, 1952, 1972 and 1992 was selected...
September 2012: Psychiatria Danubina
Joel Gold, Ian Gold
INTRODUCTION: We report a novel delusion, primarily persecutory in form, in which the patient believes that he is being filmed, and that the films are being broadcast for the entertainment of others. METHODS: We describe a series of patients who presented with a delusional system according to which they were the subjects of something akin to a reality television show that was broadcasting their daily life for the entertainment of others. We then address three questions, the first concerning how to characterise the delusion, the second concerning the role of culture in delusion, and the third concerning the implications of cultural studies of delusion for the cognitive theory of delusion...
November 2012: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Pamela Jacobsen, Daniel Freeman, Paul Salkovskis
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether a reasoning bias ('jumping to conclusions'; JTC) found to be associated with higher levels of conviction in delusions is also associated with high-conviction beliefs in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). DESIGN: The experimental design was mixed-effects, with one between-subjects factor of group and one within-subjects factor of task. METHODS: Participants were 16 people with high-conviction OCD (≥ 50%), 16 people with low-conviction OCD (< 50%), 16 people with delusions (≥ 50% conviction), and 16 non-clinical controls...
March 2012: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Robyn Langdon, Jonathan McGuire, Richard Stevenson, Stanley V Catts
OBJECTIVES. Olfactory hallucinations (OHs) are underrepresented in conventional clinical instruments, infrequently researched, and poorly understood. To advance understanding of OHs, we examined their past-month prevalence and co-occurring symptoms in two datasets. DESIGN. One dataset comprised categorical codes and was examined using homogeneity analysis and logistic regression; the other dataset comprised numeric ratings and was examined using principal components analyses and linear regression. METHOD...
June 2011: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Amanda J Barnier, Rochelle E Cox, Michael Connors, Robyn Langdon, Max Coltheart
This article describes a study that used hypnosis to temporarily re-create mirrored-self misidentification, which is the delusional belief that the person one sees in the mirror is a stranger. Following a hypnotic suggestion to see a stranger in the mirror, high hypnotizable subjects described seeing a stranger with physical characteristics different to their own. Whereas subjects' beliefs about seeing a stranger were clearly false, they had no difficulty generating sensible reasons to explain the stranger's presence...
January 2011: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Roberto Nuevo, Somnath Chatterji, Emese Verdes, Nirmala Naidoo, Celso Arango, José Luis Ayuso-Mateos
OBJECTIVE: To identify the cross-national prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the general population and to analyze their impact on health status. METHOD: The sample was composed of 256,445 subjects (55.9% women), from nationally representative samples of 52 countries worldwide participating in the World Health Organization's World Health Survey. Standardized and weighted prevalence of psychotic symptoms were calculated in addition to the impact on health status as assessed by functioning in multiple domains...
May 2012: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Kate de Medeiros, P Robert, S Gauthier, F Stella, A Politis, J Leoutsakos, F Taragano, J Kremer, A Brugnolo, A P Porsteinsson, Y E Geda, H Brodaty, G Gazdag, J Cummings, C Lyketsos
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) affect almost all patients with dementia and are a major focus of study and treatment. Accurate assessment of NPS through valid, sensitive and reliable measures is crucial. Although current NPS measures have many strengths, they also have some limitations (e.g. acquisition of data is limited to informants or caregivers as respondents, limited depth of items specific to moderate dementia). Therefore, we developed a revised version of the NPI, known as the NPI-C...
September 2010: International Psychogeriatrics
Daniel Freeman, Katherine Pugh, Natasha Vorontsova, Angus Antley, Mel Slater
A key problem in studying a hypothesized spectrum of severity of delusional ideation is determining that ideas are unfounded. The first objective was to use virtual reality to validate groups of individuals with low, moderate, and high levels of unfounded persecutory ideation. The second objective was to investigate, drawing upon a cognitive model of persecutory delusions, whether clinical and nonclinical paranoia are associated with similar causal factors. Three groups (low paranoia, high nonclinical paranoia, persecutory delusions) of 30 participants were recruited...
February 2010: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
S M Colbert, E R Peters, P A Garety
OBJECTIVES: A defining characteristic of delusions is inflexibility. However, it is not known if this is specific to the deluded individual's thinking about delusional beliefs, or whether this might apply more generally to the thinking style of people with delusions. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design was employed comparing belief flexibility, belief dimensions, and extreme responding (ER) across three groups. METHODS: Belief flexibility and dimensions were assessed for two types of beliefs, personally meaningful beliefs (delusional or idiosyncratic beliefs) and standard beliefs...
March 2010: Psychology and Psychotherapy
John A McGrath, Dimitrios Avramopoulos, Virginia K Lasseter, Paula S Wolyniec, M Daniele Fallin, Kung-Yee Liang, Gerald Nestadt, Mary H Thornquist, James R Luke, Pei-Lung Chen, David Valle, Ann E Pulver
CONTEXT: Factor analysis of the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia yields dimensional phenotypes that may relate to underlying genetic variation. Examination of familiality of factor scores can demonstrate whether they are likely to be of use in genetic research. OBJECTIVE: To produce a broader set of factorial phenotypes that are tested for familiality including core symptoms of schizophrenia and additional indicators of social, work, and educational dysfunction...
June 2009: Archives of General Psychiatry
A Preti, M Vellante, G Zucca, L Tondo, K Akiskal, H Akiskal
BACKGROUND: TEMPS-A (Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire) is a new self-report measure of the affective temperament with depressive (D), cyclothymic (C), hyperthymic (H), irritable (I), and anxious (A) subscales. To date, the original 110-item version has been translated into 25 languages, and validated in many countries with different cultural backgrounds. This study presents the Italian brief, 39-item version of the questionnaire, more suited for studies in populations and currently validated in the U...
January 2010: Journal of Affective Disorders
Vandad Sharifi, Ali Sajjadifar, Homayoun Amini
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show that self-reported psychotic-like experiences in general population samples are quite common and on a continuum with psychotic symptoms in clinical samples. However, most evidence comes from western settings and there is a dearth of research in developing countries. Examination of these experiences across different cultures adds to their validity. AIMS: To assess psychotic-like ideations and its association with poor mental health in a group of young normal individuals in Iran...
September 2008: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Ayana A Gibbs, Paola Dazzan, Kevin D Morgan, Kris H Naudts, Craig Morgan, Gerard Hutchinson, Paul Fearon, Julian Leff, Robin M Murray, Anthony S David
BACKGROUND: Few attempts have been made to examine the relationship between amygdala abnormalities and specific symptoms in psychosis. The present study explored the relationship between amygdala morphology and mood congruent and mood incongruent delusional beliefs. METHODS: Amygdala volumes were measured in 43 patients presenting with delusional beliefs in the context of their first episode of psychosis and 43 healthy volunteers matched for age and gender. RESULTS: Left-greater-than-right-asymmetry of the amygdala varied as a function of gender and mood congruence of delusional beliefs, due to asymmetrical enlargement of the left amygdala in women presenting with predominantly mood incongruent delusions...
September 2008: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Heather C Whalley, Viktoria-Eleni Gountouna, Jeremy Hall, Andrew McIntosh, Marie-Claire Whyte, Enrico Simonotto, Dominic E Job, David G C Owens, Eve C Johnstone, Stephen M Lawrie
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that different types of psychopathology in schizophrenia may reflect distinguishable pathological processes. In the current study we aimed to address such associations in the absence of confounders such as medication and disease chronicity by examining specific relationships between fMRI activation and individual symptom severity scores in un-medicated subjects at high genetic risk of schizophrenia. METHODS: Associations were examined across two functional imaging paradigms: the Hayling sentence completion task, and an encoding/retrieval task, comprising encoding (at word classification) and retrieval (old word/new word judgement)...
2007: BMC Psychiatry
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