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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671721/the-bceabrs-four-component-system-that-is-essential-for-cell-envelope-stress-response-is-involved-in-sensing-and-response-to-host-defence-peptides-and-is-required-for-the-biofilm-formation-and-fitness-of-streptococcus-mutans
#1
Xiao-Lin Tian, Hasan Salim, Gaofeng Dong, Madison Parcells, Yung-Hua Li
PURPOSE: Streptococcus mutans is a primary cariogenic pathogen worldwide. In dental biofilms, S. mutans often faces life-threatening insults, such as killing by antimicrobial compounds from competing species and from the host. How such insults affect the physiology and virulence of S. mutans is poorly understood. In this study, we explored this question by investigating the responses of S. mutans strains to several host defence peptides and bacitracin. METHODOLOGY: S...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670217/bacterial-derived-exopolysaccharides-enhance-antifungal-drug-tolerance-in-a-cross-kingdom-oral-biofilm
#2
Dongyeop Kim, Yuan Liu, Raphael I Benhamou, Hiram Sanchez, Áurea Simón-Soro, Yong Li, Geelsu Hwang, Micha Fridman, David R Andes, Hyun Koo
Fungal-bacterial interactions generate unique biofilms that cause many infections in humans. Candida albicans interact with Streptococcus mutans in dental biofilms associated with severe childhood tooth-decay, a prevalent pediatric oral disease. Current modalities are ineffective and primarily based on antimicrobial monotherapies despite the polymicrobial nature of the infection. Here, we show that the combination of clinically used topical antifungal fluconazole with povidone iodine (PI) can completely suppress C...
April 18, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668945/the-activity-of-bacterial-peptidylarginine-deiminase-is-important-during-formation-of-dual-species-biofilm-by-periodontal-pathogen-porphyromonas-gingivalis-and-opportunistic-fungus-candida-albicans
#3
Karkowska-Kuleta Justyna, Dominika Bartnicka, Marcin Zawrotniak, Gabriela Zielinska, Anna Kieronska, Oliwia Bochenska, Izabela Ciaston, Joanna Koziel, Jan Potempa, Zbigniew Baster, Zenon Rajfur, Maria Rapala-Kozik
Porphyromonas gingivalis, an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium critically involved in the development of human periodontitis, belongs to the late colonizers of the oral cavity. The success of this pathogen in the host colonization and infection results from the presence of several virulence factors, including extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD), an enzyme that converts protein arginine residues to citrullines. A common opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans, is also frequently identified among microorganisms that reside at subgingival sites...
April 12, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665443/activity-of-a-nitric-oxide-generating-wound-treatment-system-against-wound-pathogen-biofilms
#4
Richard D Waite, Joanne E Stewart, Abish S Stephen, Robert P Allaker
Wound bioburden plays an important role in impaired healing and the development of infection-related complications. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of an innovative two-layer nitric oxide generating system (NOx) to prevent and treat biofilms formed by bacterial and fungal pathogens commonly associated with wound infection, and activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factors. Single and mixed species biofilms were grown for 24h on nitrocellulose filters placed on agar. Filters were covered with either NOx or placebo, before and after biofilm formation...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663827/potential-of-antimicrobial-treatment-of-linear-low-density-polyethylene-with-poly-tert-butyl-amino-methyl-styrene-to-reduce-biofilm-formation-in-the-food-industry
#5
Carina Hüwe, Jennifer Schmeichel, Florian Brodkorb, Sophia Dohlen, Katrin Kalbfleisch, Martin Kreyenschmidt, Reinhard Lorenz, Judith Kreyenschmidt
Antimicrobial surfaces are one approach to prevent biofilms in the food industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of poly((tert-butyl-amino)-methyl-styrene) (poly(TBAMS)) incorporated into linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) on the formation of mono- and mixed-species biofilms. The biofilm on untreated and treated LLDPE was determined after 48 and 168 h. The comparison of the results indicated that the ability of Listeria monocytogenes to form biofilms was completely suppressed by poly(TBAMS) (Δ168 h 3...
April 17, 2018: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653139/influence-of-zinc-oxide-quantum-dots-in-the-antibacterial-activity-and-cytotoxicity-of-an-experimental-adhesive-resin
#6
Isadora Martini Garcia, Vicente Castelo Branco Leitune, Fernanda Visioli, Susana Maria Werner Samuel, Fabrício Mezzomo Collares
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnOQDs ) into an experimental adhesive resin regarding the antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and the cytotoxicity against pulp fibroblasts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ZnOQDs were synthesized by sol-gel process and were incorporated into 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). An experimental adhesive resin was formulated by mixing 66.6 wt.% bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and 33...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625330/use-of-torsional-resonators-to-monitor-electroactive-biofilms
#7
Phillipp Sievers, Christopher Moß, Uwe Schröder, Diethelm Johannsmann
Whereas the study of interfaces and thin films with the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is well established, biofilms have proven to be a difficult subject for the QCM. The main problem is that the shear wave emanating from the resonator surface does not usually reach to the top of the sample. This problem can be solved with torsional resonators. These have a resonance frequency in the range of tens of kHz, which is much below the frequency of the thickness-shear QCMs. The depth of penetration of the shear wave is correspondingly larger...
March 22, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614721/antimicrobial-activity-of-al%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-cuo-fe%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-and-zno-nanoparticles-in-scope-of-their-further-application-in-cement-based-building-materials
#8
Pawel Sikora, Adrian Augustyniak, Krzysztof Cendrowski, Paweł Nawrotek, Ewa Mijowska
Nanoparticles were proposed as antibacterial cement admixtures for the production of cement-based composites. Nevertheless, the standards for evaluation of such admixtures still do not indicate which model organisms to use, particularly in regard to the further application of material. Apart from the known toxicity of nanomaterials, in the case of cement-based composites there are limitations associated with the mixing and dispersion of nanomaterials. Therefore, four nanooxides (Al₂O₃, CuO, Fe₃O₄, and ZnO) and seven microorganisms were tested to initially evaluate the applicability of nanooxides in relation to their further use in cement-based composites...
March 31, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595151/nitrogen-removal-via-a-single-stage-pn-anammox-process-in-a-novel-combined-biofilm-reactor
#9
Yue-Mei Han, Feng-Xia Liu, Xiao-Fei Xu, Zhuo Yan, Zhi-Jun Liu
This study developed a partial nitrification (PN) and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox) process for treating high-ammonia wastewater using an innovative biofilm system in which ammonia oxidizing bacteria grew on fluidized Kaldnes (K1) carriers and Anammox bacteria grew on fixed acryl resin carriers. The airlift loop biofilm reactor (ALBR) was stably operated for more than 4 months under the following conditions: 35 ± 2 °C, pH 7.5-8.0 and dissolved oxygen (DO) of 0.5-3.5 mg/L. The results showed that the total nitrogen removal efficiency reached a maximum of 75% and the total nitrogen removal loading rate was above 0...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571086/monitoring-biofilm-function-in-new-and-matured-full-scale-slow-sand-filters-using-flow-cytometric-histogram-image-comparison-chic
#10
Sandy Chan, Kristjan Pullerits, Janine Riechelmann, Kenneth M Persson, Peter Rådström, Catherine J Paul
While slow sand filters (SSFs) have produced drinking water for more than a hundred years, understanding of their associated microbial communities is limited. In this study, bacteria in influent and effluent water from full-scale SSFs were explored using flow cytometry (FCM) with cytometric histogram image comparison (CHIC) analysis; and routine microbial counts for heterotrophs, total coliforms and Escherichia coli. To assess if FCM can monitor biofilm function, SSFs differing in age and sand composition were compared...
March 13, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569946/surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-sers-in-microbiology-illumination-and-enhancement-of-the-microbial-world
#11
Malama Chisanga, Howbeer Muhamadali, David I Ellis, Royston Goodacre
The microbial world forms a huge family of organisms that exhibit the greatest phylogenetic diversity on Earth and thus colonize virtually our entire planet. Due to this diversity and subsequent complex interactions, the vast majority of microorganisms are involved in innumerable natural bioprocesses and contribute an absolutely vital role toward the maintenance of life on Earth, whilst a small minority cause various infectious diseases. The ever-increasing demand for environmental monitoring, sustainable ecosystems, food security, and improved healthcare systems drives the continuous search for inexpensive but reproducible, automated and portable techniques for detection of microbial isolates and understanding their interactions for clinical, environmental, and industrial applications and benefits...
January 1, 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562719/antibiofilm-effect-of-dnase-against-single-and-mixed-species-biofilm
#12
Komal Sharma, Ankita Pagedar Singh
Biofilms are aggregates of microorganisms that coexist in socially coordinated micro-niche in a self-produced polymeric matrix on pre-conditioned surfaces. The biofilm matrix reduces the efficacy of antibiofilm strategies. DNase degrades the extracellular DNA (e-DNA) present in the matrix, rendering the matrix weak and susceptible to antimicrobials. In the current study, the effect of DNase I was evaluated during biofilm formation (pre-treatment), on preformed biofilms (post-treatment) and both (dual treatment)...
March 19, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555180/non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-multispecies-biofilms-in-cystic-fibrosis-development-of-an-in-vitro-mycobacterium-abscessus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-dual-species-biofilm-model
#13
Graciela Rodríguez-Sevilla, Marta García-Coca, David Romera-García, John Jairo Aguilera-Correa, Ignacio Mahíllo-Fernández, Jaime Esteban, Concepción Pérez-Jorge
Lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by the progressive colonization of the respiratory tract by different bacteria, which develop polymicrobial biofilms. In the past decades, there has been an increase in the number of CF patients infected with Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM). Although Mycobacterium abscessus is the main NTM isolated globally, little is known about M. abscessus multispecies biofilm formation. In the present study we developed an in vitro model to study the phenotypic characteristics of biofilms formed by M...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536146/efficacy-of-poly-lactic-acid-carvacrol-electrospun-membranes-against-staphylococcus-aureus-and-candida-albicans-in-single-and-mixed-cultures
#14
Roberto Scaffaro, Francesco Lopresti, Manuela D'Arrigo, Andreana Marino, Antonia Nostro
Carvacrol (CAR) is one of the most promising essential oil components with antimicrobial activity. New technologies aimed to incorporate this active molecule into carrier matrix to improve the stability and prolong the biological activity. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating CAR into electrospun membranes of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) for potential applications as active antimicrobial system. To this end, PLA membranes containing homogeneously dispersed CAR were successfully prepared and a series of systematic tests including morpho-mechanical properties, in vitro release rate, and antimicrobial/antibiofilm activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were carried out...
March 13, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524789/ph-changes-of-mixed-biofilms-of-streptococcus-mutans-and-candida-albicans-after-exposure-to-sucrose-solutions-in-vitro
#15
Thamires Priscila Cavazana, Juliano Pelim Pessan, Thayse Yumi Hosida, Douglas Roberto Monteiro, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to standardize an in vitro experimental model able to reproduce the pH changes that occur in dental biofilm under in vivo conditions, using a mixed biofilm of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. DESIGN: Biofilms were developed for 96 h, and exposed to three different concentrations of sucrose (10, 20 or 30%) during 1, 3 or 5 min. The pH was measured before exposure to sucrose, immediately after its removal from the biofilms, and at 1, 3, 5 and 10 min after removal...
March 6, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520965/development-of-a-mixed-species-biofilm-model-and-its-virulence-implications-in-device-related-infections
#16
Naing T Thet, Laura Wallace, Anne Wibaux, Nick Boote, A Toby A Jenkins
It is becoming increasingly accepted that to understand and model the bacterial colonization and infection of abiotic surfaces requires the use of a biofilm model. There are many bacterial colonizations by at least two primary species, however this is difficult to model in vitro. This study reports the development of a simple mixed-species biofilm model using strains of two clinically significant bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown on nanoporous polycarbonate membranes on nutrient agar support...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518559/effect-of-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-binding-protein-based-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-supplemented-diet-on-immune-response-and-disease-resistance-in-oreochromis-mossambicus-against-aeromonas-hydrophila
#17
Mahalingam Anjugam, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Arokiadhas Iswarya, Narayanan Gobi, Mani Divya, Merlin P Thangaraj, Preetham Elumalai
Recently, several immunostimulants such as β-glucan, microbial and plant products have been used as dietary supplements to combat disease outbreaks in aquaculture. The present study investigates the potential of Portunus pelagicus β-1, 3 glucan binding protein based zinc oxide nanoparticles (Ppβ-GBP-ZnO NPs) supplemented diet on growth, immune response and disease resistance in Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. The immune-related protein β-GBP was purified from the haemolymph of P. pelagicus using Sephadex G-100 affinity column chromatography...
March 5, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500950/methanogenic-capacity-and-robustness-of-hydrogenotrophic-cultures-based-on-closed-nutrient-recycling-via-microbial-catabolism-impact-of-temperature-and-microbial-attachment
#18
Savvas Savvas, Joanne Donnelly, Tim Patterson, Zyh Siong Chong, Sandra R Esteves
A biological methanation system based on nutrient recycling via mixed culture microbial catabolism was investigated at mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) temperatures. At mesophilic temperatures, the formation of biofilms on two different types of material was assessed. Results showed that with intense mixing the biofilm reactors presented methanogenic capacities (per working volume) 50% higher than the ones operated with suspended cultures. Gas feeding rates of 200 L/L/d were achieved at a H2 /CO2 to CH4 conversion efficiency of above 90% by linking two reactors in series...
February 24, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489933/analysis-of-the-antimicrobial-and-anti-caries-effects-of-tif4-varnish-under-microcosm-biofilm-formed-on-enamel
#19
Beatriz Martines de Souza, Constantino Fernandes Neto, Priscila Maria Aranda Salomão, Layla Reginna Silva Munhoz de Vasconcelos, Flaviana Bombarda de Andrade, Ana Carolina Magalhães
Titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) is known for interacting with enamel reducing demineralization. However, no information is available about its potential antimicrobial effect. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the antimicrobial and anti-caries potential of TiF4 varnish compared to NaF varnish, chlorhexidine gel (positive control), placebo varnish and untreated (negative controls) using a dental microcosm biofilm model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A microcosm biofilm was produced on bovine enamel previously treated with the varnishes, using inoculum from human saliva mixed with McBain saliva, under 0...
2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477025/stability-and-efficacy-of-combined-nystatin-and-chlorhexidine-against-suspensions-and-biofilms-of-candida-albicans
#20
Elusa Scheibler, Renata Medina da Silva, Carlos Eduardo Leite, Maria Martha Campos, Maria Antonia Figueiredo, Fernanda Gonçalves Salum, Karen Cherubini
OBJECTIVE: Nystatin and chlorhexidine are extensively used in oral medicine; however, there is some controversy about the possibility of these drugs showing antagonism. To clarify this issue, this study investigated the efficacy and stability of nystatin and chlorhexidine in combination. DESIGN: An in vitro study was conducted to analyze the effect of nystatin and chlorhexidine combined on Candida albicans ATCC 18804, using the drugs mixed as a single formulation and as independent formulations used sequentially with different time intervals between them...
February 15, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
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