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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#1
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632735/validity-of-a-minimally-invasive-autopsy-for-cause-of-death-determination-in-stillborn-babies-and-neonates-in-mozambique-an-observational-study
#2
Clara Menendez, Paola Castillo, Miguel J Martínez, Dercio Jordao, Lucilia Lovane, Mamudo R Ismail, Carla Carrilho, Cesaltina Lorenzoni, Fabiola Fernandes, Tacilta Nhampossa, Juan Carlos Hurtado, Mireia Navarro, Isaac Casas, Paula Santos Ritchie, Sonia Bandeira, Sibone Mocumbi, Zara Jaze, Flora Mabota, Khátia Munguambe, Maria Maixenchs, Ariadna Sanz, Inacio Mandomando, Alfons Nadal, Anna Goncé, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Llorenç Quintó, Jordi Vila, Eusebio Macete, Pedro Alonso, Jaume Ordi, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Over 5 million stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur annually. Limited and imprecise information on the cause of these deaths hampers progress in achieving global health targets. Complete diagnostic autopsies (CDAs)-the gold standard for cause of death determination-are difficult to perform in most high-burden settings. Therefore, validation of simpler and more feasible methods is needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this observational study, the validity of a minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) method in determining the cause of death was assessed in 18 stillbirths and 41 neonatal deaths by comparing the results of the MIA with those of the CDA...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630543/pregnancy-and-the-40-year-prison-sentence-how-abortion-is-murder-became-institutionalized-in-the-salvadoran-judicial-system
#3
Jocelyn Viterna, Jose Santos Guardado Bautista
Using the case of El Salvador, this article demonstrates how the anti-abortion catchphrase "abortion is murder" can become embedded in the legal practice of state judicial systems. In the 1990s, a powerful anti-abortion movement in El Salvador resulted in a new legal context that outlawed abortion in all circumstances, discouraged mobilization for abortion rights, and encouraged the prosecution of reproduction-related "crimes." Within this context, Salvadoran women initially charged with the crime of abortion were convicted of "aggravated homicide" and sentenced to up to 40 years in prison...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624945/the-potential-effect-of-temperature-humidity-index-on-productive-and-reproductive-performance-of-buffaloes-with-different-genotypes-under-hot-conditions
#4
Mohammed A F Nasr
The current study was aimed to investigate the impact of THI on productive and reproductive indices of PE and F1 crosses (50% PE and 50% Italian buffaloes) and back crosses (BC) (75% PE and 25% Italian buffaloes) under hot conditions. In this study, 8385 records used PE (1914, 1518, and 1737), F1 (387, 447, and 657), and BC (495, 585, and 645) for low, medium, and high THI, respectively. The high THI reduced the conception rate after first insemination in PE, F1, and BC ((odds ratio, OR) = 1.187, P = 0...
June 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624286/genomic-evaluation-of-age-at-first-calving
#5
J L Hutchison, P M VanRaden, D J Null, J B Cole, D M Bickhart
From their time of birth until their first lactation, dairy heifers incur management, health, and feed expenses while not producing milk. Much effort has been made to estimate optimal ages of first calving (AFC) for cows to reduce these costs, which can be as high as $2.50 per day, and ensure that animals are productive earlier in life. To identify AFC for 3 dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Jersey, and Brown Swiss) that maximizes production, we retrieved phenotypic records for more than 14 million cows calving between 1997 and 2015 from the US national dairy database...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623890/survey-of-maternal-sleep-practices-in-late-pregnancy-in-a-multi-ethnic-sample-in-south-auckland-new-zealand
#6
Robin S Cronin, Carol Chelimo, Edwin A Mitchell, Kara Okesene-Gafa, John M D Thompson, Rennae S Taylor, B Lynne Hutchison, Lesley M E McCowan
BACKGROUND: The Auckland Stillbirth study demonstrated a two-fold increased risk of late stillbirth for women who did not go to sleep on their left side. Two further studies have confirmed an increased risk of late stillbirth with supine sleep position. As sleep position is modifiable, we surveyed self-reported late pregnancy sleep position, knowledge about sleep position, and views about changing going-to-sleep position. METHODS: Participants in this 2014 survey were pregnant women (n = 377) in their third trimester from South Auckland, New Zealand, a multi-ethnic and predominantly low socio-economic population...
June 17, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622635/management-of-parturients-with-factor-xi-deficiency-10year-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#7
REVIEW
Lynda Verghese, Efterpi Tingi, Jecko Thachil, Charles Hay, Louise Byrd
This is an article reviewing the management of pregnant women with factor XI (FXI) deficiency. Retrospective review of the electronic records of 67 pregnancies in 25 women with FXI deficiency over a ten-year period was undertaken. All women received care at St Mary's Tertiary Referral Obstetric/Haematology Clinic for some or all of their pregnancies. Outcome measures included antenatal complications, mode of delivery, anaesthesia provided and postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and management required. A positive bleeding history was identified in 50% of women prior to pregnancy...
June 6, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619775/retrospective-cohort-study-of-all-deaths-among-infants-born-between-22-and-27-completed-weeks-of-gestation-in-switzerland-over-a-3-year-period
#8
T M Berger, M A Steurer, H U Bucher, J C Fauchère, M Adams, R E Pfister, R Baumann-Hölzle, D Bassler
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research is to assess causes and circumstances of deaths in extremely low gestational age neonates (ELGANs) born in Switzerland over a 3-year period. DESIGN: Population-based, retrospective cohort study. SETTING: All nine level III perinatal centres (neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and affiliated obstetrical services) in Switzerland. PATIENTS: ELGANs with a gestational age (GA) <28 weeks who died between 1 July 2012 and 30 June 2015...
June 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619771/revealed-versus-concealed-criteria-for-placental-insufficiency-in-an-unselected-obstetric-population-in-late-pregnancy-ratio37-randomised-controlled-trial-study-protocol
#9
Francesc Figueras, Eduard Gratacos, Marta Rial, Ilan Gull, Ladislav Krofta, Marek Lubusky, Cruz-Martinez Rogelio, Cruz-Lemini Mónica, Martinez-Rodriguez Miguel, Pamela Socias, Cristina Aleuanlli, Mauro C Parra Cordero
INTRODUCTION: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects 5%-10% of all pregnancies, contributing to 30%-50% of stillbirths. Unfortunately, growth restriction often is not detected antenatally. The last weeks of pregnancy are critical for preventing stillbirth among babies with FGR because there is a pronounced increase in stillbirths among growth-restricted fetuses after 37 weeks of pregnancy. Here we present a protocol (V.1, 23 May 2016) for the RATIO37 trial, which evaluates an integrated strategy for accurately selecting at-risk fetuses for delivery at term...
June 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619691/a-mouse-model-of-antepartum-stillbirth
#10
Anum Rahman, Lindsay S Cahill, Yu-Qing Zhou, Johnathan Hoggarth, Monique Y Rennie, Mike Seed, Christopher K Macgowan, John C Kingdom, S Lee Adamson, John G Sled
BACKGROUND: Many stillbirths of normally-formed fetuses in the third trimester could be prevented via delivery if reliable means to anticipate this outcome existed. However, since the etiology of these stillbirths is often unexplained and, although the underlying mechanism is presumed to be hypoxia from "placental insufficiency", the placentas often appear normal on histopathologic examination. Gestational age is a risk factor for antepartum stillbirth, with a rapid rise in stillbirth rates after 40 weeks gestation...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613398/fetal-and-umbilical-doppler-ultrasound-in-high-risk-pregnancies
#11
REVIEW
Zarko Alfirevic, Tamara Stampalija, Therese Dowswell
BACKGROUND: Abnormal blood flow patterns in fetal circulation detected by Doppler ultrasound may indicate poor fetal prognosis. It is also possible that false positive Doppler ultrasound findings could lead to adverse outcomes from unnecessary interventions, including preterm delivery. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of Doppler ultrasound used to assess fetal well-being in high-risk pregnancies on obstetric care and fetal outcomes...
June 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610581/household-air-pollution-from-cooking-and-risk-of-adverse-health-and-birth-outcomes-in-bangladesh-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#12
Md Nuruzzaman Khan, Cherri Zhang B Nurs, M Mofizul Islam, Md Rafiqul Islam, Md Mizanur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with solid fuels has become a leading cause of death and disability in many developing countries including Bangladesh. We assess the association between HAP and risk of selected adverse birth and maternal health outcomes. METHODS: Data for this study were extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted during 2007-2014. Selected adverse birth outcomes were acute respiratory infection (ARI) among children, stillbirth, low birth weight (LBW), under-five mortality, neonatal mortality and infant mortality...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610400/shammah-smokeless-tobacco-and-public-health
#13
Abdulsallam Bakdash
Shammah is a preparation of smokeless tobacco (ST) that is frequently used in the Arabian Peninsula, especially in Saudi Arabia. A mixture of powdered tobacco, lime, ash, black pepper, oils and flavorings, shammah in is placed in the buccal cavity or lower labial vestibule of the mouth. The user (or dipper) spits out insoluble debris. ST is linked to a number of harmful effects such as dental disease, oral cancer, oesophagus cancer, and pancreas cancer. It also causes adverse reproductive effects including stillbirth, premature birth and low birth weight...
May 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609468/going-to-sleep-in-the-supine-position-is-a-modifiable-risk-factor-for-late-pregnancy-stillbirth-findings-from-the-new-zealand-multicentre-stillbirth-case-control-study
#14
Lesley M E McCowan, John M D Thompson, Robin S Cronin, Minglan Li, Tomasina Stacey, Peter R Stone, Beverley A Lawton, Alec J Ekeroma, Edwin A Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to test the primary hypothesis that maternal non-left, in particular supine going-to-sleep position, would be a risk factor for late stillbirth (≥28 weeks of gestation). METHODS: A multicentre case-control study was conducted in seven New Zealand health regions, between February 2012 and December 2015. Cases (n = 164) were women with singleton pregnancies and late stillbirth, without congenital abnormality. Controls (n = 569) were women with on-going singleton pregnancies, randomly selected and frequency matched for health region and gestation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607675/improving-coverage-measurement-for-reproductive-maternal-neonatal-and-child-health-gaps-and-opportunities
#15
Melinda K Munos, Cynthia K Stanton, Jennifer Bryce
BACKGROUND: Regular monitoring of coverage for reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health (RMNCH) is central to assessing progress toward health goals. The objectives of this review were to describe the current state of coverage measurement for RMNCH, assess the extent to which current approaches to coverage measurement cover the spectrum of RMNCH interventions, and prioritize interventions for a novel approach to coverage measurement linking household surveys with provider assessments...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606451/peak-serum-estradiol-level-during-controlled-ovarian-stimulation-is-not-associated-with-lower-levels-of-pregnancy-associated-plasma-protein-a-or-small-for-gestational-age-infants-a-cohort-study
#16
Caitlin Dunne, Kristy Cho, Angel Shan, Jennifer Hutcheon, Ursula Smith Durland, Ken Seethram, Jon C Havelock
OBJECTIVE: During controlled ovarian stimulation in IVF, supraphysiologic levels of estradiol (E2) have been associated with poor placentation and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to investigate whether high peak E2 on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin trigger is associated with low pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and adverse perinatal outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study at a private, university-affiliated fertility centre in Vancouver, BC...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606111/is-time-of-birth-a-predictor-of-adverse-perinatal-outcome-a-hospital-based-cross-sectional-study-in-a-low-resource-setting-tanzania
#17
Andrew Mgaya, Januarius Hinju, Hussein Kidanto
BACKGROUND: Inconsistent evidence of a higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes during off-hours compared to office hours necessitated a search for clear evidence of an association between time of birth and adverse perinatal outcomes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary referral hospital compared perinatal outcomes across three working shifts over 24 h. A checklist and a questionnaire were used to record parturients' socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics, mode of delivery and perinatal outcomes, including 5th minute Apgar score, and early neonatal mortality...
June 12, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603938/should-we-implement-universal-screening-with-late-pregnancy-ultrasound-to-prevent-stillbirth
#18
Gordon C S Smith
The first description of ultrasound to estimate fetal weight was published in 1975.(1) More than 40 years later, we still do not know whether universal use of this method prevents perinatal deaths. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that it should work: (i) stillbirth is strongly associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR),(2) (ii) current methods using targeted ultrasound have low detection rates for FGR,(3) (iii) there is strong evidence that induction of labour at term reduces perinatal mortality. This article is protected by copyright...
June 12, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602020/techniques-of-monitoring-blood-glucose-during-pregnancy-for-women-with-pre-existing-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Foong Ming Moy, Amita Ray, Brian S Buckley, Helen M West
BACKGROUND: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is recommended as a key component of the management plan for diabetes therapy during pregnancy. No existing systematic reviews consider the benefits/effectiveness of various techniques of blood glucose monitoring on maternal and infant outcomes among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes. The effectiveness of the various monitoring techniques is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To compare techniques of blood glucose monitoring and their impact on maternal and infant outcomes among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes...
June 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600757/obstetric-fistula-in-niger-6-month-postoperative-follow-up-of-384-patients-from-the-danja-fistula-center
#20
Itengre Ouedraogo, Christopher Payne, Rahel Nardos, Avril J Adelman, L Lewis Wall
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The impoverished West African country of Niger has high rates of obstetric fistula. We report a 6-month postoperative follow-up of 384 patients from the Danja Fistula Center and assess factors associated with operative success or failure. METHODS: The medical records of 384 women who had completed a 6-month follow-up after fistula surgery were reviewed. Cases were categorized as "easy," "of intermediate complexity," or "difficult" based on a preoperative points system...
June 9, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
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