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Mixed biofilm

Yue Yi, Beizhen Xie, Ting Zhao, Hong Liu
Microbial fuel cell based biosensors (MFC-biosensors) utilize anode biofilms as biological recognition elements to monitor biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and biotoxicity. However, the relatively poor sensitivity constrains the application of MFC-biosensors. To address this limitation, this study provided a systematic comparison of sensitivity between the MFC-biosensors constructed with two inocula. Higher biomass density and viability were both observed in the anode biofilm of the mixed culture MFC, which resulted in better sensitivity for BOD assessment...
June 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Danielle do Carmo Ferreira Bruno, Thais Fernanda Bartelli, Marcelo R S Briones
Polymicrobial infections with mixed-species biofilms are important health problems because of increased antimicrobial resistance and worse patient outcomes than with monomicrobial infections. Here, we present the whole-genome sequence of Staphylococcus epidermidis strain GTH12, which was cocultured with the yeast Candida albicans SC5314 (generating C. albicans strain SC5314 GTH12), thus providing genomic information on polymicrobial infections.
June 21, 2018: Genome Announcements
Sylvie Estrela, Sam P Brown
Polymicrobial interactions play an important role in shaping the outcome of antibiotic treatment, yet how multispecies communities respond to antibiotic assault is still little understood. Here we use an individual-based simulation model of microbial biofilms to investigate how competitive and mutualistic interactions between an antibiotic-resistant and a susceptible strain (or species) influence the two-lineage community response to antibiotic exposure. Our model predicts that while increasing competition and antibiotics leads to increasing competitive release of the antibiotic-resistant strain, hitting a mutualistic community of cross-feeding species with antibiotics leads to a mutualistic suppression effect where both susceptible and resistant species are harmed...
June 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Grace F Gomez, Ruijie Huang, George Eckert, Richard L Gregory
The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of violet-blue light on the metabolic activity of early Streptococcus mutans biofilm, reincubated at 0, 2, and 6 h after 5 min of violet-blue light treatment. S. mutans UA159 biofilm cells were cultured for 12 to 16 h in microtiter plates with Tryptic Soy broth (TSB) or TSB with 1% sucrose (TSBS) and irradiated with violet-blue light for 5 min. After irradiation, the plates were reincubated at 37°C for 0, 2, or 6 h in 5% CO2 . Colorimetric tetrazolium salt reduction assay was used to investigate bacterial metabolic activity...
2018: Journal of Oral Science
Emma Reece, Sean Doyle, Peter Greally, Julie Renwick, Siobhán McClean
Many cystic fibrosis (CF) airway infections are considered to be polymicrobial and microbe-microbe interactions may play an important role in disease pathology. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus are the most prevalent bacterial and fungal pathogens isolated from the CF airway, respectively. We have previously shown that patients co-colonized with these pathogens had comparable outcomes to those chronically colonized with P. aeruginosa . Our objective was to examine the interactions between A...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Igor Kviatkovski, Hadas Mamane, Anat Lakretz, Ilana Sherman, Delila Beno-Moualem, Dror Minz
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is an emerging strategy for controlling the formation of undesired biofilms in water desalination facilities using reverse osmosis (RO). However, most studies examining these pretreatments are limited as they have been conducted on single-species cultures, while biofilms are composed of multiple-species communities. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of UV-C irradiation on a model community composed of six environmental isolates from a marine biofilm formed in RO seawater desalination plant...
June 14, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Lauren A Cowley, Fernanda C Petersen, Roger Junges, Med Jimson D Jimenez, Donald A Morrison, William P Hanage
Homologous recombination in the genetic transformation model organism Streptococcus pneumoniae is thought to be important in the adaptation and evolution of this pathogen. While competent pneumococci are able to scavenge DNA added to laboratory cultures, large-scale transfers of multiple kb are rare under these conditions. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to map transfers in recombinants arising from contact of competent cells with non-competent 'target' cells, using strains with known genomes, distinguished by a total of ~16,000 SNPs...
June 13, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Denise Tornavoi de Castro, Cássio do Nascimento, Oswaldo Luiz Alves, Emerson de Souza Santos, José Augusto Marcondes Agnelli, Andréa Cândido Dos Reis
OBJECTIVES: This study characterized the microbial diversity of formed biofilm on the surface of acrylic resins modified with nanostructured silver vanadate decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgVO3 ) after incubation in human saliva. DESIGN: Resin specimens prepared with AgVO3 at concentrations 0%, 1%, 2.5%, and 5% by either vacuum mixing or polymer solubilization were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After 24 h and 7 days of saliva incubation, biofilm samples were collected from the surface of the specimens...
June 5, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Alexander Brasier, David Wacey, Mike Rogerson, Paul Guagliardo, Martin Saunders, Siri Kellner, Ramon Mercedes-Martin, Tim Prior, Colin Taylor, Anna Matthews, John Reijmer
Lacustrine carbonate chimneys are striking, metre-scale constructions. If these were bioinfluenced constructions, they could be priority targets in the search for early and extraterrestrial microbial life. However, there are questions over whether such chimneys are built on a geobiological framework or are solely abiotic geomorphological features produced by mixing of lake and spring waters. Here, we use correlative microscopy to show that microbes were living around Pleistocene Mono Lake carbonate chimneys during their growth...
June 9, 2018: Geobiology
Sandipam Srikanth, Manoj Kumar, Dheer Singh, M P Singh, S K Puri, S S V Ramakumar
Electro-biocatalytic reactor was operated using selectively enriched mixed culture biofilm for about 320 days with CO2 /bicarbonate as C-source. Biocathode consumed higher current (-16.2 ± 0.3 A/m2 ) for bicarbonate transformation yielding high product synthesis (0.74 g/l/day) compared to CO2 (-9.5 ± 2.8 A/m2 ; 0.41 g/l/day). Product slate includes butanol and butyric acid when CO2 gets transformed but propionic acid replaced both when bicarbonate gets transformed. Based on electroanalysis, the electron transfer might be H2 mediated along with direct transfer under bicarbonate turnover conditions, while it was restricted to direct under CO2 ...
December 26, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Andreia R Bucci, Larissa Marcelino, Renata K Mendes, Augusto Etchegaray
The oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans is involved in tooth decay by a process that initiates with biofilm adhesion and caries development. The presence of other microbes such as Candida albicans may worsen the demineralization process. Since both microbes are virulent to the host and will proliferate under specific host immune deficiencies and systemic diseases, it is important to study antimicrobial substances and their effects on both pathogens. There are several antiseptic agents used to reduce plaque biofilm and its outcome (dental caries and/or periodontal disease)...
June 6, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Angela Oates, Sharon Lindsay, Hitesh Mistry, Fernando Ortega, Andrew J McBain
An in vitro model was developed to assess the effects of topical antimicrobials on taxonomically defined wound biofilms. Biofilms were exposed over seven days to povidone-iodine, silver acetate or polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) at concentrations used in wound dressings. The rank order of tolerance in multi-species biofilms, based on an analysis of the average bacterial counts over time was P. aeruginosa > methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) > B. fragilis > S. pyogenes. The rank order of effectiveness for the antimicrobials in the biofilm model was povidone-iodine > PHMB > silver acetate...
June 6, 2018: Biofouling
Alberto V Carli, Samrath Bhimani, Xu Yang, Karen L de Mesy Bentley, F Patrick Ross, Mathias P G Bostrom
BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a devastating complication following total joint arthroplasty. Current animal models of PJI do not effectively recreate the clinical condition and thus provide limited help in understanding why treatments fail. We developed a mouse model of the first-stage surgery of a 2-stage revision for PJI involving a 3-dimensionally printed Ti-6Al-4V implant and a mouse-sized cement spacer that elutes vancomycin. METHODS: Vancomycin was mixed with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement and inserted into custom-made mouse-sized spacer molds...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Daniel Montelongo-Jauregui, Anand Srinivasan, Anand K Ramasubramanian, Jose L Lopez-Ribot
The oral cavity serves as a nutrient-rich haven for over 600 species of microorganisms. Although many are essential to maintaining the oral microbiota, some can cause oral infections such as caries, periodontitis, mucositis, and endodontic infections, and this is further exacerbated with dental implants. Most of these infections are mixed species in nature and associated with a biofilm mode of growth. Here, after optimization of different parameters including cell density, growth media, and incubation conditions, we have developed an in vitro model of C...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Stephanie M Riley, Danika C Ahoor, Tzahi Y Cath
Large volumes of water are required for the development of unconventional oil and gas (O&G) wells. Water scarcity coupled with seismicity induced by deep-well disposal promote new O&G wastewater management strategies, specifically treatment and reuse. One technology that has been proven effective for removal of organic matter and solids is biologically active filtration (BAF) with granular active carbon (GAC); however, further optimization is needed to enhance BAF performance. This study evaluated three GAC media (one spent and two new) and two nutrient-mix supplements for enhanced removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)...
May 31, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Julio Cesar C Ferreira-Filho, Andressa Temperini de Oliveira Marre, Juliana Soares de Sá Almeida, Leandro Araújo Lobo, Adriana Farah, Ana Maria Gondim Valença, Andréa Fonseca-Gonçalves
The inhibitory activity of a Bauhinia forficata tincture (TBF) was investigated against oral microorganism's strains and against a mature oral biofilm. The viability of planktonic cells was analyzed by Minimal Inhibitory and Microbicidal concentrations of TBF. Salivary samples from health volunteers were collected and mixed to form a saliva pool. An aliquot from this pool were seeded on membranes, which were incubated to form biofilm (48 h). The biofilm was treated according to the groups: G1-Chlorhexidine 0...
May 21, 2018: Natural Product Research
I Douterelo, K E Fish, J B Boxall
Understanding the temporal dynamics of multi-species biofilms in Drinking Water Distribution Systems (DWDS) is essential to ensure safe, high quality water reaches consumers after it passes through these high surface area reactors. This research studied the succession characteristics of fungal and bacterial communities under controlled environmental conditions fully representative of operational DWDS. Microbial communities were observed to increase in complexity after one month of biofilm development but they did not reach stability after three months...
May 3, 2018: Water Research
Alex F Rosenthal, James S Griffin, Michael Wagner, Aaron I Packman, Oluwaseyi Balogun, George F Wells
Morphological parameters are commonly used to predict transport and metabolic kinetics in biofilms. Yet, quantification of biofilm morphology remains challenging due to imaging technology limitations and lack of robust analytical approaches. We present a novel set of imaging and image analysis techniques to estimate internal porosity, pore size distributions, and pore network connectivity to a depth of 1 mm at a resolution of 10 µm in a biofilm exhibiting both heterotrophic and nitrifying activity. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans revealed an extensive pore network with diameters as large as 110 µm directly connected to the biofilm surface and surrounding fluid...
May 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
J Galli, L Calo, D Meucci, M Giuliani, D Lucidi, G Paludetti, R Torelli, M Sanguinetti, C Parrilla
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare the biofilm growing pattern and its morphological extent on silicone and a teflon-like material using a sonication process and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). DESIGN: A prospective cohort study and a laboratory study. SETTING: Otolaryngology -Head and Neck surgery Department and the Microbiology Institute. PARTICIPANTS: The participants included fifteen laryngectomised patients with phonatory prostheses, which were removed because of device failure, and two different kinds of phonatory prostheses from the laboratory (Provox 2 and ActiValve) that were artificially colonised by Candida albicans...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
Shuai Yang, Xinyi Cheng, Zhenyu Jin, Aiguo Xia, Lei Ni, Rongrong Zhang, Fan Jin
Exponentially growing bacteria in a well-mixed planktonic culture are generally assumed to be physiologically and phenotypically uniform, and distinct from their genetically identical counterparts living in biofilms. Using a combination of high spatiotemporal microscopy and a bacterial tracking algorithm, in this study, we showed that the planktonic cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa differently attach to surfaces even when they remained in the exponential phase. We consistently observed that fast- and slow-attaching phenotypes coexist in planktonic cells, regardless of their growth phase...
May 11, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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