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Giant cell arteritis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339362/diagnostic-performance-of-color-duplex-ultrasonography-along-with-temporal-artery-biopsy-in-suspicion-of-giant-cell-arteritis
#1
Christophe Roncato, Caroline Allix-Béguec, Elisabeth Brottier-Mancini, Bruno Gombert, Guillaume Denis
OBJECTIVES: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a vasculitis that occurs in older adults, affecting vessels of medium and large caliber. GCA diagnosis is a challenge for general practitioners and specialists. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse performances of temporal artery biopsy (TAB) and color duplex ultrasonography (CDU) for GCA diagnosis. METHODS: All patients with suspicion of GCA and who underwent both TAB and CDU between April 2009 and March 2014 were included in the study...
March 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339357/development-of-a-score-for-assessment-of-radiologic-damage-in-large-vessel-vasculitis-combined-arteritis-damage-score-cards
#2
Daiki Nakagomi, Claire Cousins, Jan Sznajd, Shunsuke Furuta, Aladdin J Mohammad, Raashid Luqmani, David Jayne
OBJECTIVES: Outcome assessment in large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) remains challenging and this impairs patient management and the conduct of clinical studies. Previous proposals for outcome tools have not included imaging. This study aimed to develop an imaging score to quantify damage in LVV and to assess the difference between Takayasu (TAK) and giant cell arteritis (GCA). METHODS: Ninety-six patients (41 TAK, 55 GCA) were identified from local registries at two University Hospitals in the UK...
March 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335992/varicella-zoster-virus-vasculopathy-the-expanding-clinical-spectrum-and-pathogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Maria A Nagel, Dallas Jones, Ann Wyborny
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous, human alphaherpesvirus that produces varicella on primary infection then becomes latent in ganglionic neurons along the entire neuraxis. In elderly and immunocompromised individuals, VZV reactivates and travels along nerve fibers peripherally resulting in zoster. However, VZV can also spread centrally and infect cerebral and extracranial arteries (VZV vasculopathy) to produce transient ischemic attacks, stroke, aneurysm, sinus thrombosis and giant cell arteritis, as well as granulomatous aortitis...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332442/ultrasound-imaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-large-vessel-vasculitis
#4
Michael Czihal, Christian Lottspeich, Ulrich Hoffmann
Nowadays noninvasive vascular imaging has an important role in the diagnostic work-up of the large vessel vasculitides (LVV), most importantly giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis. Among the imaging modalities available, ultrasound (US) has several important advantages, including low costs, rapid and repetitive availability without exposure to radiation, and high spatial resolution for assessment of large and medium-sized arteries. Therefore, US can be regarded the first line imaging method in suspected LVV...
March 23, 2017: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323232/suspected-giant-cell-aortitis-from-multiple-aortic-structural-damage-to-fatal-listeria-sepsi-a-case-report
#5
Valeria Silvestri, Giacomo Isernia
Giant cell arteritis ( GCA) is an inflammatory vasculopathy affecting large and middle-sized vessels , specifically cranial arteries derived from carotid artery. Isolated extracranial vessel involvement can occur. Interest in extravascular manifestations is recently increasing because of diffusion of sensitive and specific imaging tools such as 18FDG PET TC . Patients have an increased relative risk of severe infection. Listeria monocytogenes infection risk is increased, and vascular system involvement and graft infection have been, even though rarely, reported...
March 16, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320119/giant-cell-arteritis-following-varicella-zoster-vaccination
#6
Itay Lotan, Israel Steiner
BACKGROUND: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a form of large-vessel vasculitis affecting patients older than 50years old. Recent reports have suggested that the condition is caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV). If that is indeed the case, a vaccine that prevents VZV reactivation should reduce the incidence of GCA. To further test that hypothesis, we assessed the incidence of GCA among patients older than 50years of age who were vaccinated against VZV and compared it to GCA incidence in the general population...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315516/metaplastic-ossification-of-the-temporal-artery-with-osteoclast-like-giant-cells-a-mimicker-of-giant-cell-temporal-arteritis
#7
Miroslav Sekulic, Alexander M Truskinovsky
PURPOSE: To describe a patient presenting with suspected giant cell (temporal) arteritis (GCA) in whom subsequent temporal artery biopsy showed luminal narrowing by medial calcification, metaplastic ossification, and fibrointimal proliferation, consistent with calciphylaxis. METHODS: A 55-year-old man with end-stage renal disease presented with unilateral loss of vision and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and was initially treated as though he had GCA; however, a subsequent temporal artery biopsy showed marked luminal narrowing by medial calcification, metaplastic ossification, and fibrointimal proliferation, consistent with calciphylaxis...
February 28, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314758/immune-checkpoint-dysfunction-in-medium-and-large-vessel-vasculitis
#8
Ryu Watanabe, Hui Zhang, Gerald Berry, Jorg J Goronzy, Cornelia M Weyand
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a granulomatous vasculitis of the aorta and its medium-sized branch vessels. CD4 T-cells, macrophages and dendritic cells build granulomatous infiltrates that injure the vessel wall and elicit a maladaptive response-to-injury. Pathologic consequences include fragmentation of elastic membranes, destruction of the medial layer, microvascular neoangiogenesis, massive outgrowth of myofibroblasts, and lumen-occlusive intimal hyperplasia. Antigens have been suspected to drive the local activation of vasculitogenic CD4 T-cells, but recent data suggest a more generalized defect in the threshold setting of such T-cells, rendering them hyperreactive...
March 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301862/non-arteritic-jaw-claudication
#9
Christine A Petersen, Courtney E Francis
A 60-year-old woman with decreased visual acuity in her right eye and right-sided jaw claudication was found to have ocular ischemic syndrome secondary to complete occlusion of the brachiocephalic artery. Although jaw claudication is often considered to be pathognomonic for giant cell arteritis, it has a broad differential diagnosis including both vascular and nonvascular conditions.
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298242/migratory-large-vessel-vasculitis-preceding-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-case-report
#10
Dinusha Chandratilleke, Anthea Anantharajah, Mauro Vicaretti, Warwick Benson, Lucinda J Berglund
BACKGROUND: Large vessel vasculitis is a rare disorder usually occurring in the context of the autoimmune conditions of giant cell arteritis and Takayasu's arteritis. Case reports have described large vessel vasculitis occurring in individuals with myelodysplastic syndrome, preceding transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old Afghanistan-born woman presented with fever, a tender left carotid artery, and raised inflammatory markers...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291550/-ischemic-stroke-as-an-infrequent-presentation-of-giant-cell-arteritis-in-the-elderly-patient
#11
Antonio E Ruiz Serrato, Ana Mata Palma, Juan Jesús Carabantes Rueda, Miguel Ángel Pérez Velasco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282736/ocular-inflammation-associated-with-polymyalgia-rheumatica-without-concomitant-giant-cell-arteritis-a-report-of-three-cases
#12
Takahiro Arai, Rie Tanaka, Toshikatsu Kaburaki
PURPOSE: We report three cases of ocular inflammation and polymyalgia rheumatica without concomitant giant-cell arteritis. METHODS: Report of three cases. RESULTS: Polymyalgia rheumatica onset was at a mean age of 66.7 years, and ocular inflammation, which developed 7-21 months later, was bilateral in all patients. Ocular inflammation presented as episcleritis, scleritis, or anterior uveitis, and it emerged during the tapering of low-dose prednisolone prescribed for polymyalgia rheumatica in all patients...
February 22, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277489/analysis-of-the-common-genetic-component-of-large-vessel-vasculitides-through-a-meta-immunochip-strategy
#13
F David Carmona, Patrick Coit, Güher Saruhan-Direskeneli, José Hernández-Rodríguez, María C Cid, Roser Solans, Santos Castañeda, Augusto Vaglio, Haner Direskeneli, Peter A Merkel, Luigi Boiardi, Carlo Salvarani, Miguel A González-Gay, Javier Martín, Amr H Sawalha
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu's arteritis (TAK) are major forms of large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) that share clinical features. To evaluate their genetic similarities, we analysed Immunochip genotyping data from 1,434 LVV patients and 3,814 unaffected controls. Genetic pleiotropy was also estimated. The HLA region harboured the main disease-specific associations. GCA was mostly associated with class II genes (HLA-DRB1/HLA-DQA1) whereas TAK was mostly associated with class I genes (HLA-B/MICA). Both the statistical significance and effect size of the HLA signals were considerably reduced in the cross-disease meta-analysis in comparison with the analysis of GCA and TAK separately...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276953/risk-of-ocular-manifestations-in-patients-with-giant-cell-arteritis-a-nationwide-study-in-sweden
#14
J Ji, I Dimitrijevic, J Sundquist, K Sundquist, B Zöller
OBJECTIVE: No large-scale nationwide study has determined the risk of ocular manifestations in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA). The aim was to study the incidence and risk factors of ocular manifestations in patients with GCA in Sweden. METHOD: A national cohort was created by linking Swedish nationwide registers. GCA patients were identified from the Swedish Hospital Inpatient and Outpatient Registers between 2002 and 2010, and were followed until the development of ocular manifestations...
February 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274481/no-detection-of-varicella-zoster-virus-in-temporal-arteries-of-patients-with-giant-cell-arteritis
#15
Francesco Muratore, Stefania Croci, Ione Tamagnini, Alessandro Zerbini, Salvatore Bellafiore, Lucia Belloni, Luigi Boiardi, Alessandra Bisagni, Nicolò Pipitone, Maria Parmeggiani, Alberto Cavazza, Carlo Salvarani
OBJECTIVE: Data on the presence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in temporal arteries of patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) are controversial. We analyzed VZV infection in temporal arteries from Italian patients with temporal artery biopsy (TAB)-positive GCA, TAB-negative GCA, and controls. METHODS: A total of 79 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) TABs performed between 2009 and 2012 at a single institution from 34 TAB-positive GCA patients, 15 TAB-negative GCA patients, and 30 controls were retrieved...
February 10, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265227/pet-ct-imaging-in-polymyalgia-rheumatica-praepubic-18-f-fdg-uptake-correlates-with-pectineus-and-adductor-longus-muscles-enthesitis-and-with-tenosynovitis
#16
Zdenek Rehak, Andrea Sprlakova-Pukova, Zbynek Bortlicek, Zdenek Fojtik, Tomas Kazda, Marek Joukal, Renata Koukalova, Jiri Vasina, Jana Eremiasova, Petr Nemec
BACKGROUND: The role of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) is increasing in the diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), one of the most common inflammatory rheumatic diseases. In addition to other locations, increased (18)F-FDG accumulation has been detected in the praepubic region in some patients. However, a deeper description and pathophysiological explanation of this increased praepubic accumulation has been lacking. The aim of the presented study is to confirm a decrease in praepubic (18)F-FDG accumulation in response to therapy and to describe potential correlations to other (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan characteristics during the course of disease...
March 1, 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258302/-ultrasound-biomicroscopy-in-giant-cell-arteritis
#17
M Pattmöller, L Daas, A Viestenz, G Milioti, A Hasenfus, B Seitz, A Viestenz
Giant cell arteritis may lead to irreversible blindness due to an anterior ischemic optic neuropathy or central retinal artery occlusion. Diagnosis of the giant cell arteritis is sometimes a problem: Difficulties may arise since a negative biopsy can not rule out the diagnosis. This case report demonstrates acute changes in the temporal artery as demonstrated by Ultrasound Biomicroscopy and documents its course during therapy with corticosteroids.
March 3, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256573/clinical-and-pathological-evolution-of-giant-cell-arteritis-a-prospective-study-of-follow-up-temporal-artery-biopsies-in-40-treated-patients
#18
Joseph J Maleszewski, Brian R Younge, John T Fritzlen, Gene G Hunder, Jorg J Goronzy, Kenneth J Warrington, Cornelia M Weyand
Although clinical signs and symptoms of giant cell arteritis improve promptly after starting glucocorticoid therapy, reports have suggested that the vascular inflammation may persist. To assess the duration and quality of histopathologic changes in treated patients, we prospectively obtained second temporal artery biopsies in patients treated for 3 to 12 months after their first diagnostic biopsy. Forty patients (28 women, 12 men, median age 77 years) agreed to have a second temporal artery biopsy randomly assigned to 3, 6, 9, or 12 months subsequent to the first...
March 3, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244857/diagnostic-validity-of-doppler-ultrasound-in-giant-cell-arteritis
#19
I Concepción Aranda-Valera, Sara García Carazo, Irene Monjo Henry, Eugenio De Miguel Mendieta
OBJECTIVES: To assess the validity of Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA), using the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria and biopsy and using as gold standard the patient's definitive clinical diagnosis. METHODS: An observational, descriptive and analytical study of 451 consecutive patients with suspected GCA was conducted, and the clinical history and ultrasound findings of the patients were reviewed. The validity of ACR criteria, temporal arteritis biopsy (TAB) and Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of GCA was calculated using the final diagnosis of the doctor in charge as the gold standard...
February 28, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236536/-streptococcus-milleri-an-unusual-cause-of-skull-extensive-osteomyelitis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#20
C Duquenne, E Dernis, A Zehrouni, A Bizon, M Duquenne
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus milleri (Streptococcus anginosus, intermedius and constellatus) are commensal organisms, which can become pathogenic and cause infection with frequent abscess formation, local or metastatic extension. Osteomyelitis of the skull has been rarely reported in this type of infection. CASE REPORT: Skull osteomyelitis due to Streptococcus milleri is reported in a 61-year-old immunocompetent man without any medical history, occurring 10 months after a head injury without any wound or complication at initial presentation...
February 21, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
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