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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198976/role-of-candida-species-from-hiv-infected-children-in-enamel-caries-lesions-an-in-vitro-study
#1
Senda Charone, Maristela Barbosa Portela, Karol de Oliveira Martins, Rosangela Maria Soares, Gloria Fernanda Castro
Objectives: This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+) children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+) released from the enamel. Material and Methods: Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140) enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194955/luminometric-label-array-for-counting-and-differentiation-of-bacteria
#2
Milla Högmander, Catherine J Paul, Sandy Chan, Elina Hokkanen, Ville Eskonen, Tapio Pahikkala, Sari Pihlasalo
Methods for simple and fast detection and differentiation of bacterial species are required, for instance, in medicine, water quality monitoring, and the food industry. Here, we have developed a novel label array method for the counting and differentiation of bacterial species. This method is based on the nonspecific interactions of multiple unstable lanthanide chelates and selected chemicals within the sample leading to a luminescence signal profile that is unique to the bacterial species. It is simple, cost-effective, and/or user-friendly compared to many existing methods, such as plate counts on selective media, automatic (hemocytometer-based) cell counters, flow cytometry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for identification...
February 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187935/effect-of-bacteria-on-the-degradation-ability-of-pleurotus-ostreatus
#3
Hana Válková, Čeněk Novotný, Kateřina Malachová, Pavlína Šlosarčíková, Jindřich Fojtík
White-rot fungi are efficient degraders of lignin whose extracellular enzymes have a potential to degrade organopollutants. In natural conditions these fungi enter into interactions with other organisms, which may affect their biodegradation capacity. The aim was to investigate the ability of Pleurotus ostreatus to form stable biofilms and to test the capacity of the fungus to degrade Remazol Brilliant Blue R in mixed cultures with bacteria. Bacterial counts were determined to see the behavior of the bacterium in the mixed culture with the fungus...
February 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173753/conjugative-type-ivb-pilus-recognizes-lipopolysaccharide-of-recipient-cells-to-initiate-papi-1-pathogenicity-island-transfer-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#4
Toan Phuoc Hong, Michelle Q Carter, Paolo Struffi, Stefano Casonato, Youai Hao, Joseph S Lam, Stephen Lory, Olivier Jousson
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity island 1 (PAPI-1) is one of the largest genomic islands of this important opportunistic human pathogen. Previous studies have shown that PAPI-1 encodes several putative virulence factors, including a major regulator of biofilm formation and antibiotic-resistance traits. PAPI-1 is horizontally transferable into recipient strains lacking this island via conjugation mediated by the specialized type IV pilus. The PAPI-1 encodes a cluster of ten genes associated with the synthesis and assembly of the type IV pilus...
February 7, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164244/candida-krusei-and-candida-glabrata-reduce-the-filamentation-of-candida-albicans-by-downregulating-expression-of-hwp1-gene
#5
Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Fernanda Freire, Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge
Pathogenicity of Candida albicans is associated with its capacity switch from yeast-like to hyphal growth. The hyphal form is capable to penetrate the epithelial surfaces and to damage the host tissues. Therefore, many investigations have focused on mechanisms that control the morphological transitions of C. albicans. Recently, certain studies have showed that non-albicans Candida species can reduce the capacity of C. albicans to form biofilms and to develop candidiasis in animal models. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Candida krusei and Candida glabrata on the morphogenesis of C...
February 6, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161488/cold-atmospheric-pressure-plasma-elimination-of-clinically-important-single-and-mixed-species-biofilms
#6
Martina Modic, Neil P McLeod, J Mark Sutton, James L Walsh
Mixed-species biofilms reflect the natural environment of many pathogens in clinical settings and are highly resistant to disinfection methods. An indirect cold atmospheric-pressure air-plasma system was evaluated under two different discharge conditions for its ability to kill representative Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) pathogens. Plasma treatment of individual 24-h-old biofilms and mixed-species biofilms that contained additional species (Enterococcus faecalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae) was considered...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160677/nutrient-and-suspended-solids-removal-from-petrochemical-wastewater-via-microalgal-biofilm-cultivation
#7
Alan Hodges, Zachary Fica, Jordan Wanlass, Jessica VanDarlin, Ronald Sims
Wastewater derived from petroleum refining currently accounts for 33.6 million barrels per day globally. Few wastewater treatment strategies exist to produce value-added products from petroleum refining wastewater. In this study, mixed culture microalgal biofilm-based treatment of petroleum refining wastewater using rotating algae biofilm reactors (RABRs) was compared with suspended-growth open pond lagoon reactors for removal of nutrients and suspended solids. Triplicate reactors were operated for 12 weeks and were continuously fed with petroleum refining wastewater...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156000/rhamnolipids-from-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strain-w10-as-antibiofilm-antibiofouling-products-for-metal-protection
#8
Alif Chebbi, Mohamed Elshikh, Farazul Haque, Syed Ahmed, Sara Dobbin, Roger Marchant, Sami Sayadi, Mohamed Chamkha, Ibrahim M Banat
Industrial biofouling-problems associated with the accumulation of microorganisms from flowing water and fluids on processing surfaces can cause severe problems. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain W10 was isolated from industrial setting and found to produce predominantly di-rhamnolipids (Rha-Rha-C10-C10) with a yield of around 10 g L(-1) and a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 80 mg L(-1) . P. aeruginosa W10 rhamnolipids were able to disrupt up to 99% of 48 h pre-formed biofilms of the Gram-positive organisms Bacillus licheniformis CAN55, Staphylococcus capitis SH6, and a mixed culture (strains CAN55, SH6, and W10), under static conditions, at concentrations of 0...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118640/inhibition-of-streptococcus-mutans-growth-and-biofilm-formation-by-probiotics-in-vitro
#9
Falk Schwendicke, Franziska Korte, Christof E Dörfer, Susanne Kneist, Karim Fawzy El-Sayed, Sebastian Paris
To exert anticaries effects, probiotics are described to inhibit growth and biofilm formation of cariogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans (SM). We screened 8 probiotics and assessed how SM growth or biofilm formation inhibition affects cariogenicity of probiotic-SM mixed-species biofilms in vitro. Growth inhibition was assessed by cocultivating probiotics and 2 SM strains (ATCC 20532/25175) on agar. Probiotics were either precultured before SM cultivation (exclusion), or SM precultured prior to probiotic cultivation (displacement)...
January 25, 2017: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117832/salivary-mucins-promote-the-coexistence-of-competing-oral-bacterial-species
#10
Erica Shapiro Frenkel, Katharina Ribbeck
Mucus forms a major ecological niche for microbiota in various locations throughout the human body such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and oral cavity. The primary structural components of mucus are mucin glycoproteins, which crosslink to form a complex polymer network that surrounds microbes. Although the mucin matrix could create constraints that impact inhabiting microbes, little is understood about how this key environmental factor affects interspecies interactions. In this study, we develop an experimental model using gel-forming human salivary mucins to understand the influence of mucin on the viability of two competing species of oral bacteria...
January 24, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117413/comparative-evaluation-of-rrna-depletion-procedures-for-the-improved-analysis-of-bacterial-biofilm-and-mixed-pathogen-culture-transcriptomes
#11
Olga E Petrova, Fernando Garcia-Alcalde, Claudia Zampaloni, Karin Sauer
Global transcriptomic analysis via RNA-seq is often hampered by the high abundance of ribosomal (r)RNA in bacterial cells. To remove rRNA and enrich coding sequences, subtractive hybridization procedures have become the approach of choice prior to RNA-seq, with their efficiency varying in a manner dependent on sample type and composition. Yet, despite an increasing number of RNA-seq studies, comparative evaluation of bacterial rRNA depletion methods has remained limited. Moreover, no such study has utilized RNA derived from bacterial biofilms, which have potentially higher rRNA:mRNA ratios and higher rRNA carryover during RNA-seq analysis...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114348/polymicrobial-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-fighting-in-vitro-candida-albicans-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilms-with-antifungal-antibacterial-combination-therapy
#12
Maria E Rodrigues, Susana P Lopes, Cláudia R Pereira, Nuno F Azevedo, Anália Lourenço, Mariana Henriques, Maria O Pereira
The polymicrobial nature of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is now evident, with mixed bacterial-fungal biofilms colonizing the VAP endotracheal tube (ETT) surface. The microbial interplay within this infection may contribute for enhanced pathogenesis and exert impact towards antimicrobial therapy. Consequently, the high mortality/morbidity rates associated to VAP and the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance has promoted the search for novel therapeutic strategies to fight VAP polymicrobial infections...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110397/enhancement-of-acetate-productivity-in-a-thermophilic-55%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-hollow-fiber-membrane-biofilm-reactor-with-mixed-culture-syngas-h2-co2-fermentation
#13
Yun-Qi Wang, Shi-Jin Yu, Fang Zhang, Xiu-Yang Xia, Raymond J Zeng
Conversion of organic wastes to syngas is an attractive way to utilize wastes. The produced syngas can be further used to produce a variety of chemicals. In this study, a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor with mix cultures was operated at 55 °C to convert syngas (H2/CO2) into acetate. A high concentration of acetate (42.4 g/L) was reached in batch experiment while a maximum acetate production rate of 10.5 g/L/day was achieved in the continuous-flow mode at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day. Acetate was the main product in both batch and continuous-flow experiments...
January 21, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109692/-infectious-risk-related-to-the-formation-of-multi-species-biofilms-candida%C3%A2-%C3%A2-bacteria-on-peripheral-vascular-catheters
#14
REVIEW
A Seghir, Z Boucherit-Otmani, L Sari-Belkharroubi, K Boucherit
The Candida yeasts are the fourth leading cause of death from systemic infections, the risk may increase when the infection also involves bacteria. Yeasts and bacteria can adhere to medical implants, such as peripheral vascular catheters, and form a multicellular structures called "mixed biofilms" more resistant to antimicrobials agents. However, the formation of mixed biofilms on implants leads to long-term persistent infections because they can act as reservoirs of pathogens that have poorly understood interactions...
January 18, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105272/novel-potentiators-for-vancomycin-in-the-treatment-of-biofilm-related-mrsa-infections-via-a-mix-and-match-approach
#15
Arno Vermote, Gilles Brackman, Martijn D P Risseeuw, Davie Cappoen, Paul Cos, Tom Coenye, Serge Van Calenbergh
A library of 52 hamamelitannin analogues was synthesized and investigated for its ability to potentiate the effect of vancomycin toward Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Several compounds were found to effectively increase the susceptibility of staphylococcal biofilms toward this glycopeptide. The most active analogue identified in this study showed an EC50 value of 0.26 μM.
January 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089718/cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-from-alligator-mississippiensis-has-antibacterial-activity-against-multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumanii-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#16
Stephanie M Barksdale, Evelyn J Hrifko, Monique L van Hoek
Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator), a member of order Crocodilia, lives in bacteria-laden environments but is not often known to succumb to bacterial infections. Their serum has been shown to have antibacterial activity beyond that of human serum, and it is believed that this activity is partially due to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs). CAMPs are produced by many organisms as part of the innate immune system. CAMPs are attractive possible therapies against multi-drug resistant bacteria, such as those found in biofilm-infected war wounds, because they seldom cause genetic resistance in bacteria and are effective against antibiotic resistant bacteria...
January 13, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087529/resilience-dynamics-and-interactions-within-a-multi-species-exoelectrogenic-model-biofilm-community
#17
Anna Prokhorova, Katrin Sturm-Richter, Andreas Doetsch, Johannes Gescher
: Anode-associated multi-species exoelectrogenic biofilms are essential to the function of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). The individual activities of anode associated organisms and physiological responses resulting from co-culturing are often hard to assess due to the high microbial diversity in these systems. Therefore, we developed a model multispecies biofilm of the three exoelectrogenic proteobacteria Shewanella oneidensis, Geobacter sulfurreducens and Geobacter metallireducens with the aim to study in detail the biofilm formation dynamics, the interactions between the organisms and the overall activity of an exoelectrogenic biofilm as a consequence of the applied anode potential...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076372/bad-to-the-bone-on-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-microbial-biofilm-ability-to-directly-destroy-colonized-bone-surfaces-without-participation-of-host-immunity-or-osteoclastogenesis
#18
Adam Junka, Patrycja Szymczyk, Grzegorz Ziółkowski, Ewa Karuga-Kuzniewska, Danuta Smutnicka, Iwona Bil-Lula, Marzenna Bartoszewicz, Susan Mahabady, Parish Paymon Sedghizadeh
Bone infections are a significant public health burden associated with morbidity and mortality in patients. Microbial biofilm pathogens are the causative agents in chronic osteomyelitis. Research on the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis has focused on indirect bone destruction by host immune cells and cytokines secondary to microbial insult. Direct bone resorption by biofilm pathogens has not yet been seriously considered. In this study, common osteomyelitis pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Streptococcus mutans) were grown as biofilms in multiple in vitro and ex vivo experiments to analyze quantitative and qualitative aspects of bone destruction during infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067404/electrochemical-techniques-reveal-that-total-ammonium-stress-increases-electron-flow-to-anode-respiration-in-mixed-species-bacterial-anode-biofilms
#19
Mohamed Mahmoud, Prathap Parameswaran, César I Torres, Bruce E Rittmann
When anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) respire electrons to an anode in microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs), they harvest only a small amount of free energy. This means that ARB must have a high substrate-oxidation rate coupled with a high ratio of electrons used for respiration compared to total electrons removed by substrate utilization. It also means that they are especially susceptible to inhibition that slows anode respiration or lowers their biomass yield. Using several electrochemical techniques, we show that a relatively high total ammonium-nitrogen (TAN) concentration (2...
January 9, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061939/development-of-a-simplified-model-for-completely-mixed-biofilm-reactor
#20
Sushovan Sarkar, Debabrata Mazumder
  A simplified model for the completely mixed biofilm process formulated correlations between entering and exiting substrate concentrations, average substrate flux in the biofilm and effective biofilm thickness. The model essentially considered the substrate mass transport into the biofilm as per Fick's second law and steady state substrate as well as biomass balance for biofilm. The numerical solution of the biofilm model involved evaluation of the average flux along with exiting substrate concentration and application of the Runge-Kutta method for determining the effective biofilm thickness...
December 1, 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
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