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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150981/systematic-proteomic-analysis-of-protein-methylation-in-prokaryotes-and-eukaryotes-revealed-distinct-substrate-specificity
#1
Min Zhang, Jun-Yu Xu, Hao Hu, Bang-Ce Ye, Minjia Tan
The studies of protein methylation mainly focus on lysine and arginine residues due to their diverse roles in essential cellular processes from gene expression to signal transduction. Nevertheless, atypical protein methylation occurring on amino acid residues, such as glutamine and glutamic acid, was largely neglected until recently. In addition, the systematic analysis for the distribution of methylation on different amino acids in various species is still lacking, which hinders our understanding of its functional roles...
November 18, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150847/chronic-sun-exposure-is-associated-with-distinct-histone-acetylation-changes-in-human-skin
#2
S Ding, J Chen, Q Zeng, J Lu, L Tan, A Guo, J Kang, S Yang, Y Xiang, C Zuo, J Huang
BACKGROUND: Photoaging is attributed to continuous sunlight or artificial UV exposure and manifests the clinical and histological changes of skin. Epigenetic changes have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of photoaging. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To analyse histone modification patterns in sun-exposed and non-exposed skins, and identify the abnormally histone modified-genes related to photoaging. METHODS: Skin biopsies were collected both from the outer forearm (sun-exposed area) and the buttock (sun-protected area) in 20 healthy middle-aged female volunteers...
November 18, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150430/interferon-%C3%A1%C2%B5-2-signaling-in-melanocytes-and-melanoma-cells-regulates-expression-of-ctla-4
#3
Xuan Mo, Hanghang Zhang, Sarah Preston, Kayla Martin, Bo Zhou, Nish Vadalia, Ana M Gamero, Jonathan Soboloff, Italo Tempera, M Raza Zaidi
CTLA-4 is a cell surface receptor on T cells that functions as an immune checkpoint molecule to enforce tolerance to cognate antigens. Anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy is highly effective at reactivating T cell responses against melanoma, which is postulated to be due to targeting CTLA-4 on T cells. Here we report that CTLA-4 is also highly expressed by most human melanoma cell lines, as well as in normal human melanocytes. Interferon-gamma (IFNG) signaling activated the expression of the human CTLA-4 gene in a melanocyte and melanoma cell-specific manner...
November 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150330/the-structural-requirements-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-c4-modified-saha-analogs-display-dual-hdac6-hdac8-selectivity
#4
Ahmed T Negmeldin, Joseph R Knoff, Mary Kay H Pflum
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes govern the post-translational acetylation state of lysine residues on protein substrates, leading to regulatory changes in cell function. Due to their role in cancers, HDAC proteins have emerged as promising targets for cancer treatment. Four HDAC inhibitors have been approved as anti-cancer therapeutics, including SAHA (Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, Vorinostat, Zolinza). SAHA is a nonselective HDAC inhibitor that targets most of the eleven HDAC isoforms. The nonselectivity of SAHA might account for its clinical side effects, but certainly limits its use as a chemical tool to study cancer-related HDAC cell biology...
October 31, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150295/paternal-transmission-of-early-life-traumatization-through-epigenetics-do-fathers-play-a-role
#5
Enrique d'Harcourt Rowold, Lara Schulze, Sandra Van der Auwera, Hans Jörgen Grabe
Traumatizing events are known to have consequences for the victim which may lead to the development of several well-known mental disorders. Recent research has shown that traumatic events may affect not only the victims' lives, but also that of their progeny. It is generally accepted that this transmission of trauma occurs through parental behavior; however as has been recently discovered, the effects of trauma may also be inherited due to induced alterations in gene expression. These changes, so called epigenetic modifications, illuminate the interaction between genes and the environment...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149419/changes-in-chromatin-state-reveal-arnt2-at-a-node-of-a-tumorigenic-transcription-factor-signature-driving-glioblastoma-cell-aggressiveness
#6
Alexandra Bogeas, Ghislaine Morvan-Dubois, Elias A El-Habr, François-Xavier Lejeune, Matthieu Defrance, Ashwin Narayanan, Klaudia Kuranda, Fanny Burel-Vandenbos, Salwa Sayd, Virgile Delaunay, Luiz G Dubois, Hugues Parrinello, Stéphanie Rialle, Sylvie Fabrega, Ahmed Idbaih, Jacques Haiech, Ivan Bièche, Thierry Virolle, Michele Goodhardt, Hervé Chneiweiss, Marie-Pierre Junier
Although a growing body of evidence indicates that phenotypic plasticity exhibited by glioblastoma cells plays a central role in tumor development and post-therapy recurrence, the master drivers of their aggressiveness remain elusive. Here we mapped the changes in active (H3K4me3) and repressive (H3K27me3) histone modifications accompanying the repression of glioblastoma stem-like cells tumorigenicity. Genes with changing histone marks delineated a network of transcription factors related to cancerous behavior, stem state, and neural development, highlighting a previously unsuspected association between repression of ARNT2 and loss of cell tumorigenicity...
November 17, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149414/role-of-tctp-for-cellular-differentiation-and-cancer-therapy
#7
Ean-Jeong Seo, Nicolas Fischer, Thomas Efferth
The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved protein that is regulated due to a high number of extracellular stimuli. TCTP has an important role for cell cycle and normal development. On the other side, tumor reversion and malignant transformation have been associated with TCTP. TCTP has been found among the 12 genes that are differentially expressed during mouse oocyte maturation, and an overexpression of this gene was reported in a wide variety of different cancer types. Its antiapoptotic effect is indicated by the interaction with several proapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family and the p53 tumor suppressor protein...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149060/epigenetic-regulation-of-viral-biological-processes
#8
REVIEW
Lata Balakrishnan, Barry Milavetz
It is increasingly clear that DNA viruses exploit cellular epigenetic processes to control their life cycles during infection. This review will address epigenetic regulation in members of the polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, human papillomaviruses, hepatitis B, and herpes viruses. For each type of virus, what is known about the roles of DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, and regulatory RNA in epigenetic regulation of the virus infection will be discussed. The mechanisms used by certain viruses to dysregulate the host cell through manipulation of epigenetic processes and the role of cellular cofactors such as BRD4 that are known to be involved in epigenetic regulation of host cell pathways will also be covered...
November 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148792/proteomic-markers-of-the-functional-sperm-population-in-bovines-1-comparison-of-low-and-high-density-spermatozoa-following-cryopreservation
#9
Olivier D'Amours, Gilles Frenette, Sylvie Bourassa, Ezequiel Calvo, Patrick Blondin, Robert Sullivan
Mammalian semen contains a heterogeneous population of sperm cells. This heterogeneity results from variability in the complex processes of cell differentiation in the testis, biochemical modifications undergone by spermatozoa during transit along the male reproductive tract, interactions with secretions from accessory sex glands at ejaculation, and, in the context of reproductive technologies, in the ability of ejaculated spermatozoa to resist damage associated with freeze-thaw procedures. When submitted to density gradient centrifugation, ejaculated spermatozoa distribute themselves into two distinct populations: a low-density population characterized by low motility parameters, and a high-density population with high motility characteristics...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148585/arsenite-downregulates-h3k4-trimethylation-and-h3k9-dimethylation-during-transformation-of-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#10
Wei Tu, Yin Liu, Chengfeng Xie, Xue Zhou
Arsenic is an established human carcinogen but with weak mutagenic activity. The mechanisms of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of histone methylation in transformation of human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. After 16 weeks' exposure, cells were transformed by 0.1, 0.5 and 1 μm arsenite. Global trimethylated H3K4 (H3K4me3) was decreased by 0.1 μm arsenite at 12 weeks, and 0.5 and 1 μm arsenite at 8, 12 and 16 weeks, which could be attributed to reduced histone methyltransferase activities, increased histone demethylase (HDM) activities as well as increased protein levels of H3K4 demethylase KDM5A...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147952/gemigliptin-a-novel-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitor-exerts-a-synergistic-cytotoxicity-with-the-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-pxd101-in-thyroid-carcinoma-cells
#11
S H Kim, J G Kang, C S Kim, S-H Ihm, M G Choi, H J Yoo, S J Lee
PURPOSE: The influence of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor gemigliptin alone or in combination with the histone deacetylase inhibitor PXD101 on survival of thyroid carcinoma cells was investigated. METHODS: SW1736, TPC-1, 8505C and BCPAP human thyroid carcinoma cells were used. To assess cell survival, cell viability, the percentage of viable cells and dead cells, cytotoxic activity, ATP levels and FACS analysis were measured. To validate the impact of gemigliptin combined with PXD101, the interactions were estimated by obtaining combination index in cells treated with two agents...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147636/drug-induced-lupus-erythematosus-associated-with-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-patient-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-case-report
#12
Jazila Mantis, Ravi Bhavsar, Adriana Abrudescu
Antiretroviral medications are the mainstay of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy and some have been in use for over 20 years. To date, there have been no reported cases of antiretroviral therapy (ART) induced drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE). We present a case of a 35-year-old woman who received a combination of emtricitabine, rilpivirine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV treatment. Three years later, she developed an extensive rash and polyarthralgia in her extremities with laboratory findings significant for positive antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) antibody (anti-dsDNA), and anti-histone antibody titers...
September 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147457/oxidative-stress-delays-prometaphase-metaphase-of-the-first-cleavage-in-mouse-zygotes-via-the-mad2l1-mediated-spindle-assembly-checkpoint
#13
Que Wu, Zhiling Li, Yue Huang, Diting Qian, Man Chen, Wanfen Xiao, Bin Wang
In zygotes, DNA damage delays the first cleavage to enable repair. Our previous study found that 0.03 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was the minimum concentration required for induction of oxidative DNA damage in mouse zygotes and that this represented the most similar situation to the clinical phenomenon. In this study, we quantified the cleavage rates of cells in blastocysts at different developmental stages, followed by immunofluorescence to detect activation of γ-H2A histone family member X (a marker of DNA damage) in zygotes to confirm that oxidative DNA damage was induced in H2O2-treated zygotes...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146919/nucleosome-acidic-patch-targeting-binuclear-ruthenium-compounds-induce-aberrant-chromatin-condensation
#14
Gabriela E Davey, Zenita Adhireksan, Zhujun Ma, Tina Riedel, Deepti Sharma, Sivaraman Padavattan, Daniela Rhodes, Alexander Ludwig, Sara Sandin, Benjamin S Murray, Paul J Dyson, Curt A Davey
The 'acidic patch' is a highly electronegative cleft on the histone H2A-H2B dimer in the nucleosome. It is a fundamental motif for protein binding and chromatin dynamics, but the cellular impact of targeting this potentially therapeutic site with exogenous molecules remains unclear. Here, we characterize a family of binuclear ruthenium compounds that selectively target the nucleosome acidic patch, generating intra-nucleosomal H2A-H2B cross-links as well as inter-nucleosomal cross-links. In contrast to cisplatin or the progenitor RAPTA-C anticancer drugs, the binuclear agents neither arrest specific cell cycle phases nor elicit DNA damage response, but rather induce an irreversible, anomalous state of condensed chromatin that ultimately results in apoptosis...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146887/targeted-therapy-of-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours-preclinical-strategies-and-future-targets
#15
Elke Tatjana Aristizabal Prada, Christoph J Auernhammer
Molecular targeted therapy of advanced neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) system currently encompasses approved therapy with the mTOR-inhibitor everolimus and the multi-tyrosinkinase inhibitor sunitinib. However clinical efficacy of these treatment strategies is limited by low objective response rates and limited progression free survival due to tumor resistance. Further novel strategies for molecular targeted therapy of NETs of the GEP-system are needed. This paper reviews preclinical research models and signaling pathways in NETs of the GEP-system...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146818/mutant-runx1-and-histone-tales
#16
Lucy A Godley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146582/elucidation-of-the-two-h3k36me3-histone-methyltransferases-set2-and-ash1-in-fusarium-fujikuroi-unravels-their-different-chromosomal-targets-and-a-major-impact-of-ash1-on-genome-stability
#17
Slavica Janevska, Leonie Baumann, Christian M K Sieber, Martin Münsterkötter, Jonas Ulrich, Jörg Kämper, Ulrich Güldener, Bettina Tudzynski
In this work, we present a comprehensive analysis of the H3K36 histone methyltransferases Set2 and Ash1 in the filamentous ascomycete Fusarium fujikuroi In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one single methyltransferase, Set2, confers all H3K36 methylation, while there are two members of the Set2 family in filamentous fungi, and even more H3K36 methyltransferases in higher eukaryotes. Whereas the yeast Set2 homolog has been analyzed in fungi previously, the second member of the Set2 family, designated Ash1, has not been described for any filamentous fungus...
November 16, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146399/label-free-discrimination-analysis-of-de-differentiated-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-vascular-and-osteogenic-progeny-using-vibrational-spectroscopy
#18
Claire Molony, Jennifer McIntyre, Adrian Maguire, Roya Hakimjavadi, Denise Burtenshaw, Gillian Casey, Mariana Di Luca, Bryan Hennelly, Hugh J Byrne, Paul A Cahill
The accumulation of vascular smooth muscle (SMC)-like cells and stem cell-derived myogenic and osteogenic progeny contributes significantly to arteriosclerotic disease. This study established whether label-free vibrational spectroscopy can discriminate de-differentiated 'synthetic' SMCs from undifferentiated stem cells and their myogenic and osteogenic progeny in vitro, compared with conventional immunocytochemical and genetic analyses. TGF-β1- and Jagged1-induced myogenic differentiation of CD44(+)mesenchymal stem cells was confirmed in vitro by immunocytochemical analysis of specific SMC differentiation marker expression (α-actin, calponin and myosin heavy chain 11), an epigenetic histone mark (H3K4me2) at the myosin heavy chain 11 locus, promoter transactivation and mRNA transcript levels...
November 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145950/a-combination-of-allogeneic-stem-cells-promotes-cardiac-regeneration
#19
Makoto Natsumeda, Victoria Florea, Angela C Rieger, Bryon A Tompkins, Monisha N Banerjee, Samuel Golpanian, Julia Fritsch, Ana Marie Landin, Nilesh D Kashikar, Vasileios Karantalis, Viky Y Loescher, Kostas E Hatzistergos, Luiza Bagno, Cristina Sanina, Muzammil Mushtaq, Jose Rodriguez, Marcos Rosado, Ariel Wolf, Kevin Collon, Louis Vincent, Anthony J Kanelidis, Ivonne H Schulman, Raul Mitrani, Alan W Heldman, Wayne Balkan, Joshua M Hare
BACKGROUND: The combination of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cardiac stem cells (CSCs) synergistically reduces scar size and improves cardiac function in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Whereas allogeneic (allo-)MSCs are immunoevasive, the capacity of CSCs to similarly elude the immune system remains controversial, potentially limiting the success of allogeneic cell combination therapy (ACCT). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to test the hypothesis that ACCT synergistically promotes cardiac regeneration without provoking immunologic reactions...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145650/loss-of-p300-and-cbp-disrupts-histone-acetylation-at-the-mouse-sry-promoter-and-causes-xy-gonadal-sex-reversal
#20
Gwenn-Aël Carré, Pam Siggers, Marilena Xipolita, Paul Brindle, Beat Lutz, Sara Wells, Andy Greenfield
CREB-binding protein (CBP, CREBBP, KAT3A) and its closely related paralogue p300 (EP300, KAT3B), together termed p300/CBP, are histone/lysine acetyl-transferases that control gene expression by modifying chromatin-associated proteins. Here, we report roles for both of these chromatin-modifying enzymes in mouse sex determination, the process by which the embryonic gonad develops into a testis or an ovary. By targeting gene ablation to embryonic gonadal somatic cells using an inducible Cre line, we show that gonads lacking either gene exhibit major abnormalities of XY gonad development at 14...
November 14, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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