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Anthony J Kee, Jayshan Chagan, Jeng Yie Chan, Nicole S Bryce, Christine A Lucas, Jun Zeng, Jeff Hook, Herbert Treutlein, D Ross Laybutt, Justine R Stehn, Peter W Gunning, Edna C Hardeman
The development of novel small molecule inhibitors of the cancer-associated tropomyosin 3.1 (Tpm3.1) provides the ability to examine the metabolic function of specific actin filament populations. We have determined the ability of these anti-Tpm (ATM) compounds to regulate glucose metabolism in mice. Acute treatment (1 h) of wild-type (WT) mice with the compounds (TR100 and ATM1001) led to a decrease in glucose clearance due mainly to suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the pancreatic islets...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaoyan Cui, Zhenqiang Fu, Menghan Wang, Xiaofei Nan, Boai Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Along with their lipid-lowering effect, statins have been reported to have neuroprotective function in both in vivo and in vitro models of neurodegenerative diseases. We conducted this study in order to uncover the he neuroprotective effect of the lipophilic statin pitavastatin (PTV) and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms using primary cultured cerebral neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). METHODS: The primary cultured cerebral neurons were randomly assigned into four groups: the control group, the pitavastatin treatment group, the OGD group and the OGD + pitavastatin treatment group...
March 16, 2018: Neurological Research
Elizabeth G Pitts, Dan C Li, Shannon L Gourley
Specific corticostriatal structures and circuits are important for flexibly shifting between goal-oriented versus habitual behaviors. For example, the orbitofrontal cortex and dorsomedial striatum are critical for goal-directed action, while the dorsolateral striatum supports habits. To determine the role of neurotrophin signaling, we overexpressed a truncated, inactive form of tropomyosin receptor kinase B [also called tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB)], the high-affinity receptor for Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor, in the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsomedial striatum and dorsolateral striatum...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuan Sheng Tao, Shang Guo Piao, Ying Shun Jin, Ji Zhe Jin, Hai Lan Zheng, Hai Yan Zhao, Sun Woo Lim, Chul Woo Yang, Can Li
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that a decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level induces a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. However, the expression and role of BDNF in the kidney have not been explored. The present study examined the expression of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptors in an experimental model of chronic cyclosporine A (CsA) nephropathy. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats on a salt-deplete diet were treated daily for four weeks with vehicle or CsA...
March 14, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Dong-Dong Shi, Celia M Dong, Leon C Ho, C T W Lam, Xi-Dan Zhou, Ed X Wu, Zhong-Jun Zhou, Xiao-Min Wang, Zhang-Jin Zhang
Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment, also known as "chemobrain," is a common side effect. The purpose of this study was to examine whether resveratrol, a natural polyphenol that has nootropic effects, could prevent chemobrain and its underlying mechanisms. Mice received three injections of docetaxel, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide (DAC) in combination, a common chemotherapy regimen, at two-day intervals within one week. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg per day) was orally administered for three weeks, beginning one week before the DAC treatment...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Hong-Wei Wang, Jing Liu, Jing Zhao, Lin Lin, Wen-Peng Zhao, Pan-Pan Tan, Wei-Shun Tian, Bian-Hua Zhou
Our previous study indicated that excessive fluoride (F) induces ATP5J and ATP5H proactive expression by interfering cardiomyocyte mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. This study aimed to investigate underlying mechanisms of F¯ induced damage to cardiomyocytes. A total of 100 mg/L F¯ was added to distilled water to treat Kunming mice for 70 days. Pathological and morphological changes in myocardial tissues were observed under transmission electron microscope and light microscope. Content of ATP and ATP enzyme distributed in cardiomyocytes were determined by fluorescence and ATP enzyme staining...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Joon Ha Park, Bich Na Shin, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Jeong Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jae-Chul Lee, Yong Hwan Jeon, Il Jun Kang, Ki-Yeon Yoo, In Koo Hwang, Choong Hyun Lee, Yoo Hun Noh, Sung-Su Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Jong Dai Kim
Background: Glehnia littoralis has been used for traditional Asian medicine, which has diverse therapeutic activities. However, studies regarding neurogenic effects of G. littoralis have not yet been considered. Therefore, in this study, we examined effects of G. littoralis extract on cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, and the maturation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult mice. Methods: A total of 39 male ICR mice (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to vehicle-treated and 100 and 200 mg/kg G...
March 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Jeremy W Martin, Joseph C Chen, Jason Neidleman, Keiji Tatsumi, James Hu, Linda C Giudice, Warner C Greene, Nadia R Roan
Seminal plasma (SP), the liquid fraction of semen, is not mandatory for conception, but clinical studies suggest that SP improves implantation rates. Prior in vitro studies examining the effects of SP on the endometrium, the site of implantation, surprisingly revealed that SP induces transcriptional profiles associated with neurogenesis. We investigated the presence and activity of neurogenesis pathways in the endometrium, focusing on TrkA, one of the canonical receptors associated with neurotrophic signaling...
March 6, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
P W Gunning, E C Hardeman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: Cytoskeleton
Alireza Mohammadi, Vahid Ghasem Amooeian, Ehsan Rashidi
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a dominant neurotrophic factor in the brain which plays a crucial role in differentiation, regeneration and plasticity mechanisms. Binding of the BDNF to its high-affinity tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor leads to phosphorylation of TrkB, thus activating the three important downstream intracellular signaling cascades within the neural cells including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT), phospholipase C-γ (PLCγ), and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal related kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathways...
March 2, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
Teppei Shibata, Shinsuke Shibata, Yasuhito Ishigaki, Etsuko Kiyokawa, Masahito Ikawa, Dhirendra P Singh, Hiroshi Sasaki, Eri Kubo
The process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) after cataract surgery contributes to tissue fibrosis, wound healing and lens regeneration via a mechanism not yet fully understood. Here, we show that tropomyosin 2 (Tpm2) plays a critical role in wound healing and lens aging. Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) after lens extraction surgery was accompanied by elevated expression of Tpm2. Tpm2 heterozygous knockout mice, generated via the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system showed promoted progression of cataract with age...
March 3, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Armen O Simonyan, Vladimir V Sirenko, Olga E Karpicheva, Katarzyna Robaszkiewicz, Małgorzata Śliwinska, Joanna Moraczewska, Zoya I Krutetskaya, Yurii S Borovikov
Using the polarized photometry technique we have studied the effects of two amino acid replacements, E240K and R244G, in tropomyosin (Tpm1.1) on the position of Tpm1.1 on troponin-free actin filaments and the spatial arrangement of actin monomers and myosin heads at various mimicked stages of the ATPase cycle in the ghost muscle fibers. E240 and R244 are located in the C-terminal, seventh actin-binding period, in f and b positions of the coiled-coil heptapeptide repeat. Actin, Tpm1.1, and myosin subfragment-1 (S1) were fluorescently labeled: 1...
March 3, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Aurora M Vargas, Avanika Mahajan, Katherine S Tille, Bridget S Wilson, Christopher P Mattison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Ru-Yi Zhang, Lan Zhang, Li Zhang, Yu-Lan Wang, Lin Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative brain disorder with complex pathogenesis. Emerging evidence indicates that there is a tight relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and β-amyloid (Aβ) formation. 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) is one of the main active components extracted from Polygonum multiflorum. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of TSG on Aβ production and neurotrophins in the brains of rats by using a mitochondrial dysfunction rat model induced by sodium azide (NaN3 ), an inhibitor of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
John Marshall, Xiao-Zhong Zhou, Gang Chen, Su-Qing Yang, Ya Li, Yin Wang, Zhi-Qing Zhang, Qin Jiang, Lutz Birnbaumer, Cong Cao
Stress-related alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, a neurotrophin that plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, are believed to contribute to the pathophysiology of depression. Here, we show that in a chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression the Gαi1 and Gαi3 subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins are down-regulated in the hippocampus, a key limbic structure associated with major depressive disorder. We provide evidence that Gαi1 and Gαi3 (Gαi1/3) are required for the activation of TrkB downstream signaling pathways...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bipasha Barua, Maria Sckolnick, Howard D White, Kathleen M Trybus, Sarah E Hitchcock-DeGregori
Muscle contraction, cytokinesis, cellular movement, and intracellular transport depend on regulated actin-myosin interaction. Most actin filaments bind one or more isoform of tropomyosin, a coiled-coil protein that stabilizes the filaments and regulates interactions with other actin-binding proteins, including myosin. Isoform-specific allosteric regulation of muscle myosin II by actin-tropomyosin is well-established while that of processive myosins, such as myosin V, which transport organelles and macromolecules in the cell periphery, is less certain...
March 3, 2018: Cytoskeleton
A Zissler, B Ehrenfellner, E E Foditsch, F C Monticelli, S Pittner
An accurate estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) is a central aspect in forensic routine. Recently, a novel approach based on the analysis of postmortem muscle protein degradation has been proposed. However, a number of questions remain to be answered until sensible application of this method to a broad variety of forensic cases is possible. To evaluate whether altered in vivo protein metabolism interferes with postmortem degradation patterns, we conducted a comparative study. We developed a standardized animal degradation model in rats, and collected additional muscle samples from animals recovering from muscle injury and from rats with developed disuse muscle atrophy after induced spinal cord injury...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Xin-Yu Han, Huang Yang, Shi-Tao Rao, Guang-Yu Liu, Meng-Jun Hu, Bing-Chang Zeng, Min-Jie Cao, Guang-Ming Liu
The Maillard reaction was established to reduce the sensitization of tropomyosin (TM) and arginine kinase (AK) from Scylla paramamosain, and the mechanism of the attenuated sensitization was investigated. In the present study, the Maillard reaction conditions were optimized for heating at 100 °C for 60 min (pH 8.5) with arabinose. A low level of allergenicity in mice was shown by the levels of allergen-specific antibodies, and more Th1 and less Th2 cells cytokines produced and associated transcription factors with the Maillard reacted allergen (mAllergen)...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Dawn E Barnes, Eichi Watabe, Kanako Ono, Euiyoung Kwak, Hidehito Kuroyanagi, Shoichiro Ono
Tropomyosin, one of major actin-filament binding proteins, regulates actin-myosin interaction and actin filament stability. Multicellular organisms express a number of tropomyosin isoforms, but understanding of isoform-specific tropomyosin functions is incomplete. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has a single tropomyosin gene, lev-11 , which has been reported to express four isoforms by using two separate promoters and alternative splicing. Here, we report a fifth tropomyosin isoform, LEV-11O, which is produced by alternative splicing which includes a newly identified seventh exon, exon 7a...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Małgorzata Śliwinska, Katarzyna Robaszkiewicz, Marta Czajkowska, Wenjun Zheng, Joanna Moraczewska
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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