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Sikolia Z Wanyonyi, Steve K Mutiso
Abnormal fetal growth significantly increases neonatal mortality and the risk of stillbirth. This creates the need for accurately monitoring fetal growth in all pregnancies regardless of the risk status. Several methods used in clinical practice include abdominal palpation, symphysio-fundal height measurements, and obstetric ultrasound. Of these, obstetric ultrasound remains the most reliable and objective way to monitor fetal growth. However, in most low-resource areas, access to obstetric ultrasound remains poor and this leaves the two as the only options available...
March 14, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Barbara Mostacci, Francesca Bisulli, Elisabetta Poluzzi, Guido Cocchi, Carlo Piccinni, Alessandra Curti, Giuliana Simonazzi, Gianni Astolfi, Nicola Rizzo, Corrado Zenesini, Roberto D'Alessandro, Paolo Tinuper
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of antiepileptic drug (AED) exposure in pregnant women and the comparative risk of terminations of pregnancy (TOPs), spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, major birth defects (MBDs), neonatal distress and small for gestational age (SGA) infants following intrauterine AED exposure in the Emilia Romagna region, Italy (4 459 246 inhabitants on 31 December 2011). METHODS: We identified all deliveries and hospitalised abortions in Emilia Romagna in the period 2009-2011 from the certificate of delivery assistance registry (Certificato di Assistenza al Parto- CedAP) and the hospital discharge card registry, exposure to AEDs from the reimbursed drug prescription registries, MBDs from the regional registry of congenital malformations, and Apgar scores and cases of SGA from the CedAP...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Qinghong Meng, Jie Luo, Lijun Li, Wei Shi, Jinqian Yu, Yingjie Shen, Li Li, Yajuan Wang, Kaihu Yao
BACKGROUND: Rubella infection in pregnant women can result in serious effects, such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). However, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in China. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study. From June 2016 through March 2017, a total of 324 serum samples from healthy pregnant women were collected in the Shunyi Women and Children's Hospital of Beijing Children's Hospital...
March 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Cathy Liu, Jade Lodge, Christopher Flatley, Alexander Gooi, Cameron Ward, Karen Eagleson, Sailesh Kumar
OBJECTIVE: To determine obstetric, intrapartum and perinatal outcomes for pregnancies with isolated fetal congenital heart defects (CHD). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of women that delivered an infant with an isolated major CHD between January 2010 and April 2017 at a major Australian perinatal centre. The study cohort was compared with a cohort of women with infants without CHD. Cardiac abnormalities were broadly subdivided into the following five categories using the International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision (ICD-10) as a guide - transposition of the great arteries (TGA), septal defects, right heart lesions (RHL), left heart lesions (LHL) and "other"...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Mohan Paudel, Sara Javanparast, Gouranga Dasvarma, Lareen Newman
OBJECTIVE AND THE CONTEXT: This paper examines the beliefs and experiences of women and their families in remote mountain villages of Nepal about perinatal sickness and death and considers the implications of these beliefs for future healthcare provision. METHODS: Two mountain villages were chosen for this qualitative study to provide diversity of context within a highly disadvantaged region. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 women of childbearing age and their family members, 15 health service providers, and 5 stakeholders...
2018: PloS One
Ali Khatibi, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Mika Gissler, Nils-Halvdan Morken, Bo Jacobsson
OBJECTIVES: Childbearing at extremely advanced maternal age is a globally increasing trend, but only a few studies have described the outcomes of these pregnancies. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of childbearing at age 50 and up in the Nordic countries, as well as to examine the frequency of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: A descriptive population-based study was designed. Data from 1991 to 2013 were collected from the Medical Birth Registries in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden...
March 3, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Thierry Brue, Vincent Amodru, Frédéric Castinetti
With fewer than 200 reported cases, Cushing's syndrome (CS) in pregnancy remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In normal pregnancies, misleading signs may be observed such as striae or hypokalemia, while plasma cortisol and urinary free cortisol may rise up to 2-3-fold. While the dexamethasone suppression test is difficult to use, reference values for salivary cortisol appear valid. The predominant cause is adrenal adenoma (sometimes without decreased ACTH), rather than Cushing's disease. There are considerable imaging pitfalls in Cushing's disease...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Xiao-Bo Fang, Dun-Jin Chen, Fang He, Jia Chen, Zhou Zhou, Yan-Ling Liang, Wei-Xi Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the predictive factors of oedema types in reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) with preeclampsia (PE) and eclampsia, which is closely related to reversible lesions and clinical recovery. METHOD: We collected data from 44 consecutive patients diagnosed with RPLS in PE or eclampsia between 2013 and 2017. All patients were classified into vasogenic oedema (n = 31) or cytotoxic oedema (n = 13) groups according to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Beatriz Manriquez Rocha, Francisco Mbofana, Osvaldo Loquiha, Chishamiso Mudenyanga, U Vivian Ukah, Laura A Magee, Peter von Dadelszen
In well-resourced settings, reduced circulating maternal free placental growth factor (PlGF) aids in either predicting or confirming the diagnosis of preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, stillbirth, preterm birth, and delivery within 14 days of testing when pre-eclampsia is suspected. This operational pilot implementation of maternal plasma PlGF in women with suspected preeclampsia was conducted in six antenatal clinics in Maputo, Mozambique (six control clinics for comparison). The primary outcome was transfer to higher levels of care, following the informative PlGF assay...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Fiona Katherine McCurdie, Joanne Moffatt, Kevin Jones
Kitovu Hospital in Masaka, Uganda, is a leading obstetric fistula repair centre in the country with the highest rates of fistula in the world. In this retrospective case review, the regional incidence and causative factors were studied in patients with vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) who were admitted at Kitovu Hospital. Fistula history included severity (ICIQ score), causes and outcomes of VVF were measured. Women suffered with symptoms of VVF for an average of 4.97 years with an average ICIQ severity score of 7...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Justine Dol, Marsha Campbell-Yeo, Gail Tomblin Murphy, Megan Aston, Douglas McMillan, Brianna Richardson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to evaluate the impact of the Helping Babies Survive program on neonatal outcomes and healthcare provider knowledge and skills. INTRODUCTION: The Helping Babies Survive program consists of three modules: Helping Babies Breathe, Essential Care for Every Baby, and Essential Care for Small Babies. It was developed to reduce preventable newborn deaths through skill-based learning using simulation, learning exercises, and peer-to-peer training of healthcare providers in low-resource areas...
March 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Gabriel Conzuelo-Rodriguez, Ashley I Naimi
BACKGROUND: Short interpregnancy intervals (IPI) are associated with poor birth outcomes. Often, only livebirths are considered to estimate IPI. The objective of our work is to explore whether the associations between demographic, behavioural, and pregnancy variables and IPI change when events other than livebirth are included. METHODS: We used data from the 2006-10 and 2011-13 period of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). We defined IPI using the conception date of the index pregnancy and the event date of the previous one ending in (i) livebirth; (ii) stillbirth; (iii) miscarriage; (iv) abortion; or (v) any of these events...
March 9, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Laura Schummers, Jennifer A Hutcheon, Michele R Hacker, Tyler J VanderWeele, Paige L Williams, Thomas A McElrath, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
BACKGROUND: First deliveries in women older than 35, 40, or 45 are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with those in younger women. However, specific relationships between each additional year of maternal age and pregnancy risks remain unclear, and absolute risks at each maternal age are not known. METHODS: Using a population-based cohort of nulliparous women in British Columbia, Canada, from 2004-2014 (n=203,414), We examined relationships between maternal age (modeled flexibly to allow curvilinear shapes) and pregnancy outcomes using logistic regression...
March 6, 2018: Epidemiology
Fiona Alderdice
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Julie M Hennegan, Jane Henderson, Maggie Redshaw
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effects on partners' health and well-being of holding a stillborn baby. BACKGROUND: Findings from quantitative and qualitative studies have produced inconsistent results concerning the effects of holding a stillborn baby on parents. METHODS: Secondary analyses were conducted on postal questionnaire data relating to 455 partners of women who had a stillbirth. Women answered questions about their partners' behaviour, perceptions of care, mental health and well-being at three and nine months after the stillbirth...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Rei Haruyama, Stuart Gilmour, Erika Ota, Sarah K Abe, Md Mizanur Rahman, Shuhei Nomura, Naoyuki Miyasaka, Kenji Shibuya
Over 80% of perinatal mortality in Japan is due to stillbirths after 22 weeks of gestation, with one in 300 families experiencing fetal loss every year. This study aimed to assess causes and risk factors for singleton stillbirth in Japan. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology Perinatal Database from January 2013 to December 2014. A total of 379,211 births including 2,133 stillbirths were analyzed. Causes of death were classified into eight categories...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chloe R McDonald, Lindsay S Cahill, Joel R Gamble, Robyn Elphinstone, Lisa M Gazdzinski, Kathleen J Y Zhong, Adrienne C Philson, Mwayiwawo Madanitsa, Linda Kalilani-Phiri, Victor Mwapasa, Feiko O Ter Kuile, John G Sled, Andrea L Conroy, Kevin C Kain
Reducing adverse birth outcomes due to malaria in pregnancy (MIP) is a global health priority. However, there are few safe and effective interventions. l-Arginine is an essential amino acid in pregnancy and an immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO), but there are limited data on the impact of MIP on NO biogenesis. We hypothesized that hypoarginemia contributes to the pathophysiology of MIP and that l-arginine supplementation would improve birth outcomes. In a prospective study of pregnant Malawian women, we show that MIP was associated with lower concentrations of l-arginine and higher concentrations of endogenous inhibitors of NO biosynthesis, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine, which were associated with adverse birth outcomes...
March 7, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Augustine Massawe, Hussein L Kidanto, Robert Moshiro, Edna Majaliwa, Flora Chacha, Aisa Shayo, Paschal Mdoe, Prisca Ringia, Mary Azayo, Georgina Msemo, Estomih Mduma, Hege L Ersdal, Jeffrey M Perlman
BACKGROUND: Preterm neonatal mortality (NM) has remained high and unchanged for many years in Tanzania, a resource-limited country. Major causes of mortality include birth asphyxia, respiratory insufficiency and infections. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) have been shown to significantly reduce mortality in developed countries. There is inconsistent use of ACS in Tanzania. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether implementation of a care bundle that includes ACS, maternal antibiotics (MA), neonatal antibiotics (NA) and avoidance of moderate hypothermia (temperature < 36°C) targeting infants of estimated gestational age (EGA) 28 to 34 6/7 weeks would reduce NM (< 7 days) by 35%...
2018: PloS One
Nischay Mishra, Adrian Caciula, Adam Price, Riddhi Thakkar, James Ng, Lokendra V Chauhan, Komal Jain, Xiaoyu Che, Diego A Espinosa, Magelda Montoya Cruz, Angel Balmaseda, Eric H Sullivan, Jigar J Patel, Richard G Jarman, Jennifer L Rakeman, Christina T Egan, Chantal B E M Reusken, Marion P G Koopmans, Eva Harris, Rafal Tokarz, Thomas Briese, W Ian Lipkin
Zika virus (ZIKV) is implicated in fetal stillbirth, microcephaly, intracranial calcifications, and ocular anomalies following vertical transmission from infected mothers. In adults, infection may trigger autoimmune inflammatory polyneuropathy. Transmission most commonly follows the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes but may also occur through sexual intercourse or receipt of blood products. Definitive diagnosis through detection of viral RNA is possible in serum or plasma within 10 days of disease onset, in whole blood within 3 weeks of onset, and in semen for up to 3 months...
March 6, 2018: MBio
Robin S Cronin, Minglan Li, Michelle Wise, Billie Bradford, Vicki Culling, Jane Zuccollo, John M D Thompson, Edwin A Mitchell, Lesley M E McCowan
BACKGROUND: For parents who experience stillbirth, knowing the cause of their baby's death is important. A post mortem examination is the gold standard investigation, but little is known about what may influence parents' decisions to accept or decline. AIM: We aimed to identify factors influencing maternal decision-making about post mortem examination after late stillbirth. METHODS: In the New Zealand Multicentre Stillbirth Study, 169 women with singleton pregnancies, no known abnormality at recruitment, and late stillbirth (≥28weeks gestation), from seven health regions were interviewed within six weeks of birth...
March 5, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
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