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(Irradiation or radiation or radiotherapy) and immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110075/tlr9-mediated-regulatory-b10-cell-amplification-following-sub-total-body-irradiation-implications-in-attenuating-eae
#1
Jinsheng Hong, Jie Fang, Ruilong Lan, Qi Tan, Yeping Tian, Mei Zhang, Paul Okunieff, Lurong Zhang, Jianhua Lin, Deping Han
Autoimmunity and inflammation are controlled in part by regulatory B (Breg) cells, including the recently identified IL-10-competent B10 cell subset that represents 1%-3% of mouse spleen B cells. In this study, the influence of irradiation on Breg/B10 cell generation and IL-10 production mediated by TLR9 signaling pathways was investigated. Spleen and peritoneal cavity Breg/B10 cell frequencies were significantly expanded three weeks after sub-total body irradiation (sub-TBI, 5Gy or 10Gy) in adult male wild type (WT) C57BL/6(B6) mice but not in TLR9(-/-) mice...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109709/the-effect-of-gamma-irradiation-conditions-on-the-immunogenicity-of-whole-inactivated-influenza-a-virus-vaccine
#2
Shannon C David, Josyane Lau, Eve V Singleton, Rachelle Babb, Justin Davies, Timothy R Hirst, Shaun R McColl, James C Paton, Mohammed Alsharifi
Gamma-irradiation, particularly an irradiation dose of 50kGy, has been utilised widely to sterilise highly pathogenic agents such as Ebola, Marburg Virus, and Avian Influenza H5N1. We have reported previously that intranasal vaccination with a gamma-irradiated Influenza A virus vaccine (γ-Flu) results in cross-protective immunity. Considering the possible inclusion of highly pathogenic Influenza strains in future clinical development of γ-Flu, an irradiation dose of 50kGy may be used to enhance vaccine safety beyond the internationally accepted Sterility Assurance Level (SAL)...
January 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109401/melanoma-last-call-for-radiotherapy
#3
REVIEW
Sophie Espenel, Alexis Vallard, Chloé Rancoule, Max-Adrien Garcia, Jean-Baptiste Guy, Cyrus Chargari, Eric Deutsch, Nicolas Magné
Melanoma is traditionally considered to be a radioresistant tumor. However, radiotherapy and immunotherapy latest developments might upset this radiobiological dogma. Stereotactic radiotherapy allows high dose per fraction delivery, with high dose rate. More DNA lethal damages, less sublethal damages reparation, endothelial cell apoptosis, and finally clonogenic cell dysfunction are produced, resulting in improved local control. Radiotherapy can also enhance immune responses, inducing neoantigens formation, tumor antigen presentation, and cytokines release...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109369/successful-treatment-of-an-aggressive-tracheal-malignancy-with-immunotherapy
#4
Asishana A Osho, Christopher J Azzoli, Sara Pai, Mari Mino-Kenudson, William C Faquin, Tiffany G Huynh, Michael Lanuti, Douglas J Mathisen, Ashok Muniappan
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are emerging as therapeutic options for oncology patients in whom conventional treatment regimens have failed. These immunotherapies counteract tumor-induced tolerance and have been shown to be effective in thoracic malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This report highlights the successful use of nivolumab-an immunotherapeutic agent that binds to proteins involved in T-cell proliferation-for the management of recurrent tracheal squamous cell cancer after exhaustion of conventional surgical, chemotherapeutic, and radiation therapy options...
February 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108561/semaphorin-3e-deficiency-exacerbates-airway-inflammation-hyperresponsiveness-and-remodeling-in-a-mouse-model-of-allergic-asthma
#5
Hesam Movassagh, Lianyu Shan, Ashfaque Mohammed, Andrew J Halayko, Abdelilah S Gounni
Semaphorin 3E (Sema3E) plays a crucial role in axon guidance, vascular patterning, and immune regulation. Nevertheless, the role of Sema3E in asthma is still elusive. In this study, we show that genetic ablation of Sema3E in mice results in increased lung granulocytosis, airway hyperresponsiveness, mucus overproduction, collagen deposition, and Th2/Th17 inflammation. Transfer of Sema3e(-/-) bone marrow progenitor cells to irradiated wild-type (WT) recipients exacerbates airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation, whereas transfer of WT bone marrow progenitor cells ameliorates asthma pathology in Sema3e(-/-) recipients...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104137/prostate-cancer-metastatic-to-the-renal-allograft-a-case-report
#6
A Alaini, P Singh, R Shah, E Fischer, K Ganta, T Barrett, K Servilla
Malignancy is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in organ transplant recipients who receive immunosuppression. Cancers associated with viruses such as nonmelanotic skin cancer and Kaposi sarcoma occur in allograft recipients at rates that far exceed that in the general population. The increased risk and tumor type may depend not only on degree of immune system modulation but also on the type of organ transplanted. In kidney transplant recipients, the risk of cancers such as prostate and breast does not seem to be increased...
January 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104022/-immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy-in-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer
#7
W Hang, Z X Xu, Q Zhang, X Lu, G Liu
Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, which targets regulatory pathways in T cells to enhance antitumor immune responses, improves the life quality of cancer patients and has joined the ranks of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy to become a major choice for cancer therapy. Over the past few years, multiple exciting results have been obtained on checkpoint inhibitor therapy in advanced head and neck cancer. However, questions such as patient selection and biomarkers for assessing the therapy are largely unsolved...
January 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102417/does-sunlight-protect-us-from-cancer
#8
Jacqueline E Marshall, Scott N Byrne
The Ultraviolet (UV) radiation contained in sunlight is a powerful mutagen and immune suppressant which partly explains why exposure to solar UV is the biggest risk factor for the development of cutaneous tumours. Evidence is building that sunlight may be protective against some internal malignancies. Because patients with these tumours are often vitamin D deficient, this has led some to propose that vitamin D supplementation will be beneficial in the treatment of these cancers. However, the results from already completed trials have been disappointing which has given weight to the argument that there must be something else about sunlight that explains its cancer-protecting properties...
January 19, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100096/targeting-therapy-resistant-cancer-stem-cells-by-hyperthermia
#9
A L Oei, L E M Vriend, P M Krawczyk, M R Horsman, N A P Franken, J Crezee
Eradication of all malignant cells is the ultimate but challenging goal of anti-cancer treatment; most traditional clinically-available approaches fail because there are cells in a tumor that either escape therapy or become therapy-resistant. A subpopulation of cancer cells, the cancer stem cells (CSCs), is considered to be of particular significance for tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. CSCs are considered in particular to be therapy-resistant and may drive disease recurrence, which positions CSCs in the focus of anti-cancer research, but successful CSC-targeting therapies are limited...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098755/exopolysaccharides-isolated-from-milk-fermented-with-lactic-acid-bacteria-prevent-ultraviolet-induced-skin-damage-in-hairless-mice
#10
Masashi Morifuji, Masami Kitade, Tomoyuki Fukasawa, Taketo Yamaji, Masamitsu Ichihashi
BACKGROUND: We studied the mechanism by which fermented milk ameliorates UV-B-induced skin damage and determined the active components in milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria by evaluating erythema formation, dryness, epidermal proliferation, DNA damage and cytokine mRNA levels in hairless mice exposed to acute UV-B irradiation. METHODS: Nine week-old hairless mice were given fermented milk (1.3 g/kg BW/day) or exopolysaccharide (EPS) concentrate (70 mg/kg BW/day) orally for ten days...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098061/prostate-cancer-immunotherapy-particularly-in-combination-with-androgen-deprivation-or-radiation-treatment-customized-pharmacogenomic-approaches-to-overcome-immunotherapy-cancer-resistance
#11
REVIEW
C Alberti
Conventional therapeutic approaches for advanced prostate cancer - such as androgen deprivation, chemotherapy, radiation - come up often against lack of effectiveness because of possible arising of correlative cancer cell resistance and/or inadequate anti-tumor immune conditions. Whence the timeliness of resorting to immune-based treatment strategies including either therapeutic vaccination-based active immunotherapy or anti-tumor monoclonal antibody-mediated passive immunotherapy. Particularly attractive, as for research studies and clinical applications, results to be the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte check point blockade by the use of anti-CTLA-4 and PD-1 monoclonal antibodies, particularly when combined with androgen deprivation therapy or radiation...
September 2017: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097230/protection-against-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-by-pfspz-vaccine
#12
Judith E Epstein, Kristopher M Paolino, Thomas L Richie, Martha Sedegah, Alexandra Singer, Adam J Ruben, Sumana Chakravarty, April Stafford, Richard C Ruck, Abraham G Eappen, Tao Li, Peter F Billingsley, Anita Manoj, Joana C Silva, Kara Moser, Robin Nielsen, Donna Tosh, Susan Cicatelli, Harini Ganeshan, Jessica Case, Debbie Padilla, Silas Davidson, Lindsey Garver, Elizabeth Saverino, Tooba Murshedkar, Anusha Gunasekera, Patrick S Twomey, Sharina Reyes, James E Moon, Eric R James, Natasha Kc, Minglin Li, Esteban Abot, Arnel Belmonte, Kevin Hauns, Maria Belmonte, Jun Huang, Carlos Vasquez, Shon Remich, Mary Carrington, Yonas Abebe, Amy Tillman, Bradley Hickey, Jason Regules, Eileen Villasante, B Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L Hoffman
BACKGROUND: A radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoite (SPZ) malaria vaccine, PfSPZ Vaccine, protected 6 of 6 subjects (100%) against homologous Pf (same strain as in the vaccine) controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) 3 weeks after 5 doses administered intravenously. The next step was to assess protective efficacy against heterologous Pf (different from Pf in the vaccine), after fewer doses, and at 24 weeks. METHODS: The trial assessed tolerability, safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of direct venous inoculation (DVI) of 3 or 5 doses of PfSPZ Vaccine in non-immune subjects...
January 12, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096089/tolerogenic-interactions-between-cd8-dendritic-cells-and-nkt-cells-prevent-rejection-of-bone-marrow-and-organ-grafts
#13
David Hongo, Xiaobin Tang, Xiangyue Zhang, Edgar G Engleman, Samuel Strober
The combination of total lymphoid irradiation and anti-T cell antibodies safely induces immune tolerance to combined hematopoietic cell and organ allografts in humans. Our mouse model required host natural killer T (NKT) cells to induce tolerance. Since NKT cells normally depend on signals from CD8+ dendritic cells (DCs) for their activation, we used the mouse model to test the hypothesis that after lymphoid irradiation host CD8+DCs play a requisite role in tolerance induction through interactions with NKT cells...
January 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094262/radiotherapy-and-immunotherapy-a-beneficial-liaison
#14
REVIEW
Ralph R Weichselbaum, Hua Liang, Liufu Deng, Yang-Xin Fu
Investigations into the interaction between radiotherapy and the host immune system have uncovered new mechanisms that can potentially be exploited to improve the efficacy of radiotherapy. Radiation promotes the release of danger signals and chemokines that recruit inflammatory cells into the tumour microenvironment, including antigen-presenting cells that activate cytotoxic T-cell function. By contrast, radiation can attract immunosuppressive cells into the tumour microenvironment. In rare circumstances, the antitumour effect of radiotherapy has been observed outside of the radiation field, known as the abscopal effect...
January 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092736/negative-effect-of-chronic-cadmium-exposure-on-growth-histology-ultrastructure-antioxidant-and-innate-immune-responses-in-the-liver-of-zebrafish-preventive-role-of-blue-light-emitting-diodes
#15
Shuang-Shuang Yuan, Zhen-Ming Lv, Ai-Yi Zhu, Jia-Lang Zheng, Chang-Wen Wu
The present study explored the possible preventive effects of blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in zebrafish. To this end, zebrafish were exposed to a white fluorescent bulb or blue LEDs (LDB, peak at 450nm, at an irradiance of 0.9W/m(2)), and 0 or 30µgL(-1) waterborne Cd for 5 weeks. Growth performance, survival rate, and hepatic histology, ultrastructure, antioxidant and innate immune responses were determined in zebrafish. Cd exposure alone reduced growth and survival rate, and induced oxidative damage and changes in histology and ultrastructure...
January 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092390/asthma-comparing-the-impact-of-vitamin-d-versus-uvr-on-clinical-and-immune-parameters
#16
Kylie A Morgan, Elizabeth H Mann, Antony R Young, Catherine M Hawrylowicz
The incidence of asthma has increased markedly since the 1960s and is currently estimated to affect more than 300 million individuals worldwide. A number of environmental factors are implicated in asthma pathogenesis, one of which is vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency is a global health concern and has increased in parallel with asthma incidence. Epidemiological studies report associations between low vitamin D status, assessed as circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, with asthma incidence, severity, exacerbations and responses to treatment...
January 16, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092363/mouse-models-of-uv-induced-melanoma-genetics-pathology-and-clinical-relevance
#17
Chi-Ping Day, Rachel Marchalik, Glenn Merlino, Helen Michael
Melanocytes, a neural crest cell derivative, produce pigment to protect keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Although melanocytic lesions such as nevi and cutaneous malignant melanomas are known to be associated with sun exposure, the role of UVR in oncogenesis is complex and has yet to be clearly elucidated. UVR appears to have a direct mutational role in inducing or promoting melanoma formation as well as an indirect role through microenvironmental changes. Recent advances in the modeling of human melanoma in animals have built platforms upon which prospective studies can begin to investigate these questions...
January 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091341/correlation-between-infectious-disease-and-soil-radiation-in-japan-an-exploratory-study-using-national-sentinel-surveillance-data
#18
S Inaida, T Tsuda, S Matsuno
We investigated the relationship between epidemics and soil radiation through an exploratory study using sentinel surveillance data (individuals aged <20 years) during the last three epidemic seasons of influenza and norovirus in Japan. We used a spatial analysis method of a geographical information system (GIS). We mapped the epidemic spreading patterns from sentinel incidence rates. We calculated the average soil radiation [dm (μGy/h)] for each sentinel site using data on uranium, thorium, and potassium oxide in the soil and examined the incidence rate in units of 0·01 μGy/h...
January 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086920/absence-of-system-xc-on-immune-cells-invading-the-central-nervous-system-alleviates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalitis
#19
Ellen Merckx, Giulia Albertini, Magdalena Paterka, Cathy Jensen, Philipp Albrecht, Michael Dietrich, Joeri Van Liefferinge, Eduard Bentea, Lise Verbruggen, Thomas Demuyser, Lauren Deneyer, Jan Lewerenz, Geert van Loo, Jacques De Keyser, Hideyo Sato, Pamela Maher, Axel Methner, Ann Massie
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS), leading to neurodegeneration and chronic disability. Accumulating evidence points to a key role for neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and excitotoxicity in this degenerative process. System xc(-) or the cystine/glutamate antiporter could tie these pathological mechanisms together: its activity is enhanced by reactive oxygen species and inflammatory stimuli, and its enhancement might lead to the release of toxic amounts of glutamate, thereby triggering excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078341/the-role-of-uv-radiation-and-vitamin-d-in-the-seasonality-and-outcomes-of-infectious-disease
#20
Abhimanyu, Anna K Coussens
The seasonality of infectious disease outbreaks suggests that environmental conditions have a significant effect on disease risk. One of the major environmental factors that can affect this is solar radiation, primarily acting through ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and its subsequent control of vitamin D production. Here we show how UVR and vitamin D, which are modified by latitude and season, can affect host and pathogen fitness and relate them to the outcomes of bacterial, viral and vector-borne infections...
January 12, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
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