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Bas P Hartel, Martijn J H Agterberg, Ad F Snik, Henricus P M Kunst, A John V Opstal, Arjan J Bosman, Ronald J E Pennings
OBJECTIVES: Usher syndrome is the leading cause of hereditary deaf-blindness. Most patients with Usher syndrome type IIa start using hearing aids from a young age. A serious complaint refers to interference between sound localization abilities and adaptive sound processing (compression), as present in today's hearing aids. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of advanced signal processing on binaural hearing, including sound localization. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: In this prospective study, patients were fitted with hearing aids with a nonlinear (compression) and linear amplification program...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Carlos Walter Sobrado, Lucas Faraco Sobrado
Introduction: Acute severe colitis is a potentially lethal medical emergency and, even today, its treatment remains a challenge for clinicians and surgeons. Intravenous corticoid therapy, which was introduced into the therapeutic arsenal in the 1950s, continues to be the first-line treatment and, for patients who are refractory to this, the rescue therapy may consist of clinical measures or emergency colectomy. Objective: To evaluate the indications for and results from drug rescue therapy (cyclosporine, infliximab and tacrolimus), and to suggest a practical guide for clinical approaches...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Ben H Chew, Dirk Lange
Open ureterolithotomy and pyelolithotomy used to be first line therapy for treating kidney and ureteral stones. With the advent of shockwave lithotripsy, open stone surgery became less prevalent, but once ureteroscopy became more prevalent, open stone surgery became all but extinct. Advances in smaller, more flexible endoscopes and improvements in intracorporeal lithotripters, ureteroscopy has become a mainstay of therapy for kidney stones. The holmium:YAG laser can be utilized through flexible instruments and fragments any stone no matter what it is composed of...
October 19, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Ajit Dash, Robert A Figler, Arun J Sanyal, B R Wamhoff
Drug induced steatohepatitis (DISH), a form of drug induced liver injury (DILI) is characterized by intracellular accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes and subsequent inflammatory events, in some ways similar to the pathology seen with other metabolic, viral and genetic causes of non alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis (NAFLD and NASH). Areas covered: This paper provides a comprehensive review of the main underlying mechanisms by which various drugs cause DISH, and outlines existing preclinical tools to predict it and study underlying pathways involved...
October 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Mingming Wang, Wei Zhan
The grand scale, ultimate efficiency, and sustainability of natural photosynthesis have inspired generations of researchers in biomimetic light energy utilization. As an essential and ubiquitous component in all photosynthetic machinery, lipids and their assemblies have long been recognized as powerful molecular scaffolds in building artificial photosynthetic systems. Model lipid bilayers, such as black lipid membranes and liposomes (vesicles), have been extensively used to host natural as well as synthetic photo- and redox-active species, thereby enabling key photosynthetic processes, such as energy transfer and photoinduced electron transfer, to be examined in well-defined, natural-like membrane settings...
October 19, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
V R Badhwar, S Ganapathy, P P Prabhudesai, N K Tulara, A Y Varaiya, D Vyas
In community and family practice, infections are a common OPD presentation. In the management of common bacterial infections seen in community especially RTI, UTI, SSTI; cefuroxime a second generation cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of activity can be used for empirical treatment. To know current place of cefuroxime in the management of infections, physicians, surgeons, microbiologist, chest physician, gynecologist and pediatrician came together to discuss and debate their experience with cefuroxime and its place in today's world...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Darrell G Kirch, Cori E Ast
The health care system of the United States has been in a period of dramatic transformation since the passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, and the rate of change is accelerating. Historically, health care delivery was focused on the efforts of independent individual providers related to single patients, but the future will require interprofessional teamwork to achieve successful transformation. Academic health centers must identify nimble leaders who can harness the expertise of every team member to succeed in yielding the triple aim-better care for individuals, better health for populations, and lower overall cost...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Ursula Klaschka
BACKGROUND: Many natural substances are classified as dangerous substances according to the European regulation on classification and labelling. Are they used in natural personal care products today? One hundred ingredient lists were analyzed to find this out. RESULTS: All products with natural substances contained dangerous natural substances or they contained natural substances, for which the information about their classification as dangerous substances is not available...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Benjamin L Cook, Ana M Progovac, Pei Chen, Brian Mullin, Sherry Hou, Enrique Baca-Garcia
Natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12). Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being) and responses to one unstructured question, "how do you feel today?" We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Anna-Lisa Vollmer, Britta Wrede, Katharina J Rohlfing, Pierre-Yves Oudeyer
One of the big challenges in robotics today is to learn from human users that are inexperienced in interacting with robots but yet are often used to teach skills flexibly to other humans and to children in particular. A potential route toward natural and efficient learning and teaching in Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) is to leverage the social competences of humans and the underlying interactional mechanisms. In this perspective, this article discusses the importance of pragmatic frames as flexible interaction protocols that provide important contextual cues to enable learners to infer new action or language skills and teachers to convey these cues...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Carles Soler, Trevor G Cooper, Anthony Valverde, Jesús L Yániz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
J Cohen, C Andre, P Mozer
Prostate cancer is the first cancer and the second cause of cancer death in men in France. It is now a major public health issue, particularly given the increase of life expectancy. If screening is based on blood PSA and clinical examination (DRE), diagnosis requires the histological analysis of prostate samples. In current clinical routine, these biopsies are performed by endorectal through ultrasound guidance. In most cases, the cancer is not visible in the ultrasound image and the latter is used to make a dozen samples (or core), distributed as best as possible in the prostate...
October 14, 2016: Progrès en Urologie
Miha Lucovnik, Linda R Chambliss, Richard Blumrick, James Balducci, Ksenija Gersak, Robert E Garfield
OBJECTIVE: It has been shown that noninvasive uterine electromyography (EMG) can identify true preterm labor more accurately than methods available to clinicians today. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on the accuracy of uterine EMG in predicting preterm delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Predictive values of uterine EMG for preterm delivery were compared in obese versus overweight/normal BMI patients. Hanley-McNeil test was used to compare receiver operator characteristics curves in these groups...
October 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Aniruddha Vyas, Neeta Bachani, Hrishikesh Thakur, Yash Lokhandwala
"Digitalis toxicity, often candidly indexed as poisoning, has plagued the medical profession for over 200 years. The situation qualifies as a professional disgrace on the basis of three items: the situation persists, physicians are often slow to recognize it and, over the decades, writers have been harsh in their denunciation of fellow physicians when toxicity has occurred…." These are the opening remarks of an essay published in 1983 on the 2nd centenary of William Withering's 'magic potion from foxglove's extract for dropsy...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Mariya V Konovalova, Pavel A Markov, Eugene A Durnev, Denis V Kurek, Sergey V Popov, Valery P Varlamov
Today, there is a need for the development of biomaterials with novel properties for biomedical purposes. The biocompatibility of materials is a key factor in determining its possible use in biomedicine. In this study, composite cryogels were obtained based on pectin and chitosan using ionic cryotropic gelation. For cryogel preparation, apple pectin (AP), Heracleum L. pectin (HP), and chitosan samples with different physical and chemical characteristics were used. The properties of pectin-chitosan cryogels were found to depend on the structural features and physicochemical characteristics of the pectin and chitosan within them...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Guillermo Blanco, Alexandra Junza, Dolores Barrón
Pharmaceuticals from veterinary treatments may enter terrestrial food webs when medicated livestock are available to wildlife in supplementary feeding stations aimed at the conservation of endangered scavengers. Here, we hypothesized that the exposure risk to livestock fluoroquinolones, as indicators of pharmaceutical burden in food, is related to the variable reliance of scavengers on domestic versus wild animal carcasses. Since the misuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics is a major predisposing factor for opportunistic mycoses, we evaluated disease signs potentially associated with diet-dependent drug exposure in nestlings of two threatened vultures...
October 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sumul A Gandhi, Jeremy T Kampp
BACKGROUND: Dermatologic surgery requires precision and accuracy given the delicate nature of procedures performed. The use of the most appropriate instrument for each action helps optimize both functionality and cosmetic outcome. OBJECTIVE: To review the history of surgical instruments used in dermatology, with a focus on mechanism and evolution to the instruments that are used in current practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted via textbook and journal research for historic references while review of current references was conducted online using multiple search engines and PubMed...
October 4, 2016: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Matthew J Smith, Morris D Bell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
A L Krupa, Aarti Jagannathan, Shanivaram K Reddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Sofia Geralemou, Tong J Gan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postoperative and postdischarge nausea and vomiting have profound impact on the efficient delivery of quality healthcare. In addition to patient dissatisfaction, physical morbidities as well as unplanned hospital admissions may result. It is important to risk stratify and intervene on patients at risk. The aim of this review is to explore the benefits and shortcomings of the scoring systems commonly used today. RECENT FINDINGS: Two widely-used risk stratification systems identify and score patient-, anesthesia-, and surgery-related risk factors for postoperative/postdischarge nausea and vomiting in the adult population...
September 29, 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
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