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(Irradiation or radiation or radiotherapy) and immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732383/radiation-alters-pd-l1-nkg2d-ligand-levels-in-lung-cancer-cells-and-leads-to-immune-escape-from-nk-cell-cytotoxicity-via-il-6-mek-erk-signaling-pathway
#1
Ming Jing Shen, Li Jun Xu, Li Yang, Ying Tsai, Peter C Keng, Yongbing Chen, Soo Ok Lee, Yuhchyau Chen
We investigated whether radiation influences the susceptibility of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to NK cell mediated cytotoxicity. We found radiation treatment increased expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), but decreased NK group 2, member D (NKG2D) ligand expressions in A549 and H157 NSCLC cells. Both types of changes would have protected tumor cells from the cytotoxic action of NK cells. Consistently, we detected similar alteration in these molecules in radioresistant A549R26-1 and H157R24-1 subline cells...
July 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730140/current-advances-in-checkpoint-inhibitors-lessons-from-non-central-nervous-system-cancers-and-potential-for-glioblastoma
#2
REVIEW
Natasha Lakin, Robert Rulach, Stefan Nowicki, Kathreena M Kurian
The adaptive immune system depends on the sequence of antigen presentation, activation, and then inhibition to mount a proportionate response to a threat. Tumors evade the immune response partly by suppressing T-cell activity using immune checkpoints. The use of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies counteract this suppression, thereby enhancing the antitumor activity of the immune system. This approach has proven efficacy in melanoma, renal cancer, and lung cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725344/complete-response-of-mediastinal-clear-cell-sarcoma-to-pembrolizumab-with-radiotherapy
#3
Samuel Marcrom, Jennifer F De Los Santos, Robert M Conry
BACKGROUND: Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare, aggressive soft tissue sarcoma thought to derive from neural crest and characterized by a 12;22 translocation. The resulting fusion protein directly activates expression of the melanocyte master transcription factor and drives the same down-stream pathways in CCS and melanoma leading to significant clinical parallels between these malignancies. Striking success of immune checkpoint blockade in melanoma has promoted interest in immunotherapy of CCS...
2017: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725251/custom-made-micro-applicators-for-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-treatment-of-chronic-psoriasis
#4
Ivan M Buzurovic, Desmond A O'Farrell, Mandar S Bhagwat, Jorgen L Hansen, Thomas C Harris, Scott Friesen, Robert A Cormack, Phillip M Devlin
PURPOSE: In this study, we present the treatment of the psoriatic nail beds of patients refractory to standard therapies using high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The custom-made micro applicators (CMMA) were designed and constructed for radiation dose delivery to small curvy targets with complicated topology. The role of the HDR brachytherapy treatment was to stimulate the T cells for an increased immune response. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The patient diagnosed with psoriatic nail beds refractory to standard therapies received monthly subunguinal injections that caused significant pain and discomfort in both hands...
June 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724760/uv-radiation-activates-toll-like-receptor-9-expression-in-primary-human-keratinocytes-an-event-inhibited-by-human-papillomavirus-type-38-e6-and-e7-oncoproteins
#5
Laura Pacini, Maria Grazia Ceraolo, Assunta Venuti, Giusi Melita, Uzma A Hasan, Rosita Accardi, Massimo Tommasino
Several lines of evidence indicate that cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types belonging to the beta genus of the HPV phylogenetic tree synergise with UV radiation in the development of skin cancer. Accordingly, the E6 and E7 oncoproteins from some beta HPV types are able to deregulate pathways related to immune response and cellular transformation. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), in addition to playing a role in innate immunity, has been shown to be involved in the cellular stress response. Using primary human keratinocytes (PHKs) as experimental models, we have shown that UV irradiation (and other cellular stresses) activates TLR9 expression...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724634/adaptor-protein-p62-promotes-skin-tumor-growth-and-metastasis-and-is-induced-by-uva-radiation
#6
Ashley Sample, Baozhong Zhao, Lei Qiang, Yu-Ying He
Skin cancer is the most common cancer and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, namely UVA and UVB is the major risk factor for skin cancer development. UVA is significantly less effective in causing direct DNA damage than UVB, but UVA has been shown to increase skin cancer risk. The mechanism by which UVA contributes to skin cancer remains unclear. Here, using RNA-Seq, we show that UVA induces autophagy and lysosomal gene expression, including the autophagy receptor and substrate p62. We found that UVA activates the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a known regulator of autophagy and lysosomal gene expression, which, in turn, induces p62 transcription...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724330/immunotherapy-advances-for-mesothelioma-treatment
#7
Emyr Bakker, Alice Guazzelli, Firozeh Ashtiani, Constantinos Demonacos, Marija Krstic-Demonacos, Luciano Mutti
Mesothelioma is a rare type of cancer that is strongly tied to asbestos exposure. Despite application of different modalities such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, patient prognosis remains very poor and therapies are ineffective. Much research currently focuses on the application of novel approaches such as immunotherapy towards this disease. Areas Covered: The types, stages and aetiology of mesothelioma are detailed, followed by a discussion of the current treatment options such as radiotherapy, surgery, and chemotherapy...
July 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721684/pharmacokinetics-microscale-distribution-and-dosimetry-of-alpha-emitter-labeled-anti-pd-l1-antibodies-in-an-immune-competent-transgenic-breast-cancer-model
#8
Jessie R Nedrow, Anders Josefsson, Sunju Park, Tom Bäck, Robert F Hobbs, Cory Brayton, Frank Bruchertseifer, Alfred Morgenstern, George Sgouros
BACKGROUND: Studies combining immune checkpoint inhibitors with external beam radiation have shown a therapeutic advantage over each modality alone. The purpose of these works is to evaluate the potential of targeted delivery of high LET radiation to the tumor microenvironment via an immune checkpoint inhibitor. METHODS: The impact of protein concentration on the distribution of (111)In-DTPA-anti-PD-L1-BC, an (111)In-antibody conjugate targeted to PD-L1, was evaluated in an immunocompetent mouse model of breast cancer...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721097/tumor-cell-pd-l1-predicts-poor-local-control-for-rectal-cancer-patients-following-neoadjuvant-radiotherapy
#9
Lingdong Shao, Qingqin Peng, Kaixin Du, Junyan He, Yaping Dong, Xiaoyi Lin, Jinluan Li, Junxin Wu
The tumor cell (TC) PD-L1 expression has been reported by several studies in various types of cancer, and it reduces the cytotoxicity of T-cells toward cancer and evades the anticancer immune response. Herein, our study focuses on the impact of PD-L1 expression in prognosis and the correlation with clinical prognostic factors for local advanced rectal cancer with neoadjuvant radiotherapy (RT). A total of 68 rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant RT were retrospectively enrolled in the present study...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720686/oncolytic-virus-induced-cell-death-and-immunity-a-match-made-in-heaven
#10
REVIEW
Jolien De Munck, Alex Binks, Iain A McNeish, Joeri L Aerts
Our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for cancer development has increased enormously over the last decades. However, for many cancers, this has not been translated into a significant improvement in overall survival, and overall mortality remains high. Treatment for many malignancies remains based on surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Significant progress has been made toward the development of more specific, more potent, and less invasive treatment modalities, but such targeted therapies remain the exception for most cancers...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720549/evolutionary-basis-of-a-new-approach-for-the-treatment-of-malignant-brain-tumors-from-mice-to-humans
#11
Pedro R Lowenstein, Maria G Castro
Glioma cells are one of the most aggressive and malignant tumors. Following initial surgery, and radio-chemotherapy they progress rapidly, so that patients' median survival remains under two years. They invade throughout the brain, which makes them difficult to treat, and are universally lethal. Though total resection is always attempted it is not curative. Standard of care in 2016 comprises surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy (temozolomide). Median survival is currently ~14-20months post-diagnosis though it can be higher in high complexity medical university centers, or during clinical trials...
July 15, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720148/multifocal-gastric-adenocarcinoma-in-a-patient-with-lrba-deficiency
#12
Nina Bratanič, Jernej Kovač, Katka Pohar, Katarina Trebušak Podkrajšek, Alojz Ihan, Tadej Battelino, Magdalena Avbelj Stefanija
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide-responsive, beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency is characterized by primary immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. Cancer may present another feature of LRBA deficiency. We describe a case history of a young adult with LRBA deficiency and two independent malignancies. METHODS: Family-trio whole exome sequencing with unbiased phenotype ontology approach was used for identification of causative mutations of a primary immune deficiency disorder...
July 18, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718816/complex-dna-damage-a-route-to-radiation-induced-genomic-instability-and-carcinogenesis
#13
REVIEW
Ifigeneia V Mavragani, Zacharenia Nikitaki, Maria P Souli, Asef Aziz, Somaira Nowsheen, Khaled Aziz, Emmy Rogakou, Alexandros G Georgakilas
Cellular effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are of great variety and level, but they are mainly damaging since radiation can perturb all important components of the cell, from the membrane to the nucleus, due to alteration of different biological molecules ranging from lipids to proteins or DNA. Regarding DNA damage, which is the main focus of this review, as well as its repair, all current knowledge indicates that IR-induced DNA damage is always more complex than the corresponding endogenous damage resulting from endogenous oxidative stress...
July 18, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718696/tumor-induced-disorder-of-iron-metabolism-in-major-organs-a-new-insight-from-chemical-speciation-of-iron
#14
Rujie Chen, Guangcun Chen
Objective To investigate the evolution of iron speciation in major organs of tumor-bearing mice and its role in cancer formation and cancer-associated complications. Methods The concentration and chemical speciation of iron in the spleen, liver, lung, kidney, heart, blood, muscle, and tumor tissue of healthy mice and tumor-bearing mice were studied by synchrotron radiation-based total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-TXRF) coupled with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Results The TXRF and XAS results showed that the iron content, especially the ferritin content, significantly decreased in the blood and spleen but significantly increased in the liver, lung, and muscle of mice after tumor implantation...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716463/combination-strategies-on-the-basis-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-where-do-we-stand
#15
REVIEW
Meng Qiao, Tao Jiang, Shengxiang Ren, Caicun Zhou
The era of immune checkpoint inhibitors, especially programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) antibodies in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is coming. Because of the lack of the definite biomarkers to select the optimal responders, only approximately 20% of patients with advanced NSCLC would respond to single checkpoint inhibitors-based immunotherapy. Moreover, primary or acquired resistance to conventional therapies is inevitable in most cases. Thus, combinations are pushed to move forward to be an alternative strategy and surely, it would be a future direction...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716071/primary-solitary-plasmacytoma-of-the-liver-successful-treatment-with-fractionated-stereotactic-radiotherapy-cyberknife%C3%A2-a-case-report
#16
Thomas Chalopin, Isabelle Barillot, Jean-Paul Biny, Flavie Arbion, Marie Besson, Maria Santiago-Ribeiro, Eric Piver, Olivier Herault, Emmanuel Gyan, Lotfi Benboubker
BACKGROUND: Solitary plasmacytoma of the liver is a very rare and aggressive form of plasma cell dyscrasia. To the best of our knowledge, very few cases have been reported without systemic disease. We reported a rare case of hepatic solitary plasmacytoma that successfully responded to fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old white French man had monoclonal gammopathy of the immune globulin G lambda type; he developed a cholestasis and cytolysis with the discovery of a subscapular nodule...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715139/uvb-exposure-of-a-humanized-skin-model-reveals-unexpected-dynamic-of-keratinocyte-proliferation-and-wnt-inhibitor-balancing
#17
Teresa Michalczyk, Thomas Biedermann, Sophie Böttcher-Haberzeth, Agnes S Klar, Martin Meuli, Ernst Reichmann
We developed human dermo-epidermal skin substitutes which are presently applied in phase I and II clinical trials. Here we used these very same skin equivalents containing melanocytes, named MelSkin, as an experimental skin model. We investigated the effects of UVB irradiation on the skin grafts transplanted on immune-compromised rats. The irradiation induces a strong wound healing response going along with massive proliferation of basal keratinocytes, basically quiescent under non-irradiated, homeostatic conditions...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714110/poly-vinylpyrollidone-and-selenocysteine-modified-bi2-se3-nanoparticles-enhance-radiotherapy-efficacy-in-tumors-and-promote-radioprotection-in-normal-tissues
#18
Jiangfeng Du, Zhanjun Gu, Liang Yan, Yuan Yong, Xuan Yi, Xiao Zhang, Jing Liu, Renfei Wu, Cuicui Ge, Chunying Chen, Yuliang Zhao
The development of a new generation of nanoscaled radiosensitizers that can not only enhance radiosensitization of tumor tissues, but also increase radioresistance of healthy tissue is highly desirable, but remains a great challenge. Here, this paper reports a new versatile theranostics based on poly(vinylpyrollidone)- and selenocysteine-modified Bi2 Se3 nanoparicles (PVP-Bi2 Se3 @Sec NPs) for simultaneously enhancing radiotherapeutic effects and reducing the side-effects of radiation. The as-prepared nanoparticles exhibit significantly enhanced free-radical generation upon X-ray radiation, and remarkable photothermal effects under 808 nm NIR laser irradiation because of their strong X-ray attenuation ability and high NIR absorption capability...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713771/integrating-hyperthermia-into-modern-radiation-oncology-what-evidence-is-necessary
#19
REVIEW
Jan C Peeken, Peter Vaupel, Stephanie E Combs
Hyperthermia (HT) is one of the hot topics that have been discussed over decades. However, it never made its way into primetime. The basic biological rationale of heat to enhance the effect of radiation, chemotherapeutic agents, and immunotherapy is evident. Preclinical work has confirmed this effect. HT may trigger changes in perfusion and oxygenation as well as inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms. Moreover, there is evidence for immune stimulation and the induction of systemic immune responses. Despite the increasing number of solid clinical studies, only few centers have included this adjuvant treatment into their repertoire...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713677/radio-immunotherapy-and-chemo-immunotherapy-as-a-novel-treatment-paradigm-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#20
REVIEW
Licun Wu, Marc de Perrot
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive neoplasm with poor outcome. Novel radical radiation techniques using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) have become an important component of therapy in mesothelioma. Immunotherapy also provides new therapeutic options. However, how best to integrate immunotherapy with standard therapy such as radiation, chemotherapy and surgery remains unknown. A change of paradigm from adjuvant normofractionation to induction accelerated hypofractionated hemithoracic radiation could provide a platform to combine immunotherapy due to the potential benefit of short course high dose radiation on the immune system...
June 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
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