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Tropomyosin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110215/neuroprotective-action-of-n-acetyl-serotonin-in-oxidative-stress-induced-apoptosis-through-the-activation-of-both-trkb-creb-bdnf-pathway-and-akt-nrf2-antioxidant-enzyme-in-neuronal-cells
#1
Jae-Myung Yoo, Bo Dam Lee, Dai-Eun Sok, Jin Yuel Ma, Mee Ree Kim
N-acetyl serotonin (NAS) as a melatonin precursor has neuroprotective actions. Nonetheless, it is not clarified how NAS protects neuronal cells against oxidative stress. Recently, we have reported that N-palmitoyl serotonins possessed properties of antioxidants and neuroprotection. Based on those, we hypothesized that NAS, a N-acyl serotonin, may have similar actions in oxidative stress-induced neuronal cells, and examined the effects of NAS based on in vitro and in vivo tests. NAS dose-dependently inhibited oxidative stress-induced cell death in HT-22 cells...
January 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104714/long-term-biased-%C3%AE-arrestin-signaling-improves-cardiac-structure-and-function-in-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#2
David M Ryba, Jieli Li, Conrad L Cowan, Brenda Russell, Beata M Wolska, R John Solaro
BACKGROUND: -Biased agonism of the angiotensin receptor (AT1R) is known to promote cardiac contractility. Our laboratory indicated that these effects may be due to changes at the level of the myofilaments. However, these signaling mechanisms remain unknown. As a common finding in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a reduction in the myofilament-Ca(2+)-response, we hypothesized that β-arrestin signaling would increase myofilament-Ca(2+)-responsiveness in a model of familial DCM and improve cardiac function and morphology...
January 19, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103301/differences-in-beef-quality-between-angus-bos-taurus-taurus-and-nellore-bos-taurus-indicus-cattle-through-a-proteomic-and-phosphoproteomic-approach
#3
Rafael Torres de Souza Rodrigues, Mario Luiz Chizzotti, Camilo Elber Vital, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira, Edvaldo Barros, Karina Costa Busato, Rafael Aparecido Gomes, Márcio Machado Ladeira, Taiane da Silva Martins
Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore) genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102019/shrimp-tropomyosin-retains-antibody-reactivity-after-exposure-to-acidic-condition
#4
Adeseye Lasekan, Hanjuan Cao, Soheila Maleki, Balunkeswar Balu Nayak
BACKGROUND: Although shrimp can be found in certain high acid food matrix, the allergenic capacity of shrimp tropomyosin exposed to low pH condition has not been fully clarified. Thus, a model marinade comprising white vinegar adjusted to different pH was used to determine the effects of acid-induced denaturation on the immunoreactivity of tropomyosin. RESULTS: Whole shrimp experienced either swelling or shrinkage after marination depending on the vinegar pH and the final muscle pH...
January 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101867/myosin-and-actin-filaments-in-muscle-structures-and-interactions
#5
John M Squire, Danielle M Paul, Edward P Morris
In the last decade, improvements in electron microscopy and image processing have permitted significantly higher resolutions to be achieved (sometimes <1 nm) when studying isolated actin and myosin filaments. In the case of actin filaments the changing structure when troponin binds calcium ions can be followed using electron microscopy and single particle analysis to reveal what happens on each of the seven non-equivalent pseudo-repeats of the tropomyosin α-helical coiled-coil. In the case of the known family of myosin filaments not only are the myosin head arrangements under relaxing conditions being defined, but the latest analysis, also using single particle methods, is starting to reveal the way that the α-helical coiled-coil myosin rods are packed to give the filament backbones...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101865/tropomyosin-structure-function-and-interactions-a-dynamic-regulator
#6
Sarah E Hitchcock-DeGregori, Bipasha Barua
Tropomyosin is the archetypal-coiled coil, yet studies of its structure and function have proven it to be a dynamic regulator of actin filament function in muscle and non-muscle cells. Here we review aspects of its structure that deviate from canonical leucine zipper coiled coils that allow tropomyosin to bind to actin, regulate myosin, and interact directly and indirectly with actin-binding proteins. Four genes encode tropomyosins in vertebrates, with additional diversity that results from alternate promoters and alternatively spliced exons...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100780/a-novel-microrna-located-in-trkc-gene-regulates-wnt-signaling-pathway-and-is-differentially-expressed-in-colorectal-cancer-specimens
#7
Sadat Dokanehiifard, Atena Yasari, Hadi Najafi, Meisam Jafarzadeh, Maryam Nikkhah, Seyed Javad Mowla, Bahram M Soltani
Tropomyosin receptor kinase C (TrkC) is involved in cell survival, apoptosis, differentiation and tumorigenesis. TrkC diverse functions might be attributed to the hypothetical non-coding RNAs, embedded within the gene. Using bioinformatics approaches, a novel miRNA named TrkC-miR2 was predicted within TrkC gene, capable of regulating Wnt pathway. For experimental verification of this miRNA, predicted TrkC-premir2 sequence was overexpressed in SW480 cells, which led to the detection of two mature TrkC-miR2 isomiRs, and their endogenous forms were detected in human cell lines as well...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098876/bdnf-regulates-the-expression-and-secretion-of-vegf-from-osteoblasts-via-the-trkb-erk1-2-signaling-pathway-during-fracture-healing
#8
Zitao Zhang, Yan Zhang, Zhengnan Zhou, Hongfei Shi, Xusheng Qiu, Jin Xiong, Yixin Chen
Brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotropic family, is expressed in osteoblast‑like cells of a fracture callus, however, its role in fracture healing remains to be fully elucidated. Osteoblasts isolated from Sprague Dawley rats were stimulated by BDNF in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence was used to detect the expression and distribution of targeted proteins. The concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) released in medium was determined using an ELISA...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098423/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-attenuates-doxorubicin-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-through-activating-akt-signalling-in-rats
#9
Pengzhou Hang, Jing Zhao, Li Sun, Minghui Li, Yu Han, Zhimin Du, Yue Li
The clinical application of doxorubicin (Dox) is limited by its adverse effect of cardiotoxicity. Previous studies have suggested the cardioprotective effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We hypothesize that BDNF could protect against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with Dox (2.5 mg/kg, 3 times/week, i.p.), in the presence or absence of recombinant BDNF (0.4 μg/kg, i.v.) for 2 weeks. H9c2 cells were treated with Dox (1 μM) and/or BDNF (400 ng/ml) for 24 hrs. Functional roles of BDNF against Dox-induced cardiac injury were examined both in vivo and in vitro...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097465/hydroxysafflor-yellow-a-improves-motor-dysfunction-in-the-rotenone-induced-mice-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Tian Wang, Lijie Wang, Cuiting Li, Bing Han, Zhenhua Wang, Ji Li, Yan Lv, Shuyun Wang, Fenghua Fu
Dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) is diminished in patients of Parkinson's disease (PD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is responsible for regulating expression of the DRD3 in the brain. Our previous study showed that hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) could increase BDNF content in the striatum of PD mice. This experiment aimed to evaluate whether HSYA can improve the motor dysfunction induced by rotenone through regulating the BDNF/TrkB/DRD3 signaling pathway in mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were intraperitoneally treated with HSYA...
January 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096473/vimentin-intermediate-filaments-control-actin-stress-fiber-assembly-through-gef-h1-and-rhoa
#11
Yaming Jiu, Johan Peränen, Niccole Schaible, Fang Cheng, John E Eriksson, Ramaswamy Krishnan, Pekka Lappalainen
The actin and intermediate filament cytoskeleltons contribute to numerous cellular processes, including morphogenesis, cytokinesis, and migration. These two cytoskeletal systems associate with each other, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here,we show that inactivation of vimentin leads to increased actin stress fiber assembly and contractility, and consequent elevation of myosin light chain phosphorylation and stabilization of tropomyosin-4.2. The vimentin knockout phenotypes can be rescued by re-expression of wild-type vimentin, but not by the non-filamentous 'unit length form' vimentin, demonstrating that intact vimentin intermediate filaments are required to facilitate the effects on the actin cytoskeleton...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073025/tropomyosins
#12
Peter W Gunning, Edna C Hardeman
The actin cytoskeleton provides not only the underpinning for cell architecture but also mechanical force and the ability to drive movement of cells and their organelles. It is tempting to think of it simply as a set of stable structural elements, but nothing could be further from the truth. The cells of our bodies are continually remodelling their architecture by responding to a range of imposed biomechanical forces and intracellular functional demands. Studies of the dynamic and functional properties of the actin cytoskeleton have been dominated by a focus on actin and the view that actin filaments are essentially 'generic'...
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070119/ocd-like-behavior-is-caused-by-dysfunction-of-thalamo-amygdala-circuits-and-upregulated-trkb-erk-mapk-signaling-as-a-result-of-spred2-deficiency
#13
M Ullrich, M Weber, A M Post, S Popp, J Grein, M Zechner, H Guerrero González, A Kreis, A G Schmitt, N Üçeyler, K-P Lesch, K Schuh
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disease affecting about 2% of the general population. It is characterized by persistent intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualized behaviors. While gene variations, malfunction of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits, and dysregulated synaptic transmission have been implicated in the pathogenesis of OCD, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we show that OCD-like behavior in mice is caused by deficiency of SPRED2, a protein expressed in various brain regions and a potent inhibitor of Ras/ERK-MAPK signaling...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063919/proteomic-analysis-of-the-protective-effects-of-aqueous-bark-extract-of-terminalia-arjuna-roxb-on-isoproterenol-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-rats
#14
Santosh Kumar, Md Jahangir Alam, Pankaj Prabhakar, Sayeed Ahmad, Subir K Maulik, Manish Sharma, Shyamal K Goswami
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) has been in use as an ethnomedicine for cardiovascular ailments in the Indian subcontinent for centuries. Studies using hemodynamic, ROS scavenging and anti-inflammatory parameters in animal models have shown its anti-atherogenic, hypotensive, inotropic, anti-inflammatory effects. However, details analysis on its effects on established molecular and cell biological markers are a prerequisite for its wider acceptance to the medical community...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056803/de-novo-transcriptome-and-expression-profile-analyses-of-the-asian-corn-borer-ostrinia-furnacalis-reveals-relevant-flubendiamide-response-genes
#15
Li Cui, Changhui Rui, Daibin Yang, Zhenying Wang, Huizhu Yuan
BACKGROUND: The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has become the most damaging insect pest of corn in Asia. However, the lack of genome or transcriptome information heavily hinders our further understanding of ACB in every aspect at a molecular level and on a genome-wide scale. Here, we used the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) Sequencer to explore the ACB transcriptome and to identify relevant genes in response to flubendiamide, showing high selective activity against ACB...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045016/the-three-herb-formula-shuang-huang-lian-stabilizes-mast-cells-through-activation-of-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter
#16
Yuan Gao, Rui Hou, Qiaoling Fei, Lei Fang, Yixin Han, Runlan Cai, Cheng Peng, Yun Qi
Mast cells (MCs) are key effector cells of IgE-FcεRI- or MrgprX2-mediated signaling event. Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL), a herbal formula from Chinese Pharmacopoeia, has been clinically used in type I hypersensitivity. Our previous study demonstrated that SHL exerted a non-negligible effect on MC stabilization. Herein, we sought to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the prominent anti-allergic ability of SHL. MrgprX2- and IgE-FcεRI-mediated MC activation in vitro and in vivo models were developed by using compound 48/80 (C48/80) and shrimp tropomyosin (ST), respectively...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043792/generation-of-a-novel-artificial-trkb-agonist-bm17d99-using-t7-phage-displayed-random-peptide-libraries
#17
Toshiyuki Ohnishi, Kotaro Sakamoto, Asano Asami-Odaka, Kimie Nakamura, Ayako Shimizu, Takashi Ito, Taiji Asami, Tetsuya Ohtaki, Hiroshi Inooka
Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) is a known receptor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Because it plays a critical role in the regulation of neuronal development, maturation, survival, etc., TrkB is a good target for drugs against central nervous system diseases. In this study, we aimed to generate peptidic TrkB agonists by applying random peptide phage display technology. After the phage panning against recombinant Fc-fused TrkB (TrkB-Fc), agonistic phages were directly screened against TrkB-expressing HEK293 cells...
January 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039433/structural-characterization-of-nonactive-site-trka-selective-kinase-inhibitors
#18
Hua-Poo Su, Keith Rickert, Christine Burlein, Kartik Narayan, Marina Bukhtiyarova, Danielle M Hurzy, Craig A Stump, Xufang Zhang, John Reid, Alicja Krasowska-Zoladek, Srivanya Tummala, Jennifer M Shipman, Maria Kornienko, Peter A Lemaire, Daniel Krosky, Amanda Heller, Abdelghani Achab, Chad Chamberlin, Peter Saradjian, Berengere Sauvagnat, Xianshu Yang, Michael R Ziebell, Elliott Nickbarg, John M Sanders, Mark T Bilodeau, Steven S Carroll, Kevin J Lumb, Stephen M Soisson, Darrell A Henze, Andrew J Cooke
Current therapies for chronic pain can have insufficient efficacy and lead to side effects, necessitating research of novel targets against pain. Although originally identified as an oncogene, Tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) is linked to pain and elevated levels of NGF (the ligand for TrkA) are associated with chronic pain. Antibodies that block TrkA interaction with its ligand, NGF, are in clinical trials for pain relief. Here, we describe the identification of TrkA-specific inhibitors and the structural basis for their selectivity over other Trk family kinases...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039304/allergen-valency-dose-and-fc%C3%AE%C2%B5ri-occupancy-set-thresholds-for-secretory-responses-to-pen-a-1-and-motivate-design-of-hypoallergens
#19
Avanika Mahajan, Lama A Youssef, Cédric Cleyrat, Rachel Grattan, Shayna R Lucero, Christopher P Mattison, M Frank Erasmus, Bruna Jacobson, Lydia Tapia, William S Hlavacek, Mark Schuyler, Bridget S Wilson
Ag-mediated crosslinking of IgE-FcεRI complexes activates mast cells and basophils, initiating the allergic response. Of 34 donors recruited having self-reported shrimp allergy, only 35% had significant levels of shrimp-specific IgE in serum and measurable basophil secretory responses to rPen a 1 (shrimp tropomyosin). We report that degranulation is linked to the number of FcεRI occupied with allergen-specific IgE, as well as the dose and valency of Pen a 1. Using clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat-based gene editing, human RBL(rαKO) cells were created that exclusively express the human FcεRIα subunit...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028052/an-rna-binding-atypical-tropomyosin-recruits-kinesin-1-dynamically-to-oskar-mrnps
#20
Imre Gáspár, Vasiliy Sysoev, Artem Komissarov, Anne Ephrussi
Localization and local translation of oskar mRNA at the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte directs abdominal patterning and germline formation in the embryo. The process requires recruitment and precise regulation of motor proteins to form transport-competent mRNPs. We show that the posterior-targeting kinesin-1 is loaded upon nuclear export of oskar mRNPs, prior to their dynein-dependent transport from the nurse cells into the oocyte. We demonstrate that kinesin-1 recruitment requires the DmTropomyosin1-I/C isoform, an atypical RNA-binding tropomyosin that binds directly to dimerizing oskar 3'UTRs...
December 27, 2016: EMBO Journal
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