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Myelin basic protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518477/acute-oligodendrocyte-loss-with-persistent-white-matter-injury-in-a-third-trimester-equivalent-mouse-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#1
Jessie Newville, Carlos Fernando Valenzuela, Lu Li, Lauren L Jantzie, Lee Anna Cunningham
Alcohol exposure during central nervous system (CNS) development can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Human imaging studies have revealed significant white matter (WM) abnormalities linked to cognitive impairment in children with FASD; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we evaluated both the acute and long-term impacts of alcohol exposure on oligodendrocyte number and WM integrity in a third trimester-equivalent mouse model of FASD, in which mouse pups were exposed to alcohol during the first 2 weeks of postnatal development...
May 18, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504050/how-long-is-sufficient-for-optimal-neuroprotection-with-cerebral-cooling-after-ischemia-in-fetal-sheep
#2
Joanne O Davidson, Vittoria Draghi, Sean Whitham, Simerdeep K Dhillon, Guido Wassink, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
The optimal duration of mild "therapeutic" hypothermia for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is surprisingly unclear. This study assessed the relative efficacy of cooling for 48 h versus 72 h. Fetal sheep (0.85 gestation) received sham ischemia (n = 9) or 30 min global cerebral ischemia followed by normothermia (n = 8) or delayed hypothermia from 3 h to 48 h (n = 8) or 72 h (n = 8). Ischemia was associated with profound loss of electroencephalogram (EEG) power, neurons in the cortex and hippocampus, and oligodendrocytes and myelin basic protein expression in the white matter, with increased Iba-1-positive microglia and proliferation...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487967/comparative-analysis-of-the-beneficial-effects-of-treadmill-training-and-electroacupuncture-in-a-rat-model-of-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#3
Ha Neui Kim, Malk Eun Pak, Myung Jun Shin, Soo Yeon Kim, Yong Beom Shin, Young Ju Yun, Hwa Kyoung Shin, Byung Tae Choi
In the present study, we investigated whether treadmill training and electroacupuncture (EA) have autonomous or synergistic beneficial effects on deficits caused by neonatal hypoxia‑ischemia in Sprague-Dawley rats. For this purpose, rats subjected to hypoxia-ischemia underwent treadmill training and EA stimulation from 4 to 8 weeks of age. Conventional EA (CEA) and scalp EA (SEA) were delivered by electrical stimulation (2 Hz, 1 mA) at traditional acupoints and at the scalp to the primary motor area, respectively...
June 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482862/higher-levels-of-myelin-phospholipids-in-brains-of-neuronal-%C3%AE-synuclein-transgenic-mice-precede-myelin-loss
#4
Jessica Grigoletto, Katharina Pukaß, Ayelet Gamliel, Dana Davidi, Rachel Katz-Brull, Christiane Richter-Landsberg, Ronit Sharon
α-Synuclein is a protein involved in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies, including Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). We investigated the role of neuronal α-Syn in myelin composition and abnormalities. The phospholipid content of purified myelin was determined by (31)P NMR in two mouse lines modeling PD, PrP-A53T α-Syn and Thy-1 wt-α-Syn. Significantly higher levels of phospholipids were detected in myelin purified from brains of these α-Syn transgenic mouse models than in control mice...
May 8, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475650/deficiency-of-adaptive-immunity-does-not-interfere-with-wallerian-degeneration
#5
Christopher R Cashman, Ahmet Hoke
Following injury, distal axons undergo the process of Wallerian degeneration, and then cell debris is cleared to create a permissive environment for axon regeneration. The innate and adaptive immune systems are believed to be critical for facilitating the clearance of myelin and axonal debris during this process. However, immunodeficient animal models are regularly used in transplantation studies investigating cell therapies to modulate the degenerative/regenerative response. Given the importance of the immune system in preparing a permissive environment for regeneration by clearing debris, animals lacking, in part or in full, a functional immune system may have an impaired ability to regenerate due to poor myelin clearance, and may, thus, be poor hosts to study modulators of regeneration and degeneration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474539/induced-neural-activity-promotes-an-oligodendroglia-regenerative-response-in-the-injured-spinal-cord-and-improves-motor-function-after-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Qun Li, Thierry Houdayer, Su Liu, Visar Belegu
Myelination in central nervous system (CNS) is a dynamic process that includes birth of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), their differentiation into oligodendrocytes, and ensheathment of axons. Regulation of myelination by neuronal activity has emerged as a new mechanism of CNS plasticity. Indeed, activity-dependent myelination has been shown to regulate sensory, motor and cognitive functions. In this work, we aimed to employ this mechanism of CNS plasticity by utilizing induced neuronal activity to promote remyelination and functional recovery in a subchronic model of SCI...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470769/how-human-iggs-against-myelin-basic-protein-mbp-recognize-oligopeptides-and-mbp
#7
Sergey Belov, Valentina N Buneva, Georgy A Nevinsky
Myelin basic protein (MBP) is a major protein of myelin-proteolipid shell of axons, and it plays an important role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In the literature, there are no data on how antibodies recognize different protein antigens including MBP. A stepwise increase in ligand complexity was used to estimate the relative contributions of virtually every amino acid residue (AA) of a specific 12-mer LSRFSWGAEGQK oligopeptide corresponding to immunodominant sequence of MBP to the light chains and to intact anti-MBP IgGs from sera of patients with multiple sclerosis...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470584/myelin-basic-protein-citrullination-a-hallmark-of-central-nervous-system-demyelination-assessed-by-novel-monoclonal-antibodies-in-prion-diseases
#8
Byungki Jang, Yong-Chul Jeon, Hae-Young Shin, Yun-Jung Lee, Hyunji Kim, Yoshitaka Kondo, Akihito Ishigami, Yong-Sun Kim, Eun-Kyoung Choi
Myelin basic protein (MBP) citrullination by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) enzymes leads to incomplete protein-lipid bilayer interactions and vulnerability to proteolytic enzymes, resulting in disorganization of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system. Therefore, citrullinated MBP (citMBP) has been suggested as a hallmark of demyelination, but how citMBP is implicated in prion diseases remains unknown. For the first time, we developed mouse monoclonal anti-citMBP IgG1 (clones 1B8, 1H1, and 3C6) and IgM (clone 3G5) antibodies that recognize human citMBP at its R25, R122, and R130 residues and at its C-terminal region (or the corresponding sites in mouse MBP), respectively...
May 3, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469524/olfactory-neuroepithelial-neural-progenitor-cells-from-subjects-with-bipolar-i-disorder
#9
Yonglin Gao, Welby Winstead, Zhenmin Lei, Chengliang Lu, Fred J Roisen, Rif S El-Mallakh
BACKGROUND: Research into the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is limited by the inability to examine brain cellular processes in subjects with the illness. METHODS: Endoscopic biopsy was performed in subjects with bipolar I disorder to establish olfactory neural progenitor (ONP) cell lines. Olfactory function was assessed prebiopsy and postbiopsy using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). Cells were characterized to determine their lineage...
2017: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464811/effect-of-catalpol-on-remyelination-through-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-acting-to-promote-olig1-and-olig2-expressions-in-mice
#10
Tao Yang, Qi Zheng, Su Wang, Ling Fang, Lei Liu, Hui Zhao, Lei Wang, Yongping Fan
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) as an autoimmune disorder is a common disease occurring in central nervous system (CNS) and the remyelination plays a pivotal role in the alleviating neurological impairment in the MS. Catalpol, an effective component extracted from the Chinese herb Radix Rehmanniae, which has been proved protective in cerebral diseases. METHODS: To determine the protective effects and mechanisms of Catalpol on MS, the mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) were induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55, as a model for human MS...
May 2, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452087/cytotoxic-cd8-t-cells-ablation-enhances-the-capacity-of-regulatory-t-cells-to-delay-viral-elimination-in-theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis
#11
Malgorzata Ciurkiewicz, Vanessa Herder, Muhammad Akram Khan, Ann-Kathrin Uhde, René Teich, Stephan Floess, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Jochen Huehn, Andreas Beineke
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) of susceptible mouse strains is a commonly used infectious animal model for multiple sclerosis. The study aim was to test the hypothesis whether cytotoxic T cell responses account for the limited impact of regulatory T cells on antiviral immunity in TME virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) resistant C57BL/6 mice. TME virus-infected C57BL/6 mice were treated with (i) interleukin-2/-anti-interleukin-2-antibody-complexes to expand regulatory T cells ('Treg-expansion'), (ii) anti-CD8-antibodies to deplete cytotoxic T cells ('CD8-depletion') or (iii) with a combination of Treg-expansion and CD8-depletion ('combined treatment') prior to infection...
April 27, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434974/proteomic-approach-to-detect-changes-in-hippocampal-protein-levels-in-an-animal-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#12
Sung Min Nam, Dae Young Yoo, Hyun Jung Kwon, Jong Whi Kim, Hyo Young Jung, Dae Won Kim, Ho Jae Han, Moo-Ho Won, Je Kyung Seong, In Koo Hwang, Yeo Sung Yoon
In our previous study, we demonstrated that type 2 diabetes affects blood-brain barrier integrity and ultrastructural morphology in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats at 40 weeks of age. In the present study, we investigated the possible candidates for diabetes-related proteins in the hippocampus of ZDF rats and their control littermates (Zucker lean control, ZLC), by using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF)...
April 21, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425447/development-and-pre-clinical-evaluation-of-recombinant-human-myelin-basic-protein-nano-therapeutic-vaccine-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice-animal-model
#13
Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Aliaa N ElMeshad, Rania M Abdelsalam, Mohammed M Nooh, Muhammad Al-Shorbagy, Götz Laible
Recombinant human myelin basic protein (rhMBP) was previously produced in the milk of transgenic cows. Differences in molecular recognition of either hMBP or rhMBP by surface-immobilized anti-hMBP antibodies were demonstrated. This indicated differences in immunological response between rhMBP and hMBP. Here, the activity of free and controlled release rhMBP poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (NPs), as a therapeutic vaccine against multiple sclerosis (MS) was demonstrated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419506/neuronal-loss-demyelination-and-volume-change-in-the-multiple-sclerosis-neocortex
#14
D Carassiti, D R Altmann, N Petrova, B Pakkenberg, F Scaravilli, K Schmierer
AIMS: Indices of brain volume (grey matter, white matter, lesions) are being used as outcomes in clinical trials of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated the relationship between cortical volume, the number of neocortical neurons estimated using stereology, and demyelination. METHODS: Nine MS and seven control hemispheres were dissected into coronal slices. On sections stained for Giemsa, the cortex was outlined and optical disectors applied using systematic uniform random sampling...
April 18, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418035/chronic-social-defeat-reduces-myelination-in-the-mouse-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#15
Michael L Lehmann, Thaddeus K Weigel, Abdel G Elkahloun, Miles Herkenham
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in top-down control of the brain's stress axis, and its structure and function are particularly vulnerable to stress effects, which can lead to depression in humans and depressive-like states in animals. We tested whether chronic social defeat produces structural alterations in the mPFC in mice. We first performed a microarray analysis of mPFC gene expression changes induced by defeat, and biological pathway analysis revealed a dominant pattern of down-regulation of myelin-associated genes...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413924/erythropoietin-attenuates-axonal-injury-after-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-mice
#16
Rongliang Wang, Haiping Zhao, Jincheng Li, Yunxia Duan, Zhibin Fan, Zhen Tao, Fei Ju, Feng Yan, Yumin Luo
OBJECTIVE: Erythropoietin (EPO) confers potent neuroprotection against ischemic injury through a variety of mechanisms. However, the protective effect of EPO on axons after cerebral ischemia in adult mice is rarely covered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of EPO on axons in mice after cerebral ischemia. METHODS: A total of 30 adult male C57 BL/6 mice were treated with EPO (5000 IU/kg) or vehicle after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
June 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413712/variation-within-mbp-gene-predicts-disease-course-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Yuan Zhou, Steve Simpson, Jac C Charlesworth, Ingrid van der Mei, Robyn M Lucas, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Bruce V Taylor
OBJECTIVE: Prognosis following a first demyelinating event is difficult to predict, with no genetic markers of MS progression currently identified. Myelin basic protein (MBP) is a major component of the myelin sheath of CNS neurons and may play a central role in demyelinating diseases such as MS. However, genetic variation in MBP has not been implicated in MS onset risk in large genome-wide association studies. We hypothesized that genetic variations in MBP may be a determinant of MS clinical course...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412141/toll-like-receptor-4-activation-can-be-either-detrimental-or-beneficial-following-mild-repetitive-traumatic-brain-injury-depending-on-timing-of-activation
#18
Frances Corrigan, Alina Arulsamy, Lyndsey E Collins-Praino, Joshua L Holmes, Robert Vink
A history of repeated concussion has been linked to the later development of neurodegeneration, which is associated with the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and the development of behavioral deficits. However, the role that exogenous factors, such as immune activation, may play in the development of neurodegeneration following repeated mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) has not yet been explored. To investigate, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered three mTBIs 5 days apart using the diffuse impact-acceleration model to generate ∼100G...
April 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401686/axonal-loss-in-the-multiple-sclerosis-spinal-cord-revisited
#19
Natalia Petrova, Daniele Carassiti, Daniel R Altmann, David Baker, Klaus Schmierer
Preventing chronic disease deterioration is an unmet need in people with multiple sclerosis, where axonal loss is considered a key substrate of disability. Clinically, chronic multiple sclerosis often presents as progressive myelopathy. Spinal cord cross-sectional area (CSA) assessed using MRI predicts increasing disability and has, by inference, been proposed as an indirect index of axonal degeneration. However, the association between CSA and axonal loss, and their correlation with demyelination, have never been systematically investigated using human post mortem tissue...
April 12, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399099/-immunological-parameters-in-assessing-the-risk-of-decompensation-in-children-with-mental-retardation
#20
A A Shmakova, O P Shmakova, L V Androsova
AIM: To analyze the correlation between clinical and immunological parameters in children with mental retardation (MR) in order to explore the possibilities of using immunological data in assessing the severity of patient's condition and predicting a risk of decompensation, exacerbation of mental disorders comorbid to MR. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-three school children, aged 8-17 years, mean age 12,6±2,4 years, with MR of different genesis and 64 physically and mentally healthy children (control group) of the same age and sex were studied clinically and immunologically...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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