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Protein degradation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743182/crosstalk-and-interplay-between-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-and-autophagy
#1
Chang Hoon Ji, Yong Tae Kwon
Proteolysis in eukaryotic cells is mainly mediated by the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagylysosome system (hereafter autophagy). The UPS is a selective proteolytic system in which substrates are recognized and tagged with ubiquitin for processive degradation by the proteasome. Autophagy is a bulk degradative system that uses lysosomal hydrolases to degrade proteins as well as various other cellular constituents. Since the inception of their discoveries, the UPS and autophagy were thought to be independent of each other in components, action mechanisms, and substrate selectivity...
July 24, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743050/pml-rar%C3%AE-stabilized-by-zinc-in-human-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia-nb4-cells
#2
Bo Zhu, Jia-Yu Wang, Jun-Jie Zhou, Feng Zhou, Wei Cheng, Ying-Ting Liu, Jie Wang, Xiao Chen, Dian-Hua Chen, Lan Luo, Zi-Chun Hua
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized and driven by the promyelocytic leukemia protein-retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RARα) fusion gene. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of PML-RARα degradation in the treatment against APL. Considering the presence of two zinc fingers in the PML-RARα fusion protein, we explored the function of zinc homeostasis in maintaining PML-RARα stability. We demonstrated for the first time that zinc depletion by its chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) triggered PML-RARα degradation in NB4 APL cells via the proteasome pathway rather than the autophagy-lysosomal pathway...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743001/gcl-and-cul3-control-the-switch-between-cell-lineages-by-mediating-localized-degradation-of-an-rtk
#3
Juhee Pae, Ryan M Cinalli, Antonio Marzio, Michele Pagano, Ruth Lehmann
The separation of germline from somatic lineages is fundamental to reproduction and species preservation. Here, we show that Drosophila Germ cell-less (GCL) is a critical component in this process by acting as a switch that turns off a somatic lineage pathway. GCL, a conserved BTB (Broad-complex, Tramtrack, and Bric-a-brac) protein, is a substrate-specific adaptor for Cullin3-RING ubiquitin ligase complex (CRL3(GCL)). We show that CRL3(GCL) promotes PGC fate by mediating degradation of Torso, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and major determinant of somatic cell fate...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742940/functional-analysis-of-the-pepper-protein-phosphatase-caaipp1-and-its-interacting-partner-caairf1-modulation-of-aba-signaling-and-the-drought-stress-response
#4
Woonhee Baek, Chae Woo Lim, Sung Chul Lee
Plant adaptive responses to abiotic stress are coordinated by restriction of plant growth and development. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is the key regulator of the response to abiotic stress, and its sensitivity determines abiotic stress tolerance levels. We previously showed that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CaAIRF1 functions as a positive regulator of ABA and drought stress via modulation of transcription and stability of the type 2C protein phosphatase CaADIP1. Here, we report the identification and functional analysis of a novel type 2C phosphatase, CaAIPP1 (Capsicum annuum CaAIRF1 Interacting Protein Phosphatase 1)...
July 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742939/disparate-peroxisome-related-defects-in-arabidopsis-pex6-and-pex26-mutants-link-peroxisomal-retrotranslocation-and-oil-body-utilization
#5
Kim L Gonzalez, Wendell A Fleming, Yun-Ting Kao, Zachary J Wright, Savina V Venkova, Meredith J Ventura, Bonnie Bartel
Catabolism of fatty acids stored in oil bodies is essential for Arabidopsis seed germination and seedling development. This fatty acid breakdown occurs in peroxisomes, organelles that sequester oxidative reactions. Import of peroxisomal enzymes is facilitated by peroxins including PEX5, a receptor that delivers cargo proteins from the cytosol to the peroxisomal matrix. After cargo delivery, a complex of the PEX1 and PEX6 ATPases and the PEX26 tail-anchored membrane protein removes ubiquitinated PEX5 from the peroxisomal membrane...
July 25, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742158/human-tamm-horsfall-protein-a-renal-specific-protein-serves-as-a-cofactor-in-complement-3b-degradation
#6
Diana C J Rhodes
Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is an abundant urinary protein of renal origin. We hypothesize that THP can act as an inhibitor of complement since THP binds complement 1q (C1q) of the classical complement pathway, inhibits activation of this pathway, and is important in decreasing renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (a complement-mediated condition). In this study, we began to investigate whether THP interacted with the alternate complement pathway via complement factor H (CFH). THP was shown to bind CFH using ligand blots and in an ELISA (KD of 1 × 10-6 M)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742131/biochemical-characterization-and-comparison-of-aspartylglucosaminidases-secreted-in-venom-of-the-parasitoid-wasps-asobara-tabida-and-leptopilina-heterotoma
#7
Quentin Coulette, Séverine Lemauf, Dominique Colinet, Geneviève Prévost, Caroline Anselme, Marylène Poirié, Jean-Luc Gatti
Aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA) is a low-abundance intracellular enzyme that plays a key role in the last stage of glycoproteins degradation, and whose deficiency leads to human aspartylglucosaminuria, a lysosomal storage disease. Surprisingly, high amounts of AGA-like proteins are secreted in the venom of two phylogenetically distant hymenopteran parasitoid wasp species, Asobara tabida (Braconidae) and Leptopilina heterotoma (Cynipidae). These venom AGAs have a similar domain organization as mammalian AGAs. They share with them key residues for autocatalysis and activity, and the mature α- and β-subunits also form an (αβ)2 structure in solution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741645/inflammasome-and-autophagy-regulation-a-two-way-street
#8
Qian Sun, Jie Fan, Timothy R Billiar, Melanie J Scott
Inflammation plays a significant role in protecting hosts against pathogens. Inflammation induced by non-infectious, endogenous agents can be detrimental, and if excessive can result in organ and tissue damage. The inflammasome is a major innate immune pathway that can be activated via both exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Inflammasome activation involves formation and oligomerization of a protein complex including a NOD-like receptor (NLR), an adaptor protein (ASC) and procaspase-1...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740783/bone-morphogenetic-protein-7-enhances-degradation-of-osteoinductive-bioceramic-implants-in-an-ectopic-model
#9
J Camilo Roldán, Tim Klünter, Peter Schulz, Ulrike Deisinger, Claudius Diez, Waltraud Waiss, Christian Kirschneck, Torsten E Reichert, Rainer Detsch
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the degradation pattern of highly porous bioceramics as well as the bone formation in presence of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) in an ectopic site. METHODS: Novel calcium phosphate ceramic cylinders sintered at 1,300°C with a total porosity of 92-94 vol%, 45 pores per inch, and sized 15 mm (Ø) × 5 mm were grafted on the musculus latissimus dorsi bilaterally in 10 Göttingen minipigs: group I (n = 5): hydroxyapatite (HA) versus biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), a mixture of HA and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in a ratio of 60/40 wt%; group II (n = 5): TCP versus BCP...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740555/atg9b-deficiency-suppresses-autophagy-and-potentiates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-associated-hepatocyte-apoptosis-in-hepatocarcinogenesis
#10
Ning Wang, Hor-Yue Tan, Sha Li, Yibin Feng
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying autophagy deficiency during hepatic carcinogenesis. For this purpose, we used choline-deficient, amino acid-defined (CDAA) hepatocarcinogenesis model in mice. miRNA microarrays combined with computational target predictions and GO analysis were used to identify molecular processes involved in carcinogenesis. PCR profiler array was employed to detect the dysregulated autophagy-related genes during carcinogenesis. We observed induction of hepatic tumours with increased inflammation, DNA damage, and cell death...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740502/the-amp-activated-protein-kinase-kin10-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-autophagy-in-arabidopsis
#11
Liang Chen, Ze-Zhuo Su, Li Huang, Fan-Nv Xia, Hua Qi, Li-Juan Xie, Shi Xiao, Qin-Fang Chen
Autophagy is a highly conserved system in eukaryotes for the bulk degradation and recycling of intracellular components. Autophagy is involved in many physiological processes including development, senescence, and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. The adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase AMPK positively regulates autophagy in mammals; however, the potential function of AMPK in plant autophagy remains largely unknown. Here, we identified KIN10, a plant ortholog of the mammalian AMPK, as a positive regulator of plant autophagy and showed that it acts by affecting the phosphorylation of ATG1 (AUTOPHAGY-RELATED GENE 1) proteins in Arabidopsis...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739725/high-efficient-screening-method-for-identification-of-key-genes-in-breast-cancer-through-microarray-and-bioinformatics
#12
Zihao Liu, Gehao Liang, Luyuan Tan, A N Su, Wenguo Jiang, Chang Gong
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of the present study was to identify key pathways and genes in breast cancer and develop a new method for screening key genes with abnormal expression based on bioinformatics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three microarray datasets GSE21422, GSE42568 and GSE45827 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed using GEO2R. The gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis were established through DAVID database...
August 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739485/hsp90-is-necessary-for-the-ack1-dependent-phosphorylation-of-stat1-and-stat3
#13
Nisintha Mahendrarajah, Marina E Borisova, Sigrid Reichardt, Maren Godmann, Andreas Sellmer, Siavosh Mahboobi, Andrea Haitel, Katharina Schmid, Lukas Kenner, Thorsten Heinzel, Petra Beli, Oliver H Krämer
Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are latent, cytoplasmic transcription factors. Janus kinases (JAKs) and activated CDC42-associated kinase-1 (ACK1/TNK2) catalyse the phosphorylation of STAT1 and the expression of its target genes. Here we demonstrate that catalytically active ACK1 promotes the phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of STAT1 in transformed kidney cells. These processes are associated with STAT1-dependent gene expression and an interaction between endogenous STAT1 and ACK1...
July 21, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739398/transcriptome-analysis-of-ifm-specific-actin-and-myosin-nulls-in-drosophila-melanogaster-unravels-lesion-specific-expression-blueprints-across-muscle-mutations
#14
Aditi Madan, Divesh Thimmaiya, Ari Franco-Cea, Mohammed Aiyaz, Prabodh Kumar, John C Sparrow, Upendra Nongthomba
Muscle contraction is a highly fine-tuned process that requires the precise and timely construction of large protein sub-assemblies to form sarcomeres. Mutations in many genes encoding constituent proteins of this macromolecular machine result in defective functioning of the muscle tissue. However, the pathways underlying muscle degeneration, and manifestation of myopathy phenotypes are not well understood. In this study, we explored transcriptional alterations that ensue from the absence of the two major muscle proteins - myosin and actin - using the Drosophila indirect flight muscles...
July 21, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739306/the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effects-of-microrna-133a-on-intervertebral-disc-destruction-by-targeting-mmp9-in-spinal-tuberculosis
#15
Xin-Wen Wang, Ji-Jun Liu, Qi-Ning Wu, Shu-Fang Wu, Ding-Jun Hao
AIMS: We aim to investigate the role of microRNA-133a (miR-133a) in intervertebral disc destruction by targeting MMP9 in spinal tuberculosis (TB). MAIN METHODS: Rabbit models with spinal TB were established and assigned to the blank, miR-133a mimic, miR-133a inhibitor and negative control (NC) groups. Primary notochordal cells were extracted and separately transfected with miR-133a mimics, miR-133a inhibitor, miR-nonsense sequence control (NC), si-NC and si-MMP9...
July 21, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738828/unraveling-multifaceted-contributions-of-small-regulatory-rnas-to-photomorphogenic-development-in-arabidopsis
#16
Meng-Chun Lin, Huang-Lung Tsai, Sim-Lin Lim, Shih-Tong Jeng, Shu-Hsing Wu
BACKGROUND: Post-transcriptional control of gene expression mediated by small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) is vital for growth and development of diverse organisms. The biogenesis of sRNAs is regulated by both positive and negative regulators known to regulate photomorphogenic development. Two microRNAs (miRNAs), miR157 and miR319, also regulate photomorphogenesis. However, genome-wide profiling of sRNAs and their regulation of target genes during photomorphogenesis has been missing. We provide a comprehensive view of sRNA-controlled gene expression in this developmental process...
July 24, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738764/neuroprotection-by-endo-cannabinoids-in-glaucoma-and-retinal-neurodegenerative-diseases
#17
Cinzia Rapino, Daniel Tortolani, Lucia Scipioni, Mauro Maccarrone
Emerging neuroprotective strategies are being explored to preserve the retina from degeneration, that occurs in eye pathologies like glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinitis pigmentosa. Incidentally, neuroprotection of retina is a defending mechanism designed to prevent or delay neuronal cell death, and to maintain neural function following an initial insult, thus avoiding loss of vision. Numerous studies have investigated potential neuroprotective properties of plant-derived phytocannabinoids, as well as of their endogenous counterparts collectively termed endocannabinoids (eCBs), in several degenerative diseases of the retina...
July 24, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738642/terminal-protection-mediated-autocatalytic-cascade-amplification-coupled-with-graphene-oxide-fluorescence-switch-for-sensitive-and-rapid-detection-of-folate-receptor
#18
Rui Wang, Xiaowen Xu, Pei Li, Yan Wang, Wei Jiang
Folate receptor (FR) is over-expressed in most human tumors and has been regarded as biomarker and therapeutic target. Specific and sensitive detection of FR is essential for tumor treatment and drug development. Here, a specific, sensitive and rapid FR detection strategy was proposed based on terminal protection-mediated autocatalytic cascade amplification coupled with graphene oxide fluorescence switch. Firstly, the specific binding of FR to the folate terminally-labeled on a primary trigger DNA (PT-DNA) could protect the PT-DNA from exonuclease I degradation, converting FR detection to PT-DNA detection...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738499/aqueous-extract-of-codium-fragile-suppressed-inflammatory-responses-in-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-raw264-7-cells-and-carrageenan-induced-rats
#19
Seul Ah Lee, Sung-Min Moon, Yun Hee Choi, Seul Hee Han, Bo-Ram Park, Mi Suk Choi, Jae-Sung Kim, Yong Hwan Kim, Do Kyung Kim, Chun Sung Kim
Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot has been used in Oriental medicine for the treatment of enterobiasis, dropsy, and dysuria and has been shown to have various biological effects. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of C. fragile (AECF) using in vitro and in vivo models. Nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inflammatory-related mRNAs, and proteins were determined using the Griess assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and western blotting, respectively...
July 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738269/an-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-red-microalga-polysaccharides-in-coronary-artery-endothelial-cells
#20
Oshrat Levy-Ontman, Mahmoud Huleihel, Rachel Hamias, Talya Wolak, Esther Paran
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Polysaccharides (PSs) produced by the red microalga Porphyridium sp. were reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory bioactivities in the human skin. The primary goal of the present research was to assess whether PSs attenuate inflammatory processes by interfering with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced inflammation, in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). METHODS: Functional and inflammatory markers were quantified in TNF-α-stimulated HCAECs, with and without pre-treatment with PSs...
July 16, 2017: Atherosclerosis
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