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(Irradiation or radiation or radiotherapy) and immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786969/hippocampal-lipidome-and-transcriptome-profile-alterations-triggered-by-acute-exposure-of-mice-to-gsm-1800-mhz-mobile-phone-radiation-an-exploratory-study
#1
Adamantia F Fragopoulou, Alexandros Polyzos, Maria-Despoina Papadopoulou, Anna Sansone, Areti K Manta, Evangelos Balafas, Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, Aikaterini Skouroliakou, Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu, Alexandros Georgakilas, Dimitrios J Stravopodis, Carla Ferreri, Dimitris Thanos, Lukas H Margaritis
BACKGROUND: The widespread use of wireless devices during the last decades is raising concerns about adverse health effects of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from these devices. Recent research is focusing on unraveling the underlying mechanisms of RF-EMR and potential cellular targets. The "omics" high-throughput approaches are powerful tools to investigate the global effects of RF-EMR on cellular physiology. METHODS: In this work, C57BL/6 adult male mice were whole-body exposed (nE xp  = 8) for 2 hr to GSM 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation at an average electric field intensity range of 4...
May 22, 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786078/targeting-the-upstream-transcriptional-activator-of-pd-l1-as-an-alternative-strategy-in-melanoma-therapy
#2
Bo Zhu, Liming Tang, Shuyang Chen, Chengqian Yin, Shiguang Peng, Xin Li, Tongzheng Liu, Wei Liu, Changpeng Han, Lukasz Stawski, Zhi-Xiang Xu, Guangbiao Zhou, Xiang Chen, Xiumei Gao, Colin R Goding, Nan Xu, Rutao Cui, Peng Cao
Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) interacts with programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) as an immune checkpoint. Reactivating the immune response by inhibiting PD-L1 using therapeutic antibodies provides substantial clinical benefits in many, though not all, melanoma patients. However, transcriptional suppression of PD-L1 expression as an alternative therapeutic anti-melanoma strategy has not been exploited. Here we provide biochemical evidence demonstrating that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induction of PD-L1 in skin is directly controlled by nuclear factor E2-related transcription factor 2 (NRF2)...
May 22, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784675/radiation-followed-by-ox40-stimulation-drives-local-and-abscopal-antitumor-effects-in-an-anti-pd1-resistant-lung-tumor-model
#3
Sharareh Niknam, Hampartsoum B Barsoumian, Jonathan E Schoenhals, Heather Jackson, Niranjan Yanamandra, Mauricio S Caetano, Ailin Li, Ahmed I Younes, Alexandra P Cadena, Taylor R Cushman, Joe Y Chang, Quynh Nguyen, Daniel R Gomez, Adi Diab, John V Heymach, Patrick Hwu, Maria Angelica Cortez, James W Welsh
PURPOSE: Radiation is used extensively to treat localized cancer, but improved understanding of its effects on the immune system have increased interest in its potential systemic (abscopal) effects, particularly in combination with checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-PD1. The majority of patients either do not respond or develop resistance to monotherapy over time. Here, we investigated the efficacy of OX40 (CD134) stimulation as an alternative immunotherapeutic approach in combination with radiotherapy (XRT) in a murine model of anti-PD1-resistant lung tumors...
May 21, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784449/a-radiosensitivity-gene-signature-and-pd-l1-predict-the-clinical-outcomes-of-patients-with-lower-grade-glioma-in-tcga
#4
Bum-Sup Jang, In Ah Kim
PURPOSE: Identifying predictive factors for the clinical outcome of patients with lower grade gliomas following radiotherapy could help optimize patient treatments. Here, we investigate the predictive efficacy of both a previously identified "31-gene signature" and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We identified 511 patients with lower grade glioma (Grade 2 and 3) in The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset and divided them into two clusters: radiosensitive (RS) and radioresistant (RR)...
May 18, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783855/iec-specific-igf1-promotes-the-expansion-of-intestinal-stem-cells-during-epithelial-regeneration-and-functions-on-the-intestinal-immune-homeostasis
#5
Yu Zheng, Yongli Song, Qi Han, Wenjie Liu, Jiuzhi Xu, Zhengquan Yu, Ran Zhang, Ning Li
It is well known that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) acts as a trophic factor in small intestine under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. However, it still lacks direct in vivo evidence of the functions of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)-specific IGF1 under both normal and pathological conditions. Using IEC-specific IGF1-knockout (cKO) mice and Lgr5-eGFP-CreERT mice, we demonstrate that IEC-specific IGF1 can enhance nutrient uptake, reduce protein catabolism and energy consumption, and promotes the proliferation and expansion of intestinal epithelial cells, including ISCs and intestinal secretory cells...
May 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782535/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-cd4-and-cd8-t-cells-differ-in-their-capacity-to-recognize-infected-macrophages
#6
Jason D Yang, Daniel Mott, Rujapak Sutiwisesak, Yu-Jung Lu, Fiona Raso, Britni Stowell, Greg Hunter Babunovic, Jinhee Lee, Steve M Carpenter, Sing Sing Way, Sarah M Fortune, Samuel M Behar
Containment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection requires T cell recognition of infected macrophages. Mtb has evolved to tolerate, evade, and subvert host immunity. Despite a vigorous and sustained CD8+ T cell response during Mtb infection, CD8+ T cells make limited contribution to protection. Here, we ask whether the ability of Mtb-specific T cells to restrict Mtb growth is related to their capacity to recognize Mtb-infected macrophages. We derived CD8+ T cell lines that recognized the Mtb immunodominant epitope TB10...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780392/tumor-derived-apoptotic-vesicles-with-death-they-do-part
#7
REVIEW
Morad-Remy Muhsin-Sharafaldine, Alexander D McLellan
Tumor cells release lipid particles known as extracellular vesicles (EV) that contribute to cancer metastasis, to the immune response, and to thrombosis. When tumors are exposed to radiation or chemotherapy, apoptotic vesicles (ApoVs) are released in abundance as the plasma membrane delaminates from the cytoskeleton. Recent studies have suggested that ApoVs are distinct from the EVs released from living cells, such as exosomes or microvesicles. Depending on their treatment conditions, tumor-released ApoV have been suggested to either enhance or suppress anti-cancer immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780254/are-ovarian-cancer-stem-cells-the-target-for-innovative-immunotherapy
#8
REVIEW
Liang Wang, Tianmin Xu, Manhua Cui
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation of cancer cells with the ability of self-renewal and differentiation, are believed to be responsible for tumor generation, progression, metastasis, and relapse. Ovarian cancer, the most malignant gynecological cancer, has consistent pathology behavior with CSC model, which suggests that therapies based on ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs) can gain a more successful prognosis. Much evidence has proved that epigenetic mechanism played an important role in tumor formation and sustainment...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779086/retrospective-study-of-nivolumab-for-patients-with-recurrent-high-grade-gliomas
#9
Megan Mantica, Ashley Pritchard, Frank Lieberman, Jan Drappatz
INTRODUCTION: Patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGG) have limited treatment options. HGG utilize the PD-1 pathway to evade immune responses. Checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated safety and clinical activity in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. We explored the efficacy of nivolumab in recurrent HGG with a primary objective of progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed HGG patients treated with nivolumab in our institution...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778320/simultaneously-avoiding-the-hippocampus-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis-during-whole-brain-radiotherapy-a-planning-study
#10
Xing-Wen Fan, Juan-Qi Wang, Jun-Lan Wu, Hong-Bing Wang, Kai-Liang Wu
Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is the preferred treatment for multiple brain metastases, and patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer undergo prophylactic cranial irradiation after complete remission. However, neurotoxicity remains a complication. In addition to protecting the hippocampus from irradiation to preserve cognitive function, it is also critical to avoid irradiating the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to preserve endocrine and immune function. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of delivering WBRT while protecting the hippocampus and hypothalamic-pituitary axis...
May 16, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777152/temporary-microglia-depletion-after-cosmic-radiation-modifies-phagocytic-activity-and-prevents-cognitive-deficits
#11
Karen Krukowski, Xi Feng, Maria Serena Paladini, Austin Chou, Kristen Sacramento, Katherine Grue, Lara-Kirstie Riparip, Tamako Jones, Mary Campbell-Beachler, Gregory Nelson, Susanna Rosi
Microglia are the main immune component in the brain that can regulate neuronal health and synapse function. Exposure to cosmic radiation can cause long-term cognitive impairments in rodent models thereby presenting potential obstacles for astronauts engaged in deep space travel. The mechanism/s for how cosmic radiation induces cognitive deficits are currently unknown. We find that temporary microglia depletion, one week after cosmic radiation, prevents the development of long-term memory deficits. Gene array profiling reveals that acute microglia depletion alters the late neuroinflammatory response to cosmic radiation...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776594/gearing-up-t-cell-immunotherapy-in-cervical-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Shilpa Raghuvanshi Chauhan, Mausumi Bharadwaj
The World Health Organization estimates more than 270,000 deaths annually by cervical cancer. Present vaccines are prophylactic in nature which cannot treat huge bulk of cervical cancer patients worldwide. Available therapies like radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery are not effective in high-grade lesion, and hence, there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy. T cells play a significant role in cervical cancer pathogenesis as human papilloma virus uses multiple mechanisms that dodge host T-cell immune-surveillance aiding in persistence of infection and establishment of cancer...
April 22, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774387/ultraviolet-radiation-induces-melan-a-expressing-cells-in-interfollicular-epidermis-in-wild-type-mice
#13
David A De Luca, Barbara Sterniczky, Susanne Kimeswenger, Dagmar Födinger, Agatha Schwarz, Thomas Schwarz, Christian Jantschitsch
Adult wild-type mice are not supposed to be proper models for ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced melanoma since melanocytes are confined to hair follicles and cannot be sufficiently reached by UVR. On the other hand, in mutated mouse models used for melanoma research limitations, including an altered immune system and selection of affected pathways, lead to tumors phenotypically quite different from naturally occurring melanomas. We compared the distribution of epidermal melanocytes in UVR and not-UVR-exposed wild-type C57BL/6 mice...
May 17, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774312/breast-cancer-prevention-current-approaches-and-future-directions
#14
REVIEW
Edward R Sauter
The topic of breast cancer prevention is very broad. All aspects of the topic, therefore, cannot be adequately covered in a single review. The objective of this review is to discuss strategies in current use to prevent breast cancer, as well as potential approaches that could be used in the future. This review does not discuss early detection strategies for breast cancer, including breast cancer screening. The breast is the most common site among women worldwide of noncutaneous cancer. Many clinical and genetic factors have been found to increase a woman's risk of developing the disease...
April 2018: European journal of breast health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774202/loss-of-the-cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibitor-1-in-the-context-of-brachyury-mediated-phenotypic-plasticity-drives-tumor-resistance-to-immune-attack
#15
Duane H Hamilton, Kristen K McCampbell, Claudia Palena
The acquisition of mesenchymal features by carcinoma cells is now recognized as a driver of metastasis and tumor resistance to a range of anticancer therapeutics, including chemotherapy, radiation, and certain small-molecule targeted therapies. With the recent successful implementation of immunotherapies for the treatment of various types of cancer, there is growing interest in understanding whether an immunological approach could be effective at eradicating carcinoma cells bearing mesenchymal features. Recent studies, however, demonstrated that carcinoma cells that have acquired mesenchymal features may also exhibit decreased susceptibility to lysis mediated by immune effector cells, including antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, innate natural killer (NK), and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774168/evaluating-the-potential-for-maximized-t-cell-redistribution-entropy-to-improve-abscopal-responses-to-radiotherapy
#16
Rachel Walker, Jonathan D Schoenfeld, Shari Pilon-Thomas, Jan Poleszczuk, Heiko Enderling
The potential for local radiation therapy to elicit systemic (abscopal) anti-tumor immune responses has been receiving a significant amount of attention over the last decade. We recently developed a mathematical framework designed to simulate the systemic dissemination of activated T cells among multiple metastatic sites. This framework allowed the identification of non-intuitive patterns of T cell redistribution after localized therapy, and offered suggestions as to the optimal site to irradiate in order to increase the magnitude of an immune-mediated abscopal response...
September 2017: Convergent Science Physical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774068/platelet-camouflaged-nanococktail-simultaneous-inhibition-of-drug-resistant-tumor-growth-and-metastasis-via-a-cancer-cells-and-tumor-vasculature-dual-targeting-strategy
#17
Lijia Jing, Haijing Qu, Dongqi Wu, Chaojian Zhu, Yongbo Yang, Xing Jin, Jian Zheng, Xiangsheng Shi, Xiufeng Yan, Yang Wang
Multidrug resistance (MDR) poses a great challenge to cancer therapy. It is difficult to inhibit the growth of MDR cancer due to its chemoresistance. Furthermore, MDR cancers are more likely to metastasize, causing a high mortality among cancer patients. In this study, a nanomedicine RGD-NPVs@MNPs/DOX was developed by encapsulating melanin nanoparticles (MNPs) and doxorubicin (DOX) inside RGD peptide (c(RGDyC))-modified nanoscale platelet vesicles (RGD-NPVs) to efficiently inhibit the growth and metastasis of drug-resistant tumors via a cancer cells and tumor vasculature dual-targeting strategy...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773328/molecular-and-immune-biomarker-testing-in-squamous-cell-lung-cancer-effect-of-current-and-future-therapies-and-technologies
#18
REVIEW
Fred R Hirsch, Keith M Kerr, Paul A Bunn, Edward S Kim, Coleman Obasaju, Maurice Pérol, Philip Bonomi, Jeffrey D Bradley, David Gandara, James R Jett, Corey J Langer, Ronald B Natale, Silvia Novello, Luis Paz-Ares, Suresh S Ramalingam, Martin Reck, Craig H Reynolds, Egbert F Smit, Mark A Socinski, David R Spigel, Thomas E Stinchcombe, Johan F Vansteenkiste, Heather Wakelee, Nick Thatcher
Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, including squamous-cell lung cancer (SqCLC), typically present at an advanced stage. The current treatment landscape, which includes chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, immunotherapy, and targeted agents, is rapidly evolving, including for patients with SqCLC. Prompt molecular and immune biomarker testing can serve to guide optimal treatment choices, and immune biomarker testing is becoming more important for this patient population. In this review we provide an overview of current and emerging practices and technologies for molecular and immune biomarker testing in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, with a focus on SqCLC...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771752/radiotherapy-for-active-thyroid-eye-disease
#19
Kyle J Godfrey, Michael Kazim
PURPOSE: To critically review the published literature on orbital radiotherapy as a treatment modality for thyroid eye disease (TED). METHODS: A systematic review and analysis of the relevant published literature was performed. RESULTS: Thyroid eye disease is an autoimmune condition that is amenable to treatments that modulate the immune response, including orbital radiotherapy (ORT). Ideal candidates for ORT are patients in the early, active phase of TED with moderate to severe, or rapidly progressive, disease, including patients with significant motility deficits and compressive optic neuropathy...
May 2, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769148/current-landscape-and-future-of-dual-anti-ctla4-and-pd-1-pd-l1-blockade-immunotherapy-in-cancer-lessons-learned-from-clinical-trials-with-melanoma-and-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc
#20
REVIEW
Young Kwang Chae, Ayush Arya, Wade Iams, Marcelo R Cruz, Sunandana Chandra, Jaehyuk Choi, Francis Giles
Immunotherapy is among the most rapidly evolving treatment strategies in oncology. The therapeutic potential of immune-checkpoint inhibitors is exemplified by the recent hail of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals for their use in various malignancies. Continued efforts to enhance outcomes with immunotherapy agents have led to the formulation of advanced treatment strategies. Recent evidence from pre-clinical studies evaluating immune-checkpoint inhibitors in various cancer cell-lines has suggested that combinatorial approaches may have superior survival outcomes compared to single-agent immunotherapy regimens...
May 16, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
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