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Myelin basic protein

Da-Zhi Guo, Lin Xiao, Yi-Jun Liu, Chen Shen, Hui-Fang Lou, Yan Lv, Shu-Yi Pan
This study aimed to investigate the role of cathepsin D (CathD) in central nervous system (CNS) myelination and its possible mechanism. By using CathD knockout mice in conjunction with immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry and western blot assays, the myelination of the CNS and the development of oligodendrocyte lineage cells in vivo and in vitro were observed. Endocytosis assays, real-time-lapse experiments and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy were used to demonstrate the location and movement of proteolipid protein in oligodendrocyte lineage cells...
March 16, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Mehmet Eray Alcigir, Halef Okan Dogan, Begum Yurdakok, Kubra Dogan, Sevil Vural, Fatma Meric Yilmaz, Atilla Isgoren
Aroclor 1254 is a widespread toxic compound of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), which can create significant nervous problems. No remedies have been found to date. The aim of this study was to reveal the damage that occurs in the central nervous system of rat pups exposed to Aroclor 1254 in the prenatal period, and to show the inhibiting effect of curcumin, which is a strong anti-oxidant and neuroprotective substance. The study established 3 groups of adult female and male Wistar albino rats. The rats were mated within these groups and the offspring rats were evaluated within the group given Aroclor 1254 only (n=10) and the group given both Aroclor 1254 and curcumin (n=10) and the control group (n=10)...
March 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Ke-Wei Tian, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Hong Jiang, Shu Han
The placenta has emerged as an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) because of the absence of ethical issues, non-invasive access, and abundant yield. However, inflammatory cell invasion into grafts negatively impacts the survival and efficacy of transplanted cells. Previous studies have shown that synthetic C16 peptide can competitively block the transmigration of leukocytes into the central nerve system, while angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) can inhibit inflammation-induced blood vessel leakage and inflammatory cell infiltration in rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Thanh D Do, Joseph F Ellis, Elizabeth K Neumann, Troy J Comi, Emily G Tillmaand, Ashley E Lenhart, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Jonathan Sweedler
The mammalian dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are located on the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves and contain cell bodies of primary sensory neurons. DRG cells have been classified into subpopulations based on their size, morphology, intracellular markers, response to stimuli, and neuropeptides. To understand the connections between DRG chemical heterogeneity and cellular function, we performed optically guided, high-throughput single cell profiling using sequential matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MS) to detect lipids, peptides, and several proteins in individual DRG cells...
March 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Adriano Luís Soares De Souza, Stefan Rudin, Rui Chang, Keith Mitchell, Timothy Crandall, Shuning Huang, Ji-Kyung Choi, Shinji L Okitsu, Danielle L Graham, Blake Tomkinson, Tammy Dellovade
INTRODUCTION: Antigen-specific immunotherapy could provide a targeted approach for the treatment of multiple sclerosis that removes the need for broad-acting immunomodulatory drugs. ATX-MS-1467 is a mixture of four peptides identified as the main immune-dominant disease-associated T-cell epitopes in myelin basic protein (MBP), an autoimmune target for activated autoreactive T cells in multiple sclerosis. Previous animal studies have shown that ATX-MS-1467 treatment prevented the worsening of signs of disease in experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) in the humanized (DR2 × Ob1)F1 mouse in a dose-dependent fashion...
March 14, 2018: Neurology and Therapy
Adrienne M Antonson, Bindu Balakrishnan, Emily C Radlowski, Geraldine Petr, Rodney W Johnson
Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk of neurobehavioral problems in offspring. Evidence from rodent models indicates that the maternal immune response to infection can alter fetal brain development, particularly in the hippocampus. However, information on the effects of maternal viral infection on fetal brain development in gyrencephalic species is limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess several effects of maternal viral infection in the last one-third of gestation on hippocampal gene expression and development in fetal piglets...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Bahareh Nazari, Masoud Soleimani, Somayeh Ebrahimi Barough, Seyed Ehsan Enderami, Mansure Kazemi, Babak Negahdari, Esmaeil Sadroddiny, Jafar Ai
Oligodendrocytes play critical roles in the central nervous system (CNS) thorough producing myelin sheaths around axons. There are a variety of approaches to produce oligodendrocytes in vitro and in vivo which are a subject of interest in many studies. A new approach to induce this differentiation is using microRNA 219 (miR-219). However, this new approach suffers from a lack of studies regarding the effect of miR-219 on differentiating human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to oligodendrocytes. This study aimed to assess the impact of miR-219-overexpression on hiPSCs...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Elena Stolyarova, Liubov Beduleva, Igor Menshikov, Alexandr Snigiryev, Tatyana Khramova
BACKGROUND: One mechanism that underlies protection from autoimmunity and avoidance of uncontrolled inflammation is the controlled contraction of lymphocyte expansion during the immune response. We identified regulatory rheumatoid factor (regRF), the production of which is associated with resistance to and remission of experimental autoimmune diseases. RegRF is anti-idiotypic antibodies to lymphocyte receptors against autoimmune disease-inducing antigens; at the same time, it is specific to epitopes in the hinge Fc fragments of IgG...
March 8, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Xinhua Zhan, Boryana Stamova, Frank R Sharp
This review proposes that lipopolysaccharide (LPS, found in the wall of all Gram-negative bacteria) could play a role in causing sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is based in part upon recent studies showing that: Gram-negative E. coli bacteria can form extracellular amyloid; bacterial-encoded 16S rRNA is present in all human brains with over 70% being Gram-negative bacteria; ultrastructural analyses have shown microbes in erythrocytes of AD patients; blood LPS levels in AD patients are 3-fold the levels in control; LPS combined with focal cerebral ischemia and hypoxia produced amyloid-like plaques and myelin injury in adult rat cortex...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Marco Bo, Magdalena Niegowska, Giannina Arru, Elia Sechi, Sara Mariotto, Chiara Mancinelli, Alessia Farinazzo, Daniela Alberti, Alberto Gajofatto, Sergio Ferrari, Ruggero Capra, Salvatore Monaco, GianPietro Sechi, Leonardo A Sechi
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the main environmental agent associated to neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Following to studies reporting an increased prevalence of antibodies against peptides derived from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) homologous to EBV and human epitopes (MBP85-98 , IRF5424-434 ) in multiple sclerosis (MS), we investigated whether seroreactivity to these antigens display a NMOSD-specific pattern. The sera of 34 NMOSD patients showed elevated levels of antibodies against MAP and MBP compared to healthy controls (44% vs...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Kofi Deh, Gerald D Ponath, Zaki Molvi, Gian-Carlo T Parel, Kelly M Gillen, Shun Zhang, Thanh D Nguyen, Pascal Spincemaille, Yinghua Ma, Ajay Gupta, Susan A Gauthier, David Pitt, Yi Wang
BACKGROUND: The pathological processes in the first weeks of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion formation include myelin digestion that breaks chemical bonds in myelin lipid layers. This can increase lesion magnetic susceptibility, which is a potentially useful biomarker in MS patient management, but not yet investigated. PURPOSE: To understand and quantify the effects of myelin digestion on quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) of MS lesions. STUDY TYPE: Histological and QSM analyses on in vitro models of myelin breakdown and MS lesion formation in vivo...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Takeshi Imai, Hiroyuki Katoh, Kaori Suyama, Masahiro Kuroiwa, Sho Yanagisawa, Masahiko Watanabe
After spinal cord injury (SCI), secondary injury results in an expanding area of glial cell apoptosis. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) actively proliferate after SCI, but many of these cells undergo apoptosis. One of the factors that exacerbates secondary injury is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this study, we tested the effects of amiloride treatment on the fate of OPCs during secondary injury in rats. Amiloride is an FDA-approved diuretic for treating hypertension, which in rats enhances ER stress response and suppresses the apoptosis of glial cells after SCI...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
D Ito, C Ishikawa, N D Jeffery, K Ono, M Tsuboi, K Uchida, O Yamato, M Kitagawa
A 13-month-old female Toy Poodle was presented for progressive ataxia and intention tremors of head movement. The diagnosis of Sandhoff's disease (GM2 gangliosidosis) was confirmed by deficient β-N-acetylhexosaminidase A and B activity in circulating leukocytes and identification of the homozygous mutation (HEXB: c.283delG). White matter in the cerebrum and cerebellum was hyperintense on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance images. Over the next 2 years, the white matter lesions expanded, and bilateral lesions appeared in the cerebellum and thalamus, associated with clinical deterioration...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Bai Hui Chen, Joon Ha Park, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Minah Song, Hyunjung Kim, Jae Chul Lee, Young-Myeong Kim, Choong-Hyun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Il Jun Kang, Bing Chun Yan, Moo-Ho Won, Ji Hyeon Ahn
Animal models of scopolamine-induced amnesia are widely used to study underlying mechanisms and treatment of cognitive impairment in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have identified that melatonin improves cognitive dysfunction in animal models. In this study, using a mouse model of scopolamine-induced amnesia, we assessed spatial and short-term memory functions for 4 weeks, investigated the expression of myelin-basic protein (MBP) in the dentate gyrus, and examined whether melatonin and scopolamine cotreatment could keep cognitive function and MBP expression...
February 21, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Lihua Yang, Yinli Guo, Mengbin Huang, Xiaoli Wu, Xiang Li, Guobing Chen, Ye Li, Jie Bai
Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant abused around the world. Emerging evidence indicates that METH causes brain damage. However, there are very few reports on METH-induced demyelination. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a redox regulating protein and plays the roles in protecting neurons from various stresses. However, whether Trx-1 resists demyelination induced by METH has not been reported. In this study, we found that METH-induced thin myelin sheaths in spinal cord, whereas Trx-1 overexpression transgenic (TG) mice restored the myelin sheaths thickness...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Dominik Michalski, Anna L Keck, Jens Grosche, Henrik Martens, Wolfgang Härtig
Because stroke therapies are still limited and patients are often concerned by long-term sequelae with significant impairment of daily living, elaborated neuroprotective strategies are needed. During the last decades, research substantially improved the knowledge on cellular pathologies responsible for stroke-related tissue damage. In this context, the neurovascular unit (NVU) concept has been established, summarizing the affections of neurons, associated astrocytes and the vasculature. Although oligodendrocytes were already identified to play a major role in other brain pathologies, their role during stroke evolution and long-lasting tissue damage is poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Xuewen Su, Wenyan Tang, Zuo Luan, Yinxiang Yang, Zhaoyan Wang, Yu Zhang, Qian Wang, Lei Suo, Zhen Huang, Xiue Wang, Haifeng Yuan
The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of miconazole on myelin sheaths following cerebral white matter damage (WMD) in premature infant rats. Sprague Dawley rats (3-days-old) were randomly divided into four groups (n=30 each) as follows: Sham surgery group, WMD model group, 10 mg/kg/day treatment group and 40 mg/kg/day treatment group. A cerebral white matter lesion model was created by ligating the right common carotid artery for 80 min. Treatment groups were administered with 10 or 40 mg/kg miconazole at 4-8 days following birth (early treatment group) or 5-11 days following birth (late treatment group)...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jit Chatterjee, Rajesha K Nairy, Jaldeep Langhnoja, Ashutosh Tripathi, Rajashekhar K Patil, Prakash P Pillai, Mohammed S Mustak
Ionizing radiation induces various pathophysiological conditions by altering central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis, leading to neurodegenerative diseases. However, the potential effect of ionizing radiation response on cellular physiology in glial cells is unclear. In the present study, micronucleus test, comet assay, and RT-PCR were performed to investigate the potential effect of gamma radiation in cultured oligodendrocytes and astrocytes with respect to genomic instability, Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress, and inflammation...
February 10, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Albert G Remacle, Jennifer Dolkas, Mila Angert, Swathi K Hullugundi, Andrei V Chernov, R Carter W Jones, Veronica I Shubayev, Alex Y Strongin
Sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rodents produces nerve demyelination via proteolysis of myelin basic protein (MBP), the major component of myelin sheath. Proteolysis releases the cryptic MBP epitope, a demyelination marker, which is hidden in the native MBP fold. It has never been established if the proteolytic release of this cryptic MBP autoantigen stimulates the post-injury increase in the respective circulating autoantibodies. To measure these autoantibodies, we developed the ELISA that employed the cryptic 84-104 MBP sequence (MBP84-104) as bait...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Di Wu, Xiang Tang, Li-Hua Gu, Xiao-Li Li, Xin-Yang Qi, Feng Bai, Xiao-Chun Chen, Jian-Zhi Wang, Qing-Guo Ren, Zhi-Jun Zhang
AIMS: Multiple evidence has indicated that myelin injury is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether myelin injury is an early event in AD and the relationship between it and cognitive function is still elusive. METHODS: Spatial memory of 5XFAD mice was determined by Morris water maze at 1 and 3 months old. Meanwhile, the deposition of Aβ, the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP), LINGO-1, NgR, and myelin ultrastructure in many memory-associated brain regions were detected in one-month-old and three-month-old mice (before and after LINGO-1 antibody administration) using immunostaining, Western blot (WB), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively...
February 9, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
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