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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760700/bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-induced-trained-immunity-is-not-protective-for-experimental-influenza-a-anhui-1-2013-h7n9-infection-in-mice
#1
Charlotte L C J de Bree, Renoud J Marijnissen, Junda M Kel, Sietske K Rosendahl Huber, Peter Aaby, Christine Stabell Benn, Marcel V W Wijnands, Dimitri A Diavatopoulos, Reinout van Crevel, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, John Dulos
Avian influenza A of the subtype H7N9 has been responsible for almost 1,600 confirmed human infections and more than 600 deaths since its first outbreak in 2013. Although sustained human-to-human transmission has not been reported yet, further adaptations to humans in the viral genome could potentially lead to an influenza pandemic, which may have severe consequences due to the absence of pre-existent immunity to this strain at population level. Currently there is no influenza A (H7N9) vaccine available. Therefore, in case of a pandemic outbreak, alternative preventive approaches are needed, ideally even independent of the type of influenza virus outbreak...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759897/in-vitro-neuraminidase-inhibitory-concentration-ic-50-of-four-neuraminidase-inhibitors-in-the-japanese-2016-17-season-comparison-with-the-2010-11-to-2015-16-seasons
#2
Hideyuki Ikematsu, Naoki Kawai, Norio Iwaki, Seizaburo Kashiwagi, Yusuke Ishikawa, Hiroki Yamaguchi, Kazuhito Shiosakai
To assess the extent of susceptibility to the four most commonly used neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) in the viruses epidemic in the 2016-17 Japanese influenza season, we measured the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of these NAIs for influenza virus isolates from patients and compared them with the results from the 2010-11 to 2015-16 seasons. Viral isolation was done with specimens obtained prior to treatment, and the type and subtype was determined by RT-PCR using type- and subtype-specific primers. The IC50 was determined by a neuraminidase inhibition assay using a fluorescent substrate...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757891/spinal-epidural-abscess-in-an-infant-presenting-as-fever-and-respiratory-distress
#3
Katherine M Gupta, Khoon-Yen Tay
A 9-month-old healthy female presented during winter to the emergency department with a chief complaint of fever and prominent respiratory symptoms. She was discharged on oseltamivir with a presumptive diagnosis of influenza. She returned to the emergency department 2 days later with continued fever and more upper respiratory symptoms. She was admitted for intravenous hydration to the observation unit with a diagnosis of viral illness (with viral testing that returned positive for adenovirus) and dehydration...
May 2, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745939/antiviral-treatment-of-childhood-influenza-an-update
#4
Amaran Moodley, John S Bradley, David W Kimberlin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Influenza virus can cause severe or life-threatening infection in children. This review provides an update on antiviral medications available to treat and prevent influenza in both healthy children and children with underlying medical conditions, and recommendations on their appropriate use in the outpatient and inpatient settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the significant morbidity and mortality associated with influenza infection, a large number of children hospitalized with influenza do not receive specific antiviral treatment with a neuraminidase inhibitor...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706478/impact-of-a-multiplex-pcr-point-of-care-test-for-influenza-a-b-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-on-an-acute-pediatric-hospital-ward
#5
Andres I Vecino-Ortiz, Simon D Goldenberg, Sam T Douthwaite, Chih-Yuan Cheng, Rebecca E Glover, Catherine Mak, Elisabeth J Adams
Patients with respiratory infections are often managed presumptively until confirmation of infection status. We assessed the impact of introducing the Enigma® MiniLab™ FluAB-RSV point-of-care test (POCT) on patients admitted with a suspected respiratory virus driven illness in an acute pediatric ward. This utilized a before and after design (respiratory viral seasons 2013/14 versus 2014/15). Following POCT implementation, oseltamivir prescribing increased in patients with influenza (OR = 12.7, P = 0...
April 4, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702353/reductive-amination-assistance-for-quantification-of-oseltamivir-phosphate-and-oseltamivir-carboxylate-by-hplc-ms-ms
#6
Mei-Fang Huang, Yi-Reng Lin, Yu-Tzu Chang, Yow-Ling Shiue, Shih-Shin Liang
Oseltamivir phosphate (OP) is the first line therapy for influenza, and its primary metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) is the active agent via inhibition of neuraminidase of influenza virus. Dosages of OP and OC might affect human causing nausea and vomiting and it is therefore necessary to evaluate their toxicity and safety. The separation system: liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a powerful technique to monitor OP and OC. However, quantification of OP and OC needs isotopic analogs as internal standards to monitor the stability of the sample pretreatment procedures and instruments...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688498/dynamic-variation-and-reversion-in-the-signature-amino-acids-of-h7n9-virus-during-human-infection
#7
Xiaohui Zou, Qiang Guo, Wei Zhang, Hui Chen, Wei Bai, Binghuai Lu, Wang Zhang, Yanyan Fan, Chao Liu, Yeming Wang, Fei Zhou, Bin Cao
Background: Signature amino acids of H7N9 influenza virus play critical roles in human adaption and pathogenesis, but their dynamic variation is unknown during disease development. Methods: We sequentially collected respiratory samples from H7N9 patients at different timepoints and applied next-generation sequencing (NGS) to the whole genome of the H7N9 virus to investigate the variation at signature sites. Results: A total of 11 patients were involved and from whom 29 samples were successfully sequenced, including samples from multiple timepoints in 9 patients...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687225/hyphenated-3d-qsar-statistical-model-drug-repurposing-analysis-for-the-identification-of-potent-neuraminidase-inhibitor
#8
K Rohini, V Shanthi
The Influenza A virus is one of the principle causes of respiratory illness in human. The surface glycoprotein of the influenza virus, neuraminidase (NA), has a vital role in the release of new viral particle and spreads infection in the respiratory tract. It has been long recognized as a valid drug target for influenza A virus infection. Oseltamivir is used as a standard drug of choice for the treatment of influenza. However, the emergence of mutants with novel mutations has increased the resistance to potent NA inhibitor...
April 23, 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676104/-immunologic-mechanisms-of-yinhua-pinggan-granule-and-san-ao-decoction-against-influenza-virus-in-vivo
#9
Hai-Xia Du, Hui-Fen Zhou, Yu He, Jie-Hong Yang, Yi-Yu Lu, Yi-Chen Fan, Hai-Tong Wan
This paper aimed to investigate the effect of Yinhua Pinggan granule and San-ao decoction on the immunologic mechanisms of influenza viral pneumonia mice in vivo , in order to study the activity of the combined administration of different formulas on influenza A/H1N1 virus. The model of pneumonia was established in mice through nasal dropping influenza virus, and then divided randomly into five groups: normal control group, influenza virus model group, oseltamivir control group, Yinhua Pinggan granule group, and San-ao decoction group...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674164/impact-of-r152k-and-r368k-neuraminidase-catalytic-substitutions-on-in-vitro-properties-and-virulence-of-recombinant-a-h1n1-pdm09-viruses
#10
Véronique Tu, Yacine Abed, Clément Fage, Mariana Baz, Guy Boivin
Neuraminidase (NA) mutations conferring resistance to NA inhibitors (NAIs) are expected to occur at framework or catalytic residues of the NA enzyme. Numerous clinical and in vitro reports already described NAI-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 variants harboring various framework NA substitutions. By contrast, variants with NA catalytic changes remain poorly documented. Herein, we investigated the effect of R152K and R368K NA catalytic mutations on the NA enzyme properties, in vitro replicative capacity and virulence of A(H1N1)pdm09 recombinant viruses...
April 16, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673121/trends-of-neuraminidase-inhibitors-use-in-children-with-influenza-related-respiratory-infections
#11
Kazuhiro Uda, Yusuke Okubo, Kensuke Shoji, Isao Miyairi, Naho Morisaki, Nobuaki Michihata, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hideo Yasunaga
BACKGROUND: Neuraminidase inhibitors are recommended for children hospitalized with influenza-related respiratory infections, and oseltamivir is the first choice of treatment in most situations. However, little is known regarding the recent trend in using neuraminidase inhibitors and their difference in health economy. The aim of this study was to reveal recent trends in neuraminidase inhibitor use and compare hospitalization costs across different treatment regimens. METHODS: We retrospectively obtained the hospital discharge records of inpatients under 18 years of age with a diagnosis of influenza-related respiratory infections using a national inpatient database in Japan...
April 19, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669772/a-case-of-h3n2-complicated-by-acute-kidney-injury-secondary-to-rhabdomyolysis
#12
Sriram Gonakoti, Janak Bahirwani, Raja Naga Mahesh Maddala, Sudha Vidyasagar
H3N2 was first detected in July 2011 in the USA. It is responsible for sporadic cases of influenza and localised outbreaks and has not yet taken over on an epidemic or pandemic scale. An 84-year-old man presented with a dry cough, fever and myalgia for 3 days. On examination, he had a pulse of 98 bpm and blood pressure of 124/88 mm Hg. The patient was tachypnoeic, SpO2 was 90%. Auscultation revealed bilateral diffuse wheeze and crackles. He had generalised muscle tenderness on examination. On admission, creatinine was 1...
April 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659754/a-randomized-study-evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-oseltamivir-initiated-at-the-time-of-hospital-admission-in-adults-hospitalized-with-influenza-associated-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#13
Julio Ramirez, Paula Peyrani, Timothy Wiemken, Sandra S Chaves, Alicia M Fry
Background: Influenza-associated hospitalizations result in high morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine if early empiric anti-influenza therapy improves outcomes of hospitalized patients with influenza-associated lower respiratory tract infections (I-LRTIs). Methods: This was a randomized, unblinded, trial of adult patients hospitalized with I-LRTIs in Kentucky during 2009-2012. Patients were randomized to group A (standard of care) or group B (standard of care plus oseltamivir as early as possible but within 24 hours of enrollment)...
April 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648602/factors-associated-with-prolonged-viral-shedding-in-patients-with-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-infection
#14
Yeming Wang, Qiang Guo, Zheng Yan, Daming Zhou, Wei Zhang, Shujun Zhou, Yu-Ping Li, Jing Yuan, Timothy M Uyeki, Xinghua Shen, Wenjuan Wu, Hui Zhao, Yun-Fu Wu, Jia Shang, Zhengguang He, Yi Yang, Hongsheng Zhao, Yongqing Hong, Zehua Zhang, Min Wu, Tiemin Wei, Xilong Deng, Yijun Deng, Li-Hua Cai, Weihua Lu, Hongmei Shu, Lin Zhang, Hong Luo, Y Ing Zhou, Heng Weng, Keyi Song, Li Yao, Mingguang Jiang, Boliang Zhao, Ruibin Chi, Boqi Guo, Lin Fu, Long Yu, Haiyan Min, Pu Chen, Shuifang Chen, Liang Hong, Wei Mao, Xiaoping Huang, Lijun Gu, Hui Li, Chen Wang, Bin Cao
Background: Data are limited on the impact of neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) treatment on avian influenza A(H7N9) virus RNA shedding. Methods: In this multicenter, retrospective study, data were collected from adults hospitalized with A(H7N9) infection during 2013-2017 in China. We compared clinical features and A(H7N9) shedding among patients with different NAI doses and combination therapies and evaluated factors associated with A(H7N9) shedding, using Cox proportional hazards regression...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627936/invasive-fungal-infections-associated-with-prior-respiratory-viral-infections-in-immunocompromised-hosts
#15
Saira Ajmal, Maryam Mahmood, Omar Abu Saleh, Jenifer Larson, M Rizwan Sohail
BACKGROUND: Increased risk of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after influenza infection has been reported; however data are limited. PURPOSE: To describe Invasive fungal infections (IFI) associated with preceding respiratory viral infection at a large referral center. METHODS: We reviewed all IFI cases among patients with positive influenza and/or RSV nasopharyngeal/lower respiratory tract PCR from October 2015 to December 2016. Cases of pulmonary IFI were classified as possible, probable, and definite based on EORTC-MSG definitions...
April 7, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625056/influenza-infection-in-humans-induces-broadly-cross-reactive-and-protective-neuraminidase-reactive-antibodies
#16
Yao-Qing Chen, Teddy John Wohlbold, Nai-Ying Zheng, Min Huang, Yunping Huang, Karlynn E Neu, Jiwon Lee, Hongquan Wan, Karla Thatcher Rojas, Ericka Kirkpatrick, Carole Henry, Anna-Karin E Palm, Christopher T Stamper, Linda Yu-Ling Lan, David J Topham, John Treanor, Jens Wrammert, Rafi Ahmed, Maryna C Eichelberger, George Georgiou, Florian Krammer, Patrick C Wilson
Antibodies to the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins are the major mediators of protection against influenza virus infection. Here, we report that current influenza vaccines poorly display key NA epitopes and rarely induce NA-reactive B cells. Conversely, influenza virus infection induces NA-reactive B cells at a frequency that approaches (H1N1) or exceeds (H3N2) that of HA-reactive B cells. NA-reactive antibodies display broad binding activity spanning the entire history of influenza A virus circulation in humans, including the original pandemic strains of both H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes...
April 5, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601892/susceptibility-of-brazilian-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-viruses-to-neuraminidase-inhibitors-in-the-2014-2016-seasons-identification-of-strains-bearing-mutations-associated-with-reduced-inhibition-profile
#17
Aline R Matos, Paola C Resende, Milene D Miranda, Cristiana C Garcia, Braulia C Caetano, Jonathan C O Lopes, Maria C Debur, Ana L F Cury, Lucas A Vianna, Magliones C Lima, Marcelo Schirmer, Larissa Gubareva, Aeron C Hurt, David W Brown, Marilda M Siqueira
Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are the main class of antivirals currently used for the treatment of influenza infections. As influenza viruses are constantly evolving, drug-resistance can emerge resulting in reduced effectiveness of treatment. This study evaluated the presence of molecular markers associated with NAI susceptibility in 724 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positive samples from Brazilian surveillance system from the 2014-2016 seasons, including 76 isolates tested for oseltamivir (OST) susceptibility and 23 isolates also tested for zanamivir, peramivir and laninamivir susceptibility...
March 27, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600756/potential-pharmacokinetic-herb-drug-interactions-have-we-overlooked-the-importance-of-human-carboxylesterases-1-and-2
#18
Jing Xu, Jin-Chun Qiu, Xing Ji, Hong-Li Guo, Xuan Wang, Bo Zhang, Tengfei Wang, Feng Chen
Herbal products have grown steadily across the globe over the past 10 years and have increasingly been incorporated into western medicine for healthcare aims, thereby causing potential pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions (HDI) through the inhibition or induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Human carboxylesterases 1 (CES1) and 2 (CES2) are versatile enzymes involvement in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds including many important therapeutic medications. Moreover, the growing number of CES substrate drugs also underscores the importance of CES1 and CES2...
March 30, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599422/fatal-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-due-to-influenza-a-h1n1-infection-in-patients-after-kidney-transplantation-a-report-of-five-cases
#19
Paweł Zatorski, Agata Adamczyk, Maciej Kosieradzki, Teresa Baczkowska, Dariusz Kosson, Janusz Trzebicki
BACKGROUND In the general population, swine influenza is a self-limited infection. Patients after kidney transplantation, however, are at increased risk for complications and mortality from influenza A (H1N1). Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) complicates up to 55% of influenza-related pneumonia in hospitalized patients and carries a mortality of 40-46%. We describe our experience in intensive care of kidney transplant patients with ARDS complicating influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia during a flu outbreak...
March 30, 2018: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582403/medications-and-prescribing-patterns-as-factors-associated-with-hospitalizations-from-long-term-care-facilities-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Kate N Wang, J Simon Bell, Esa Y H Chen, Julia F M Gilmartin-Thomas, Jenni Ilomäki
BACKGROUND: Residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are at high risk of hospitalization. Medications are a potentially modifiable risk factor for hospitalizations. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to systematically review the association between medications or prescribing patterns and hospitalizations from LTCFs. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) from inception to August 2017 for longitudinal studies reporting associations between medications or prescribing patterns and hospitalizations...
March 26, 2018: Drugs & Aging
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