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Myelin basic protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776406/the-effect-of-dpp-4-inhibition-to-improve-functional-outcome-after-stroke-is-mediated-by-the-sdf-1%C3%AE-cxcr4-pathway
#1
Fausto Chiazza, Harald Tammen, Hiranya Pintana, Grazyna Lietzau, Massimo Collino, Thomas Nyström, Thomas Klein, Vladimer Darsalia, Cesare Patrone
BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are approved drugs for the treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. These effects are mainly mediated by inhibiting endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) cleavage. Interestingly, gliptins can also improve stroke outcome in rodents independently from GLP1. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a DPP-4 substrate and CXCR4 agonist promoting beneficial effects in injured brains...
May 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761344/beyond-the-magic-bullet-current-progress-of-therapeutic-vaccination-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Barbara Willekens, Nathalie Cools
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and impaired repair mechanisms that lead to neurological disability. The crux of MS is the patient's own immune cells attacking self-antigens in the CNS, namely the myelin sheath that protects nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord. Restoring antigen-specific tolerance via therapeutic vaccination is an innovative and exciting approach in MS therapy. Indeed, leveraging the body's attempt to prevent autoimmunity, i...
May 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742816/angiostrongylus-cantonensis-conditioned-culture-medium-induces-myelin-basic-protein-alterations-via-erk1-2-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-rat-rsc-96-schwann-cells
#3
Jo-Ping Chin, Chien-Min Chen, Tsong-Hai Lee, Chii-Wen Chou, Cheng-You Lu
Eating of excessive raw or undercooked environmental snails produces Angiostrongyliasis demyelination caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2-nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway and myelin basic protein (MBP) expression in RSC 96 Schwann cells treated with A. cantonensis- conditioned culture medium, which was prepared by culturing the third-stage (L3) nematode larvae in DMEM for 72 h. The supernatants were collected and filtered before use...
May 10, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738685/blood-derived-rna-and-microrna-hydrolyzing-igg-antibodies-in-schizophrenia-patients
#4
E A Ermakov, S A Ivanova, V N Buneva, G A Nevinsky
Abzymes with various catalytic activities are the earliest statistically significant markers of existing and developing autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Currently, schizophrenia (SCZD) is not considered to be a typical AID. It was demonstrated recently that antibodies from SCZD patients efficiently hydrolyze DNA and myelin basic protein. Here, we showed for the first time that autoantibodies from 35 SCZD patients efficiently hydrolyze RNA (cCMP > poly(C) > poly(A) > yeast RNA) and analyzed site-specific hydrolysis of microRNAs involved in the regulation of several genes in SCZD (miR-137, miR-9-5p, miR-219-2-3p, and miR-219a-5p)...
May 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731309/trace-element-levels-are-associated-with-neuroinflammatory-markers-in-children-with-autistic-spectrum-disorder
#5
Anatoly V Skalny, Natalia V Simashkova, Anastasia A Skalnaya, Tatiana P Klyushnik, Irina V Zhegalova, Andrei R Grabeklis, Margarita G Skalnaya, Alexey A Tinkov
The objective of the present study was to estimate the association between brain inflammatory markers and serum trace element levels as assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at NexION 300D. Leukocyte elastase (LE), α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI) activity, anti-nerve growth factor-antibodies (anti-NGF-Ab), and anti-myelin basic protein-antibodies (anti-MBP-Ab) levels were assessed as inflammatory markers. The obtained data demonstrate that the increase in LE and α1-PI activity is associated with higher serum Cr and Cu levels, respectively...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722987/interaction-of-myelin-basic-protein-with-myelin-like-lipid-monolayers-at-the-air-water-interface
#6
Katharina Widder, Jennica Träger, Andreas Kerth, George Harauz, Dariush Hinderberger
The interaction of myelin basic protein (MBP) and the myelin sheath of the central nervous system is related to neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis. To get more insights into this interaction the adsorption of MBP to model lipid monolayers similar to the myelin of the central nervous system is studied at the air-water interface with monolayer adsorption experiments. Measuring the surface pressure and the related maximum insertion pressure of MBP for different myelin-like lipid monolayers provides information about the role of the single lipids in the myelin...
May 3, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722322/treatment-with-acetyl-l-carnitine-exerts-a-neuroprotective-effect-in-the-sciatic-nerve-following-loose-ligation-a-functional-and-microanatomical-study
#7
Daniele Tomassoni, Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Vincenzo Bramanti, Carla Ghelardini, Francesco Amenta, Alessandra Pacini
Peripheral neuropathies are chronic painful syndromes characterized by allodynia, hyperalgesia and altered nerve functionality. Nerve tissue degeneration represents the microanatomical correlate of peripheral neuropathies. Aimed to improve the therapeutic possibilities, this study investigated the hypersensitivity and the neuromorphological alterations related to the loose ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats. Effects elicited by treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) in comparison to gabapentin were assessed...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715273/neurofibromatosis-type-2-tumor-suppressor-protein-is-expressed-in-oligodendrocytes-and-regulates-cell-proliferation-and-process-formation
#8
Andrea Toledo, Elena Grieger, Khalad Karram, Helen Morrison, Stephan L Baader
The neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor protein Merlin functions as a negative regulator of cell growth and actin dynamics in different cell types amongst which Schwann cells have been extensively studied. In contrast, the presence and the role of Merlin in oligodendrocytes, the myelin forming cells within the CNS, have not been elucidated. In this work, we demonstrate that Merlin immunoreactivity was broadly distributed in the white matter throughout the central nervous system. Following Merlin expression during development in the cerebellum, Merlin could be detected in the cerebellar white matter tract at early postnatal stages as shown by its co-localization with Olig2-positive cells as well as in adult brain sections where it was aligned with myelin basic protein containing fibers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713308/-in-vivo-multimodal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-changes-after-n-methyl-d-aspartate-triggered-spasms-in-infant-rats
#9
Minyoung Lee, Mi-Sun Yum, Dong-Cheol Woo, Woo-Hyun Shim, Tae-Sung Ko, Libor Velíšek
Objective: Despite the serious neurodevelopmental sequelae of epileptic encephalopathy during infancy, the pathomechanisms involved remain unclear. To find potential biomarkers that can reflect the pathogenesis of epileptic encephalopathy, we explored the neurometabolic and microstructural sequelae after infantile spasms using a rat model of infantile spasms and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Methods: Rats prenatally exposed to betamethasone were subjected to three rounds of intraperitoneal N -methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) triggering of spasms or received saline injections (controls) on postnatal days (P) 12, 13, and 15...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706930/a-preliminary-report-on-brain-derived-extracellular-vesicle-as-novel-blood-biomarkers-for-sport-related-concussions
#10
Keisuke Kawata, Masato Mitsuhashi, Randy Aldret
The purpose of the study was to test the utility of unique panel of blood biomarkers as a means to reflect one's recovery process after sport-related neurotrauma. We established a panel of biomarkers that reacted positive with CD81 (extracellular vesicle marker) and various neuron- and glia-specific antigens [e.g., neurofilament light polypeptide (NF-L), tau, synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP25), glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein]. We first evaluated test-retest reliabilities of brain-derived exosome markers, followed by an application of these markers in eight professional ice hockey players to detect cumulative neuronal burden from a single ice hockey season...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704198/extracellular-galectin-3-induces-accelerated-oligodendroglial-differentiation-through-changes-in-signaling-pathways-and-cytoskeleton-dynamics
#11
Laura Thomas, Laura Andrea Pasquini
Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a chimeric protein structurally composed of unusual tandem repeats of proline and short glycine-rich segments fused onto a carbohydrate recognition domain. Our studies have previously demonstrated that Gal-3 drives oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation to control myelin integrity and function. The cytoskeleton plays a key role in OLG maturation: the initial stage of OLG process extension requires dynamic actin filament assembly, while subsequent myelin wrapping coincides with the upregulation of actin disassembly proteins which are dependent on myelin basic protein (MPB) expression...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696692/the-impact-of-erythropoietin-and-iron-status-on-brain-myelination-in-the-newborn-rat
#12
Karen P Flores, Sharon E Blohowiak, Joy J Winzerling, Michael K Georgieff, Pamela J Kling
Erythropoietin (Epo) drives iron (Fe) utilization for erythropoiesis, but the potentially resultant tissue iron deficiency (ID) can also impede brain development. Conversely, Epo binds to Epo receptors (EpoR) on immature brain oligodendrocytes and neurons, promoting growth and differentiation. The objective of the study was to examine the interaction between Epo and Fe on myelination in brain development during daily Epo treatment. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats from postnatal day (P) P4-P12 modeled premature newborns...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696534/ascorbic-acid-attenuates-lead-induced-alterations-in-the-synapses-in-the-developing-rat-cerebellum
#13
Sung Min Nam, In-Sun Cho, Jin Seok Seo, Tae-Hun Go, Ji-Hye Kim, Sang-Soep Nahm, Byung-Joon Chang, Jong-Hwan Lee
We evaluated the effect of lead (Pb) and ascorbic acid treatment of pregnant female rats on cerebellar development in pups. Pb was administered in drinking water (0.2% Pb acetate), and ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg) was administered through oral intubation. Fifteen female rats were randomly classified into control, Pb, and Pb plus ascorbic acid (PA) groups. The treatment of Pb and ascorbic acid treatments were terminated after birth to evaluate the effects on the gestational development of the cerebellum. At postnatal day 21 (PND21), pups were sacrificed, and blood Pb level was analyzed...
April 26, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682587/therapeutic-potential-of-pien-tze-huang-on-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-rat
#14
Xuemei Qiu, Hui Luo, Xue Liu, Qingqing Guo, Kang Zheng, Danping Fan, Jiawen Shen, Cheng Lu, Xiaojuan He, Ge Zhang, Aiping Lu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). There is still lack of commercially viable treatment currently. Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been proved to have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and immunoregulatory effects. This study investigated the possible therapeutic effects of PZH on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rats, a classic animal model of MS. Male Lewis rats were immunized with myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide to establish an EAE model and then treated with three doses of PZH...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679562/myotube-derived-factor-promotes-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-proliferation
#15
Akino Nakasone, Rieko Muramatsu, Yuki Kato, Yukio Kawahara, Toshihide Yamashita
Muscle cells secrete numerous molecules that function as endocrine hormones and regulate the functions of distant organs. Myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) is regulated by peripheral hormones. However, the effects of muscle-derived molecules on myelination have not been sufficiently analyzed. In this study, we show that muscle-releasing factors promote proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which is an element of myelination process. Supernatants of mouse myotube cultures stimulated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation into mouse OPCs...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666623/autoimmunity-to-tropomyosin-specific-peptides-induced-by-mycobacterium-leprae-in-leprosy-patients-identification-of-mimicking-proteins
#16
Itu Singh, Asha Ram Yadav, Keshar Kunja Mohanty, Kiran Katoch, Prashant Sharma, Vinay Kumar Pathak, Deepa Bisht, Umesh D Gupta, Utpal Sengupta
Background: It has been shown earlier that there is a rise in the levels of autoantibodies and T cell response to cytoskeletal proteins in leprosy. Our group recently demonstrated a rise in both T and B cell responses to keratin and myelin basic protein in all types of leprosy patients and their associations in type 1 reaction (T1R) group of leprosy. Objectives: In this study, we investigated the association of levels of autoantibodies and lymphoproliferation against myosin in leprosy patients across the spectrum and tried to find out the mimicking proteins or epitopes between host protein and protein/s of Mycobacterium leprae ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665005/myelination-of-the-developing-lateral-olfactory-tract-and-anterior-commissure
#17
L N Collins, D L Hill, P C Brunjes
Both the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) and anterior limb of the anterior commissure (AC) carry olfactory information. The LOT forms the projection from the olfactory bulb to the ipsilateral olfactory cortices, while the AC carries odor information across the midline to the contralateral olfactory cortex and bulb. The LOT and AC differ on a number of dimensions, including early development and functional onset. The present work, examining their myelination in mice, reveals additional important differences. For example, the LOT initiates myelination 3-4 days earlier than the AC, evidenced by both an earlier increase in myelin basic protein staining seen with immunohistochemistry and an earlier appearance of myelinated fibers using electron microscopy...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661557/a-new-therapy-prevents-intellectual-disability-in-mouse-with-phenylketonuria
#18
Tiziana Pascucci, Luigia Rossi, Marco Colamartino, Claudia Gabucci, Claudia Carducci, Alessandro Valzania, Valeria Sasso, Noemi Bigini, Francesca Pierigè, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Rossella Ventura, Simona Cabib, Mauro Magnani, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Vincenzo Leuzzi
Untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) results in severe neurodevelopmental disorders, which can be partially prevented by an early and rigorous limitation of phenylalanine (Phe) intake. Enzyme substitution therapy with recombinant Anabaena variabilis Phe Ammonia Lyase (rAvPAL) proved to be effective in reducing blood Phe levels in preclinical and clinical studies of adults with PKU. Aims of present study were: a) to gather proofs of clinical efficacy of rAvPAL treatment in preventing neurological impairment in an early treated murine model of PKU; b) to test the advantages of an alternative delivering system for rAvPAL such as autologous erythrocytes...
April 7, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660252/encapsulated-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-fate-is-dependent-on-pdgf-aa-release-kinetics-in-a-3d-microparticle-hydrogel-drug-delivery-system
#19
Meghan R Pinezich, Lauren N Russell, Nicholas P Murphy, Kyle J Lampe
Biomaterial drug delivery systems (DDS) can be used to regulate growth factor release and combat the limited intrinsic regeneration capabilities of central nervous system (CNS) tissue following injury and disease. Of particular interest are systems that aid in oligodendrocyte regeneration, as oligodendrocytes generate myelin which surrounds neuronal axons and helps transmit signals throughout the CNS. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are found in small numbers in the adult CNS, but are unable to effectively differentiate following CNS injury...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656190/effect-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-on-the-bioavailability-and-neurotoxicity-of-cypermethrin-in-zebrafish-larvae
#20
Meng Li, Qiong Wu, Qiangwei Wang, Dandan Xiang, Guonian Zhu
In aquatic environment, the presence of nanoparticles (NPs) has been reported to modify the bioavailability and toxicity of the organic toxicants. Nevertheless, the combined toxicity of NPs and the pesticides that were used world-widely still remains unclear. Cypermethrin (CYP), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, is commonly used for controlling agricultural and indoor pests. Therefore, the effects of titanium dioxide NPs (nTiO2 ) on CYP bioconcentration and its effects on the neuronal development in zebrafish were investigated in our study...
March 31, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
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