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Myelin basic protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425447/development-and-pre-clinical-evaluation-of-recombinant-human-myelin-basic-protein-nano-therapeutic-vaccine-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice-animal-model
#1
Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Aliaa N ElMeshad, Rania M Abdelsalam, Mohammed M Nooh, Muhammad Al-Shorbagy, Götz Laible
Recombinant human myelin basic protein (rhMBP) was previously produced in the milk of transgenic cows. Differences in molecular recognition of either hMBP or rhMBP by surface-immobilized anti-hMBP antibodies were demonstrated. This indicated differences in immunological response between rhMBP and hMBP. Here, the activity of free and controlled release rhMBP poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (NPs), as a therapeutic vaccine against multiple sclerosis (MS) was demonstrated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419506/neuronal-loss-demyelination-and-volume-change-in-the-multiple-sclerosis-neocortex
#2
D Carassiti, D R Altmann, N Petrova, B Pakkenberg, F Scaravilli, K Schmierer
AIMS: Indices of brain volume (grey matter, white matter, lesions) are being used as outcomes in clinical trials of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated the relationship between cortical volume, the number of neocortical neurons estimated using stereology, and demyelination. METHODS: Nine MS and seven control hemispheres were dissected into coronal slices. On sections stained for Giemsa, the cortex was outlined and optical disectors applied using systematic uniform random sampling...
April 18, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418035/chronic-social-defeat-reduces-myelination-in-the-mouse-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#3
Michael L Lehmann, Thaddeus K Weigel, Abdel G Elkahloun, Miles Herkenham
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in top-down control of the brain's stress axis, and its structure and function are particularly vulnerable to stress effects, which can lead to depression in humans and depressive-like states in animals. We tested whether chronic social defeat produces structural alterations in the mPFC in mice. We first performed a microarray analysis of mPFC gene expression changes induced by defeat, and biological pathway analysis revealed a dominant pattern of down-regulation of myelin-associated genes...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413924/erythropoietin-attenuates-axonal-injury-after-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-mice
#4
Rongliang Wang, Haiping Zhao, Jincheng Li, Yunxia Duan, Zhibin Fan, Zhen Tao, Fei Ju, Feng Yan, Yumin Luo
OBJECTIVE: Erythropoietin (EPO) confers potent neuroprotection against ischemic injury through a variety of mechanisms. However, the protective effect of EPO on axons after cerebral ischemia in adult mice is rarely covered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of EPO on axons in mice after cerebral ischemia. METHODS: A total of 30 adult male C57 BL/6 mice were treated with EPO (5000 IU/kg) or vehicle after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
April 16, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413712/variation-within-mbp-gene-predicts-disease-course-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Yuan Zhou, Steve Simpson, Jac C Charlesworth, Ingrid van der Mei, Robyn M Lucas, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Bruce V Taylor
OBJECTIVE: Prognosis following a first demyelinating event is difficult to predict, with no genetic markers of MS progression currently identified. Myelin basic protein (MBP) is a major component of the myelin sheath of CNS neurons and may play a central role in demyelinating diseases such as MS. However, genetic variation in MBP has not been implicated in MS onset risk in large genome-wide association studies. We hypothesized that genetic variations in MBP may be a determinant of MS clinical course...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412141/toll-like-receptor-4-activation-can-be-either-detrimental-or-beneficial-following-mild-repetitive-traumatic-brain-injury-depending-on-timing-of-activation
#6
Frances Corrigan, Alina Arulsamy, Lyndsey E Collins-Praino, Joshua L Holmes, Robert Vink
A history of repeated concussion has been linked to the later development of neurodegeneration, which is associated with the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and the development of behavioral deficits. However, the role that exogenous factors, such as immune activation, may play in the development of neurodegeneration following repeated mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) has not yet been explored. To investigate, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered three mTBIs 5 days apart using the diffuse impact-acceleration model to generate ∼100G...
April 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401686/axonal-loss-in-the-multiple-sclerosis-spinal-cord-revisited
#7
N Petrova, D Carassiti, D R Altmann, D Baker, K Schmierer
Preventing chronic disease deterioration is an unmet need in people with multiple sclerosis, where axonal loss is considered a key substrate of disability. Clinically, chronic multiple sclerosis often presents as progressive myelopathy. Spinal cord cross-sectional area assessed using MRI predicts increasing disability and has, by inference, been proposed as an indirect index of axonal degeneration. However, the association between cross-sectional area and axonal loss, and their correlation with demyelination, have never been systematically investigated using human post mortem tissue...
April 12, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399099/-immunological-parameters-in-assessing-the-risk-of-decompensation-in-children-with-mental-retardation
#8
A A Shmakova, O P Shmakova, L V Androsova
AIM: To analyze the correlation between clinical and immunological parameters in children with mental retardation (MR) in order to explore the possibilities of using immunological data in assessing the severity of patient's condition and predicting a risk of decompensation, exacerbation of mental disorders comorbid to MR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-three school children, aged 8-17 years, mean age 12,6±2,4 years, with MR of different genesis and 64 physically and mentally healthy children (control group) of the same age and sex were studied clinically and immunologically...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396871/innervation-of-the-human-cavum-conchae-and-auditory-canal-anatomical-basis-for-transcutaneous-auricular-nerve-stimulation
#9
P Bermejo, M López, I Larraya, J Chamorro, J L Cobo, S Ordóñez, J A Vega
The innocuous transcutaneous stimulation of nerves supplying the outer ear has been demonstrated to be as effective as the invasive direct stimulation of the vagus nerve for the treatment of some neurological and nonneurological disturbances. Thus, the precise knowledge of external ear innervation is of maximal interest for the design of transcutaneous auricular nerve stimulation devices. We analyzed eleven outer ears, and the innervation was assessed by Masson's trichrome staining, immunohistochemistry, or immunofluorescence (neurofilaments, S100 protein, and myelin-basic protein)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392569/multichannel-polymer-scaffold-seeded-with-activated-schwann-cells-and-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-improves-axonal-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Er-Zhu Yang, Guo-Wang Zhang, Jian-Guang Xu, Shuai Chen, Hua Wang, Liang-Liang Cao, Bo Liang, Xiao-Feng Lian
The adult mammalian CNS has a limited capacity to regenerate after traumatic injury. In this study, a combinatorial strategy to promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) was evaluated in adult rats. The rats were subjected to a complete transection in the thoracic spinal cord, and multichannel scaffolds seeded with activated Schwann cells (ASCs) and/or rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were acutely grafted into the 3-mm-wide transection gap. At 4 weeks post-transplantation and thereafter, the rats receiving scaffolds seeded with ASCs and MSCs exhibited significant recovery of nerve function as shown by the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) score and electrophysiological test results...
April 10, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382875/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-and-regrouping-on-natural-autoantibodies-binding-danger-and-neural-antigens-in-healthy-pigs-with-different-individual-characteristics
#11
L Luo, R Geers, I Reimert, B Kemp, H K Parmentier, J E Bolhuis
Pigs living in commercial husbandry systems may experience both acute stress due to standard management procedures and chronic stress through limitations in their barren housing environment. This might influence their immune status, including antibody responses to neural and danger autoantigens. Levels of natural autoantibody (NAAb)-binding phosphorylcholine-conjugated bovine serum albumin (PC-BSA) and myelin basic protein (MBP) were measured over time in pigs that were kept in environmental enriched v. barren housing, and that underwent a regrouping test...
April 6, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382685/dimethyl-fumarate-ameliorates-myoclonus-stemming-from-protein-misfolding-in-oligodendrocytes
#12
Cherie M Southwood, Danielle M Garshott, Chelsea R Richardson, Navid Seraji-Bozorgzad, Andrew M Fribley, Alexander Gow
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered a primary autoimmune disease; however, this view is increasingly being challenged in basic and clinical science arenas because of the growing body of clinical trials data showing that exclusion of immune cells from the CNS only modestly slows disease progression to disability. Accordingly, there is significant need for expanding the scope of potential disease mechanisms to understand the etiology of MS. Concomitantly, the use of a broader range of preclinical animal models for characterizing existing efficacious clinical treatments may elucidate additional or unexpected mechanisms of action for these drugs that augment insight into MS etiology...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380689/docking-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-the-fyn-sh3-domain-with-free-and-phospholipid-bilayer-associated-18-5-kda-myelin-basic-protein-mbp-insights-into-a-non-canonical-and-fuzzy-interaction
#13
Kyrylo Bessonov, Kenrick A Vassall, George Harauz
The molecular details of the association between the human Fyn-SH3 domain, and the fragment of 18.5-kDa myelin basic protein (MBP) spanning residues S38-S107 (denoted as xα2-peptide, murine sequence numbering), were studied in silico via docking and molecular dynamics over 50-ns trajectories. The results show that interaction between the two proteins is energetically favorable and heavily-dependent on the MBP proline-rich region (P93-P98) in both aqueous and membrane environments. In aqueous conditions, the xα2-peptide/Fyn-SH3 complex adopts a "sandwich"-like structure...
April 5, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376115/dynamic-glucocorticoid-dependent-regulation-of-sgk1-expression-in-oligodendrocytes-of-adult-male-rat-brain-by-acute-stress-and-time-of-day
#14
Laura R Hinds, Lauren E Chun, Elizabeth R Woodruff, Jennifer A Christensen, Matthew J Hartsock, Robert L Spencer
Recent studies support plasticity in adult brain white matter structure and myelination in response to various experiential factors. One possible contributor to this plasticity may be activity-dependent modulation of serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (Sgk1) expression in oligodendrocytes. We examined whether Sgk1 expression in adult rat brain white matter is increased by acute stress-induced elevations in endogenous corticosterone and whether it fluctuates with diurnal variations in corticosterone...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367421/coadministration-of-dexamethasone-and-melissa-officinalis-has-neuroprotective-effects-in-rat-animal-model-with-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Seyed Ruhollah Hosseini, Gholamreza Kaka, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Mehdi Hooshmandi, Seyed Homayoon Sadraie, Kayvan Yaghoobi, Korosh Mansoori, Alireza Mohammadi
OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes inflammation, deformity and cell loss. It has been shown that Melissa officinalis (MO), as herbal medicine, and dexamethasone (DEX) are useful in the prevention of various neurological diseases. The present study evaluated combinational effects of DEX and MO on spinal cord injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty six adult male Wistar rats were used in this experimental study. The weight-drop contusion method was employed to induce spinal cord injury in rats...
April 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326060/microbial-neuraminidase-induces-a-moderate-and-transient-myelin-vacuolation-independent-of-complement-system-activation
#16
Pablo Granados-Durán, María Dolores López-Ávalos, Manuel Cifuentes, Margarita Pérez-Martín, María Del Mar Fernández-Arjona, Timothy R Hughes, Krista Johnson, B Paul Morgan, Pedro Fernández-Llebrez, Jesús M Grondona
AIMS: Some central nervous system pathogens express neuraminidase (NA) on their surfaces. In the rat brain, a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of NA induces myelin vacuolation in axonal tracts. Here, we explore the nature, the time course, and the role of the complement system in this damage. METHODS: The spatiotemporal analysis of myelin vacuolation was performed by optical and electron microscopy. Myelin basic protein-positive area and oligodendrocyte transcription factor (Olig2)-positive cells were quantified in the damaged bundles...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323064/the-relevance-of-%C3%AE-klotho-to-the-central-nervous-system-some-key-questions
#17
REVIEW
Marina Minto Lopes-Cararo, Caio Henrique Yokoyama Mazucanti, Cristoforo Scavone, Elisa Mitiko Kawamoto, Daniel Charles Berwick
α-Klotho is well described as an anti-aging protein, with critical roles in kidney function as a transmembrane co-receptor for FGF23, and as a soluble factor in serum. α-Klotho is also expressed in the choroid plexus, where it is released into the cerebrospinal fluid. Nonetheless, α-Klotho is also expressed in the brain parenchyma. Accumulating evidence indicates that this pool of α-Klotho, which we define as brain α-Klotho, may play important roles as a neuroprotective factor and in promoting myelination, thereby supporting healthy brain aging...
March 18, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315720/the-protective-effect-of-the-active-components-of-erpc-on-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-in-rats
#18
Gai-Mei Hao, Yong-Gang Liu, Yan Wu, Wei Xing, Shu-Zhen Guo, Yong Wang, Zheng-Lin Wang, Chun Li, Tian-Tian Lv, Hong-Liang Wang, Tian-Jiao Shi, Wei Wang, Jing Han
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Euonymus alatus, Radix trichosanthis, Panax notoginseng and Coptis chinensis are popular plants used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diabetes. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of the active components of Euonymus alatus, Radix trichosanthis, Panax notoginseng and Coptis chinensis (cERPC) on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the rats and explore the underlying mechanism involved...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290147/temporal-profile-and-severity-correlation-of-a-panel-of-rat-spinal-cord-injury-protein-biomarkers
#19
Zhihui Yang, Helen M Bramlett, Ahmed Moghieb, Dongnan Yu, Ping Wang, Fan Lin, Carl Bauer, Tyler M Selig, Emily Jaalouk, Amanda S Weissman, Disa S Rathore, Pammela Romo, Zhiqun Zhang, Ronald L Hayes, Michael Y Wang, W Dalton Dietrich, Kevin K W Wang
In the USA, there are approximately 12,000 new cases of spinal cord injury (SCI) each year and some 1.2 million people living with paralysis due to SCI. Seven percent of them are paralyzed due to an accident or injury occurring while serving in the military. Here, we report a systematic study on protein biomarker candidates in a rat SCI model with either moderate or severe injury. Tissue, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and serum samples were obtained at 4 h, 24 h, and 7 days post-injury. The candidate biomarkers included axonal injury markers αII-spectrin breakdown products (SBDP150/145/120), neuronal cell body injury marker ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), astrogliosis/astroglial injury markers S100 calcium-binding protein-β (S100β), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and GFAP breakdown products (GBDPs), demyelination marker myelin basic protein (MBP), axonal injury marker phosphorylated neurofilament-H (pNF-H), and neuroinflammation marker interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289516/biochemical-changes-in-the-injured-brain
#20
EDITORIAL
Seelora Sahu, Deb Sanjay Nag, Amlan Swain, Devi Prasad Samaddar
Brain metabolism is an energy intensive phenomenon involving a wide spectrum of chemical intermediaries. Various injury states have a detrimental effect on the biochemical processes involved in the homeostatic and electrophysiological properties of the brain. The biochemical markers of brain injury are a recent addition in the armamentarium of neuro-clinicians and are being increasingly used in the routine management of neuro-pathological entities such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage and intracranial space occupying lesions...
February 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
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