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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538501/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#1
Pournima Navalkele, Bülent Özgönenel, Eric McGrath, Paul Lephart, Sharada Sarnaik
BACKGROUND: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk of fatal sepsis with encapsulated bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, because of the inherent autosplenectomy that occurs in SCD. This risk is thwarted with oral penicillin prophylaxis during the first 5 years of life, and with stringent vaccination against S. pneumoniae alongside routine childhood immunization. But compared with the general African American pediatric population, the rate of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in patients with SCD still remains high, resulting in hospitalization and fatality...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538274/prevalence-of-pulmonary-embolism-among-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-discharges-a-decade-of-analysis-of-the-national-hospital-discharge-survey
#2
Srinadh Annangi, Tirumala Rao Dammalapati, Snigdha Nutalapati, Marshaleen N Henriques King
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life threatening preventable medical condition involving sudden occlusion of arteries within the lungs. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory disorder and therefore independently poses a risk of PE. We aimed to determine the association of SLE and PE using National Hospital Discharge Survey data, a national representative sample of hospital discharges throughout the United States. METHODS: Retrospective population-based analysis was done using National Hospital Discharge Survey data for the period 2001 to 2010...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537845/high-rates-of-access-to-health-care-disclosure-of-sexuality-and-gender-identity-to-providers-among-house-and-ball-community-members-in-new-york-city
#3
Sean Cahill, Sarah Trieweiler, John Guidry, Nelisa Rash, Layla Stamper, Kerith Conron, Nicole Turcotte, Ilana Gratch, Paige Lowry
The House and Ball community is an important cultural manifestation of resiliency for Black and Latino gay and bisexual men and transgender women. Participants at the August, 2013 House of Latex Ball in New York City were surveyed about insurance coverage, health care access, experiences in health care, and housing instability. The sample (n = 367) was 58% Black/African American and 20% Hispanic/Latino, with a mean age of 31. Fifty-five percent were gay and bisexual men. While only 6% identified as transgender, nearly half were gender nonconforming...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535474/peer-navigators-to-promote-engagement-of-homeless-african-americans-with-serious-mental-illness-in-primary-care
#4
Patrick W Corrigan, Susan Pickett, Annie Schmidt, Edward Stellon, Erin Hantke, Dana Kraus, Rachel Dubke
Homeless African Americans with serious mental illness experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than adults with severe mental illness alone. Peer navigators, individuals with similar lived experiences, may help these individuals navigate the healthcare system to improve healthcare utilization. This study examined whether the Peer Navigator Program (PNP) improved scheduling and achieving healthcare appointments compared to treatment as usual (TAU) over the course of 12 months, including three periods within that timeframe: engagement (first three months), impact (middle six months), and maintenance (final six months)...
May 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535365/leukocyte-telomere-length-in-postmenopausal-women
#5
Holly J Jones, Susan L Janson, Kathryn A Lee
OBJECTIVE: To compare leukocyte telomere length (LTL) by race and describe demographic, health, and psychosocial factors associated with LTL in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: Descriptive study with comparative analyses and correlations. SETTING: Data were collected at the University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco Clinical and Translational Science Institute. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-nine African American and White postmenopausal women between 58 and 65 years of age (mean age = 61...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535290/dietary-quality-and-ovarian-cancer-risk-in-african-american-women
#6
Bo Qin, Patricia G Moorman, Linda E Kelemen, Anthony J Alberg, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Melissa Bondy, Michele L Cote, Ellen Funkhouser, Edward S Peters, Ann G Schwartz, Paul Terry, Joellen M Schildkraut, Elisa V Bandera
This study evaluated 3 index-based dietary patterns-Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005, HEI-2010, and Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010-in relation to ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. The study was conducted among 415 ovarian cancer cases and 629 age- and site-matched controls of African-American descent recruited from the population-based African American Cancer Epidemiology Study. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals between quartiles of dietary quality indices and ovarian cancer risk, adjusting for potential confounders...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535179/reduced-frequency-of-cells-latently-infected-with-replication-competent-hiv-1-in-virally-suppressed-individuals-living-in-rakai-uganda
#7
Jessica L Prodger, Jun Lai, Steven J Reynolds, Jeanne C Keruly, Richard D Moore, Jingo Kasule, Taddeo Kityamuweesi, Paul Buule, David Serwadda, Martha Nason, Adam A Capoferri, Stephen F Porcella, Robert F Siliciano, Andrew D Redd, Janet D Siliciano, Thomas C Quinn
Background: HIV-1 persists in latently infected resting CD4+ T cells (rCD4), posing a major barrier to curing HIV-1 infection. Previous studies have quantified this pool of latently infected cells in Americans; however, no study has quantified this reservoir in sub-Saharan Africans, who make up the largest population of HIV-1-infected individuals globally. Methods: Peripheral blood was collected from 70 virally suppressed HIV-1-infected individuals from Rakai District, Uganda, who had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) during chronic infection...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535171/cumulative-lactation-and-onset-of-hypertension-in-african-american-women
#8
Ellen M Chetwynd, Alison M Stuebe, Lynn Rosenberg, Melissa Troester, Diane Rowley, Julie R Palmer
Hypertension affects nearly one of three women and contributes to cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the United States. Breastfeeding leads to metabolic changes that could reduce risks of hypertension. Hypertension disproportionately affects black women, but rates of breastfeeding lag behind the general population. In the Black Women's Health Study (N = 59,001), we conducted a nested case control analysis using unconditional logistic regression to estimate the association between breastfeeding and incident hypertension at ages 40-65 using data collected from 1995 to 2011...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534682/diabetic-ketoacidosis-a-common-debut-of-diabetes-among-african-americans-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
Priyathama Vellanki, Guillermo E Umpierrez
OBJECTIVE: More than half of African Americans (AA) with a new diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis have clinical and metabolic features of type 2 diabetes during follow-up. This particular presentation of diabetes has been termed as ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes (KPDM) or atypical diabetes. METHODS: We review the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology and acute and long-term management of AA with KPDM and compare these similarities to patients with type 2 diabetes...
May 23, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534648/lowered-circulating-apelin-is-significantly-associated-with-an-increased-risk-for-hypertension-a-meta-analysis
#10
Hong Xie, Gaoqing Luo, Yong Zheng, Dan Hu, Feng Peng, Liangdi Xie
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Apelin is a bioactive peptide manifesting a potent vasodilatory property. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to investigate for the first time whether circulating apelin differed significantly between hypertensive patients and normotensive controls. METHODS: Both PubMed and Embase were searched for eligible articles. Eligibility evaluation and data collection were done independently by two investigators. Weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated under random-effects model by STATA...
May 23, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534304/an-american-crisis-the-lack-of-black-men-in-medicine
#11
Cato T Laurencin, Marsha Murray
The current state of diversity within the US medical workforce does not reflect representative numbers of the Black male population. Research data continues to reveal continuing trends in the areas of discrimination, incarceration, health disparities, and mortality with respect to Black males. The lack of increase in Black male medical school applications and matriculation contrasted by the continuing trends mentioned above illustrates that there is in fact an American crisis. We present here a call to arms, to address the need of African-American men in medicine...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534247/associations-between-parenting-factors-motivation-and-physical-activity-in-overweight-african-american-adolescents
#12
Lauren E Huffman, Dawn K Wilson, M Lee Van Horn, Russell R Pate
BACKGROUND: Positive parenting practices and environmental supports have been linked to physical activity (PA) levels in youth, yet factors associated with positive parenting styles have been understudied in African American adolescents. PURPOSE: This study expands on previous literature by examining associations between motivation, parenting factors associated with Self-Determination Theory's psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) including authoritative parenting, autonomy support and emotional and tangible support, and adolescent moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and light PA (LPA)...
May 22, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534189/national-trends-in-bariatric-surgery-2012-2015-demographics-procedure-selection-readmissions-and-cost
#13
Scott Kizy, Cyrus Jahansouz, Michael C Downey, Nathanael Hevelone, Sayeed Ikramuddin, Daniel Leslie
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is widely accepted as the best treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and the sleeve gastrectomy (SG) have become the predominant bariatric procedures in the USA over the last several years, although the most recent trends in selection are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess selection trends, readmission rates, and cost of bariatric procedures in the USA from 2012 to 2015...
May 22, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533976/phylogenetic-climatic-niche-conservatism-and-evolution-of-climatic-suitability-in-neotropical-angraecinae-vandeae-orchidaceae-and-their-closest-african-relatives
#14
Marta Kolanowska, Elżbieta Grochocka, Kamil Konowalik
In the present study we investigate the concept of phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC) within the American species of angraecoid orchids (Campylocentrum and Dendrophylax) and their closest relatives in the Old World (Angraecum) using ecological niche modelling (ENM). The predicted niche occupancy profiles were matched with the outcomes of previous phylogenetic studies to reconstruct the evolution of climatic suitability within the orchid group studied and evaluate the role of niche differentiation in the speciation of Angraecinae...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532489/longitudinal-relationships-between-self-concept-for-physical-activity-and-neighborhood-social-life-as-predictors-of-physical-activity-among-older-african-american-adults
#15
Allison M Sweeney, Dawn K Wilson, M Lee Van Horn
BACKGROUND: Engaging in regular physical activity (PA) as an older adult has been associated with numerous physical and mental health benefits. The aim of this study is to directly compare how individual-level cognitive factors (self-efficacy for PA, self-determined motivation for PA, self-concept for PA) and neighborhood perceptions of the social factors (neighborhood satisfaction, neighborhood social life) impact moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) longitudinally among older African American adults...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532198/provider-perceptions-on-hiv-risk-and-prevention-services-within-permanent-supportive-housing
#16
Suzanne L Wenzel, Benjamin Henwood, Taylor Harris, Hailey Winetrobe, Harmony Rhoades
Permanent supportive housing (PSH) is an evidence-based solution to homelessness for persons experiencing chronic or long-term homelessness and one or more physical or behavioral health problems. Health services through PSH typically focus on physical and behavioral health. With the exception of programs specifically designed for persons living with HIV/AIDS, little attention has focused on services through PSH to prevent transmission of HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), yet sexual risk behavior continues after homeless persons move into PSH...
May 22, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532165/16p11-2-microduplication-and-associated-symptoms-a-case-study
#17
Martin Knoll, Kirsten Arnett, Jeremy Hertza
The minimal amount known regarding chromosomal microduplications and microdeletions presents a fascinating new direction of research into better understanding misunderstood symptoms and overall genomic influence. Specifically, the 16p11.2 microduplication has been associated with a myriad of possible cognitive, physical, and emotional symptoms. The purpose of this study is to inform the reader of the biological basis of the 16p11.2 microduplication, review sources that suggest a link between the microduplication and clinically relevant diagnoses/sources of impairment, and to better understand the implications and development of symptoms through the illustration of a case example...
May 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531322/evaluation-of-ifitm3-rs12252-association-with-severe-pediatric-influenza-infection
#18
Adrienne G Randolph, Wai-Ki Yip, E Kaitlyn Allen, Carrie M Rosenberger, Anna A Agan, Stephanie A Ash, Yu Zhang, Tushar R Bhangale, David Finkelstein, Natalie Cvijanovich, Peter M Mourani, Mark Hall, Helen C Su, Paul G Thomas
Background: Interferon inducible transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) restricts endocytic fusion of influenza virus. IFITM3 rs12252_C, a putative alternate splice site, has been associated with influenza severity in adults. IFITM3 has not been evaluated in pediatric influenza. Methods: The PICFLU Study enrolled children with suspected influenza infection across 38 pediatric intensive care units November 2008 to April 2016. IFITM3 was sequenced in patients and parents were genotyped for specific variants for family-based association testing...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531258/the-reproducibility-of-racial-differences-in-ambulatory-blood-pressure-phenotypes-and-measurements
#19
Aamir Husain, Feng-Chang Lin, Laura A Tuttle, Emily Olsson, Anthony J Viera
BACKGROUND: We examined the reproducibility of differences in ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) phenotypes and other parameters (sustained hypertension, masked hypertension, nocturnal hypertension, and nondipping) between African Americans and Whites. METHODS: A total of 420 participants untreated for hypertension attended 2 research visits 1 week apart during which traditional office BP averages and ABPM session averages were determined. We computed percent agreement in ABPM phenotypes across the 2 visits stratified by race and associated kappa statistics with 95% confidence intervals...
May 22, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531232/changes-in-primary-healthcare-providers-attitudes-and-counseling-behaviors-related-to-dietary-sodium-reduction-docstyles-2010-and-2015
#20
Zerleen S Quader, Mary E Cogswell, Jing Fang, Sallyann M Coleman King, Robert K Merritt
High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The 2013 ACC/AHA Lifestyle Management Guideline recommends counseling pre-hypertensive and hypertensive patients to reduce sodium intake. Population sodium reduction efforts have been introduced in recent years, and dietary guidelines continued to emphasize sodium reduction in 2010 and 2015. The objective of this analysis was to determine changes in primary health care providers' sodium-reduction attitudes and counseling between 2010 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
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