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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812881/predicting-microbial-fuel-cell-biofilm-communities-and-bioreactor-performance-using-artificial-neural-networks
#1
Keaton Larson Lesnik, Hong Liu
The complex interactions that occur in mixed-species bioelectrochemical reactors, like microbial fuel cells (MFCs), make accurate predictions of performance outcomes under untested conditions difficult. While direct correlations between any individual waste stream characteristic or microbial community structure and reactor performance have not been able to be directly established, the increase in sequencing data and readily available computational power enables the development of alternate approaches. In the current study, 33 MFCs were evaluated under a range of conditions including 8 separate substrates and 3 different wastewaters...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806528/surface-adaptive-gold-nanoparticles-with-effective-adherence-and-enhanced-photothermal-ablation-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm
#2
Dengfeng Hu, Huan Li, Bailiang Wang, Zi Ye, Wenxi Lei, Fan Jia, Qiao Jin, Ke-Feng Ren, Jian Ji
Biofilms that contribute to the persistent bacterial infections pose serious threats to global public health, mainly due to their resistance to antibiotics penetration and escaping innate immune attacks by phagocytes. Here, we report a kind of surface-adaptive gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) exhibiting (1) a self-adaptive target to the acidic microenvironment of biofilm, (2) an enhanced photothermal ablation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm under near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation, and (3) no damage to the healthy tissues around the biofilm...
August 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799927/heavy-metal-tolerance-and-removal-potential-in-mixed-species-biofilm
#3
Sandra Grujić, Sava Vasić, Ljiljana Čomić, Aleksandar Ostojić, Ivana Radojević
The aim of the study was to examine heavy metal tolerance (Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+) and Cu(2+)) of single- and mixed-species biofilms (Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Escherichia coli) and to determine metal removal efficiency (Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Pb(2+) and Hg(2+)). Metal tolerance was quantified by crystal violet assay and results were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. Metal removal efficiency was determined by batch biosorption assay. The tolerance of the mixed-species biofilm was higher than the single-species biofilms...
August 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796491/excellent-biofouling-alleviation-of-thermoexfoliated-vermiculite-blended-polyethersulfone-ultrafiltration-membrane
#4
Yasin Orooji, Feng Liang, Amir Razmjou, Sha Li, Mohammad Reza Mofid, Quan Liu, Kecheng Guan, ZhengKun Liu, Wanqin Jin
Flux and antifouling properties of mixed matrix membranes (MMM) are yet to attain satisfactory status. The aim of this study is to find a method for mitigating the biofouling of polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes via blending of thermoexfoliated vermiculite (VMT). Flow cytometry analysis shows that the behaviors of Bacillus subtilis 168 as a gram-positive bacterium and Escherichia coli DH5 alpha as a gram-negative bacterium were different. Hence, cell property is a suspected contributory factor in biofilm formation...
August 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792538/the-importance-of-conserved-amino-acids-in-heme-based-globin-coupled-diguanylate-cyclases
#5
Xuehua Wan, Jennifer A Saito, James S Newhouse, Shaobin Hou, Maqsudul Alam
Globin-coupled diguanylate cyclases contain globin, middle, and diguanylate cyclase domains that sense O2 to synthesize c-di-GMP and regulate bacterial motility, biofilm formation, and virulence. However, relatively few studies have extensively examined the roles of individual residues and domains of globin-coupled diguanylate cyclases, which can shed light on their signaling mechanisms and provide drug targets. Here, we report the critical residues of two globin-coupled diguanylate cyclases, EcGReg from Escherichia coli and BpeGReg from Bordetella pertussis, and show that their diguanylate cyclase activity requires an intact globin domain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790201/division-of-labor-bet-hedging-and-the-evolution-of-mixed-biofilm-investment-strategies
#6
Nick Vallespir Lowery, Luke McNally, William C Ratcliff, Sam P Brown
Bacterial cells, like many other organisms, face a tradeoff between longevity and fecundity. Planktonic cells are fast growing and fragile, while biofilm cells are often slower growing but stress resistant. Here we ask why bacterial lineages invest simultaneously in both fast- and slow-growing types. We develop a population dynamic model of lineage expansion across a patchy environment and find that mixed investment is favored across a broad range of environmental conditions, even when transmission is entirely via biofilm cells...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776099/impact-of-dust-exposure-on-mixed-bacterial-cultures-and-during-eukaryotic-cell-co-culture-infections
#7
Mariam Bado, Syntia Kwende, Shishir Shishodia, Jason A Rosenzweig
On a daily basis, humans, and their colonizing microbiome, are exposed to both indoor and outdoor dust, containing both deleterious organic and inorganic contaminants, through dermal contact, inhalation, and ingestion. Recent studies evaluating the dust exposure responses of opportunistic pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, revealed significant increases in biofilm formation following dust exposure. In this study, the effects of dust exposure on mixed bacterial cultures as well as HT-29 co-cultures were evaluated...
August 3, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769901/fluorescence-imaging-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-with-the-helix-pomatia-agglutinin-hpa-as-a-potential-rapid-diagnostic-tool
#8
Mirian Domenech, Ernesto García
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common human pathogen and a major causal agent of life-threatening infections that can either be respiratory or non-respiratory. It is well known that the Helix pomatia (edible snail) agglutinin (HPA) lectin shows specificity for terminal αGalNAc residues present, among other locations, in the Forssman pentasaccharide (αGalNAc1→3βGalNAc1→3αGal1→4βGal1→4βGlc). Based on experiments involving choline-independent mutants and different growth conditions, we propose here that HPA recognizes the αGalNAc terminal residues of the cell wall teichoic and lipoteichoic acids of S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769900/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-aspects-on-campylobacter-jejuni-biofilms
#9
Roberta T Melo, Eliane P Mendonça, Guilherme P Monteiro, Mariana C Siqueira, Clara B Pereira, Phelipe A B M Peres, Heriberto Fernandez, Daise A Rossi
Biofilm represents a way of life that allows greater survival of microorganisms in hostile habitats. Campylobacter jejuni is able to form biofilms in vitro and on surfaces at several points in the poultry production chain. Genetic determinants related to their formation are expressed differently between strains and external conditions are decisive in this respect. Our approach combines phylogenetic analysis and the presence of seven specific genes linked to biofilm formation in association with traditional microbiology techniques, using Mueller Hinton and chicken juice as substrates in order to quantify, classify, determine the composition and morphology of the biomass of simple and mixed biofilms of 30 C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769885/novel-pelagic-iron-oxidizing-zetaproteobacteria-from-the-chesapeake-bay-oxic-anoxic-transition-zone
#10
Beverly K Chiu, Shingo Kato, Sean M McAllister, Erin K Field, Clara S Chan
Chemolithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) could theoretically inhabit any environment where Fe(II) and O2 (or nitrate) coexist. Until recently, marine Fe-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria had primarily been observed in benthic and subsurface settings, but not redox-stratified water columns. This may be due to the challenges that a pelagic lifestyle would pose for Zetaproteobacteria, given low Fe(II) concentrations in modern marine waters and the possibility that Fe oxyhydroxide biominerals could cause cells to sink...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766815/rhamnolipids-and-lactonic-sophorolipids-natural-antimicrobial-surfactants-for-oral-hygiene
#11
M Elshikh, I Moya-Ramírez, H Moens, S Roelants, W Soetaert, R Marchant, I M Banat
AIMS: To assess the efficacy of rhamnolipid (mixture of mono- and di-rhamnolipid congeners, purified monorhamnolipid, dirhamnolipid and lactonic sophorolipid biosurfactants against pathogens important for oral hygiene. METHODS AND RESULTS: Acquired and produced biosurfactants were fully characterised to allow the antimicrobial activity to be assigned to the biosurfactant congeners. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using the resazurin aided microdilution method...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763140/necroptosis-in-the-periodontal-homeostasis-signals-emanating-from-dying-cells
#12
REVIEW
Jiao Li, XiaoJing Ke, Fuhua Yan, Lang Lei, Houxuan Li
Periodontal tissues are constantly exposed to microbial stimuli. The equilibrium between microbes and host defense system helps maintain the homeostasis in the periodontal microenvironment. Growth of pathogenic bacteria in dental biofilms may induce proinflammatory cytokine production to recruit sentinel cells, mainly neutrophils and monocytes into the gingival sulcus or the periodontal pocket. Moreover,dybiosis with over-growth of anaerobic pathogens, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia, may induce death of both immune cells and host resident cells...
August 1, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752078/transcriptional-profiling-of-c-albicans-in-a-two-species-biofilm-with-rothia-dentocariosa
#13
Priya Uppuluri, Henk J Busscher, Jaideep Chakladar, Henny C van der Mei, W LaJean Chaffin
Biofilms on silicone rubber voice prostheses are the major cause for frequent failure and replacement of these devices. The presence of both bacterial and yeast strains has been suggested to be crucial for the development of voice prosthetic biofilms. Polymicrobial biofilms that include Candida albicans and Rothia dentocariosa are the leading cause of voice prosthesis failure. An in vitro biofilm comprising these two organisms was developed on silicone rubber, a material used for Groningen button voice prosthesis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748031/antibiofilm-peptides-against-oral-biofilms
#14
Zhejun Wang, Ya Shen, Markus Haapasalo
The oral cavity is a major entry point for bacteria and other microorganisms. Oral biofilms are formed by mixed communities of microorganisms embedded in an exopolysaccharide matrix. Biofilms forming on dental hard or soft tissue are the major cause of caries and endodontic and periodontal disease. Human oral biofilms exhibit high resistance to antimicrobial agents. Antibiofilm peptides constitute a diverse class of host-defense molecules that act to combat invasion and infection with biofilms. Different in vitro and in vivo biofilm models with quantitative analysis have been established to provide predictable platforms for the evaluation of the antibiofilm effect of oral antibiofilm peptides...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747178/anaerobic-bacteria-growth-in-the-presence-of-cathelicidin-ll-37-and-selected-ceragenins-delivered-as-magnetic-nanoparticles-cargo
#15
Bonita Durnaś, Ewelina Piktel, Marzena Wątek, Tomasz Wollny, Stanisław Góźdź, Jolanta Smok-Kalwat, Katarzyna Niemirowicz, Paul B Savage, Robert Bucki
BACKGROUND: Cationic antibacterial peptides (CAPs) and synthetic molecules mimicking the amphiphilic structure of CAPs, such as ceragenins, are promising compounds for the development of new antimicrobials. RESULTS: We tested the in vitro activity of ceragenins CSA-13 and CSA-131 against several anaerobic bacteria including Bacteroides spp. and Clostridium difficile. We compared results to the activity of cathelicidin LL-37, metronidazole and nanosystems developed by attachment of CSA-13 and CSA-131 to magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs)...
July 26, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701638/antibacterial-activity-cytotoxicity-and-mechanical-behavior-of-nano-enhanced-denture-base-resin-with-different-kinds-of-inorganic-antibacterial-agents
#16
Rongrong Chen, Zhihui Han, Zhuoli Huang, Junu Karki, Chenxin Wang, Bangshang Zhu, Xiuyin Zhang
Silanized aluminum borate whiskers (ABWs) of 4 wt%, silanized zirconium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-ZrO2) of 2 wt% were mixed with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) powder to get ZrO2-ABWs/PMMA composites. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), silver-supported titanium dioxide (Ag/TiO2), silver-supported zirconium phosphate (Novaron) and tetrapod-like zinc oxide whiskers (T-ZnOw) antibacterial agents of 3 wt% were mixed with ZrO2-ABWs/PMMA composites respectively to fabricate standard specimens. Plaque biofilms on the specimens surface were investigated for colony-forming units (CFUs)...
July 12, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696232/community-composition-determines-activity-of-antibiotics-against-multispecies-biofilms
#17
Sarah Tavernier, Aurélie Crabbé, Mayram Tuysuz, Liesbeth Stuer, Silke Henry, Petra Rigole, Inne Dhondt, Tom Coenye
In young cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, Staphylococcus aureus is typically the most prevalent organism, while in adults, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major pathogen. More recently, it was observed that also Streptococcus anginosus plays an important role in exacerbations of respiratory symptoms. These species are often co-isolated from CF lungs, yet little is known about whether antibiotic killing of one species is influenced by the presence of others. In the present study, we compared the activity of various antibiotics against S...
July 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690040/bioactivity-of-ceftazidime-and-fluconazole-included-in-polymethyl-methacrylate-bone-cement-for-use-in-arthroplasty
#18
J Martínez-Moreno, V Merino, A Nácher, J L Rodrigo, Blanca B Bonet Yuste, M Merino-Sanjuán
BACKGROUND: The microorganisms that most frequently cause prosthetic joint infection are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative aerobic bacillus. Studies have documented the efficacy of mixing antibiotics with polymethyl methacrylate, but that of antifungal drugs has not received much attention. The objective of this in vitro study was to characterize the elution profile and bioactivity of ceftazidime and fluconazole when incorporated into bone cement in proportions intended for prophylaxis and treatment of bone infections...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680970/nbiochip-a-lab-on-a-chip-platform-of-mono-and-polymicrobial-biofilms-for-high-throughput-downstream-applications
#19
Anand Srinivasan, Nelson S Torres, Kai P Leung, Jose L Lopez-Ribot, Anand K Ramasubramanian
Current in vitro techniques for the culture of microorganisms, and particularly of delicate microbial biofilms, are still mostly limited to low-density plates and manual labor and are not amenable to automation and true high-throughput (HT) applications. We have developed a novel fully automated platform for the formation of mono- and polymicrobial biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans at the nanoscale level. The nBioChip is robotically printed, robustly handled, and scanned using a standard microarray reader...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679746/bacillus-subtilis-protects-public-goods-by-extending-kin-discrimination-to-closely-related-species
#20
Nicholas A Lyons, Roberto Kolter
Kin discrimination systems are found in numerous communal contexts like multicellularity and are theorized to prevent exploitation of cooperative behaviors. The kin discrimination system in Bacillus subtilis differs from most other such systems because it excludes nonkin cells rather than including kin cells. Because nonkin are the target of the system, B. subtilis can potentially distinguish degrees of nonkin relatedness, not just kin versus nonkin. We examined this by testing a large strain collection of diverse Bacillus species against B...
July 5, 2017: MBio
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