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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351335/the-effects-of-an-acute-exercise-bout-on-gh-and-igf-1-in-prediabetic-and-healthy-african-americans-a-pilot-study-investigating-gene-expression
#1
Nathaniel T Berry, Monica Hubal, Laurie Wideman
The incidence of pre-diabetes (PD) and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) is a worldwide epidemic. African American (AA) individuals are disproportionately more likely to become diabetic than other ethnic groups. Over the long-term, metabolic complications related to diabetes result in significant alterations in growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Considering the limited exercise-related studies in the area of gene expression changes with disease progression, the objective of this study was to examine differences in exercise-induced gene expression related to the GH and IGF-1 pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy (CON) and PD AA individuals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351293/fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-1-amplification-in-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#2
Jesus Monico, Brandon Miller, Luminita Rezeanu, Warren May, Donna C Sullivan
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) has been noted to be amplified in a variety of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCa) of the head, neck, and lung and increased copy number (CN) is a predictor of poor outcomes. FGFR1 is a therapeutic target for lung SCCa and inhibition therapy is currently in clinical trials. Absolute quantification of FGFR1 from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue of laryngeal SCCa was examined in this retrospective study. A droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) was used for absolute quantitation of the FGFR1 gene CN...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350573/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-screening-for-adverse-childhood-experiences-in-prenatal-care
#3
Tracy Flanagan, Amy Alabaster, Brigid McCaw, Nicole Stoller, Carey Watson, Kelly C Young-Wolff
INTRODUCTION: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are common among pregnant women and contribute to increased risk for negative perinatal outcomes, yet few clinicians screen prenatal patients for ACEs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of screening for ACEs in standard prenatal care. METHODS: We evaluated a 4-month pilot (March 2016-June 2016) to screen pregnant women (at ∼14-23 weeks of gestation) for ACEs and resiliency in two Kaiser Permanente Northern California medical centers (N = 480)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350507/hospital-participation-in-meaningful-use-and-racial-disparities-in-readmissions
#4
Mark Aaron Unruh, Hye Young Jung, Rainu Kaushal, Joshua R Vest
OBJECTIVES: To measure the impact of hospital participation in Meaningful Use (MU) on disparities in 30-day readmissions associated with race. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study that compared the likelihood of 30-day readmission for Medicare beneficiaries discharged from hospitals participating in Stage 1 of MU with the likelihood of readmission for beneficiaries concurrently discharged from hospitals that were not participating in the initiative. METHODS: Inpatient claims for 2,414,205 Medicare beneficiaries from Florida, New York, and Washington State were used as the primary data source...
January 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350312/genesurance-counseling-patient-perspectives
#5
Chelsea Wagner, Lauren Murphy, Jacqueline Harkenrider, Sandra Darilek, Eleazar Soto-Torres, Quinn Stein, Jennifer Hoskovec
Genetic counselors (GCs) have reported an increase in discussion of insurance-related, or "genesurance," topics during genetic counseling sessions. Despite increasing frequency, there have been no studies examining patient expectations of GCs in these discussions. This study aimed to explore patient expectations of GCs in these discussions, as well as examine factors that may impact expectations. A 38-item survey was administered prior to patients receiving prenatal or cancer genetic counseling at 11 clinic sites across UTHealth, Baylor College of Medicine, and Sanford Health, with 360 responses analyzed...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350270/genetic-data-for-26-autosomal-str-markers-from-brazilian-population
#6
Tamiris Fátima Correia Pereira, Marcelo Malaghini, João Carlos Maciel Magalhães, Rodrigo Moura-Neto, Vanessa Santos Sotomaior
The allelic frequency distributions and statistical forensic parameters of 26 mini short tandem repeat (mini-STR) loci in a sample of 1575 unrelated individuals from five different Brazilian regions were obtained. All the analyzed loci showed great diversity and were highly informative. The results were compared with those of the US Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic population studies. This study aimed to contribute to forensic analysis for human identification and inference of the evidential value in familial bond tests...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349281/work-disability-in-the-united-states-1968-2015-prevalence-duration-recovery-and-trends
#7
James N Laditka, Sarah B Laditka
The United States workforce is aging. At the same time more people have chronic conditions, for longer periods. Given these trends the importance of work disability, physical or nervous problems that limit a person's type or amount of work, is increasing. No research has examined transitions among multiple levels of work disability, recovery from work disability, or trends. Limited research has focused on work disability among African Americans and Hispanics, or separately for women and men. We examined these areas using data from 30,563 adults in the 1968-2015 Panel Study of Income Dynamics...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349278/machine-learning-approaches-to-the-social-determinants-of-health-in-the-health-and-retirement-study
#8
Benjamin Seligman, Shripad Tuljapurkar, David Rehkopf
Background: Social and economic factors are important predictors of health and of recognized importance for health systems. However, machine learning, used elsewhere in the biomedical literature, has not been extensively applied to study relationships between society and health. We investigate how machine learning may add to our understanding of social determinants of health using data from the Health and Retirement Study. Methods: A linear regression of age and gender, and a parsimonious theory-based regression additionally incorporating income, wealth, and education, were used to predict systolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and telomere length...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349270/breaking-down-the-monolith-understanding-flu-vaccine-uptake-among-african-americans
#9
Sandra Crouse Quinn, Amelia Jamison, Ji An, Vicki S Freimuth, Gregory R Hancock, Donald Musa
Black adults are significantly less likely to be immunized for seasonal influenza when compared to Whites. This persistent disparity contributes to increased influenza-related morbidity and mortality in the African American population. Most scholarship on vaccine disparities has compared Whites and Blacks. Employing Public Health Critical Race Praxis, this study seeks to shift the focus to explore differences within the Black population. Utilizing a nationally-representative 2015 survey of US Black adults (n = 806), we explore differences by gender, age, income, and education across vaccine-related measures (e...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349240/explaining-racial-ethnic-differences-in-all-cause-mortality-in-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa-substantive-complexity-and-hazardous-working-conditions-as-mediating-factors
#10
Kaori Fujishiro, Anjum Hajat, Paul A Landsbergis, John D Meyer, Pamela J Schreiner, Joel D Kaufman
Research on racial/ethnic health disparities and socioeconomic position has not fully considered occupation. However, because occupations are racially patterned, certain occupational characteristics may explain racial/ethnic difference in health. This study examines the role of occupational characteristics in racial/ethnic disparities in all-cause mortality. Data are from a U.S. community-based cohort study (n=6342, median follow-up: 12.2 years), in which 893 deaths (14.1%) occurred. We estimated mortality hazard ratios (HRs) for African Americans, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans compared with whites...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349238/engagement-with-health-care-providers-as-a-mediator-between-social-capital-and-quality-of-life-among-a-sample-of-people-living-with-hiv-in-the-united-states-path-analysis
#11
SoSon Jong, Adam Carrico, Bruce Cooper, Lisa Thompson, Carmen Portillo
Background: Social capital is "features of social organizations-networks, norms, and as trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit". People with high social capital have lower mortality and better health outcomes. Although utilization of social networks has grown, social capital continues to be a complex concept in relation to health promotion. This study examined 1) associations between social capital and quality of life (QoL), 2) factors of social capital leading to higher QoL among people living with HIV (PLWH), 3) role of health care providers (HCP) as a mediator between social capital and QoL...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349225/intergenerational-differences-in-smoking-among-west-indian-haitian-latin-american-and-african-blacks-in-the-united-states
#12
Tod G Hamilton, Tiffany L Green
Due in large part to increased migration from Africa and the Caribbean, black immigrants and their descendants are drastically changing the contours of health disparities among blacks in the United States. While prior studies have examined health variation among black immigrants by region of birth, few have explored the degree of variation in health behaviors, particularly smoking patterns, among first- and second- generation black immigrants by ancestral heritage. Using data from the 1995-2011 waves of the Tobacco Use Supplements of the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS), we examine variation in current smoking status among first-, second-, and third/higher- generation black immigrants...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348674/variation-at-position-350-in-the-chikungunya-virus-6k-e1-protein-determines-the-sensitivity-of-detection-in-a-rapid-e1-antigen-test
#13
Aekkachai Tuekprakhon, Emi E Nakayama, Koen Bartholomeeusen, Orapim Puiprom, Tadahiro Sasaki, Ralph Huits, Natthanej Luplertlop, Nathamon Kosoltanapiwat, Pannamas Maneekan, Kevin K Ariën, Tatsuo Shioda, Pornsawan Leaungwutiwong
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne pathogen, consists of three genotypes: East/Central/South African (ECSA), West African (WA), and Asian. Although a current rapid immunochromatographic (IC) test detecting CHIKV E1-antigen showed high sensitivity to ECSA-genotype viruses, it showed poor performance against the Asian-genotype virus that is spreading in the American continents. To understand the basis for the low performance of this IC test against Asian-genotype virus, we re-examined the anti-CHIKV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) used in the assay for their interaction with E1-antigen of the three CHIKV genotypes...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347825/increasing-condom-usage-for-african-american-and-hispanic-young-fathers-in-a-community-based-intervention
#14
Cristina Mogro-Wilson, Aubri Drake, Emil Coman, Toral Sanghavi, Melanie Martin-Peele, Judith Fifield
OBJECTIVES: This paper investigates a community-based intervention for young fathers, FatherWorks, compared to care-as-usual, 24/7 Dads. We hypothesized that utilizing the FatherWorks intervention (a 15 session parenting intervention, 13 session employment class, paid internship, case management, and access to behavioral health services) will assist in readiness to use condoms and increase condom usage, which may differ by race/ethnicity. METHODS: Eligible males (n = 328) were enrolled into a Randomized Control Trial...
January 18, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346616/racial-differences-in-family-health-history-knowledge-of-type-2-diabetes-exploring-the-role-of-interpersonal-mechanisms
#15
Jielu Lin, Christopher S Marcum, Melanie F Myers, Laura M Koehly
Collecting complete and accurate family health history is critical to preventing type 2 diabetes. Whether there are any racial difference in family health history knowledge of type 2 diabetes and whether such differences are related to interpersonal mechanisms remain unclear. We seek to identify the interpersonal mechanisms that give rise to discrepancies in family health history knowledge of type 2 diabetes in families of different racial backgrounds. We analyze informant-dyad consensus with respect to shared family history of type 2 diabetes in 127 informants of 45 families in the greater Cincinnati area (white: 28 families, 78 informants; black/African-American: 17 families, 49 informants)...
January 16, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346279/how-neighborhood-effects-vary-childbearing-and-fathering-among-latino-and-african-american-adolescents
#16
Jessica L Lucero, Anna Maria Santiago, George C Galster
This study examines what neighborhood conditions experienced at age 15 and after are associated with teen childbearing and fathering among Latino and African American youth and whether these neighborhood effects vary by gender and/or ethnicity. Administrative and survey data from a natural experiment are used for a sample of 517 Latino and African American youth whose families were quasi-randomly assigned to public housing operated by the Denver (CO) Housing Authority (DHA). Characteristics of the neighborhood initially assigned by DHA to wait list applicants are utilized as identifying instruments for the neighborhood contexts experienced during adolescence...
January 18, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346196/effectiveness-of-centeringpregnancy-on-breast-feeding-initiation-among-african-americans-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Karen Robinson, Mauricio Garnier-Villarreal, Lisa Hanson
While breast-feeding initiation rates for African American mothers are low, an innovative model of group prenatal care, CenteringPregnancy, holds promise to increase breast-feeding rates. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effects of CenteringPregnancy versus individual prenatal care on breast-feeding initiation among African American mothers. Using a systematic approach and PRISMA guidelines, 4 electronic databases were used to search the literature. English-language studies, comparing CenteringPregnancy and individual prenatal care, including African American participants, and specifying breast-feeding initiation as an outcome were screened for inclusion...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346062/television-viewing-time-physical-activity-and-mortality-among-african-americans
#18
Tasnim F Imran, Mark Ommerborn, Cheryl Clark, Adolfo Correa, Patricia Dubbert, J Michael Gaziano, Luc Djoussé
BACKGROUND: Prolonged television viewing time, a marker of sedentary activity, is independently associated with increased all-cause mortality; however, this association has rarely been studied in African Americans. The objective of our study was to examine the association between television viewing time and mortality among African Americans by using data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). METHODS: We studied 5,289 participants from the JHS study who reported television viewing time (h/day) in the JHS baseline questionnaire from 2000 through 2004...
January 18, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346003/medicaid-expansion-and-infant-mortality-in-the-united-states
#19
Chintan B Bhatt, Consuelo M Beck-Sagué
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effect of Medicaid expansion on US infant mortality rate. METHODS: We examined data from 2010 to 2016 and 2014 to 2016 to compare infant mortality rates in states and Washington, DC, that accepted the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion (Medicaid expansion states) and states that did not (non-Medicaid expansion states), stratifying data by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Mean infant mortality rate in non-Medicaid expansion states rose (6...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345478/racial-ethnic-differences-of-justice-involved-youth-in-substance-related-problems-and-services-received
#20
Leanne L Heaton
This study examined differences in substance-related problems and receipt of substance-specific counseling in 7 different racial/ethnic groups of justice-involved youth. Data came from a nationally representative sample of 7,073 youth in residential placement across 36 states representing 5 program types. Descriptive analyses and regression modeling techniques were used to examine the relationship between race/ethnicity, substance problems, and substance services. Results show that more than 2/3 report a history of at least 1 substance-related problem...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
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