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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089718/cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-from-alligator-mississippiensis-has-antibacterial-activity-against-multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumanii-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#1
Stephanie M Barksdale, Evelyn J Hrifko, Monique L van Hoek
Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator), a member of order Crocodilia, lives in bacteria-laden environments but is not often known to succumb to bacterial infections. Their serum has been shown to have antibacterial activity beyond that of human serum, and it is believed that this activity is partially due to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs). CAMPs are produced by many organisms as part of the innate immune system. CAMPs are attractive possible therapies against multi-drug resistant bacteria, such as those found in biofilm-infected war wounds, because they seldom cause genetic resistance in bacteria and are effective against antibiotic resistant bacteria...
January 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087529/resilience-dynamics-and-interactions-within-a-multi-species-exoelectrogenic-model-biofilm-community
#2
Anna Prokhorova, Katrin Sturm-Richter, Andreas Doetsch, Johannes Gescher
: Anode-associated multi-species exoelectrogenic biofilms are essential to the function of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). The individual activities of anode associated organisms and physiological responses resulting from co-culturing are often hard to assess due to the high microbial diversity in these systems. Therefore, we developed a model multispecies biofilm of the three exoelectrogenic proteobacteria Shewanella oneidensis, Geobacter sulfurreducens and Geobacter metallireducens with the aim to study in detail the biofilm formation dynamics, the interactions between the organisms and the overall activity of an exoelectrogenic biofilm as a consequence of the applied anode potential...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076372/bad-to-the-bone-on-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-microbial-biofilm-ability-to-directly-destroy-colonized-bone-surfaces-without-participation-of-host-immunity-or-osteoclastogenesis
#3
Adam Junka, Patrycja Szymczyk, Grzegorz Ziółkowski, Ewa Karuga-Kuzniewska, Danuta Smutnicka, Iwona Bil-Lula, Marzenna Bartoszewicz, Susan Mahabady, Parish Paymon Sedghizadeh
Bone infections are a significant public health burden associated with morbidity and mortality in patients. Microbial biofilm pathogens are the causative agents in chronic osteomyelitis. Research on the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis has focused on indirect bone destruction by host immune cells and cytokines secondary to microbial insult. Direct bone resorption by biofilm pathogens has not yet been seriously considered. In this study, common osteomyelitis pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Streptococcus mutans) were grown as biofilms in multiple in vitro and ex vivo experiments to analyze quantitative and qualitative aspects of bone destruction during infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067404/electrochemical-techniques-reveal-that-total-ammonium-stress-increases-electron-flow-to-anode-respiration-in-mixed-species-bacterial-anode-biofilms
#4
Mohamed Mahmoud, Prathap Parameswaran, César I Torres, Bruce E Rittmann
When anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) respire electrons to an anode in microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs), they harvest only a small amount of free energy. This means that ARB must have a high substrate-oxidation rate coupled with a high ratio of electrons used for respiration compared to total electrons removed by substrate utilization. It also means that they are especially susceptible to inhibition that slows anode respiration or lowers their biomass yield. Using several electrochemical techniques, we show that a relatively high total ammonium-nitrogen (TAN) concentration (2...
January 9, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061939/development-of-a-simplified-model-for-completely-mixed-biofilm-reactor
#5
Sushovan Sarkar, Debabrata Mazumder
  A simplified model for the completely mixed biofilm process formulated correlations between entering and exiting substrate concentrations, average substrate flux in the biofilm and effective biofilm thickness. The model essentially considered the substrate mass transport into the biofilm as per Fick's second law and steady state substrate as well as biomass balance for biofilm. The numerical solution of the biofilm model involved evaluation of the average flux along with exiting substrate concentration and application of the Runge-Kutta method for determining the effective biofilm thickness...
December 1, 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061510/bacterial-coaggregation-among-the-most-commonly-isolated-bacteria-from-contact-lens-cases
#6
Ananya Datta, Fiona Stapleton, Mark D P Willcox
Purpose: To examine the coaggregation and cohesion between the commonly isolated bacteria from contact lens cases. Methods: Four or five strains each of commonly isolated bacteria from contact lens cases, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens, were grown, washed, mixed in equal proportions, and allowed to coaggregate for 24 hours. Lactose (0.06 M), sucrose (0.06 M), and pronase (2 mg/mL; 2 hours, 37°C) were used to inhibit coaggregation...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054835/sorption-studies-of-diethylketone-in-the-presence-of-al-3-cd-2-ni-2-and-mn-2-from-lab-scale-to-pilot-scale
#7
Filomena Costa, Teresa Tavares
The toxic effects of diethylketone in aqueous solution with different concentrations of Al(3+), Cd(2+), Ni(2+) and Mn(2+) were evaluated at lab scale. It was established that Streptococcus equisimilis is able to efficiently remove diethylketone with different concentrations with heavy metals. Pilot-scale experiments, aiming to treat large volumes of aqueous solutions containing high concentrations of diethylketone and Al(3+), Cd(2+), Ni(2+) and Mn(2+)) through the use of a Streptococcus equisimilis biofilm supported on vermiculite were conducted...
January 5, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017359/mucin-secreting-cells-in-the-stomach-and-colon-are-altered-by-combination-antiretroviral-treatment-in-an-obese-rat-model
#8
Danélle Truter, Hans Strijdom, Frans Everson, Sanet H Kotzé
Mucins, secreted by intestinal goblet cells, form an integral part of the intestinal biofilm, which is important for the functioning of a healthy gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This mucous layer is sensitive to factors such as diet, drugs and inflammation. Histochemically, mucins can be classified as neutral or acidic, where acidic mucins can contain sulphate groups (sulphomucins) or sialic acid (sialomucins). The aim of the present study was to determine the composition of various mucin secreting cells using histochemical stains in rats fed on a high calorie diet (HCD) treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
December 22, 2016: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006700/detection-of-different-microenvironments-and-lactobacillus-sakei-biotypes-in-ventricina-a-traditional-fermented-sausage-from-central-italy
#9
Patrizio Tremonte, Elena Sorrentino, Gianfranco Pannella, Luca Tipaldi, Marina Sturchio, Armando Masucci, Lucia Maiuro, Raffaele Coppola, Mariantonietta Succi
The present study evaluated the physico-chemical and microbiological features of Ventricina, considering for the first time the presence of different compartments deriving from the technology of production. In fact meat pieces (pork muscle and fat cut into cubes of about 10-20cm(3)), mixed with other ingredients and then stuffed into pig bladder, are still distinguishable at the end of the ripening. They appear delimited on the outside by the casing and inside by thin layers consisting of spices (mainly red pepper powder), salt and meat juices...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992189/cationic-amphiphilic-polymers-with-antimicrobial-activity-for-oral-care-applications-eradication-of-s-mutans-biofilm
#10
Haruko Takahashi, Enrico T Nadres, Kenichi Kuroda
The antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of cationic amphiphilic methacrylate polymers against cariogenic bacterium S. mutans were investigated. Cationic homopolymer PE0 and copolymer PE31 containing 31 mol % of ethyl methacrylate were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. These polymers displayed bactericidal activity toward S. mutans and prevented biofilm formation by killing the planktonic bacteria. At a concentration of 1000 μg/mL when incubated for 2 h the polymers reduced >80% of biofilm biomass...
January 9, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988224/photoinactivation-of-single-and-mixed-biofilms-of-candida-albicans-and-non-albicans-candida-species-using-phorodithazine-%C3%A2
#11
Juliana Cabrini Carmello, Fernanda Alves, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira Mima, Janaina Habib Jorge, Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato, Ana Cláudia Pavarina
This study evaluated the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) mediated by Photodithazine(®) (PDZ) formulated in hydrogel, in the inactivation of mono and duo-species biofilms of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis. Standardized suspensions of each strain were prepared and after biofilm formation, mono-species were treated with 150 and 175mg/L of PDZ for 20minutes (pre-irradiation time), and exposed to LED light at a dose of 37.5J/cm(2) (660nm). The duo-species biofilms (C...
December 14, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986825/vitamin-c-targets-p-ppgpp-synthesis-leading-to-stalling-of-long-term-survival-and-biofilm-formation-in-m-smegmatis
#12
Kirtimaan Syal, Neerupma Bhardwaj, Dipankar Chatterji
Earlier, Vitamin C was demonstrated to sterilize Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture via Fenton's reaction at high concentration. It alters the regulatory pathways associated with stress response and dormancy. Since (p)ppGpp is considered to be the master regulator of stress response and is responsible for bacterial survival under stress, we tested the effect of Vitamin C on the formation of (p)ppGpp. In-vivo estimation of (p)ppGpp showed a decrease in (p)ppGpp levels in Vitamin C treated M. smegmatis cells in comparison to the untreated cells...
December 15, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973362/evaluation-of-volcanic-pumice-stone-as-media-in-fixed-bed-sequence-batch-reactor-for-atrazine-removal-from-aquatic-environments
#13
Zahra Derakhshan, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Mohammad Faramarzian, Mehdi Mokhtari, Seyed Mohammad Mazloomi
Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) is a component of S-triazine. Its characteristics make it a pollutant of ecosystems and a probable human carcinogen. The present study evaluated volcanic pumice stone as a suitable media for biological growth and biofilm development in a fixed-bed sequencing batch reactor (FBSBR) for atrazine removal from aquatic environments. The FBSBR was fed with synthetic wastewater containing sucrose and atrazine at four hydraulic retention times to assess biodegradation of atrazine by a microbial consortium for removal from aquatic environments...
December 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939826/in%C3%A2-vitro-efficacy-of-xp-endo-finisher-with-2-different-protocols-on-biofilm-removal-from-apical-root-canals
#14
Pingping Bao, Ya Shen, James Lin, Markus Haapasalo
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the XP-endo Finisher (XPF; FKG Dentaire SA, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) in biofilm removal in comparison with conventional needle irrigation (CNI) and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) using an infected tooth model with an artificial apical groove. METHODS: Fifty-four extracted human single-rooted premolars were selected. Each tooth was split longitudinally into 2 halves, with a groove made in the apical segment of the canal wall...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934958/gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria-differ-in-their-sensitivity-to-cold-plasma
#15
Anne Mai-Prochnow, Maryse Clauson, Jungmi Hong, Anthony B Murphy
Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma (CAP) is a relatively new method being investigated for antimicrobial activity. However, the exact mode of action is still being explored. Here we report that CAP efficacy is directly correlated to bacterial cell wall thickness in several species. Biofilms of Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, possessing a 55.4 nm cell wall, showed the highest resistance to CAP, with less than one log10 reduction after 10 min treatment. In contrast, biofilms of Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, possessing only a 2...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930461/odontogenic-orofacial-infections
#16
Dario Bertossi, Antonio Barone, Antonio Iurlaro, Simone Marconcini, Daniele De Santis, Marco Finotti, Pasquale Procacci
Acute dental abscess is a frequent and sometimes underestimated disease of the oral cavity. The acute dental abscess usually occurs secondary to caries, trauma, or failed endodontic treatment. After the intact pulp chamber is opened, colonization of the root canals takes place with a variable set of anaerobic bacteria, which colonize the walls of the necrotic root canals forming a specialized mixed anaerobic biofilm. Asymptomatic necrosis is common. However, abscess formation occurs when these bacteria and their toxic products breach into the periapical tissues through the apical foramen and induce acute inflammation and pus formation...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919900/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-and-cysteamine-new-strategies-against-mixed-biofilms-of-non-encapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#17
Mirian Domenech, Ernesto García
Acute otitis media, a polymicrobial disease of the middle ear cavity of children, is a significant public health problem worldwide. It is most frequently caused by encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, although the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is apparently producing an increase in carriage of non-encapsulated S. pneumoniae Frequently, pneumococci and H. influenzae live together in the human nasopharynx forming a self-produced biofilm. Biofilms represent a global medical challenge since the inherent antibiotic resistance of their producers demands the use of high doses of antibiotics over prolonged periods...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918204/removal-of-listeria-monocytogenes-dual-species-biofilms-using-combined-enzyme-benzalkonium-chloride-treatments
#18
Pedro Rodríguez-López, Alba Carballo-Justo, Lorraine A Draper, Marta L Cabo
The effects of pronase (PRN), cellulase (CEL) or DNaseI alone or combined with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) against Listeria monocytogenes-carrying biofilms were assayed. The best removal activity against L. monocytogenes-Escherichia coli biofilms was obtained using DNaseI followed by PRN and CEL. Subsequently, a modified logistic model was used to quantify the combined effects of PRN or DNaseI with BAC. A better BAC performance after PRN compared to DNaseI eradicating L. monocytogenes was observed. In E. coli the effects were the opposite...
January 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887972/radon-as-a-natural-tracer-for-underwater-cave-exploration
#19
Katalin Csondor, Anita Erőss, Ákos Horváth, Dénes Szieberth
The Molnár János cave is one of the largest hypogenic caves of the Buda Thermal Karst (Budapest, Hungary) and mainly characterized by water-filled passages. The major outflow point of the waters of the cave system is the Boltív spring, which feeds the artificial Malom Lake. Previous radon measurements in the cave system and in the spring established the highest radon concentration (71 BqL(-1)) in the springwater. According to previous studies, the origin of radon was identified as iron-hydroxide containing biofilms, which form where there is mixing of cold and thermal waters, and these biofilms efficiently adsorb radium from the thermal water component...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871998/isolation-of-a-sulfide-producing-bacterial-consortium-from-cooling-tower-water-evaluation-of-corrosive-effects-on-galvanized-steel
#20
Esra Ilhan-Sungur, Derya Ozuolmez, Ayşın Çotuk, Nurhan Cansever, Gerard Muyzer
Sulfidogenic Clostridia and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) often cohabit in nature. The presence of these microorganisms can cause microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of materials in different ways. To investigate this aspect, bacteria were isolated from cooling tower water and used in corrosion tests of galvanized steel. The identity of the isolates was determined by comparative sequence analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA gene fragments, separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). This analysis showed that, in spite of the isolation process, colonies were not pure and consisted of a mixture of bacteria affiliated with Desulfosporosinus meridiei and Clostridium sp...
November 18, 2016: Anaerobe
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