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David S Hui, Nelson Lee, Paul K Chan, John H Beigel
A severe inflammatory immune response with hypercytokinemia occurs in patients hospitalized with severe influenza, such as avian influenza A(H5N1), A(H7N9), and seasonal A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections. The role of immunomodulatory therapy is unclear as there have been limited published data based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Passive immunotherapy such as convalescent plasma and hyperimmune globulin have some studies demonstrating benefit when administered as an adjunctive therapy for severe influenza...
January 8, 2018: Antiviral Research
Assia Ait Aissa, Fawzi Derrar, Djouher Hanoun, El Alia Gradi, Dino Scaravelli, Zihad Bouslama
BACKGROUND: Influenza season 2007/2008 was marked by a worldwide emergence of oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1) viruses possessing a mutation in the neuraminidase gene causing His-to-Tyr substitution at amino acid position 275 (H275Y). These strains were isolated in Algeria where 30% of seasonal A(H1N1) viruses harbored the H275Y mutation. Emergence of resistant viruses to currently approved antiviral drug determined the need for antiviral susceptibility monitoring in Algeria especially that oseltamivir is currently used in hospitals of some provinces of the country for treatment of influenza in populations at risk...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Timothy M Uyeki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Kentaro Yano, Takumi Tomono, Takuo Ogihara
This review deals with recent advances in studies on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and its expression regulators, focusing especially on our own research. Firstly, we describe findings demonstrating that the distribution of P-gp along the small intestine is heterogeneous, which explains why orally administered P-gp substrate drugs often show bimodal changes of plasma concentration. Secondly, we discuss the post-translational regulation of P-gp localization and function by the scaffold proteins ezrin, radixin and moesin (ERM proteins), together with recent reports indicating that tissue-specific differences in regulation by ERM proteins in normal tissues might be retained in corresponding cancerous tissues...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Mohammad-Taghi Moradi, Ali Karimi, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Soleiman Kheiri, Ali Torabi
Objective: Influenza A virus infections are still a major health problem and the choices available for the control and treatment of the disease are limited. This research evaluated in vitro and in vivo antiviral effects of Peganum harmala L. seeds (PHS) extract against influenza A virus. Materials and Methods: In this research, in vitro anti-influenza A virus activity of the extract was assessed in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. In order to evaluate anti-influenza activity of PHS extract in vivo, BALB/c mice were infected with 5LD50 of mouse-adapted influenza virus (H1N1; PR8) and received 200 mg/kg/day of PHS extract or 20 mg/kg/day oseltamivir...
November 2017: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Kundan Tandel, Shashi Sharma, P K Dash, M M Parida
Introduction Influenza A viruses has been associated with severe global pandemics of high morbidity and mortality with devastating impact on human health and global economy. India witnessed a major outbreak of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in 2015. This study comprises detailed investigation of cases died of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection during explosive outbreak of 2015, in central part of India. OBJECTIVES: To find out presence of drug resistant virus among patients who died of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection and to find out presence of other mutations contributing to the morbidity and mortality...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
Nobuo Hirotsu, Yutaka Saisho, Takahiro Hasegawa, Takao Shishido
BACKGROUND: Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) reduce influenza symptoms but clear evidence of relationships between viral titer reduction and symptom alleviation is lacking. This open-label, randomized study evaluated differences in viral dynamics between NAIs, and relationships between viral dynamics and influenza symptoms (trial registration number: UMIN000012670). METHODS: Patients (n = 123) aged 4-12 years with influenza A virus infection were randomized to intravenous peramivir, oral oseltamivir, inhaled zanamivir, or inhaled laninamivir...
December 29, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Rebecca L Tamez, Whitney V Tan, John T O'Malley, Karen R Broder, Maria C Garzon, Philip LaRussa, Christine T Lauren
A 2-year-old boy with influenza B infection and rapidly worsening targetoid skin lesions with mucosal involvement was diagnosed with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and treated with oseltamivir and intravenous immunoglobulin, with resolution of illness. Subsequent quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was well tolerated. This case highlights the rarity of SJS in the setting of influenza B infection and addresses the safety of administering subsequent influenza vaccines to such individuals.
December 28, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
Fiona Haxho, Sabah Haq, Myron R Szewczuk
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) can participate in a number of signaling pathways, and this property led to the concept of biased GPCR agonism. Agonists, antagonists and allosteric modulators can bind to GPCRs in different ways, creating unique conformations that differentially modulate signaling through one or more G proteins. A unique neuromedin B (NMBR) GPCR-signaling platform controlling mammalian neuraminidase-1 (Neu1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) crosstalk has been reported in the activation of the insulin receptor (IR) through the modification of the IR glycosylation...
December 24, 2017: Cellular Signalling
Eli Dijkers, Valerie Nanhekhan, Astrid Thorissen, Diego Marro, Marta Uriel
Objective: The objective of this study was to identify whether compounding oral suspensions with SyrSpend SF based on tablets or capsules is a suitable alternative for using raw pharmaceutical materials. Methods: Suspensions based on 5 different tablets and capsules were studied in SyrSpend SF. The summary of product characteristics of these different tablets and capsules were obtained from the manufacturer. Our hypothesis was that, if the maximum beyond-use date of the study was reached, the excipient did not seem to have an influence on the stability of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) within the studied time frame...
June 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
Yuuki Nakamura, Tamie Sugawara, Yasushi Ohkusa, Kiyosu Taniguchi, Chiaki Miyazaki, Mariko Momoi, Nobuhiko Okabe
An earlier study using the number of abnormal behaviors reported to the study group as the numerator and the number of influenza patient prescribed each neuraminidase inhibitor (NI) estimated by respective pharmaceutical companies found no significant difference among incidence rates of the most severe abnormal behaviors by type of NI throughout Japan. However, the dataset for the denominator used in that earlier study was the estimated number of prescriptions. In the present study, to compare the incidence rates of abnormal behavior more precisely among influenza patients administered several sorts of NI or administered no NI, we used data obtained from the National Database of Electronic Medical Claims (NDBEMC) as the denominator to reach a definitive conclusion...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Elitsa L Pavlova, Lora S Simeonova, Galina A Gegova
Influenza pathogenesis comprises a complex cascade of impaired cellular processes resulting from the viral replication and exaggerated immune response accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and oxidative stress, destructing membranous structures and tissues. By classical virological and biochemical methods we compared and evaluated the therapeutic effects of 2.5mg/kg/day of the antiviral drug - oseltamivir (OS), 500mg/kg/day of the immune modulator - isoprinosine (IP) and 500mg/kg/day of the antioxidant agent ellagic acid (EA) with a focus on their combined activities in influenza H3N2 virus-infected mice...
December 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jin Soo Shin, Keun Bon Ku, Yejin Jang, Yi-Seul Yoon, Daeho Shin, Oh Seung Kwon, Yun Young Go, Seong Soon Kim, Myoung Ae Bae, Meehyein Kim
Influenza viruses are major human respiratory pathogens that cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, prophylactic vaccines and therapeutic antiviral agents are used to prevent and control influenza virus infection. Oseltamivir free base (OSV-FB), a modified generic antiviral drug of Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate, OSV-P), was launched in the Republic of Korea last year. Here, we examine the bioequivalence of these two compounds by assessing their antiviral efficacy in infected cells and in a mouse model...
December 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Lei Zhang, Ting-Ting Wei, Yong Li, Jing Li, Yong Fan, Feng-Qing Huang, Yuan-Yuan Cai, Gaoxiang Ma, Jin-Feng Liu, Qian-Qian Chen, Shi-Lei Wang, Honglin Li, Raphael N Alolga, Baolin Liu, Dong-Sheng Zhao, Jian-Hua Shen, Xiang-Ming Wang, Wei Zhu, Ping Li, Lian-Wen Qi
Background -As new biomarkers of coronary artery diseases (CAD) emerge via metabolomics, the underlying functional mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Functional metabolomics aims to translate metabolomics-derived biomarkers to disease mechanisms. Methods -A cohort of 2324 patients who underwent coronary angiography from 4 independent centers was studied. A combination of ultra-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) in the negative ion mode was employed for untargeted analysis of metabolites in plasma...
December 6, 2017: Circulation
Amitabh Singh, Anirban Mandal, Ankita Patel, Sataroopa Mishra
Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemias (AIHAs) are rare in children. They can be either a primary disease or secondary to/triggered by a host of other clinical conditions. We present five interesting cases of paediatric AIHA associated with infections (viral, bacterial and atypical) and autoimmune diseases {Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH)}. The H1N1 influenza associated AIHA responded to oseltamivir and Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IvIg) while the cases secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and pneumococcal bacteraemia required only treatment of the primary infection...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
S Kannan, P Kolandaivel
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) is the most accepted antiviral drug that targets the neuraminidase (NA) protein to inhibit the viral release from the host cell. Few H1N1 influenza strains with the H274Y mutation creates drug resistance to oseltamivir. In this study, we report that flavonoid cyanidin-3-sambubiocide (C3S) compound acts as a potential inhibitor against H274Y mutation. The drug resistance mechanism and inhibitory activity of C3S and oseltamivir against wild-type (WT) and H274Y mutant-type (MT) have been studied and compared based on the results of molecular docking, molecular dynamics, and quantum chemical methods...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Maki Kiso, Tiago J S Lopes, Seiya Yamayoshi, Mutsumi Ito, Makoto Yamashita, Noriko Nakajima, Hideki Hasegawa, Gabriele Neumann, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Treatment of immunocompromised, influenza virus-infected patients with the viral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir often leads to the emergence of drug-resistant variants. Combination therapy with compounds that target different steps in the viral life cycle may improve treatment outcomes and reduce the emergence of drug-resistant variants. Here, we infected immunocompromised nude mice with an influenza A virus and treated them with neuraminidase (oseltamivir, laninamivir) or viral polymerase (favipiravir) inhibitors, or combinations thereof...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ryan E Malosh, Emily T Martin, Terho Heikkinen, W Abdullah Brooks, Richard J Whitley, Arnold S Monto
Background: Oseltamivir has been used to treat children with influenza for nearly two decades, with treatment currently approved for infants 2 weeks of age or older, but efficacy and safety remain controversial. Newer randomized placebo controlled trials (RCT), not included in previous meta-analyses, can add to the evidence base. Methods: We conducted a systematic review to identify RCTs of oseltamivir therapy in children. We obtained individual patient data and examined protocol-defined outcomes...
November 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
A F Popov, A I Simakova, K A Dmitrenko, M Yu Shchelkanov
AIM: To assess correlation of cytokines levels and therapy regimes a relationship of the time course of changes in the cytokines IFN-γ, IFN-α, IL-18, and TNF-α to the treatment option for influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 with umifenovir (Arbidol) 800 mg/day for 5 days (n=50); oseltamivir (Tamiflu) 150 mg/day for 5 days (n=50); umifenovir (Arbidol) 800 mg/day for 5 days in combination with Kagocel 72 mg/day for 2 days.; 36 mg/day for 2 days (n=50); oseltamivir (Tamiflu) (150 mg/day for 5 days) in combination with Kagocel 72 mg/day for 2 days; 36 mg/day for 2 days (n=50)...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Stefanie Quosdorf, Anja Schuetz, Herbert Kolodziej
Neuraminidaseis a key enzyme in the life cycle of influenza viruses and is present in some bacterial pathogens. We here assess the inhibitory potency of plant tannins versus clinically used inhibitors on both a viral and a bacterial model neuraminidase by applying the 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid (MUNANA)-based activity assay. A range of flavan-3-ols, ellagitannins and chemically defined proanthocyanidin fractions was evaluated in comparison to oseltamivir carboxylate and zanamivir for their inhibitory activities against viral influenza A (H1N1) and bacterial Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCNA)...
November 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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