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Francesco Russo, Guglielmina Chimienti, Michele Linsalata, Caterina Clemente, Antonella Orlando, Giuseppe Riezzo
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin levels and obestatin/ghrelin ratio have been proposed as activity markers in ulcerative colitis, but no data are available in celiac disease (CD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Our aims were as follows: (a) to assess obestatin and ghrelin concentrations in adult active CD patients, diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-d), and healthy controls (HC) in relation to intestinal permeability; (b) to evaluate the ghrelin-obestatin profile in CD patients after a 1-year gluten-free diet (GFD); and (c) to establish the impact of ghrelin genetics...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Maria Teresa Bardella, Luca Elli, Francesca Ferretti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A new syndrome responding to gluten-free diet and defined non-celiac gluten sensitivity entered the spectrum of gluten-related disorders, together with celiac disease and wheat allergy. However, its definition, prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment, and follow up are still controversial. The purpose of the review is to summarize the evidence and problems emerging from the current literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Direct implication of gluten in the onset of symptoms is often unproved as a low fermentable oligo-, di- and mono-saccharides and polyols diet or other components of cereals as wheat amylase trypsin inhibitor could be similarly involved...
December 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Francesco Esposito, Evelina Fasano, Gelsomina Scognamiglio, Antonio Nardone, Maria Triassi, Teresa Cirillo
Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species and affecting maize crops. Some analogues of fumonisins are known for their toxic and possible carcinogenic effects on humans and animals. Because of their occurrence in corn-based food, diet is the main source of exposure to these mycotoxins, especially among people affected by celiac disease. Hence, the purpose of this paper was to evaluate the amount of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 in maize-based products and to assess the exposure of people affected by celiac disease to fumonisins...
October 13, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Qian Li, Rui Liu, Tao Wu, Min Zhang
Six soluble dietary fiber (SDF) fractions were prepared via stepwise ethanol precipitation from natural and fermented wheat bran. The chemical composition, molecular weight distribution, glycosidic linkage and substitution pattern of the SDF fractions were elucidated by sugar analysis, periodate oxidation and Smith degradation, molecular determination, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The impacts of SDF fractions on the rheological properties and morphologies of doughs were investigated by farinography, rheometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to clarify the relationship between the microstructural features of SDF fractions and the macroscopic properties of SDF-containing doughs...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Maria C Cenit, Pilar Codoñer-Franch, Yolanda Sanz
Gut microbiota shapes the development of the mucosal immune system and may provide protection against immune-mediated diseases. Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition triggered by dietary gluten proteins, recently associated with gut microbiota alterations in cross-sectional studies comparing patients and controls. Whether or not these differences are causally related to the disease has yet to be elucidated, but evaluation of specific bacteria isolated from CD patients in experimental models suggests that they can promote an adverse response to dietary gluten, whereas other commensal bacteria can be protective...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Ahmed Sarkhy, Mohammad I El Mouzan, Elshazaly Saeed, Aziz Alanazi, Sharifa Alghamdi, Shirin Anil, Asaad Assiri
PURPOSE: To determine the socio-economic impact of gluten free diet (GFD) on Saudi children and their families. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which an online questionnaire was sent to all families registered in the Saudi celiac patients support group. We included only children (age 18 years of age and younger) with biopsy-confirmed celiac disease (CD). RESULTS: A total of 113 children were included in the final analysis, the median age was 9...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Ercan Mıhçı, Banu Güzel Nur, Sibel Berker-Karaüzüm, Aygen Yılmaz, Reha Artan
Celiac disease is an autoimmune, gastrointestinal disorder characterized by intolerance to the dietary grain protein gluten. An increased prevalence of celiac disease has been reported in Down syndrome and Turner syndrome, but there has been only few previous reports with respect to the association of celiac disease in Williams-Beuren syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of celiac disease in our 24 Williams-Beuren syndrome patients. Gastrointestinal problems and celiac disease symptoms of patients were noted...
November 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Pravin M Rathi, Vinay G Zanwar
There has been increasing interest in the entity "Non-celiac gluten sensitivity" in recent years which was first of its in 1980s. This "re-discovered" disorder is characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms which occur after ingestion of gluten containing food. The number of such patients who neither have celiac disease nor wheat allergy, but appear to benefit from gluten withdrawal is increasing substantially. However it still remains a controversial and its pathogenesis is not well understood...
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Priya D Shanmugarajah, Nigel Hoggard, Stuart Currie, Daniel P Aeschlimann, Pascale C Aeschlimann, Dermot C Gleeson, Mohammed Karajeh, Nicola Woodroofe, Richard A Grünewald, Marios Hadjivassiliou
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related cerebellar degeneration is one of the commonest acquired forms of cerebellar ataxia. The exact pathogenic mechanisms by which alcohol leads to cerebellar damage remain unknown. Possible autoreactive immune mediated mechanisms have not been explored previously. In this study, we aim to investigate the potential role of alcohol-induced immune mediated cerebellar degeneration. METHODS: Patients with ataxia and a history of alcohol misuse were recruited from the Ataxia and Hepatology tertiary clinics at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust...
2016: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Lucas Laursen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: Nature Biotechnology
Anna Pham-Short, Kim C Donaghue, Geoffrey Ambler, Sarah Garnett, Maria E Craig
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life (QoL) and glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease vs T1D only. We hypothesized that QoL scores would be lower in youth with T1D and celiac disease and those nonadherent to the gluten-free diet (GFD). STUDY DESIGN: This case control study included 35 youth with T1D and 35 with T1D  and  celiac disease matched for age, sex, diabetes duration, and hemoglobin A1c level. QoL was assessed in participants and parents using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Generic Core Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Diabetes Module...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Janaína Guilhem Muniz, Vera Lucia Sdepanian, Ulysses Fagundes
Background: Celiac disease is a permanent intolerance induced by gluten, which is expressed by T-cell mediated enteropathy, and has a high prevalence in the general population. There is evidence of a strong genetic predisposition to celiac disease. Objective: To determine the prevalence of genetic markers HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 in blood donors from São Paulo and measure human recombinant tissue transglutaminase antibody IgA class in HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 positive donors...
October 2016: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Michael Schumann, Lydia Lebenheim
Celiac disease occurs as a result of a T-cell-dependent immune reaction on gluten peptides. It is a complex genetic disorder that is mediated by an unknown number of genes, of which more than 50 have been identified in whole genome association studies. The genetic component helps identify oligosymptomatic or even subclinical celiacs by screening first-degree relatives and patients suffering from other autoimmune diseases. To offer sensitive as well as specific diagnostics for celiac disease (serology and small intestinal histology) some general rules should be followed including performing diagnostics only when patients are on a gluten-containing diet or after an appropriate re-exposition...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Vincent T Martin, Brinder Vij
BACKGROUND: The role of diet in the management of the headache patient is a controversial topic in the headache field. OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence supporting the hypothesis that specific foods or ingredients within foods and beverages trigger attacks of headache and/or migraine and to discuss the use of elimination diets in the prevention of headache disorders METHODS: This represents part 1 of a narrative review of the role of diet in the prevention of migraine and other headache disorders...
October 2016: Headache
G Feriotto, R Calza, C M Bergamini, M Griffin, Z Wang, S Beninati, V Ferretti, E Marzola, R Guerrini, A Pagnoni, A Cavazzini, F Casciano, C Mischiati
Gluten-induced aggregation of K562 cells represents an in vitro model reproducing the early steps occurring in the small bowel of celiac patients exposed to gliadin. Despite the clear involvement of TG2 in the activation of the antigen-presenting cells, it is not yet clear in which compartment it occurs. Herein we study the calcium-dependent aggregation of these cells, using either cell-permeable or cell-impermeable TG2 inhibitors. Gluten induces efficient aggregation when calcium is absent in the extracellular environment, while TG2 inhibitors do not restore the full aggregating potential of gluten in the presence of calcium...
October 3, 2016: Amino Acids
Christian Barmeyer, Michael Schumann, Tim Meyer, Christina Zielinski, Torsten Zuberbier, Britta Siegmund, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke, Severin Daum, Reiner Ullrich
PURPOSE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common but therapies are unsatisfactory. Food is often suspected as cause by patients, but diagnostic procedures, apart from allergy testing, are limited. Based on the hypothesis of non-celiac wheat sensitivity (WS) in a subgroup of IBS patients, we tested the long-term response to a gluten-free diet (GFD) and investigated HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 expression as a diagnostic marker for WS in diarrhea-dominant (IBS-D) and mixed-type IBS (IBS-M). METHODS: The response to a GFD served as reference test for WS and HLA-DQ2/8 expression was determined as index test...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Ebru Kocadag Kocazorbaz, Figen Zihnioglu
Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP, EC is a cytosolic serine protease that hydrolyses proline containing small peptides. The members of prolyl oligopeptidase family play important roles in many physiological processes such as neurodegenerative diseases, maturation and degradation of peptide hormones. Thus the enzyme has been purified and characterized from various sources to elucidate the potential use as therapeutics. In this study recombinant Myxococcus xanthus prolyl oligopeptidase expressed in E. coli was purified 60...
January 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
Geoffrey M Forbes, Kenneth Dods
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
M Marziali, T Capozzolo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Giuseppe Losurdo, Floriana Giorgio, Domenico Piscitelli, Lucia Montenegro, Claudia Covelli, Maria Grazia Fiore, Antonio Giangaspero, Andrea Iannone, Mariabeatrice Principi, Annacinzia Amoruso, Michele Barone, Alfredo Di Leo, Enzo Ierardi
AIM: To evaluate mucosal baseline mRNA expression of tissue transglutaminase 2 (tTG2), interferon gamma (IFNγ), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in patients with microscopic enteritis (ME). METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 89 patients with ME of different etiology, which was defined within a 2-year mean period of follow-up. Baseline histological examination was performed on Hematoxylin-Eosin stained sections and CD3 lymphocyte immunohistochemistry was used for intraepithelial lymphocyte count (IELs)...
September 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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