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Acute on Chronic Renal Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724548/bradykinin-does-not-acutely-sensitize-the-reflex-pressor-response-during-hindlimb-skeletal-muscle-stretch-in-decerebrate-rats
#1
Korynne S Rollins, Joshua R Smith, Peter J Esau, Evan A Kempf, Tyler D Hopkins, Steven W Copp
Hindlimb skeletal muscle stretch (i.e., selective activation of the muscle mechanoreflex) in decerebrate rats evokes reflex increases in blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity. Bradykinin has been found to sensitize mechano-gated channels through a bradykinin B2 receptor-dependent mechanism. Moreover, bradykinin B2 receptor expression on sensory neurons is increased following chronic femoral artery ligation in the rat (a model of simulated peripheral artery disease). We tested the hypothesis that, in decerebrate, unanesthetized rats, the injection of bradykinin into the arterial supply of a hindlimb would acutely augment (i...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711069/preterm-birth-and-its-impact-on-renal-health
#2
Valerie A Luyckx
Preterm birth occurs in approximately 10% of all births worldwide. Preterm infants have reduced nephron numbers at birth in proportion to gestational age, and are at increased risk of neonatal acute kidney injury as well as higher blood pressure, proteinuria, and chronic kidney disease later in life. Rapid catch-up growth in preterm infants, especially if resulting in obesity, is a risk factor for end-stage kidney disease among children with proteinuric renal disease. Preterm birth, however, is a risk factor not only for the infant because mothers who deliver preterm have an increased risk of having subsequent preterm deliveries as well as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease later in life...
July 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701840/colistin-nephrotoxicity-in-adults-single-centre-large-series-from-india
#3
Abdul Ghafur, Swati Gohel, Vidyalakshmi Devarajan, T Raja, Jose Easow, M A Raja, Sankar Sreenivas, Balasubramaniam Ramakrishnan, T Ramakrishnan, S G Raman, Dedeepiya Devaprasad, Balaji Venkatachalam, Ramesh Nimmagadda
CONTEXT: Limited Indian data are available on the rate of colistin nephrotoxicity and other risk factors contributing to the development of this important side effect. AIM: This study aims to generate data on colistin nephrotoxicity from a large cohort of Indian patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case record analysis of patients who received colistin, in an oncology center in India, between January 2011 and December 2015...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701839/a-study-of-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-and-acute-peritoneal-dialysis-in-hemodynamic-unstable-patients
#4
Ajay Jaryal, Sanjay Vikrant
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the following study was to assess the outcome of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) in dialysis-requiring renal failure in patients with hemodynamic instability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all the patients who received CRRT and acute PD over a period of 1 year at our institute, a tertiary care center, was done for diagnosis, type of renal replacement therapy (RRT), and survival outcome...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699283/prospective-evaluation-of-chronic-organ-damage-in-adult-sickle-cell-patients-a-seven-year-follow-up-study
#5
Charlotte F J van Tuijn, Marein Schimmel, Eduard J van Beers, Erfan Nur, Bart J Biemond
Organ damage in sickle cell disease (SCD) is a crucial determinant for disease severity and prognosis. In a previous study, we analyzed the prevalence of SCD-related organ damage and complications in adult sickle cell patients. We now describe a seven-year follow-up of this cohort. All patients from the primary analysis in 2006 (n=104), were included for follow-up. Patients were screened for SCD-related organ damage and complications (microalbuminuria, renal failure, elevated tricuspid regurgitation flow velocity (TRV) (≥2...
July 11, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699143/glutaric-aciduria-type-1-and-acute-renal-failure-case-report-and-suggested-pathomechanisms
#6
Marcel du Moulin, Bastian Thies, Martin Blohm, Jun Oh, Markus J Kemper, René Santer, Chris Mühlhausen
Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is caused by deficiency of the mitochondrial matrix enzyme glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH), leading to accumulation of glutaric acid (GA) and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid (3OHGA) in tissues and body fluids. During catabolic crises, GA1 patients are prone to the development of striatal necrosis and a subsequent irreversible movement disorder during a time window of vulnerability in early infancy. Thus, GA1 had been considered a pure "cerebral organic aciduria" in the past. Single case reports have indicated the occurrence of acute renal dysfunction in children affected by GA1...
July 12, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697774/the-impact-of-dpp-4-inhibitors-on-long-term-survival-among-diabetic-patients-after-first-acute-myocardial-infarction
#7
Mei-Tzu Wang, Sheng-Che Lin, Pei-Ling Tang, Wang-Ting Hung, Chin-Chang Cheng, Jin-Shiou Yang, Hong-Tai Chang, Chun-Peng Liu, Guang-Yuan Mar, Wei-Chun Huang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies regarding the cardioprotective effects of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have not provided sufficient evidence of a relationship between DPP-4 inhibition and actual cardiovascular outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of DPP-4 inhibitors on the survival of diabetic patients after first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: This was a nationwide, propensity score-matched, case-control study of 186,112 first AMI patients, 72,924 of whom had diabetes...
July 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689753/comparison-of-left-ventricular-function-and-myocardial-infarct-size-determined-by-2-dimensional-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-in-patients-with-and-without-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-after-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#8
Laurien Goedemans, Rachid Abou, Georgette E Hoogslag, Nina Ajmone Marsan, Christian Taube, Victoria Delgado, Jeroen J Bax
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a high risk of mortality after acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We compared STEMI patients with versus without COPD in terms of infarct size and left ventricular (LV) systolic function using advanced 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Of 1,750 patients with STEMI (mean age 61 ± 12 years, 76% male), 133 (7.6%) had COPD. With transthoracic echocardiography, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and wall motion score index were measured...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686686/protective-effect-of-zinc-preconditioning-against-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-is-dose-dependent
#9
Kenny Rao, Kapil Sethi, Joseph Ischia, Luke Gibson, Laurence Galea, Lin Xiao, Mildred Yim, Mike Chang, Nathan Papa, Damien Bolton, Arthur Shulkes, Graham S Baldwin, Oneel Patel
OBJECTIVES: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. Two promising preconditioning methods for the kidney, intermittent arterial clamping (IC) and treatment with the hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride, have never been directly compared. Furthermore, the protective efficacy of the chemically related transition metal Zn2+ against renal IRI is unclear. Although Co2+ ions have been shown to protect the kidney via hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), the effect of Zn2+ ions on the induction of HIF1α, HIF2α and HIF3α has not been investigated previously...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682567/-pres-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-potential-complication-of-hypertensive-crisis-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Michele Vergura, Michele Prencipe, Antonio Maria Del Giudice, Rachele Grifa, Filomena Miscio, Anna Maria Pennelli, Teresa Popolizio, Anna Simeone, Mariangela Ferrara, Maurizio Leone, Filippo Aucella
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological syndrome, usually reversible, characterized by vasogenic oedema in cerebral posterior regions in patients with autoimmune diseases, nephropathies, hypertensive crisis, eclampsia and exposure to cytotoxic drugs. The main symptoms are: headache, nausea, vomiting, seizures, visual disturbance and altered consciousness. Complications as cerebral hemorrhage and recurrences are rare. We describe a case of a 65 years old woman, affected by chronic kidney disease, recently exacerbated, diabetes and hypertension in treatment, who showed an heterogeneous clinical presentation with vomiting, headache, blurred vision and impaired consciousness during an episode of acute hypertension...
April 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682037/-cardio-pulmonary-renal-interactions
#11
Sara Samoni, Faeq Husain-Syed, Silvia De Rosa, Claudio Ronco
Over the past decade, understanding about feedback mechanisms involving the heart, lung and kidney is significantly improved. Each organ injury may trigger hemodynamic, neuro-hormonal and cellular pathway that may damage diverse organs. Recurrent acute on chronic injury may lead to the advanced stage of disease. On the other hand, chronic pathological conditions may decrease functional reserve leading to a high susceptibility to acute injury. Assessment of functional reserve and dosage of novel biomarkers may allow an early diagnosis and treatment...
March 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682024/-cardio-renal-axis-pathophysiological-evidences-and-clinical-implications
#12
Luca Di Lullo, Claudio Ronco
According to the recent definition proposed by the Consensus conference on Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative Group, the term cardio-renal syndrome CRS has been used to define different clinical conditions in which heart and kidney dysfunction overlap. Type 1 CRS acute cardio - renal syndrome is characterized by acute worsening of cardiac function leading to AKI in the setting of active cardiac disease such as ADHF, while type - 2 CRS occurs in a setting of chronic heart disease. Type 3 CRS is closely link to acute kidney injury, while type 4 represent cardiovascular involvement in chronic kidney disese patients...
March 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681347/new-concepts-on-the-clinical-course-and-stratification-of-compensated-and-decompensated-cirrhosis
#13
REVIEW
Gennaro D'Amico, Alberto Morabito, Mario D'Amico, Linda Pasta, Giuseppe Malizia, Paola Rebora, Maria Grazia Valsecchi
The clinical course of cirrhosis has been typically described by a compensated and a decompensated state based on the absence or, respectively, the presence of any of bleeding, ascites, encephalopathy or jaundice. More recently, it has been recognized that increasing portal hypertension and several major clinical events are followed by a marked worsening in prognosis, and disease states have been proposed accordingly in a multistate model. The development of multistate models implies the assessment of the probabilities of more than one possible outcome from each disease state...
July 5, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681070/-imaging-of-visceral-vessels
#14
REVIEW
C Stelzner, N Abolmaali, U Hecker, S Schellong
Visceral vessel processes are primarily or secondarily included in a multitude of clinical abdominal symptoms, with which the specialist in internal medicine is confronted. The spectrum ranges from more sharply outlined manifestations, such as chronic ischemic bowel disease up to dysfunctional disturbances of blood pressure regulation, such as high-grade renal artery stenosis. Sometimes diseases with prognostic implications, such as arterial aneurysms, are revealed as incidental findings. As a rule the B‑mode and duplex ultrasound can often be complemented by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as in aneurysms or portal vein thrombosis or the indications for subsequent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and catheter-based therapy can be directly obtained from duplex and Doppler ultrasound...
July 5, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676037/challenges-and-outcomes-of-haemodialysis-among-patients-presenting-with-kidney-diseases-in-dodoma-tanzania
#15
Alfred J Meremo, David P Ngilangwa, Masumbuko Y Mwashambwa, Matobogolo B Masalu, Janet Kapinga, Rehema Tagalile, Issa Sabi
BACKGROUND: Kidney Diseases contribute a significant proportion to the global burden of non-communicable diseases. Haemodialysis services as the main modality of renal replacement therapy in most resource limited countries is only available in few cities and at higher costs. The aim of this study was to determine the challenges and outcomes of patients who were on haemodialysis at the University of Dodoma (UDOM) haemodialysis unit in Tanzania. METHODS: In this retrospective study; we reviewed haemodialysis registers and charts of 116 patients dialyzed from January 2013 to June 2015 at The UDOM haemodialysis unit...
July 4, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675267/-antimicrobials-some-practical-considerations
#16
Nadine Ngatchou, Véronique Masserey-Bonvin, Niels Gobin, Luc Barberini
Antibiotics are frequently prescribed in hospitalized and in outpatients. We review four important aspects for their daily prescription. In elderly patients, the prescription should take into account changes in the volume of distribution and the usual decline in renal function even in the absence of chronic kidney disease. Particular antibiotics can trigger infection with Clostridium difficile. We discuss actual and novel strategies for its prevention. Renal toxicity of antibiotics includes acute tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis and crystals obstructing renal tubule, depending on the class of antibiotics...
September 7, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672087/interventions-for-chronic-kidney-disease-in-people-with-sickle-cell-disease
#17
REVIEW
Noemi Ba Roy, Patricia M Fortin, Katherine R Bull, Carolyn Doree, Marialena Trivella, Sally Hopewell, Lise J Estcourt
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta-globin) genes. SCD can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Kidney disease is a frequent and potentially severe complication in people with SCD.Chronic kidney disease is defined as abnormalities of kidney structure or function, present for more than three months. Sickle cell nephropathy refers to the spectrum of kidney complications in SCD...
July 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668175/adverse-effects-of-the-renal-accumulation-of-haem-proteins-novel-therapeutic-approaches
#18
Melania Guerrero-Hue, Alfonso Rubio-Navarro, Ángel Sevillano, Claudia Yuste, Eduardo Gutiérrez, Alejandra Palomino-Antolín, Elena Román, Manuel Praga, Jesús Egido, Juan Antonio Moreno
Haemoglobin and myoglobin are haem proteins that play a key role as they help transport oxygen around the body. However, because of their chemical structure, these molecules can exert harmful effects when they are released massively into the bloodstream, as reported in certain pathological conditions associated with rhabdomyolysis or intravascular haemolysis. Once in the plasma, these haem proteins can be filtered and can accumulate in the kidney, where they become cytotoxic, particularly for the tubular epithelium, inducing acute kidney failure and chronic kidney disease...
June 28, 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667820/human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-conditioned-medium-attenuate-interstitial-fibrosis-and-stimulate-the-repair-of-tubular-epithelial-cells-in-an-irreversible-model-of-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction
#19
Bo Liu, Feng-Xia Ding, Yang Liu, Geng Xiong, Tao Lin, Da-Wei He, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, De-Ying Zhang, Guang-Hui Wei
AIM: The growing number of patients suffering from chronic renal disease (CKD) is a challenge for the development of innovative therapies. Researchers have studied the therapeutic effects of cell therapy in acute kidney injury (AKI). However, the therapeutical effect of conditional medium (CM) in the CKD models have been rarely reported. Here, we examined the effects of umbilical cord derived-mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) CM on renal fibrosis in a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)...
July 1, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665281/experimental-model-for-acute-kidney-injury-caused-by-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#20
Beata Skowron, Agnieszka Baranowska, Jolanta Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Grażyna Więcek, Anna Malska-Woźniak, Piotr Heczko, Magdalena Strus
INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the rapid deterioration of renal function, diagnosed on the basis of an increase in serum creatinine and abnormal urinary parameters. AKI is associated with increased risk of mortality or chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the study was to develop an experimental model for AKI resulting from Escherichia coli-induced pyelonephritis. E. coli was isolated from a patient with clinical symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI). MATERIAL/METHODS: The study included three groups of female Wistar rats (groups 1, 2 and 3), in which pyelonephritis was induced by transurethral inoculation with highly virulent E...
June 19, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
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