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Carles Muntaner, Deb Finn Mahabir
(TPP) policy and the severe threats to public health that it implies for 12 Pacific Rim populations from the Americas and Asia (Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, United States, and Vietnam). With careful and analytic precision the authors convincingly unearth many aspects of this piece of legislation that undermine the public health achievements of most countries involved in the TTP. Our comments complement their policy analysis with the aim of providing a positive heuristic tool to assist in the understanding of the TPP, and other upcoming treaties like the even more encompassing Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), and in so doing motivate the public health community to oppose the implementation of the relevant provisions of the agreements...
November 6, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Shruti Beharry, Michael Heinrich
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Maca - Lepidium meyenii Walp has been cultivated and used by Andean people for over 1,300 to 2000 years in Peru as food and medicine. Starting in the late 1990's it has developed into an important herbal medicine in China and is now cultivated there widely, too. AIM OF STUDY: This study aims to provide an insight into the emergence of maca on the global market as an alternative remedy to treat reproductive health related problems in both men and women and to critically assess these health claims...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kelly Laurent, Jason Susong, Eric Fillman, Simon Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease seen in many parts of the world, especially in areas where current U.S. and international forces are deployed. Approximately 350 million people are thought to be at risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with an annual incidence of 1.5 million cases. Over 90% of cutaneous infections with Leishmania occur in the Middle East, Brazil, and Peru. Outbreaks of CL may occur in military personnel deployed to endemic areas. Since the incubation period for symptomatic CL ranges from weeks to months, symptoms may not appear until well after returning to the United States...
July 2017: Military Medicine
Ana L Vasquez, Renato A Errea, Daniel Hoces, Juan Echevarria, Elsa González-Lagos, Eduardo Gotuzzo
INTRODUCTION: Based on the hypothesis that HIV programs struggle to deliver health services that harmonize necessities of treatment and prevention, we described the outcomes of routinely provided HIV testing to partners of people living with HIV (PLWH) through a secondary analysis of routine data collected at a public hospital in Lima, Peru. METHODS: Among PLWH enrolled in the study center's HIV program between 2005 and 2014, we identified index cases (IC): PLWH who reported a unique partner not previously enrolled...
2017: PloS One
Theresa J Ochoa, Nelly Baiocchi, Gladys Valdiviezo, Vanessa Bullon, Miguel Campos, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of a fish protein isolate (FPi), administered over 6 months, on the growth of children aged 6-36 months, measured by Z-scores of height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ), compared with the standard meal without FPi; and to determine the safety and acceptability of FPi daily consumption. DESIGN: Cluster-randomized community-based controlled trial. For 6 months, the centres received either FPi replacing 50 % of total proteins in the diet or standard protein...
August 14, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
T Boeker
The confusingly structured and in many areas corrupt health system in Peru even today provides only a fragmentary and insufficient medical treatment especially for the indigenous population (mainly Quechua Indians). Since October 2007 the Diospi Suyana missionary hospital in Curahuasi (State of Apurímac) has provided an affordable medical treatment at a high level mainly for these indigenous people of Peru; however, so far the hospital could only insufficiently meet the traumatological needs of the region...
August 11, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
Alfonso Osorio, Cristina Lopez-Del Burgo, Silvia Carlos, Jokin de Irala
This cross-sectional study assesses the association between age of sexual initiation during adolescence and a selection of well-being outcomes regarding that first relationship. High-school adolescents from El Salvador (2,686) and from Peru (3,399) replied to a paper-pencil questionnaire. Those who were sexually initiated replied to several questions regarding their age at sexual initiation, condom use, satisfaction and reasons/circumstances for that sexual relationship. Approximately 19% of participants were sexually initiated (n = 1,179)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Edgar Lehr, Rudolf von May
We describe a new species of Pristimantis from upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings, Región Junín, central Peru. The description of the new species is based on 34 specimens found at elevations between 3400 and 3936 m a.s.l. Pristimantis attenboroughisp. n. is characterized by a snout-vent length of 14.6-19.2 mm in adult males (n = 21), 19.2-23.0 mm in adult females (n = 10), and is compared morphologically and genetically with other taxonomically and biogeographically relevant species of Pristimantis...
2017: ZooKeys
Thiago Botelho Azeredo, Maria Auxiliadora Oliveira, Cláudia Du Bocage Santos-Pinto, Elaine Silva Miranda, Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro
The provision of ARVs is central to HIV/AIDS programs, because of its impact on the course of the disease and on quality of life. Although first-line treatments costs have declined, treatment-associated expenses are steeper each year. Sustainability is therefore an important variable for the success of treatment programs. A conceptual framework on sustainability of ARV provision was developed, followed by data collection instruments. The pilot study was undertaken in Brazil. Bolivia, Peru and Mozambique, were visited...
August 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Susana L Matias, Alejandro Vargas-Vásquez, Ricardo Bado Pérez, Lorena Alcázar Valdivia, Oscar Aquino Vivanco, Amelia Rodriguez Martín, Jose Pedro Novalbos Ruiz
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) on children's Hb, linear growth and development, compared with supplementation with micronutrient powder (MNP). DESIGN: The study was a two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial, where participants received either LNS or MNP for daily consumption during 6 months. Supplements were delivered by staff at government-run health centres. Hb, anthropometric, motor development, language development and problem-solving indicators were measured by trained research assistants when children were 12 months of age...
August 9, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Yolanda Escobar Alvarez, Claudia Agamez Insignares, Monica Ahumada Olea, Olga Barajas, German Calderillo R, Jenny Cecilia Calvache Guamán, Ricardo Caponero, Benjamín A Cavenago Salazar, Auro Del Giglio, Ana Rocío Pupo Araya, Ricardo Villalobos-Valencia, Andrés Yepes Pérez, Nilda Zumelzu Delgado
Generating a consensus in the Latin-American region on cancer pain management is a current need. Thus a panel of Latin-American experts met in Madrid in March 2017 in order to review the published literature, discuss the best approach for cancer pain classification and evaluation and also make recommendations of pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies for cancer pain management improvement in Latin-American countries. The result of that meeting is presented in this document. The experts participating were from Costa Rica, Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil and Ecuador, and the project coordinator was from Spain...
August 4, 2017: Future Oncology
E D Matys, J Sepúlveda, S Pantoja, C B Lange, M Caniupán, F Lamy, R E Summons
Marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are characterized by the presence of subsurface suboxic or anoxic waters where diverse microbial processes are responsible for the removal of fixed nitrogen. OMZs have expanded over past decades and are expected to continue expanding in response to the changing climate. The implications for marine biogeochemistry, particularly nitrogen cycling, are uncertain. Cell membrane lipids (biomarkers), such as bacterial bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) and their degradation products (hopanoids), have distinctive structural attributes that convey information about their biological sources...
August 3, 2017: Geobiology
Liliam Gutarra, Juan Herrera, Elizabeth Fernandez, Jan Kreuze, Hannele Lindqvist-Kreuze
The current bacterial wilt infestation level in the potato fields in the Peruvian Andes was investigated by collecting stem samples from wilted plants and detecting Ralstonia solanacearum. In total 39 farmers' fields located in the central and northern Peru between the altitudes 2111 and 3742 m above sea level were sampled. R. solanacearum was detected in 19 fields, and in 153 out of the 358 samples analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis using the partial sequence of the endoglucanase gene on strains collected in Peru between 1966 and 2016 from potato, pepper, tomato, plantain or soil, divided the strains in phylotypes I, IIA, and IIB...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Stuart H McKamey
Based on examination of holotypes or interpretation of original descriptions, four taxonomic changes are proposed for South American species erroneously placed in the tribe Smiliini: Flynnia, gen. n. (Thuridini) and F. fascipennis (Funkhouser), comb. n. from Bolivia; Antianthe atromarginata (Goding), comb. n. from Ecuador; Amastris pilosa (Funkhouser), comb. n. from Peru; and Thelia planeflava Fairmaire from Brazil to Polyglyptini incertae sedis, new placement.
2017: ZooKeys
Juan C Cusi, Jiří Moravec, Edgar Lehr, Václav Gvoždík
A new semiarboreal species of the Rhinella festae group is described from montane forests of the Cordillera Azul National Park between 1245 and 1280 m a.s.l. in the Cordillera Oriental, San Martín region, northern Peru. The new species is morphologically and genetically compared with members of the Rhinella acrolopha group (former genus Rhamphophryne) and members of the R. festae group. The new species is characterized by its large size (female SVL 47.1-58.3 mm, n = 4), eight presacral vertebrae, fusion of the sacrum and coccyx, long protuberant snout, snout directed slightly anteroventral in lateral view, cranial crests moderately developed, absence of occipital crest, presence of tympanic membrane, dorsolateral rows of small conical tubercles extending from parotoid gland to groin, hands and feet with long digits, fingers basally webbed and toes moderately webbed...
2017: ZooKeys
Juan M Nieto Nafría, M Pilar Mier Durante, Sara I López Ciruelos
The genus Delfinoia Nieto Nafría & Mier Durante gen. n. is established, and Utamphorophora peruviana (Essig), originally Amphorophora peruviana and currently Delfinoia peruvianacomb. n., is designated species type of the genus. The synonymy between this species and Wahlgreniella australis Delfino syn. n. is established. Apterous and alate viviparous females of D. peruviana are redescribed; the male is also described. The species is currently known from Peru and Argentina; a plant of the genus Cayaponia (Cucurbitaceae) is the only identified host...
2017: ZooKeys
Rudolf H Scheffrahn, Tiago F Carrijo, Anthony C Postle, Francesco Tonini
Disjunctitermes insularisgen. n. & sp. n. is described from workers collected on Guadeloupe and in Peru and is the first soldierless termite found on a deep-water island. As with many soldierless and soil-feeding termite species, the enteric valve morphology is an essential diagnostic character of D. insularis. The D. insularis sequence cluster, derived from a barcode analysis with twelve other described genera of New World Apicotermitinae, is well resolved. Results of a stochastic dynamic spread model suggest that the occurrence of D...
2017: ZooKeys
Katherine C Nesheim, Lubomír Masner, Norman F Johnson
The Phanuromyia galeata species group is delineated and its species richness explored for the first time (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, Telenominae). Fifteen species are described, all of which are new: Phanuromyia comata Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil), P. constellata Nesheim, sp. n. (Paraguay), P. corys Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Brazil), P. cranos Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana), P. cudo Nesheim & Masner, sp. n. (Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Panama, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela), P...
2017: ZooKeys
Richard Bodmer, Pedro Mayor, Miguel Antunez, Kimberlyn Chota, Tula Fang, Pablo Puertas, Marlini Pittet, Maire Kirkland, Mike Walkey, Claudia Rios, Pedro Perez-Peña, Peter Henderson, William Bodmer, Andy Bicerra, Joseph Zegarra, Emma Docherty
In the western Amazon basin, recent intensification of river level cycles has increased flooding during the wet seasons and decreased precipitation during the dry season. Greater than normal floods occurred in 2009 and in all years from 2011-2015 during high water seasons, and a drought occurred during the 2010 low water season. During these years, we surveyed populations of terrestrial, arboreal and aquatic wildlife in a seasonally flooded Amazonian forest to study the consequences of intensification of climatic fluctuations to wildlife populations and in turn resource use by traditional people...
August 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Caroline M C de Meyer, Juan M Rodríguez, Edward A Carpio, Pilar A García, Caroline Stengel, Michael Berg
This paper presents a first integrated survey on the occurrence and distribution of geogenic contaminants in groundwater resources of Western Amazonia in Peru. An increasing number of groundwater wells have been constructed for drinking water purposes in the last decades; however, the chemical quality of the groundwater resources in the Amazon region is poorly studied. We collected groundwater from the regions of Iquitos and Pucallpa to analyze the hydrochemical characteristics, including trace elements. The source aquifer of each well was determined by interpretation of the available geological information, which identified four different aquifer types with distinct hydrochemical properties...
July 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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