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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926891/-advances-in-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#1
X R Zhu, L Z Zheng
Currently, immunotherapy is considered as the fourth major modality of cancer treatment except surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The new therapeutic approach based on immune checkpoint inhibitors is a landmark innovation. Strategies considering checkpoint inhibitors have shown good anti-tumor effect by targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Moreover, DNA mismatch repair-deficient tumors appear to be potential candidates for these therapies...
September 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926365/primary-cutaneous-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-leg-type-with-spontaneous-regression-after-biopsy
#2
Gabriel Marrero-Alemán, Társila Montenegro-Dámaso, Yeray Peñate
Primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCDLBCL-LT) represents approximately 20% of cutaneous B lymphomas with an intermediate prognosis. Spontaneous regression is uncommon; there are only 2 published cases. An 83-year-old woman presented 2 orange erythematous nodules on the back of her right leg with an elastic consistency, infiltrated, painful to the touch, and of an 8-month evolution. A histological examination revealed a dense cellular dermo-hypodermic infiltrate sparing the papillary dermis, composed of large cells with immunoblast and centroblast morphology and frequent mitosis...
October 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923586/genetic-code-asymmetry-supports-diversity-through-experimentation-with-posttranslational-modifications
#3
REVIEW
James W Dennis
Protein N-glycosylation has been identified in all three domains of life presumably conserved for its early role in glycoprotein folding. However, the N-glycans added to proteins in the secretory pathway of multicellular organisms are remodeling in the Golgi, increasing structural diversity exponentially and adding new layers of functionality in immunity, metabolism and other systems. The branching and elongation of N-glycan chains found on cell surface receptors generates a gradation of affinities for carbohydrate-binding proteins, the galectin, selectin and siglec families...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922374/fractional-laser-exposure-induces-neutrophil-infiltration-n1-phenotype-into-the-tumor-and-stimulates-systemic-anti-tumor-immune-response
#4
Masayoshi Kawakubo, Shadmehr Demehri, Dieter Manstein
BACKGROUND: Ablative fractional photothermolysis (aFP) using a CO2 laser generates multiple small diameter tissue lesions within the irradiation field. aFP is commonly used for a wide variety of dermatological indications, including treatment of photodamaged skin and dyschromia, drug delivery and modification of scars due to acne, surgical procedures and burns. In this study we explore the utility of aFP for treating oncological indications, including induction of local tumor regression and inducing anti-tumor immunity, which is in marked contrast to current indications of aFP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919706/profile-of-pembrolizumab-in-the-treatment-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-design-development-and-place-in-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Sulsal Haque, Mahender Yellu, Jaskirat Randhawa, Nooshin Hashemi-Sadraei
Head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, and despite advances in cytotoxic, surgical and radiation techniques, outcomes are still poor in those with both locally advanced and metastatic diseases. The need for development of better therapeutics along with a greater understanding of the relationship between the immune system and malignancies has led to a new therapeutic modality, immune modulators, particularly checkpoint inhibitors in HNSCC. It is now well recognized that HNSCC circumvents crucial pathways utilized by the immune system to escape surveillance...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918908/macrophage-biology-plays-a-central-role-during-ionizing-radiation-elicited-tumor-response
#6
REVIEW
Qiuji Wu, Awatef Allouch, Isabelle Martins, Nazanine Modjtahedi, Eric Deutsch, Jean-Luc Perfettini
Radiation therapy is one of the major therapeutic modalities for most solid tumors. The anti-tumor effect of radiation therapy consists of the direct tumor cell killing, as well as the modulation of tumor microenvironment and the activation of immune response against tumors. Radiation therapy has been shown to promote immunogenic cells death, activate dendritic cells and enhance tumor antigen presentation and anti-tumor T cell activation. Radiation therapy also programs innate immune cells such as macrophages that leads to either radiosensitization or radioresistance, according to different tumors and different radiation regimen studied...
August 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918263/dna-nanotechnology-based-composite-type-gold-nanoparticle-immunostimulatory-dna-hydrogel-for-tumor-photothermal-immunotherapy
#7
Tomoya Yata, Yuki Takahashi, Mengmeng Tan, Hirotaka Nakatsuji, Shozo Ohtsuki, Tatsuya Murakami, Hiroshi Imahori, Yuka Umeki, Tomoki Shiomi, Yoshinobu Takakura, Makiya Nishikawa
Success of tumor photothermal immunotherapy requires a system that induces heat stress in cancer cells and enhances strong anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we designed a composite-type immunostimulatory DNA hydrogel consisting of a hexapod-like structured DNA (hexapodna) with CpG sequences and gold nanoparticles. Mixing of the properly designed hexapodna and oligodeoxynucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles resulted in the formation of composite-type gold nanoparticle-DNA hydrogels. Laser irradiation of the hydrogel resulted in the release of hexapodna, which efficiently stimulated immune cells to release proinflammatory cytokines...
September 9, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917247/the-optimism-surrounding-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-and-immunomodulation
#8
Hannah Tharmalingam, Peter J Hoskin
In recent years, rapidly evolving radiation techniques have enabled the precise delivery of very high doses of radiation to local targets with stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR). In addition to its direct cytotoxicity, radiation and in particular SABR has powerful immunomodulatory effects resulting in immunogenic cell death and potentiation of the anti-tumour immune response. However, due to the immunosuppressive nature of non-irradiated sites of metastases, radiotherapy alone is seldom sufficient to induce the systemic response required for distant tumour rejection...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916903/merkel-cell-carcinoma-epidemiology-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Teresa Amaral, Ulrike Leiter, Claus Garbe
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive skin cancer with a neuroendocrine phenotype. Incidence varies according to the geographic regions but is overall increasing. Different risk factors have been identified namely advanced age, immunosuppression, and ultraviolet light exposure. An association between MCC and polyomavirus infection is known. However, the exact mechanism that leads to carcinogenesis is yet to be fully understood. Surgery when feasible is the recommended treatment for localized disease, followed by adjuvant radiation or chemoradiation...
September 16, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916225/stereotactic-radiosurgery-of-early-melanoma-brain-metastases-after-initiation-of-anti-ctl-4-treatment-is-associated-with-improved-intracranial-control
#10
Yi An, Wen Jiang, Betty Y S Kim, Jack M Qian, Chad Tang, Penny Fang, Jennifer Logan, Neil M D'Souza, Lauren E Haydu, Xin A Wang, Kenneth R Hess, Harriet Kluger, Isabella C Glitza, Anita Mahajan, James W Welsh, Steven H Lin, James B Yu, Michael A Davies, Patrick Hwu, Erik P Sulman, Paul D Brown, Veronica L S Chiang, Jing Li
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies suggest that radiation can boost antitumor immune response by stimulating release of tumor-specific antigens. However, the optimal timing between radiotherapy and immune checkpoint blockade to achieve potentially synergistic benefits is unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Multi-institutional retrospective analysis was conducted of ninety-nine metastatic melanoma patients from 2007 to 2014 treated with ipilimumab who later received stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for new brain metastases that developed after starting immunotherapy...
September 12, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916224/lack-of-differences-in-radiation-induced-immunogenicity-parameters-between-hpv-positive-and-hpv-negative-human-hnscc-cell-lines
#11
Karolin Schneider, Vanesa Bol, Vincent Grégoire
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical studies indicate that patients with HPV/p16-associated head & neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represent a subgroup with a better prognosis and improved response to conventional radiotherapy. Involvement of immune-based factors has been hypothesized. In the present study, we investigated radiation-induced differences in release of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), cytokines and activation of dendritic cells (DCs) in HPV-positive and negative HNSCC cancer cell lines...
September 12, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913973/bone-marrow-stem-cells-do-not-contribute-to-endometrial-cell-lineages-in-chimeric-mouse-models
#12
Yih Rue Ong, Fiona L Cousins, Xiaoqing Yang, Ahmed Aedh A Al Mushafi, David T Breault, Caroline E Gargett, James A Deane
Studies from five independent laboratories conclude that bone marrow stem cells transdifferentiate into endometrial stroma, epithelium and endothelium. We investigated the nature of bone marrow-derived cells in the mouse endometrium by reconstituting irradiated wild type recipients with bone marrow containing transgenic mTert-GFP or chicken β-actin-GFP reporters. mTert-GFP is a telomerase marker identifying hematopoietic stem cells and subpopulations of epithelial, endothelial and immune cells in the endometrium...
September 15, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913854/preoperative-ultraviolet-b-inflammation-in-skin-modelling-individual-differences-in-acute-postoperative-pain-and-neuro-immune-interactions
#13
T H Lunn, J M Dawes, F Denk, D L Bennett, H Husted, H Kehlet, S B McMahon
BACKGROUND: Neuroimmune interactions play a vital role in many of the most common pain conditions, such as arthritis. There have been many attempts to derive clinically predictive information from an individual's inflammatory response in order to gauge subsequent pain perception. OBJECTIVES: Here, we wanted to test whether this effort could be enhanced and complemented by the use of a model system which takes into account the function of not just circulating, but also tissue-resident immune cells: ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation of the skin...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912510/the-th1-th17-balance-dictates-the-fibrosis-response-in-murine-radiation-induced-lung-disease
#14
Alexandra Paun, Marie-Eve Bergeron, Christina K Haston
Radiotherapy can result in lung diseases pneumonitis or fibrosis dependent on patient susceptibility. Herein we used inbred and genetically altered mice to investigate whether the tissue adaptive immune response to radiation injury influences the development of radiation-induced lung disease. Six inbred mouse strains were exposed to 18 Gy whole thorax irradiation and upon respiratory distress strains prone to pneumonitis with fibrosis presented an increased pulmonary frequency of Thelper (Th)17 cells which was not evident in strains prone solely to pneumonitis...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906259/radiation-and-immunotherapy-in-high-grade-gliomas-where-do-we-stand
#15
Elizabeth Reznik, Andrew W Smith, Shoshana Taube, Justin Mann, Menachem Z Yondorf, Bhupesh Parashar, A Gabriella Wernicke
High-grade glioma is the most common primary brain tumor, with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) accounting for 52% of all brain tumors. The current standard of care (SOC) of GBM involves surgery followed by adjuvant fractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, little progress has been made in extending overall survival, progression-free survival, and quality of life. Attempts to characterize and customize treatment of GBM have led to mitigating the deleterious effects of radiotherapy using hypofractionated radiotherapy, as well as various immunotherapies as a promising strategy for the incurable disease...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905664/assessment-of-the-neutralizing-potency-of-antisera-raised-against-native-and-%C3%AE-irradiated-naja-nigricollis-black-necked-spitting-cobra-venom-in-rabbits-concerning-its-cardiotoxic-effect
#16
F Abdou, E E Denshary, E Shaaban, M Mohamed
The present study was designed to prepare a specific safe antiserum for Naja nigricollis using γ-irradiated (1.5KGy and3KGy) venoms. Rabbits were used for active immunization using irradiated venoms (1.5 and 3 kGy) as a toxoid, mice were used for determination of LD50 post immunization and the rats were used for neutralization of the cardiotoxic effect of venom. Results of the immunodiffusion test indicated that the sera of rabbits raised against non-irradiated, 1.5- and 3-kGy γ-irradiated venom, had the same results of precipitin bands...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903456/tumor-reductive-therapies-and-antitumor-immunity
#17
REVIEW
Huiqin Guo, Kangla Tsung
Tumor reductive therapy is to reduce tumor burden through direct killing of tumor cells. So far, there is no report on the connection between antitumor immunity and tumor reductive therapies. In the last few years, a new category of cancer treatment, immunotherapy, emerged and they are categorized separately from classic cytotoxic treatments (chemo and radiation therapy). The most prominent examples include cellular therapies (LAK and CAR-T) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-PD-1 and CTLA-4). Recent advances in clinical immunotherapy and our understanding of the mechanism behind them revealed that these therapies have a closer relationship with classic cancer treatments than we thought...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901519/salidroside-a-scavenger-of-ros-enhances-the-radioprotective-effect-of-ex-rad%C3%A2-via-a-p53-dependent-apoptotic-pathway
#18
Tian Feng, Libin Wang, Nan Zhou, Chang Liu, Jiahui Cui, Rangxin Wu, Juan Jing, Shengyong Zhang, Hui Chen, Siwang Wang
Salidroside (Sal), the predominant component of a Chinese medicinal herb, Rhodiola rosea L., has become an attractive bioagent due to its significant anti-radiation, antioxidant and immune adjustment effects. We explored the radioprotective effect of Sal to ascertain whether it could enhance the anti-radiation effect of ON 01210.Na (Ex-RAD®) in vivo and in vitro, and elucidate its underlying mechanism. Our data demonstrated that Sal inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis, scavenged reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreased the DNA damage of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)...
September 6, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900485/uncarboxylated-osteocalcin-induces-antitumor-immunity-against-mouse-melanoma-cell-growth
#19
Yoshikazu Hayashi, Tomoyo Kawakubo-Yasukochi, Akiko Mizokami, Mai Hazekawa, Tomiko Yakura, Munekazu Naito, Hiroshi Takeuchi, Seiji Nakamura, Masato Hirata
Because of the poor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy, new treatment approaches by immune-based therapy involving activated T cells are required for melanoma. We previously reported that the uncarboxylated form of osteocalcin (GluOC), derived from osteoblasts, potentially suppresses human prostate cancer cell proliferation by direct suppression of cell growth. However, the mechanisms in vivo have not been elucidated. In this study, we found that GluOC suppressed tumor growth of B16 mouse melanoma transplants in C57Bl/6N wild-type mice...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894510/antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-shungite-against-ultraviolet-b-irradiation-induced-skin-damage-in-hairless-mice
#20
Ma Easter Joy Sajo, Cheol-Su Kim, Soo-Ki Kim, Kwang Yong Shim, Tae-Young Kang, Kyu-Jae Lee
As fullerene-based compound applications have been rapidly increasing in the health industry, the need of biomedical research is urgently in demand. While shungite is regarded as a natural source of fullerene, it remains poorly documented. Here, we explored the in vivo effects of shungite against ultraviolet B- (UVB-) induced skin damage by investigating the physiological skin parameters, immune-redox profiling, and oxidative stress molecular signaling. Toward this, mice were UVB-irradiated with 0.75 mW/cm(2) for two consecutive days...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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