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Richard Kalisa, Stephen Rulisa, Thomas van den Akker, Jos van Roosmalen
BACKGROUND: The WHO Maternal Near Miss (MNM) approach was developed to evaluate and improve quality of obstetric care worldwide. This study aimed to study the incidence of MNM and quality of care at a district hospital in rural Rwanda by applying this approach. METHODS: A facility based, prospective cohort study conducted at a district hospital in rural Rwanda between June 2013 and December 2014. Subjects were followed from time of admission to discharge or death...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Naomi M Saville, Bhim P Shrestha, Sarah Style, Helen Harris-Fry, B James Beard, Aman Sengupta, Sonali Jha, Anjana Rai, Vikas Paudel, Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brannstrom, Andrew Copas, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Bishnu Bhandari, Rishi Neupane, Joanna Morrison, Lu Gram, Raghbendra Sah, Machhindra Basnet, Jayne Harthan, Dharma S Manandhar, David Osrin, Anthony Costello
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW, < 2500 g) affects one third of newborn infants in rural south Asia and compromises child survival, infant growth, educational performance and economic prospects. We aimed to assess the impact on birth weight and weight-for-age Z-score in children aged 0-16 months of a nutrition Participatory Learning and Action behaviour change strategy (PLA) for pregnant women through women's groups, with or without unconditional transfers of food or cash to pregnant women in two districts of southern Nepal...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Satoko Kinomoto-Kondo, Nagayoshi Umehara, Shiori Sato, Kohei Ogawa, Takeo Fujiwara, Naoko Arata, Haruhiko Sago
PURPOSE: To study the effects of gestational transient thyrotoxicosis (GTT) on pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: This case-control study retrospectively analyzed 7976 women with singleton pregnancies whose thyroid function was measured before 16 weeks of gestation and who delivered at ≥22 weeks of pregnancy. GTT was defined as hyperthyroidism (free thyroxine [FT4] level: ≥95th percentile) in the early pregnancy, which normalized in mid-pregnancy without thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Jagdish C Mohan, Vishwas Mohan, Madhu Shukla, Arvind Sethi
Hypoplastic right heart syndrome is a rare cyanotic congenital heart disease with under-development of the right ventricle, tricuspid, and pulmonary valves leading to right-to-left shunting of the blood through inter-atrial septal defect. Perinatal mortality is high with very few patients surviving to adulthood without corrective surgery. This report describes a 26-year-old young woman, who had recurrent abortions and stillbirths and detected to have marked cyanosis with hypoplastic right heart, sub-arterial ventricular septal defect, absent pulmonary valve, non-compaction of the left ventricle, and bicuspid aortic valve with aortic regurgitation...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Marja Kaijomaa, Veli-Matti Ulander, Esa Hämäläinen, Henrik Alfthan, Helene Markkanen, Seppo Heinonen, Vedran Stefanovic
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in three subgroups with extremely low maternal PAPP-A, i.e. < 0.3 multiples of median (MoM) at the first trimester screening. METHOD: A cohort of 961 pregnancies with PAPP-A levels < 0.3 MoM at the first trimester combined screening was followed up during the study period of January 2009-December 2012. The incidences of adverse outcomes were determined in three subgroups with PAPP-A levels < 0...
October 17, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Masaki Ogawa, Yoshio Matsuda, Akihito Nakai, Masako Hayashi, Shoji Sato, Shigeki Matsubara
OBJECTIVES: Placental weight (PW) and fetal/placental weight ratio (F/P) have been considered to be useful parameters for understanding the pathophysiology of fetal growth. However, there have been no standard data on PW and F/P in Asian populations. This study was conducted to establish nomograms of PW and F/P in the Japanese population and to clarify characteristics of PW and F/P in this population. STUDY DESIGN: Included in the study were 79,590 Japanese cases: 58,871 vaginal and 20,719 cesarean deliveries at obstetrical facilities (2001-2002) and registered to the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology Database...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Joaquín Valle Alonso, Francisco Javier Fonseca Del Pozo, Manuel Vaquero Álvarez, Jorge Pedraza, Miguel Angel Aguayo, Almudena Sanchez
Acquired thrombotic and thromboembolic disorders may be presented initially with symptoms and signs of acute ischaemia or organ dysfunction that will lead many of these patients to seek care in the emergency department. We report a case of a 19-year-old female patient who developed catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS syndrome or Asherson syndrome) 6 weeks post stillbirth with an initial presentation of acute vascular occlusion. The patient was immediately operated and anticoagulated with significant improvement...
October 10, 2016: Reumatología Clinica
Lucilla Poston, Rishi Caleyachetty, Sven Cnattingius, Camila Corvalán, Ricardo Uauy, Sharron Herring, Matthew W Gillman
Obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing in prevelance worldwide. Obesity reduces fertility and increases time taken to conceive, and obesity-related comorbidities (such as type 2 diabetes and chronic hypertension) heighten the risk of adverse outcomes for mother and child if the woman becomes pregnant. Pregnant women who are obese are more likely to have early pregnancy loss, and have increased risk of congenital fetal malformations, delivery of large for gestational age infants, shoulder dystocia, spontaneous and medically indicated premature birth, and stillbirth...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Heléne E K Sundelin, Olof Stephansson, Kari Johansson, Jonas F Ludvigsson
INTRODUCTION: An increased risk of preterm birth in women with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (JHS) or Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) is suspected. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this nationwide cohort study from 1997 through 2011, women with either JHS or EDS or both disorders were identified through the Swedish Patient Register, and linked to the Medical Birth Register. Thereby 314 singleton births to women with JHS/EDS before delivery were identified. These births were compared with 1,247,864 singleton births to women without a diagnosis of JHS/EDS...
October 14, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Elisabeth Leirgul, Kristoffer Brodwall, Gottfried Greve, Stein E Vollset, Henrik Holmstrøm, Grethe S Tell, Nina Øyen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between pregestational or gestational diabetes and offspring risk of congenital heart defects and the association between large-for-gestational-age birth weight and risk of cardiac defects in offspring of diabetic women. METHODS: Information on pregestational and gestational diabetes, cardiac defects, and birth weight among all births in Norway in 1994-2009 was ascertained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, national health registries, and the Cardiovascular Disease in Norway project...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Romana Furrer, Katharina Winter, Leonhard Schäffer, Roland Zimmermann, Tilo Burkhardt, Christian Haslinger
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate postpartum blood loss in women with treated intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. METHODS: In a retrospective case-control study, 15,083 deliveries including 348 women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (2.3%) were analyzed from 2004 to 2014. To adjust for differences in baseline characteristics, a propensity analysis was performed and women in the control group were matched to the women in the intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy group in a 5:1 ratio...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Robert Brian Lowry, Tanya Bedard, Barbara Sibbald
Prevalence rates of amnion rupture sequence, limb body wall defect, and body wall defects vary widely. Comparisons are difficult due to small case numbers and the lack of agreement of definition, classification, and pathogenesis. This study reports the prevalence of cases classified in five distinct categories. The Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System data on live births, stillbirths, and terminations of pregnancy (<20 weeks gestation) occurring between 1980 through 2012 with the ICD-10 Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health Adaptation codes used for congenital constriction bands (Q79...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Serdar Sadık Duran, Sultan Kavuncuoğlu, Ferhat Sarı, Esin Yıldız Aldemir, Nazlı Kavçık, Ferhat Demir
AIM: This study aimed to investigate the perinatal mortality rate with 37 864 deliveries which occured in two different periods in a single center, to compare the components of perinatal mortality and affecting factors with the results of the study related with perinatal mortality which we conducted in 1999 and to emphasize the precautions directed to reduce mortality rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All live births and stillbirths which occurred in Bakırköy Obstetrics and Pediatrics Training and Research Hospital between January 2007 and December 2007 were evaluated...
September 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Cristina Faralla, Gabrielle A Rizzuto, David E Lowe, Byoungkwan Kim, Cara Cooke, Lawrence R Shiow, Anna I Bakardjiev
Intrauterine infection is a major detriment for maternal-child health and occurs despite local mechanisms that protect the maternal-fetal interface from a wide variety of pathogens. The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and preterm labor in humans, and serves as a model for placental pathogenesis. Given the unique immunological environment of the maternal-fetal interface we hypothesized that virulence determinants with placental tropism are required for infection of this tissue...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Hideo Tajima, Madoka Yoshizawa, Shinichi Sasaki, Fujio Yamamoto, Etsuo Narushima, Toshihiko Tsutsui, Takashi Funahashi, Satoshi Kusuda, Osamu Doi, Yuriko Tateyama, Masanori Kobayashi, Tatsuya Hori, Eiichi Kawakami
Equine and human chorionic gonadotropins were administered to two female Amur leopard cats to induce estrus and ovulation during non-breeding season. Fresh semen collected from male cats was surgically inseminated into the uterine horn of the females. In one animal, two fetal sacs without heartbeats were observed on abdominal ultrasonography 31 days after insemination, which indicated that embryo death had occurred. In the other animal, fetal heartbeats were detected in two fetal sacs 29 days after insemination, which confirmed as pregnancy...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Established in 2000, Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) catalysed extraordinary political, financial, and social commitments to reduce under-5 mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. At the country level, the pace of progress in improving child survival has varied markedly, highlighting a crucial need to further examine potential drivers of accelerated or slowed decreases in child mortality. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides an analytical framework to comprehensively assess these trends for under-5 mortality, age-specific and cause-specific mortality among children under 5 years, and stillbirths by geography over time...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Jessica Eleanor Stokes, Matthew Baylis, Jennifer Sarah Duncan
In 2011-2012, northern European livestock faced a threat from a newly emerged virus, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), only a few years after a major outbreak of bluetongue serotype 8 (BTV-8). Like BTV-8, SBV is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges to ruminants and spread throughout Europe. SBV, however, spread faster, reaching the UK within three months of initial discovery. Adult ruminants show only mild, if any, clinical signs; however, infection of naive ruminants by SBV during the vulnerable period of gestation leads to abortions, stillbirths and fetal malformations...
October 11, 2016: Veterinary Record
Gordon C S Smith
Stillbirth is delivery of a baby at or after 24 weeks of gestational age (UK definition) not showing any signs of life. It affects almost one in 200 pregnancies and is the single major cause of perinatal death. Stillbirth is associated with a wide range of maternal demographic characteristics, but most of the variations in stillbirth risk are independent of these characteristics. Stillbirth is the end point of multiple processes, but the single most common cause is probably placental dysfunction. Stillbirth is associated with a wide range of biochemical and ultrasonic predictors, but there is limited evidence to support population-based screening...
September 15, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Jacob Brenner, Ditza Rotenberg, Shami Jaakobi, Yehuda Stram, Merisol Guini-Rubinstein, Sofia Menasherov, Michel Bernstein, Yudith Yaakobovitch, Dan David, Samuel Perl
Viruses of the Simbu serogroup cause lesions to foetuses that are seen at birth and that correlate with the stage of pregnancy at which the dam first contracts the virus. The Simbu serogroup comprises arboviruses known to cause outbreaks of abnormal parturitions in domestic ruminants; these abnormalities include abortion, stillbirth, and congenitally deformed neonates. Simbu serogroup members include: Akabane virus (AKAV), Aino virus, Cache Valley virus, and Schmallenberg virus. Lately, dairy herds calf malformations have been observed in Europe, where there have been reports of clinical manifestations such as diarrhoea, fever, and reduced milk yield in adult lactating cows...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Yewondwossen Bitew, Worku Awoke, Simachew Chekol
Background. Little is known about birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) plan in resource limited settings to decrease maternal mortality. Therefore, this study was done to assess the status of BPCR and associated factors among pregnant women in South Wollo, Northwest Ethiopia, by involving 819 pregnant women from March to April, 2014. Data were collected by using pretested interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed using a computer program of SPSS version 20.00. Results. Pregnant women who were prepared for at least three elements of BPCR were 24...
2016: International Scholarly Research Notices
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