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Myelin basic protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100454/gene-therapy-targeting-oligodendrocytes-provides-therapeutic-benefit-in-a-leukodystrophy-model
#1
Elena Georgiou, Kyriaki Sidiropoulou, Jan Richter, Christos Papaneophytou, Irene Sargiannidou, Alexia Kagiava, Georg von Jonquieres, Christina Christodoulou, Matthias Klugmann, Kleopas A Kleopa
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease or hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-2 is an autosomal recessively inherited leukodystrophy with childhood onset resulting from mutations in the gene encoding the gap junction protein connexin 47 (Cx47, encoded by GJC2). Cx47 is expressed specifically in oligodendrocytes and is crucial for gap junctional communication throughout the central nervous system. Previous studies confirmed that a cell autonomous loss-of-function mechanism underlies hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-2 and that transgenic oligodendrocyte-specific expression of another connexin, Cx32 (GJB1), can restore gap junctions in oligodendrocytes to achieve correction of the pathology in a disease model...
January 18, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092438/biofunctionalization-of-nerve-interface-via-biocompatible-polymer-roughened-pt-black-on-cuff-electrode-for-chronic-recording
#2
Yi Jae Lee, Han-Jun Kim, Ji Yoon Kang, Sun Hee Do, Soo Hyun Lee
Peripheral nerve cuff electrodes with roughened Pt black (BPt) are coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Nafion (NF). Although the influence of coated PEG and Nafion on roughened BPt on the electrical properties is weak, the cuff electrode with BPt/PEG and BPt/Nafion exhibits some very important properties. For example, it markedly decreases interfacial impedance, increases charge storage capacity (CSC) due to retaining the BPt surface structure, good stability without exfoliation in repetitive cyclic voltammetry scanning because it is protected by PEG or Nafion coating...
January 16, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087806/splenectomy-does-not-improve-long-term-outcome-after-stroke
#3
Dannielle Zierath, Angela Shen, Astiana Stults, Theresa Olmstead, Kyra J Becker
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Immune responses to brain antigens after stroke contribute to poor outcome. We hypothesized that splenectomy would lessen the development of such responses and improve outcome. METHODS: Male Lewis rats (275-350 g) underwent 2-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion immediately after splenectomy or sham splenectomy. Animals were survived to 4 weeks (672 hrs), and immune responses to myelin basic protein determined at euthanasia. Infarct volume was determined in a subset of animals euthanized at 72 hours...
January 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080173/evaluation-of-long-term-cryostorage-of-brain-tissue-sections-for-quantitative-histochemistry
#4
Larissa I Estrada, Amy A Robinson, Ana C Amaral, Eustathia L Giannaris, Nadine C Heyworth, Farzad Mortazavi, Laura B Ngwenya, Debra E Roberts, Howard J Cabral, Ronald J Killiany, Douglas L Rosene
Storage of tissue sections for long periods allows multiple samples, acquired over months or years, to be processed together, in the same reagents, for quantitative histochemical studies. Protocols for freezer storage of free-floating frozen sections using sucrose with different additives have been reported and assert that storage has no effect on histochemistry, but no quantitative support has been provided. The present study analyzed the efficacy of long-term storage of brain tissue sections at -80C in buffered 15% glycerol...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076777/antagonistic-functions-of-mbp-and-cnp-establish-cytosolic-channels-in-cns-myelin
#5
Nicolas Snaidero, Caroline Velte, Matti Myllykoski, Arne Raasakka, Alexander Ignatev, Hauke B Werner, Michelle S Erwig, Wiebke Möbius, Petri Kursula, Klaus-Armin Nave, Mikael Simons
The myelin sheath is a multilamellar plasma membrane extension of highly specialized glial cells laid down in regularly spaced segments along axons. Recent studies indicate that myelin is metabolically active and capable of communicating with the underlying axon. To be functionally connected to the neuron, oligodendrocytes maintain non-compacted myelin as cytoplasmic nanochannels. Here, we used high-pressure freezing for electron microscopy to study these cytoplasmic regions within myelin close to their native state...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069926/creatine-enhances-mitochondrial-mediated-oligodendrocyte-survival-following-demyelinating-injury
#6
Kelly A Chamberlain, Kristen S Chapey, Sonia E Nanescu, Jeffrey K Huang
: Chronic oligodendrocyte loss, which occurs in the demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS), contributes to axonal dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Current therapies are able to reduce MS severity, but do not prevent transition into the progressive phase of the disease, which is characterized by chronic neurodegeneration. Therefore, pharmacological compounds that promote oligodendrocyte survival could be beneficial for neuroprotection in MS. Here, we investigated the role of creatine, an organic acid involved in ATP buffering, in oligodendrocyte function...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063167/conditional-knockout-of-tog-results-in-cns-hypomyelination
#7
Michael J Maggipinto, Joshay Ford, Kristine H Le, Jessica W Tutolo, Miki Furusho, John W Wizeman, Rashmi Bansal, Elisa Barbarese
The tumor overexpressed gene (TOG) protein is present in RNA granules that transport myelin basic protein (MBP) mRNA in oligodendrocyte processes to the myelin compartment. Its role was investigated by conditionally knocking it out (KO) in myelinating glia in vivo. TOG KO mice have severe motor deficits that are already apparent at the time of weaning. This phenotype correlates with a paucity of myelin in several CNS regions, the most severe being in the spinal cord. In the TOG KO optic nerve <30% of axons are myelinated...
January 7, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057080/combination-of-alpha-synuclein-immunotherapy-with-anti-inflammatory-treatment-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-multiple-system-atrophy
#8
Elvira Valera, Brian Spencer, Jerel A Fields, Ivy Trinh, Anthony Adame, Michael Mante, Edward Rockenstein, Paula Desplats, Eliezer Masliah
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the pathological accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) in oligodendrocytes. Therapeutic efforts to stop or delay the progression of MSA have yielded suboptimal results in clinical trials, and there are no efficient treatments currently available for MSA patients. We hypothesize that combining therapies targeting different aspects of the disease may lead to better clinical outcomes. To test this hypothesis, we combined the use of a single-chain antibody targeting α-syn modified for improved central nervous system penetration (CD5-D5) with an unconventional anti-inflammatory treatment (lenalidomide) in the myelin basic protein (MBP)-α-syn transgenic mouse model of MSA...
January 5, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054004/diffusion-tensor-imaging-measures-of-white-matter-compared-to-myelin-basic-protein-immunofluorescence-in-tissue-cleared-intact-brains
#9
Eric H Chang, Miklos Argyelan, Manisha Aggarwal, Toni-Shay S Chandon, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Susumu Mori, Anil K Malhotra
We provide datasets from combined ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and Clear Lipid-exchanged, Anatomically Rigid, Imaging/immunostaining compatible, Tissue hYdrogel (CLARITY) performed on intact mouse brains. DTI-derived measures of fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were compared to antibody-based labeling of myelin basic protein (MBP), as measured by fluorescence microscopy. We used a customized CLARITY hydrogel solution to facilitate whole brain tissue clearing and subsequent immunolabeling...
February 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051239/ex-vivo-expansion-of-antigen-specific-cd4-cd25-regulatory-t-cells-from-autologous-na%C3%A3-ve-cd4-t-cells-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients-as-a-potential-therapeutic-approach
#10
Y-J Xiang, M Ren, H Jiang, T-T Yang, Y He, D-H Ao, Y-Y Wang, Q Zhang, X-J He, X-G Gao, G-Z Liu
OBJECTIVE: CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been found to have a decreased effector function in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we co-cultured naïve CD4+ T cells of MS patients with myelin basic protein (MBP)85-99 peptide as specific antigen and allogenic B cells as antigen-presenting cells, in an attempt to generate adequate antigen-specific CD4+CD25+ Tregs with normal or improved immune function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Naïve CD4+ T cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with MS (n=5) and healthy controls (HC, n=5)...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041663/potent-immunomodulatory-activity-of-a-highly-selective-cannabinoid-cb2-agonist-on-immune-cells-from-healthy-subjects-and-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Pasquale Annunziata, Chiara Cioni, Claudia Mugnaini, Federico Corelli
COR167, a novel CB2-selective high affinity agonist, was found to significantly inhibit, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of both peripheral blood mononuclear cells and myelin basic protein-reactive T cell lines from normal healthy subjects and patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). In MS, a significantly higher inhibition was observed in patients on treatment with disease modifying drugs compared to those naive to treatment. The inhibitory activity of COR167 was exerted through a mixed mechanism involving atypical and incomplete shift of Th1 phenotype towards Th2 phenotype associated with slight reduction of IL-4 and IL-5 as well as strongly reduced levels of Th17-related cytokines...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035478/metformin-attenuates-cognitive-impairments-in-hypoxia-ischemia-neonatal-rats-via-improving-remyelination
#12
Boxiang Qi, Libao Hu, Lei Zhu, Lei Shang, Liping Sheng, Xuecheng Wang, Na Liu, Nana Wen, Xiaohe Yu, Qihong Wang, Yujia Yang
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (H/I) causes brain injury and myelination damage. Finding efficient methods to restore myelination is critical for the recovery of brain impairments. By applying an H/I rat model, we demonstrate that metformin (Met) treatment significantly ameliorates the loss of locomotor activity and cognition of H/I rat in the Morris water maze and open field task tests. After administration of Met to H/I rat, the proliferation of Olig2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and the expression of myelin basic protein are obviously increased in the corpus callosum...
December 29, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029071/predicting-citrullination-sites-in-protein-sequences-using-mrmr-method-and-random-forest-algorithm
#13
Qing Zhang, Xijun Sun, Kaiyan Feng, ShaoPeng Wang, Yu-Hang Zhang, SiBao Wang, Lin Lu, Yu-Dong Cai
As one of essential post-translational modifications (PTMs), the citrullination or deimination on an arginine residue would change the molecular weight and electrostatic charge of its side-chain. And it has been found that the citrullination in protein sequences was catalyzed by a type of Ca2+-dependent enzyme family called peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD), which include five isotypes: PAD1, 2, 3, 4/5, and 6. Citrullinated proteins participate in many biological processes, e.g. the citrullination of myelin basic protein (MBP) assists the early development of central nervous system...
December 27, 2016: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018231/slowly-adapting-sensory-units-have-more-receptors-in-large-airways-than-in-small-airways-in-rabbits
#14
Jun Liu, Nana Song, Juan Guardiola, Jesse Roman, Jerry Yu
Sensory units of pulmonary slowly adapting receptors (SARs) are more active in large airways than in small airways. However, there is no explanation for this phenomenon. Although sensory structures in large airways resemble those in small airways, they are bigger and more complex. Possibly, a larger receptor provides greater surface area for depolarization, and thus has a lower activating threshold and/or a higher sensitivity to stretch, leading to more nerve electrical activities. Recently, a single sensory unit has been reported to contain multiple receptors...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988845/an-updated-histological-classification-system-for-multiple-sclerosis-lesions
#15
Tanja Kuhlmann, Samuel Ludwin, Alexandre Prat, Jack Antel, Wolfgang Brück, Hans Lassmann
Multiple sclerosis is a complex and heterogeneous, most likely autoimmune, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Although a number of histological classification systems for CNS lesions have been used by different groups in recent years, no uniform classification exists. In this paper, we propose a simple and unifying classification of MS lesions incorporating many elements of earlier histological systems that aims to provide guidelines for neuropathologists and researchers studying MS lesions to allow for better comparison of different studies performed with MS tissue, and to aid in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease...
January 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987059/melatonin-increases-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-in-cultured-neural-stem-cells
#16
Majid Ghareghani, Heibatollah Sadeghi, Kazem Zibara, Nazanin Danaei, Hassan Azari, Amir Ghanbari
Neural stem cell (NSC) culture is a remarkable tool to investigate the potential therapeutic benefits of drugs in neurological diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin on proliferation and differentiation of NSCs in vitro. NSCs were isolated and expanded from mouse embryonic E14 cortex, and the effect of various concentrations of melatonin (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM) on NSC proliferation was assessed by MTT and neurosphere assay. Results showed that melatonin significantly increased NSC viability and NSC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, in comparison to controls...
December 16, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986605/the-role-of-myelination-in-measures-of-white-matter-integrity-combination-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-two-photon-microscopy-of-clarity-intact-brains
#17
Eric H Chang, Miklos Argyelan, Manisha Aggarwal, Toni-Shay S Chandon, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Susumu Mori, Anil K Malhotra
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used extensively in neuroscience to noninvasively estimate white matter (WM) microarchitecture. However, the diffusion signal is inherently ambiguous because it infers WM structure from the orientation of water diffusion and cannot identify the biological sources of diffusion changes. To compare inferred WM estimates to directly labeled axonal elements, we performed a novel within-subjects combination of high-resolution ex vivo DTI with two-photon laser microscopy of intact mouse brains rendered optically transparent by Clear Lipid-exchanged, Anatomically Rigid, Imaging/immunostaining compatible, Tissue hYdrogel (CLARITY)...
December 13, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982679/postnatal-alteration-of-monocarboxylate-transporter-1-expression-in-the-rat-corpus-callosum
#18
Fuxing Dong, Yaping Liu, Zhenzhong Zhang, Rui Guo, Li Ma, Xuebin Qu, Hongli Yu, Hongbin Fan, Ruiqin Yao
In the central nervous system (CNS), monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) is expressed in astrocytes and endothelial cells but also in oligodendroglia. Oligodendroglia support neurons and axons through lactate transportation by MCT1. Limited information is available on the MCT1 expression changes in candidate cells in the developing rat brain, especially in corpus callosum which is the most vulnerable area in demyelinating diseases. In the present study, we investigated the expression pattern of MCT1 during postnatal development in the rat corpus callosum using immunofluorescene staining, western blotting analysis and RT-PCR...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938480/human-amnion-epithelial-cells-protect-against-white-matter-brain-injury-after-repeated-endotoxin-exposure-in-the-preterm-ovine-fetus
#19
Tamara Yawno, Tharani Sabaretnam, Jingang Li, Courtney McDonald, Rebecca Lim, Graham Jenkin, Euan Wallace, Suzanne Miller
<p>Intrauterine inflammation is a significant cause of injury to the developing fetal brain. Using a preterm fetal sheep model of in utero infection, we asked whether human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) were able to reduce inflammation-induced fetal brain injury.</p><p>Surgery was undertaken on pregnant sheep at ~105 days gestation (term is 147 days) for implantation of vascular catheters. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 ng/kg bolus) or saline was administered iv at 109, 110 and 111 days. 60 million fluorescent-labeled hAECs were administered at 110, 111, and 112 days gestation via the brachial artery catheter...
31, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930320/unexpected-central-role-of-the-androgen-receptor-in-the-spontaneous-regeneration-of-myelin
#20
Bartosz Bielecki, Claudia Mattern, Abdel M Ghoumari, Sumaira Javaid, Kaja Smietanka, Charly Abi Ghanem, Sakina Mhaouty-Kodja, M Said Ghandour, Etienne-Emile Baulieu, Robin J M Franklin, Michael Schumacher, Elisabeth Traiffort
Lost myelin can be replaced after injury or during demyelinating diseases in a regenerative process called remyelination. In the central nervous system (CNS), the myelin sheaths, which protect axons and allow the fast propagation of electrical impulses, are produced by oligodendrocytes. The abundance and widespread distribution of oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPs) within the adult CNS account for this remarkable regenerative potential. Here, we report a key role for the male gonad, testosterone, and androgen receptor (AR) in CNS remyelination...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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