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Influenza and steroid

Hiroyuki Matsuura, Fukiko Ichida, Tsutomu Saji, Shunichi Ogawa, Kenji Waki, Masahide Kaneko, Masahiro Tahara, Takashi Soga, Yasuo Ono, Satoshi Yasukochi
BACKGROUND: The 1st nationwide survey by the Japanese Society of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery of acute or fulminant myocarditis (AMC/FMC) in children revealed that the survival rate of FMC was only 51.6%. The 2nd nationwide survey was performed to evaluate the recent outcomes of pediatric myocarditis.Methods and Results:Questionnaires regarding patients aged ≤18 years with AMC/FMC during the period from January 2006 to December 2011 were mailed. A total of 221 cases (age 6...
October 4, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Lara Ravanetti, Annemiek Dijkhuis, Yanaika S Sabogal Pineros, Suzanne M Bal, Barbara S Dierdorp, Tamara Dekker, Adrian Logiantara, Ian M Adcock, Navin L Rao, Louis Boon, Gino Villetti, Peter J Sterk, Fabrizio Facchinetti, René Lutter
BACKGROUND: Acute worsening of asthma symptoms (exacerbation) is predominantly triggered by respiratory viruses, with influenza causing the most severe exacerbations. The lack of an adequate animal model hampers mechanistic insight and the development of new therapeutics. AIM: We developed and characterized a robust, consistent and reproducible mouse model of severe exacerbation of chronic allergic asthma. METHODS: Chronic allergic airway inflammation was induced following a house dust mite (HDM)-sensitization protocol...
October 3, 2016: Allergy
Chan Won Park, In Seok Lim, Sin Weon Yun, Soo Ahn Chae, Na Mi Lee, Dae Yong Yi
We report a case of Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) presenting without typical skin lesion; atypical symptoms initially appeared following influenza infection. A 4-year-old girl with influenza presented with epigastric pain and vomiting. On physical examination, there was epigastric tenderness, but no other signs, such as skin rash. On the second day, she vomited blood 10 times. Ultrasonography indicated focal bowel wall thickening in the right upper quadrant. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed oedematous and purpuric mucosa in the gastric pylorus and duodenum...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Sunghee Bang, Thi Kim Quy Ha, Changyeol Lee, Wei Li, Won-Keun Oh, Sang Hee Shim
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salvia plebeia R. Br. is an edible plant widely spread in many countries. It has been used as a traditional medicine to treat common cold, flu, cough, hepatitis, hemorrhoids, etc. The purpose of the study is to explicate antiviral compounds responsible for its traditional use for the common cold or flu. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methanolic extract of the aerial parts of S. plebeia was extracted with CHCl3, EtOAc, and n-BuOH, successively...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Wen-Xiong Chen, Hong-Sheng Liu, Si-Da Yang, Si-Hui Zeng, Yuan-Yuan Gao, Zhi-Hong Du, Xiao-Jing Li, Hai-Sheng Lin, Hui-Ci Liang, Jian-Ning Mai
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical features of reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES) in children. METHODS: Retrospectively analyzed clinical features of RESLES in children and compared differences between severe and non-severe group, classified by clinical global impression-scale; summarized clinical features of children with mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) from case series. RESULTS: 16 episodes of RESLES occurring in 15 Chinese children were analyzed, with 13 episodes having MERS and 3 episodes with epilepsy...
November 2016: Brain & Development
Sachiko Ono, Yosuke Ono, Hiroki Matsui, Hideo Yasunaga
BACKGROUND: Nonelderly patients may require hospitalization if their symptoms of influenza are severe. However, little evidence is available about the risk factors for hospitalization for influenza. METHODS: We used a multicenter outpatient and inpatient database to obtain patients' characteristics and clinical procedures. We identified patients aged <65 years with a confirmed diagnosis of influenza between October 2013 and December 2014. We used a Cox regression model to identify the risk factors for hospitalization, using a comparison group of individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of influenza but who were not hospitalized...
2016: BMC Public Health
Felipe Cavagnaro S M, Ingrid Harwardt, Alejandra Aird G, Carmen Gloria Marambio Q
: Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is a rare clinical condition that mainly affects pre-school and school age-children. It is usually preceded by a viral illness, particularly influenza virus infection. OBJECTIVE: To describe a cluster of BACM cases that were seen in a paediatric unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective series of cases that presented with a clinical picture suggestive of BACM between August and November 2012 in the paediatric emergency department of a private clinic...
August 16, 2016: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Suchitra Rao, Kevin Messacar, Michelle R Torok, Anne-Marie Rick, Jeffrey Holzberg, Aaron Montano, Dayanand Bagdure, Donna J Curtis, M Steven Oberste, W Allan Nix, Gina de Masellis, Christine C Robinson, Samuel R Dominguez
OBJECTIVE: In 2014, the Unites States experienced an outbreak of enterovirus D68 associated with severe respiratory illness. The clinical characteristics associated with severe illness from enterovirus D68 during this outbreak compared with those associated with the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus outbreak are unknown. DESIGN AND SETTING: In this retrospective cohort study, we characterized the clinical features of children with enterovirus D68 admitted to the PICU between August 1, 2014, and November 1, 2014, and compared them with critically ill children infected with H1N1 influenza during the pandemic admitted between May 1, 2009, and January 31, 2010...
August 8, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Richard Y Kim, Jay C Horvat, James W Pinkerton, Malcolm R Starkey, Ama T Essilfie, Jemma R Mayall, Prema M Nair, Nicole G Hansbro, Bernadette Jones, Tatt Jhong Haw, Krishna P Sunkara, Thi Hiep Nguyen, Andrew G Jarnicki, Simon Keely, Joerg Mattes, Ian M Adcock, Paul S Foster, Philip M Hansbro
BACKGROUND: Severe steroid-insensitive asthma is a substantial clinical problem. Effective treatments are urgently required, however, their development is hampered by a lack of understanding of the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. Steroid-insensitive asthma is associated with respiratory tract infections and noneosinophilic endotypes, including neutrophilic forms of disease. However, steroid-insensitive patients with eosinophil-enriched inflammation have also been described. The mechanisms that underpin infection-induced, severe steroid-insensitive asthma can be elucidated by using mouse models of disease...
June 10, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Mujahid Al-Busaidi, Khuloud Al Maamari, Badriya Al'Adawi, Fatma Ba Alawi, Adil Al-Wahaibi, Abdullah Belkhair
OBJECTIVES: Oman experienced the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 that initially started in Mexico and the United States. We present the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome of cases admitted to Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients admitted with confirmed influenza A H1N1 infection from August to December 2009. The study included adults and pediatric patients. We looked at the clinical and laboratory factors associated with increased length of hospital stay...
July 2016: Oman Medical Journal
T M Eagan, J A Hardie, Å Jul-Larsen, T B Grydeland, P S Bakke, R J Cox
BACKGROUND: COPD patients are advised vaccination against seasonal influenza, yet few studies have evaluated the protective antibody titers obtained in this patient group. AIMS: 1) To describe protective titers in COPD patients who self-reported influenza vaccination compared with vaccinated subjects without COPD and unvaccinated COPD patients, 2) analyze whether clinical parameters predicted influenza-specific antibody titers, and 3) whether antibody titers to influenza A at baseline could predict exacerbation risk or 5 years all-cause mortality...
June 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Joanna E Long, Mark T Drayson, Angela E Taylor, Kai M Toellner, Janet M Lord, Anna C Phillips
OBJECTIVES: Older adults are less able to produce a protective antibody response to vaccinations. One factor that contributes to this is immune ageing. Here we examined whether diurnal variations in immune responses might extend to the antibody response to vaccination. DESIGN: We utilised a cluster-randomised trial design. SETTING: 24 General Practices (GPs) across the West Midlands, UK who were assigned to morning (9-11am; 15 surgeries) or afternoon (3-5pm; 9 surgeries) vaccination times for the annual UK influenza vaccination programme...
May 23, 2016: Vaccine
Timothy S C Hinks, Joshua C Wallington, Anthony P Williams, Ratko Djukanović, Karl J Staples, Tom M A Wilkinson
RATIONALE: Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a recently-described, abundant, pro-inflammatory T cell subset with unknown roles in pulmonary immunity. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the leading bacterial pathogen during COPD exacerbations and a plausible target for MAIT cells. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether MAIT cells respond to NTHi and the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on their frequency and function in COPD. METHODS: 11 participants with COPD receiving inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), 8 with steroid-naïve COPD and 21 healthy controls underwent phlebotomy, sputum induction, bronchoalveolar-lavage and endobronchial biopsy...
April 26, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Jonathan Yao, Joanna Dong, James Strauchen, Rajendra Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: JAAD Case Reports
Jesse W Delaney, Ruxandra Pinto, Jennifer Long, François Lamontagne, Neill K Adhikari, Anand Kumar, John C Marshall, Deborah J Cook, Philippe Jouvet, Niall D Ferguson, Donald Griesdale, Lisa D Burry, Karen E A Burns, Jamie Hutchison, Sangeeta Mehta, Kusum Menon, Robert A Fowler
BACKGROUND: Patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09)-related critical illness were frequently treated with systemic corticosteroids. While observational studies have reported significant corticosteroid-associated mortality after adjusting for baseline differences in patients treated with corticosteroids or not, corticosteroids have remained a common treatment in subsequent influenza outbreaks, including avian influenza A(H7N9). Our objective was to describe the use of corticosteroids in these patients and investigate predictors of steroid prescription and clinical outcomes, adjusting for both baseline and time-dependent factors...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Hannes Bucher, Matthias J Duechs, Cornelia Tilp, Birgit Jung, Klaus J Erb
Viral infections trigger exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and tiotropium, a M3 receptor antagonist, reduces exacerbations in patients by unknown mechanisms. In this report, we investigated whether tiotropium has anti-inflammatory effects in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) and infected with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and compared these effects with those of steroid fluticasone and PDE4-inhibitor roflumilast. Mice were exposed to CS; infected with H1N1 or RSV; and treated with tiotropium, fluticasone, or roflumilast...
June 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
F Valenzuela-Sánchez, B Valenzuela-Méndez, J F Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, J Rello
Existing therapies against infectious diseases may only be effective in limited subpopulations during specific phases of diseases, incorporating theranostics, and there is a clear need to individualize different therapeutic approaches depending on the host. Influenza A virus infection evolves into a severe respiratory failure in some young adult patients, related to an exaggerated inflammatory response. Mortality rates remain high despite antiviral treatment and aggressive respiratory support. The influenza A virus (IAV) infection will induce a proinflammatory innate immune response through recognition of viral RNA by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) molecules by nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB route)...
June 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Hye Young Kim, Dale T Umetsu, Rosemarie H Dekruyff
Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease that is characterized by airway hyper-reactivity (AHR) and airway inflammation. Although asthma was long thought to be driven by allergen-reactive TH 2 cells, it has recently become clear that the pathogenesis of asthma is more complicated and associated with multiple pathways and cell types. A very exciting recent development was the discovery of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) as key players in the pathogenesis of asthma. ILCs do not express antigen receptors but react promptly to "danger signals" from inflamed tissue and produce an array of cytokines that direct the ensuing immune response...
April 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Flora Engelmann, Andrea Rivera, Byung Park, Marci Messerle-Forbes, Jeffrey T Jensen, Ilhem Messaoudi
It is widely recognized that changes in levels of ovarian steroids modulate severity of autoimmune disease and immune function in young adult women. These observations suggest that the loss of ovarian steroids associated with menopause could affect the age-related decline in immune function, known as immune senescence. Therefore, in this study, we determined the impact of menopause and estrogen therapy (ET) on lymphocyte subset frequency as well as the immune response to seasonal influenza vaccine in three different groups: 1) young adult women (regular menstrual cycles, not on hormonal contraception); 2) post-menopausal (at least 2 years) women who are not receiving any form of hormone therapy (HT) and 3) post-menopausal hysterectomized women receiving ET...
2016: PloS One
Wagner Luis Nedel, David Garcia Nora, Jorge Ibrain Figueira Salluh, Thiago Lisboa, Pedro Póvoa
Influenza pneumonia is associated with high number of severe cases requiring hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions with high mortality. Systemic steroids are proposed as a valid therapeutic option even though its effects are still controversial. Heterogeneity of published data regarding study design, population demographics, severity of illness, dosing, type and timing of corticosteroids administered constitute an important limitation for drawing robust conclusions. However, it is reasonable to admit that, as it was not found any advantage of corticosteroid therapy in so diverse conditions, such beneficial effects do not exist at all...
February 4, 2016: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
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