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Myelin basic protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631553/administration-of-progesterone-throughout-pregnancy-increases-maternal-steroids-without-adverse-effect-on-mature-oligodendrocyte-immunostaining-in-the-guinea-pig
#1
Julia C Shaw, Hannah K Palliser, Kerrin Palazzi, Jonathan J Hirst
Progesterone is administered to pregnant women at risk of premature labor, despite systematic reviews showing conflicting outcomes regarding its use, highlighting doubt over the effectiveness of the therapy. Progesterone can be rapidly metabolized into a number of steroids, but to date, there has been a lack of investigation into the fetal steroid profiles following administration and whether this impacts fetal neurodevelopment. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of progesterone treatment on allopregnanolone and cortisol levels in the fetus and on a marker of myelination in the fetal brain...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620864/adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells-adsc-express-oligodendrocyte-and-myelin-markers-but-they-do-not-function-as-oligodendrocytes
#2
Lara Vellosillo, Maria Paz Muñoz, Carlos Luis Paíno
Mesenchymal cells cultured from the vasculo-stromal fraction of adipose tissue (ADSC) show adult stem cell characteristics and several groups have claimed generating neural cells from them. However, we have observed that many markers commonly used for the identification of neural cells are spontaneously expressed by ADSC in culture. In the present study, we have examined the expression of characteristic oligodendrocyte molecules in cultured ADSC, aiming to test if myelinating cells could be generated from accessible non-neural adult tissues...
June 15, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612133/brain-specific-serum-biomarkers-predict-neurological-morbidity-in-diagnostically-diverse-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-patients
#3
Alicia K Au, Michael J Bell, Ericka L Fink, Rajesh K Aneja, Patrick M Kochanek, Robert S B Clark
BACKGROUND: Unexpected neurological morbidity in Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) remains high and is difficult to detect proactively. Brain-specific biomarkers represent a novel approach for early detection of neurological injury. We sought to determine whether serum concentrations of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), myelin basic protein (MBP), and S100B, specific for neurons, oligodendrocytes, and glia, respectively, were predictive of neurological morbidity in critically ill children...
June 13, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594344/design-and-synthesis-of-non-peptide-mimetics-mapping-the-immunodominant-myelin-basic-protein-mbp83-96-epitope-to-function-as-t-cell-receptor-antagonists
#4
Mary-Patricia Yannakakis, Carmen Simal, Haralambos Tzoupis, Maria Rodi, Narges Dargahi, Monica Prakash, Athanasia Mouzaki, James A Platts, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Theodore V Tselios
Encephalitogenic T cells are heavily implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Their stimulation is triggered by the formation of a trimolecular complex between the human leukocyte antigen (HLA), an immunodominant myelin basic protein (MBP) epitope, and the T cell receptor (TCR). We detail herein our studies directed towards the rational design and synthesis of non-peptide mimetic molecules, based on the immunodominant MBP83-96 epitope that is recognized by the TCR in complex with HLA...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583585/effects-of-the-notch-signalling-pathway-on-hyperoxia-induced-immature-brain-damage-in-newborn-mice
#5
Min Du, Yuting Tan, Guangjian Liu, Lan Liu, Fei Cao, Jianxia Liu, Pu Jiang, Ying Xu
Hyperoxia exposure can cause dramatic release of proinflammatory cytokines, leading to neuronal apoptosis and inducing white matter damage in newborn mouse brains. Some studies indicated that the Notch activation was provoked during inflammation and might regulate adaptive and innate immune responses. Moreover, the pathway also regulated oligodendrocyte maturation which was disrupted in neonatal mice after hyperoxia exposure. This study sought to investigate whether the Notch signalling activation contributed to immature brain damage after hyperoxia exposure...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583580/acetyl-l-carnitine-enhances-myelination-of-regenerated-fibers-of-the-lateral-olfactory-tract
#6
Nanae Fukushima, Kumiko Yokouchi, Masafumi Kuroiwa, Kyutaro Kawagishi, Tetsuji Moriizumi
It is well known that acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) has various neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, it has been reported that ALC facilitates myelination of regenerated axons after peripheral nerve injuries. We previously reported that spontaneous regeneration of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT), the main fiber tract of the central olfactory system, consistently occurred in newborn rats and a majority of these regenerated fibers were unmyelinated in neonatally LOT-transected young adult rats...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573768/nodes-of-ranvier-in-skin-biopsies-of-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Kathrin Doppler, Franziska Frank, Ann-Cathrin Koschker, Karlheinz Reiners, Claudia Sommer
Paranodal demyelination has been discussed as a potential mechanism of nerve fiber damage in diabetic neuropathy. Studies on human tissue are limited, as nerve biopsies are invasive and only rarely performed in patients with confirmed diabetic neuropathy. Skin biopsy has recently been suggested as a tool to analyze paranodal and nodal changes of myelinated fibers. We analyzed the myelinated fibers of skin biopsies of 35 patients with diabetic neuropathy, 17 patients with diabetes mellitus without neuropathy, and 30 normal controls...
June 2, 2017: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571742/characterization-and-enzymatic-properties-of-protein-kinase-acr4-from-arabidopsis-thaliana
#8
Yu Zhao, Xuehe Liu, Ziyan Xu, Hui Yang, Jixi Li
Serine/threonine-protein kinase-like protein ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY4 (ACR4), a transmembrane protein of Arabidopsis thaliana, plays important roles in cell division and differentiation. Although accumulating studies shed light on the function of ACR4, the structure and catalytic mechanism of ACR4 remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the purification and enzymatic properties of the intracellular kinase domain (residues 464-799) of ACR4 (ACR4(IKD)). Through Ni-affinity chromatography and gel filter chromatography methods, we successfully obtain high-purity ACR4(IKD) protein from Escherichia coli...
May 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571657/transplantation-of-bone-marrow-stromal-stem-cells-overexpressing-tropomyosin-receptor-kinase-a-for-peripheral-nerve-repair
#9
Meige Zheng, Junxiu Duan, Zhendan He, Zhiwei Wang, Shuhua Mu, Zhiwen Zeng, Junle Qu, Dong Wang, Jian Zhang
BACKGROUND AIMS: Previously we reported that overexpression of tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) could improve the survival and Schwann-like cell differentiation of bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) in nerve grafts for bridging rat sciatic nerve defects. The aim of this study was to investigate how TrkA affects the efficacy of BMSCs transplantation on peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery. METHODS: Rat BMSCs were infected with recombinant lentiviruses to construct TrkA-overexpressing BMSCs and TrkA-shRNA-expressing BMSCs, which were then seeded in acellular nerve allografts for bridging 10-mm rat sciatic nerve defects...
May 29, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565820/beneficial-effects-of-jiawei-shenqi-wan-and-treadmill-training-on-deficits-associated-with-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemia-in-rats
#10
Ha Neui Kim, Malk Eun Pak, Myung Jun Shin, Soo Yeon Kim, Yong Beom Shin, Young Ju Yun, Hwa Kyoung Shin, Byung Tae Choi
Jiawei Shenqi-wan (JSQW), which comprises Shenqi-wan and two additional medicinal herbs, has been widely used for the treatment of various growth impairments, including cerebral palsy. In the present study, JSQW was administered to hypoxic-ischemic Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent treadmill training from 4-7 weeks of age to examine the beneficial effects of combined JSQW and treadmill therapy. Behavioral examinations were performed and a significant improvement in cylinder test performance was observed in rats treated with treadmill training compared with hypoxic-ischemia rats (P<0...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561815/effects-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-on-white-matter-injury-from-murine-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#11
Elliot Koo, R Ann Sheldon, Byong Sop Lee, Zinaida S Vexler, Donna M Ferriero
BackgroundTherapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the standard of care for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, but it is not fully protective in the clinical setting. Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) may cause white matter injury (WMI), leading to neurological and cognitive dysfunction.MethodsP9 mice were subjected to HI as previously described. Pups underwent 3.5 h of systemic hypothermia or normothermia. Cresyl violet and Perl's iron staining for histopathological scoring of brain sections was completed blindly on all brains...
May 31, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556404/viral-mediated-oligodendroglial-alpha-synuclein-expression-models-multiple-system-atrophy
#12
Fares Bassil, Paul A Guerin, Nathalie Dutheil, Qin Li, Matthias Klugmann, Wassilios G Meissner, Erwan Bezard, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut
BACKGROUND: MSA is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a combination of autonomic dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, and l-dopa unresponsive parkinsonism. The hallmark of MSA is the accumulation of α-synuclein, forming cytoplasmic inclusions in oligodendrocytes. Adeno-associated viruses allow efficient targeting of disease-associated genes in selected cellular ensembles and have proven efficient for the neuronal overexpression of α-synuclein in the substantia nigra in the context of PD...
May 29, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546087/region-specific-oligodendrocyte-transcription-factor-expression-in-a-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-injury
#13
Bethann M Affeldt, Andre Obenaus, Jonathan Chan, Andrea C Pardo
White matter injury (WMI) of prematurity is associated with a spectrum of neurological disorders ranging from mild cognitive and behavioral deficits to cerebral palsy. Translational studies have implicated impaired oligodendrocyte development after hypoxia as the primary cause of WMI, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to identify alterations in the expression of oligodendrocyte precursor cell transcription factors in a mouse model of transient mild global hypoxia...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518477/acute-oligodendrocyte-loss-with-persistent-white-matter-injury-in-a-third-trimester-equivalent-mouse-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#14
Jessie Newville, Carlos Fernando Valenzuela, Lu Li, Lauren L Jantzie, Lee Anna Cunningham
Alcohol exposure during central nervous system (CNS) development can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Human imaging studies have revealed significant white matter (WM) abnormalities linked to cognitive impairment in children with FASD; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we evaluated both the acute and long-term impacts of alcohol exposure on oligodendrocyte number and WM integrity in a third trimester-equivalent mouse model of FASD, in which mouse pups were exposed to alcohol during the first 2 weeks of postnatal development...
August 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504050/how-long-is-sufficient-for-optimal-neuroprotection-with-cerebral-cooling-after-ischemia-in-fetal-sheep
#15
Joanne O Davidson, Vittoria Draghi, Sean Whitham, Simerdeep K Dhillon, Guido Wassink, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
The optimal duration of mild "therapeutic" hypothermia for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is surprisingly unclear. This study assessed the relative efficacy of cooling for 48 h versus 72 h. Fetal sheep (0.85 gestation) received sham ischemia (n = 9) or 30 min global cerebral ischemia followed by normothermia (n = 8) or delayed hypothermia from 3 h to 48 h (n = 8) or 72 h (n = 8). Ischemia was associated with profound loss of electroencephalogram (EEG) power, neurons in the cortex and hippocampus, and oligodendrocytes and myelin basic protein expression in the white matter, with increased Iba-1-positive microglia and proliferation...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487967/comparative-analysis-of-the-beneficial-effects-of-treadmill-training-and-electroacupuncture-in-a-rat-model-of-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#16
Ha Neui Kim, Malk Eun Pak, Myung Jun Shin, Soo Yeon Kim, Yong Beom Shin, Young Ju Yun, Hwa Kyoung Shin, Byung Tae Choi
In the present study, we investigated whether treadmill training and electroacupuncture (EA) have autonomous or synergistic beneficial effects on deficits caused by neonatal hypoxia‑ischemia in Sprague-Dawley rats. For this purpose, rats subjected to hypoxia-ischemia underwent treadmill training and EA stimulation from 4 to 8 weeks of age. Conventional EA (CEA) and scalp EA (SEA) were delivered by electrical stimulation (2 Hz, 1 mA) at traditional acupoints and at the scalp to the primary motor area, respectively...
June 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482862/higher-levels-of-myelin-phospholipids-in-brains-of-neuronal-%C3%AE-synuclein-transgenic-mice-precede-myelin-loss
#17
Jessica Grigoletto, Katharina Pukaß, Ayelet Gamliel, Dana Davidi, Rachel Katz-Brull, Christiane Richter-Landsberg, Ronit Sharon
α-Synuclein is a protein involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies, including Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). We investigated the role of neuronal α-Syn in myelin composition and abnormalities. The phospholipid content of purified myelin was determined by (31)P NMR in two mouse lines modeling PD, PrP-A53T α-Syn and Thy-1 wt-α-Syn. Significantly higher levels of phospholipids were detected in myelin purified from brains of these α-Syn transgenic mouse models than in control mice...
May 8, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475650/deficiency-of-adaptive-immunity-does-not-interfere-with-wallerian-degeneration
#18
Christopher R Cashman, Ahmet Hoke
Following injury, distal axons undergo the process of Wallerian degeneration, and then cell debris is cleared to create a permissive environment for axon regeneration. The innate and adaptive immune systems are believed to be critical for facilitating the clearance of myelin and axonal debris during this process. However, immunodeficient animal models are regularly used in transplantation studies investigating cell therapies to modulate the degenerative/regenerative response. Given the importance of the immune system in preparing a permissive environment for regeneration by clearing debris, animals lacking, in part or in full, a functional immune system may have an impaired ability to regenerate due to poor myelin clearance, and may, thus, be poor hosts to study modulators of regeneration and degeneration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474539/induced-neural-activity-promotes-an-oligodendroglia-regenerative-response-in-the-injured-spinal-cord-and-improves-motor-function-after-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Qun Li, Thierry Houdayer, Su Liu, Visar Belegu
Myelination in central nervous system (CNS) is a dynamic process that includes birth of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), their differentiation into oligodendrocytes, and ensheathment of axons. Regulation of myelination by neuronal activity has emerged as a new mechanism of CNS plasticity. Indeed, activity-dependent myelination has been shown to regulate sensory, motor and cognitive functions. In this work, we aimed to employ this mechanism of CNS plasticity by utilizing induced neuronal activity to promote remyelination and functional recovery in a subchronic model of SCI...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470769/how-human-iggs-against-myelin-basic-protein-mbp-recognize-oligopeptides-and-mbp
#20
Sergey Belov, Valentina N Buneva, Georgy A Nevinsky
Myelin basic protein (MBP) is a major protein of myelin-proteolipid shell of axons, and it plays an important role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In the literature, there are no data on how antibodies recognize different protein antigens including MBP. A stepwise increase in ligand complexity was used to estimate the relative contributions of virtually every amino acid residue (AA) of a specific 12-mer LSRFSWGAEGQK oligopeptide corresponding to immunodominant sequence of MBP to the light chains and to intact anti-MBP IgGs from sera of patients with multiple sclerosis...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
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