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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101187/severe-pneumonia-due-to-infection-with-candida-krusei-in-a-case-of-suspected-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Mingming Tan, Junwei Wang, Peiyang Hu, Bin Wang, Wanghua Xu, Jiao Chen
Candida krusei (C. krusei) pneumonia is a rare infection that is frequently associated with a poor outcome. The present study reports an unusual case of C. krusei pneumonia that was initially suspected to be a Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) case. A 64-year-old Saudi Arabian male patient was admitted to our hospital with complaints of cough and dyspnea that persisted for 6 days. The patient presented fever (oral temperature, 38.5°C) and slight tachypnea (25 respirations/min). A chest computerized tomography demonstrated unclear lung fields, diffuse pathological changes in the two lungs and multiple lymphadenectasis in the retrocaval and para-aortic arch area...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094141/intravenous-zanamivir-or-oral-oseltamivir-for-hospitalised-patients-with-influenza-an-international-randomised-double-blind-double-dummy-phase-3-trial
#2
Francisco M Marty, Joan Vidal-Puigserver, Carol Clark, Sandeep K Gupta, Esperanza Merino, Denis Garot, Marianne J Chapman, Frédérique Jacobs, Eduardo Rodriguez-Noriega, Petr Husa, Denise Shortino, Helen A Watson, Phillip J Yates, Amanda F Peppercorn
BACKGROUND: Neuraminidase inhibitors are effective for the treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza. However, there is an unmet need for intravenous treatment for patients admitted to hospital with severe influenza. We studied whether intravenous zanamivir was a suitable treatment in this setting. METHODS: In this international, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients aged 16 years or older with severe influenza admitted to 97 hospitals from 26 countries...
January 13, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067324/the-in-vivo-efficacy-of-neuraminidase-inhibitors-cannot-be-determined-from-the-decay-rates-of-influenza-viral-titers-observed-in-treated-patients
#3
John Palmer, Hana M Dobrovolny, Catherine A A Beauchemin
Antiviral therapy is a first line of defence against new influenza strains. Current pandemic preparations involve stock- piling oseltamivir, an oral neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI), so rapidly determining the effectiveness of NAIs against new viral strains is vital for deciding how to use the stockpile. Previous studies have shown that it is possible to extract the drug efficacy of antivirals from the viral decay rate of chronic infections. In the present work, we use a nonlinear mathematical model representing the course of an influenza infection to explore the possibility of extracting NAI drug efficacy using only the observed viral titer decay rates seen in patients...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059631/acute-necrotizing-encephalopathy-causing-human-bocavirus
#4
Ayse Betul Ergul, Umit Altug, Kursad Aydin, Ahmet Sami Guven, Yasemin Altuner Torun
Acute necrotizing encephalopathy is characterized by multiple, symmetrical lesions involving the thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and white matter and develops secondarily to viral infections. Influenza viruses are the most common etiological agents. Here, we present the first case of acute necrotizing encephalopathy to develop secondarily to human bocavirus. A 3-year-old girl presented with fever and altered mental status. She had had a fever, cough, and rhinorrhea for five days. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with an initial diagnosis of encephalitis when vomiting, convulsions, and loss of consciousness developed...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059146/influenza-virus-exploits-tunneling-nanotubes-for-cell-to-cell-spread
#5
Amrita Kumar, Jin Hyang Kim, Priya Ranjan, Maureen G Metcalfe, Weiping Cao, Margarita Mishina, Shivaprakash Gangappa, Zhu Guo, Edward S Boyden, Sherif Zaki, Ian York, Adolfo García-Sastre, Michael Shaw, Suryaprakash Sambhara
Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) represent a novel route of intercellular communication. While previous work has shown that TNTs facilitate the exchange of viral or prion proteins from infected to naïve cells, it is not clear whether the viral genome is also transferred via this mechanism and further, whether transfer via this route can result in productive replication of the infectious agents in the recipient cell. Here we present evidence that lung epithelial cells are connected by TNTs, and in spite of the presence of neutralizing antibodies and an antiviral agent, Oseltamivir, influenza virus can exploit these networks to transfer viral proteins and genome from the infected to naïve cell, resulting in productive viral replication in the naïve cells...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056926/edible-bird-s-nest-modulate-intracellular-molecular-pathways-of-influenza-a-virus-infected-cells
#6
Amin Haghani, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Nikoo Safi, Fadzilah A'ini Abd Kadir, Abdul Rahman Omar, Aini Ideris
BACKGROUND: Edible Bird's Nest (EBN) as a popular traditional Chinese medicine is believed to have health enhancing and antiviral activities against influenza A virus (IAV); however, the molecular mechanism behind therapeutic effects of EBN is not well characterized. METHODS: In this study, EBNs that underwent different enzymatic preparation were tested against IAV infected cells. 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the EBNs against IAV strain A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1) were determined by HA and MTT assays...
January 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043323/antiviral-medications-in-seasonal-and-pandemic-influenza
#7
Regine Lehnert, Mathias Pletz, Annicka Reuss, Tom Schaberg
BACKGROUND: Amantadine, oseltamivir, and zanamivir are currently available in Germany for the prevention and treatment of influenza. We review their efficacy and side-effect profiles. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent randomized and controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews retrieved by a systematic literature search, and on other relevant literature. RESULTS: The efficacy of antiviral drugs for the prevention of symptomatic influenza ranges from 60% to 90% (number needed to treat [NNT], 8-89) depending on the population and type of drug in question...
November 25, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997573/genetic-characterization-of-circulating-2015-a-h1n1-pdm09-influenza-viruses-from-eastern-india
#8
Anupam Mukherjee, Mukti Kant Nayak, Shanta Dutta, Samiran Panda, Biswa Ranjan Satpathi, Mamta Chawla-Sarkar
In 2015, the swine derived A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic strain outbreak became widespread throughout the different states of India. The reported cases and deaths in 2015 surpassed the previous years with more than 39000 laboratory confirmed cases and a death toll of more than 2500 people. There are relatively limited complete genetic sequences available for this virus from Asian countries. In this study, we describe the full genome analysis of influenza 2015 A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from West Bengal between January through December 2015...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995961/potential-new-h1n1-neuraminidase-inhibitors-from-ferulic-acid-and-vanillin-molecular-modelling-synthesis-and-in-vitro-assay
#9
Maywan Hariono, Nurshariza Abdullah, K V Damodaran, Ezatul E Kamarulzaman, Nornisah Mohamed, Sharifah Syed Hassan, Shaharum Shamsuddin, Habibah A Wahab
We report the computational and experimental efforts in the design and synthesis of novel neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors from ferulic acid and vanillin. Two proposed ferulic acid analogues, MY7 and MY8 were predicted to inhibit H1N1 NA using molecular docking. From these two analogues, we designed, synthesised and evaluated the biological activities of a series of ferulic acid and vanillin derivatives. The enzymatic H1N1 NA inhibition assay showed MY21 (a vanillin derivative) has the lowest IC50 of 50 μM...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984103/generation-and-characterization-of-new-monoclonal-antibodies-against-swine-origin-2009-influenza-a-h1n1-virus-and-evaluation-of-their-prophylactic-and-therapeutic-efficacy-in-a-mouse-model
#10
Sheng-Fan Wang, Sung-Pin Tseng, El-Wui Loh, Wen-Hung Wang, Ming-Chun Li, Kuan-Hsuan Chen, Wan-Chi Tsai, Yuan-Ming Lee, Huan-Yuan Chen, Fu-Tong Liu, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen, Jason C Huang
In 2009, a swine-origin influenza A virus - A(H1N1)pdm09 - emerged and has became a pandemic strain circulating worldwide. The hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus is a potential target for the development of anti-viral therapeutic agents. Here, we generated mAbs by immunization of baculovirus-insect expressing trimeric recombinant HA of the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain. Results indicated that the mAbs recognized two novel neutralizing and protective epitopes-"STAS" and "FRSK" which located near Cb and Ca1 antigenic regions respectively and were conserved in almost 2009-2016 influenza H1N1 stains...
October 27, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978989/quantitative-systems-pharmacology-a-promising-approach-for-translational-pharmacology
#11
REVIEW
K Gadkar, D Kirouac, N Parrott, S Ramanujan
Biopharmaceutical companies have increasingly been exploring Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) as a potential avenue to address current challenges in drug development. In this paper, we discuss the application of QSP modeling approaches to address challenges in the translational of preclinical findings to the clinic, a high risk area of drug development. Three cases have been highlighted with QSP models utilized to inform different questions in translational pharmacology. In the first, a mechanism based asthma model is used to evaluate efficacy and inform biomarker strategy for a novel bispecific antibody...
September 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966790/combinations-of-1-8-cineol-and-oseltamivir-for-the-treatment-of-influenza-virus-a-h3n2-infection-in-mice
#12
Yan-Ni Lai, Yun Li, Lin-Chun Fu, Fang Zhao, Ni Liu, Feng-Xue Zhang, Pei-Ping Xu
BACKGROUND: It is need for development of new means against influenza virus due to the lack of efficacy of available therapeutic strategies. In previous research, 1,8-cineol exert its inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, the main regulator of cytokine and chemokine production in influenza, and anti-inflammatory activity. These fact supports and helps establish the hypothesis that 1,8-cineol may have synergism with an antiviral on influenza virus infection. METHODS: The combined effect of 1,8-cineol with oseltamivir in a mouse type A influenza virus (Victoria/3/75,H3N2) model were examined...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939284/contribution-of-a-rapid-influenza-diagnostic-test-to-manage-hospitalized-patients-with-suspected-influenza
#13
Laurent Busson, Bhavna Mahadeb, Marc De Foor, Olivier Vandenberg, Marie Hallin
AIM: To evaluate the performances of the Alere i influenza A&B test and to appraise its contribution to patient management. METHODS: In total, 267 samples were tested. Influenza A and B PCR was performed as the reference. For each positive result, the supervising physician was contacted to collect data regarding patient management. FINDINGS: The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Alere i were 91.4% and 97.6% for influenza A and 54...
November 27, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934581/severe-acute-respiratory-infection-caused-by-swine-influenza-virus-in-a-child-necessitating-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-ecmo-the-netherlands-october-2016
#14
Pieter L A Fraaij, Enno D Wildschut, Robert J Houmes, Corien M Swaan, Christian J Hoebe, H C C de Jonge, Paulien Tolsma, Isme de Kleer, Suzan D Pas, Bas B Oude Munnink, My V T Phan, Theo M Bestebroer, R Shanty Roosenhoff, Jeroen J A van Kampen, Matthew Cotten, Nancy Beerens, Ron A M Fouchier, Johannes H van den Kerkhof, Aura Timen, Marion P Koopmans
In October 2016, a severe infection with swine influenza A(H1N1) virus of the Eurasian avian lineage occurred in a child with a previous history of eczema in the Netherlands, following contact to pigs. The patient's condition deteriorated rapidly and required life support through extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After start of oseltamivir treatment and removal of mucus plugs, the patient fully recovered. Monitoring of more than 80 close unprotected contacts revealed no secondary cases.
December 1, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932291/influenza-not-mers-cov-among-returning-hajj-and-umrah-pilgrims-with-respiratory-illness-kashmir-north-india-2014-15
#15
Parvaiz A Koul, Hyder Mir, Siddhartha Saha, Mandeep S Chadha, Varsha Potdar, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Renu B Lal, Anand Krishnan
BACKGROUND: The increasing reports of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from many countries emphasize its importance for international travel. Muslim pilgrimages of Hajj and Umrah involve mass gatherings of international travellers. We set out to assess the presence of influenza and MERS-CoV in Hajj/Umrah returnees with acute respiratory infection. . METHODS: Disembarking passengers (n = 8753) from Saudi Arabia (October 2014 to April 2015) were interviewed for the presence of respiratory symptoms; 977 (11%) reported symptoms and 300 (age 26-90, median 60 years; 140 male) consented to participate in the study...
December 6, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924780/activity-of-ergoferon-against-lethal-influenza-a-h3n2-virus-infection-in-mice
#16
Maria A Skarnovich, Alexandra G Emelyanova, Nataliia V Petrova, Alena A Borshcheva, Evgeniy A Gorbunov, Oleg Yu Mazurkov, Maksim O Skarnovich, Sergey A Tarasov, Larisa N Shishkina, Oleg I Epstein
BACKGROUND: The Influenza A virus accounts for serious annual viral upper respiratory tract infections. It is constantly able to modify its antigenic structure, thus evading host defence mechanisms. Moreover, currently available anti-influenza agents have a rather limited application, emphasising the further need for new effective treatments. One of them is Ergoferon, a drug, containing combined polyclonal antibodies - anti-interferon gamma, anti-CD4 receptor, and anti-histamine - in released-active form...
December 7, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914853/monitoring-the-fitness-of-antiviral-resistant-influenza-strains-during-an-epidemic-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#17
Kathy Leung, Marc Lipsitch, Kwok Yung Yuen, Joseph T Wu
BACKGROUND: Antivirals (eg, oseltamivir) are important for mitigating influenza epidemics. In 2007, an oseltamivir-resistant influenza seasonal A H1N1 strain emerged and spread to global fixation within 1 year. This event showed that antiviral-resistant (AVR) strains can be intrinsically more transmissible than their contemporaneous antiviral-sensitive (AVS) counterpart. Surveillance of AVR fitness is therefore essential. Our objective was to develop a simple method for estimating AVR fitness from surveillance data...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899226/virospot-microneutralization-assay-for-antigenic-characterization-of-human-influenza-viruses
#18
Carel A van Baalen, Rienk E Jeeninga, Germaine H W M Penders, Brenda van Gent, Ruud van Beek, Marion P G Koopmans, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay has been used for the antigenic characterization of influenza viruses for decades. However, the majority of recent seasonal influenza A viruses of the H3N2 subtype has lost the capacity to agglutinate erythrocytes of various species. The hemagglutination (HA) activity of other A(H3N2) strains is generally sensitive to the action of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, which indicates that the neuraminidase and not the hemagglutinin is responsible for the HA activity...
January 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898328/fate-of-new-three-anti-influenza-drugs-and-one-prodrug-in-the-water-environment
#19
Takashi Azuma, Mao Ishida, Kanae Hisamatsu, Ayami Yunoki, Kana Otomo, Mari Kunitou, Mai Shimizu, Kaori Hosomaru, Shiori Mikata, Yoshiki Mino
We evaluated the environmental fate of new three anti-influenza drugs, favipiravir (FAV), peramivir (PER), and laninamivir (LAN), and an active prodrug of LAN, laninamivir octanoate (LANO), in comparison with four conventional drugs, oseltamivir (OS), oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), amantadine (AMN), and zanamivir (ZAN) by photodegradation, biodegradation, and sorption to river sediments. In addition, we conducted 9-month survey of urban rivers in the Yodo River basin from 2015 to 2016 (including the influenza season) to investigate the current status of occurrence of these drugs in the river environment...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895113/age-dependent-absolute-abundance-of-hepatic-carboxylesterases-ces1-and-ces2-by-lc-ms-ms-proteomics-application-to-pbpk-modeling-of-oseltamivir-in-vivo-pharmacokinetics-in-infants
#20
Mikael Boberg, Marc Vrana, Aanchal Mehrotra, Robin E Pearce, Andrea Gaedigk, Deepak Kumar Bhatt, J Steven Leeder, Bhagwat Prasad
The age-dependent absolute protein abundance of carboxylesterase 1 and 2 (CES1 and CES2) in human liver was investigated and applied to predict infant pharmacokinetics (PK) of oseltamivir. The CES absolute protein abundance was determined by LC-MS/MS proteomics in human liver microsomal and cytosolic fractions prepared from tissue samples obtained from 136 pediatric and 35 adult donors. Two surrogate peptides per protein were selected for the quantification of CES1 and CES2 protein abundance. Purified CES1 and CES2 protein standards were used as calibrators, and the heavy labeled peptides were used as the internal standards...
November 28, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
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