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Vanya Matanova, Zlatomira Kostova, Martin Kolev
For a relatively long period of time, mental functioning was mainly associated with personal profile while brain functioning went by the wayside. After the 90s of the 20th century, or the so called "Decade of the Brain", today, contemporary specialists work on the boundary between fundamental science and medicine. This brings neuroscience, neuropsychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy closer to each other. Today, we definitely know that brain structures are being built and altered thanks to experience...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Tim Merriam, Rolf Kaufmann, Lars Ebert, Renato Figi, Rolf Erni, Robin Pauer, Till Sieberth
Today, post-mortem computed tomography (CT) is routinely used for forensic identification. Mobile energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy of a dentition is a method of identification that has the potential to be easier and cheaper than CT, although it cannot be used with every dentition. In challenging cases, combining both techniques could facilitate the process of identification and prove to be advantageous over chemical analyses. Nine dental restorative material brands were analyzed using EDXRF spectroscopy...
April 24, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Priyadarshan Anand Jategaonkar, Smita Priyadarshan Jategaonkar, Sudeep Pradeep Yadav
Cooperative laparoscopic endoscopic intra-gastric surgery, with its ability to acquire advantages of both these technologies, is a recent development in the field of minimally invasive surgery. However, the pre-requisition of its multi-disciplinary approach together with several technical constraints have, plausibly, limited its widespread acceptance. The ever-increasing number of modifications being reported in today's literature largely underscores the inability of any one to be the best. We illustrate a novel, simple-to-learn, rapid and potentially cost-effective technique of intra-gastric surgery using just the routine laparoscopic instruments, and name it the 'Jategaonkar technique'...
May 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Philipp Braken, Felix Amsler, Thomas Gross
BACKGROUND: No consensus exists in the literature on the use of uniform emergency room trauma team activation criteria (ERTTAC). Today excessive over- or undertriage rates continue to be a challenge for most trauma centres. Application of ERTTAC, published for use in the German TraumaNetwork DGU® , at a Swiss trauma centre resulted in a high overtriage rate. The aim of the investigation was to analyse the ERTTAC in detail with the intention of possible improvement. METHODS: The investigation included consecutive adult (age > 15 years) trauma patients treated at the emergency department of a level II trauma centre from 01...
April 24, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Irene Suomi, Timo Vihma
Information on wind gusts is needed for assessment of wind-induced damage and risks to safety. The measurement of wind gust speed requires a high temporal resolution of the anemometer system, because the gust is defined as a short-duration (seconds) maximum of the fluctuating wind speed. Until the digitalization of wind measurements in the 1990s, the wind gust measurements suffered from limited recording and data processing resources. Therefore, the majority of continuous wind gust records date back at most only by 30 years...
April 23, 2018: Sensors
Marius Alexandru Moga, Oana Gabriela Dimienescu, Andreea Bălan, Ioan Scârneciu, Barna Barabaș, Liana Pleș
Botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are produced by several anaerobic species of the genus Clostridium and, although they were originally considered lethal toxins, today they find their usefulness in the treatment of a wide range of pathologies in various medical specialties. Botulinum neurotoxin has been identified in seven different isoforms (BoNT-A, BoNT-B, BoNT-C, BoNT-D, BoNT-E, BoNT-F, and BoNT-G). Neurotoxigenic Clostridia can produce more than 40 different BoNT subtypes and, recently, a new BoNT serotype (BoNT-X) has been reported in some studies...
April 21, 2018: Toxins
Thomas Schneider, Dietmar Ikemeyer, Ole MÜller, Henri J Dumont
Iran has a complex dragonfly fauna influenced by contacts and overlaps of different geographical zones. Its fauna is dominated by Eurosiberian taxa. However, the SE Province Sistãn-va-Baluchestãn is rich in oriental species, many of which having their western distribution limit in Iran. In NE-Iran, Irano-Turanian elements live and in the S- and SW-Iran African species are found. The Iranian Odonata fauna seems well studied, however, a closer look reveals many uncertainties and confusion, some records coming clearly from misidentification whereas other, which were missing proofs of correct identification remains to be confirmed...
March 12, 2018: Zootaxa
Cinzia Gravili, Laura Pavesi, Ferdinando Boero, Ole S Tendal
During his scientific career, largely from 1910-1970, the Danish cnidarian specialist P.L. Kramp authored 94 scientific papers, and more than 30 other kinds of publications, such as reports and popular articles. Kramp was affiliated with the marine department of the Zoological Museum of the University of Copenhagen (now: The Natural History Museum of Denmark, NHMD), an institution intensely involved at the time in expeditions, in the assembling and maintenance of collections, and in the revision of a wide range of animal groups...
April 9, 2018: Zootaxa
Rosemarie Christine Baron-Szabo
Scleractinian coral faunas from the upper Berriasian part of the Oehrli Formation of western Austria (Vorarlberg) and eastern Switzerland (Canton of Appenzell) are taxonomically described for the first time. Furthermore, scleractinian corals of the upper Berriasian part of the Oehrli Formation of the Swiss Cantons of Nidwalden and Uri are revised based on the study of type material. Lectotypes are designated for the species Dimorphocoeniopsis alpina (Koby, 1896) and Pleurophyllia tobleri (Koby, 1896). Sixty-one species belonging to 43 genera and 18 families were identified, making the coral fauna of the upper Oehrli Formation by far the most diverse among the Berriasian assemblages: Actinastrea pseudominima (Koby), A...
February 22, 2018: Zootaxa
Andre Krause, Yu Wu, Runtao Tian, Teris A van Beek
High-field NMR is an expensive and important quality control technique. In recent years, cheaper and simpler low-field NMR has become available as a new quality control technique. In this study, 60 MHz 1 H-NMR was compared with GC-MS and refractometry for the detection of adulteration of essential oils, taking patchouli essential oil as a test case. Patchouli essential oil is frequently adulterated, even today. In total, 75 genuine patchouli essential oils, 10 commercial patchouli essential oils, 10 other essential oils, 17 adulterants, and 1 patchouli essential oil, spiked at 20% with those adulterants, were measured...
April 24, 2018: Planta Medica
Davide Viggiano, Giuseppe Gigliotti, Gianfranco Vallone, Anna Giammarino, Michelangelo Nigro, Giovambattista Capasso
Current urate-lowering therapy (ULT) includes three direct acting drugs (allopurinol, febuxostat, Rasburicase) and at least four 'indirect' drugs with other important targets (canagliflozin, losartan, fenofibrate and sevelamer). Moreover, the alcalinization of urines using bicarbonate can be used to dissolve urate crystals and the clinician may discontinue several drugs are known to increase serum levels of uric acid, such as diuretics, aspirin, cyclosporine, theophylline, mycophenolate and ACE inhibitors. While there is a consensus to start ULT in cases of symptomatic hyperuricemia (gout, urate-nephrolithiasis), the very frequent conditions of asymptomatic hyperuricemia remains a major conundrum...
April 19, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Wendy E Walsh
Using a phenomenological approach, this study investigated visibility and perception of the profession of occupational therapy in three media outlets. Content analysis occurred on LexisNexis Academic (LNA), Google Images, and Twitter platforms. Analysis of LNA identified the prevalence of articles about occupational therapy in domestic newspapers and similar media avenues, MaxQDA qualitative software coded Google Images from a search on occupational therapy, and AnalyzeWords evaluated Twitter feeds of four health care professions for presence and tone in a social media context...
May 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Yitshal N Berner
The physician as well as the health care system, are both facing the challenge of chronic conditions. Multi-morbidity is very common in many of the patients with chronic conditions (defined by the WHO as a disease with the duration of more than twelve months). Most of these patients are elderly with deterioration in their physiological systems' reserves. The clinical research in chronic diseases is trying to separate the disease from other conditions in order to achieve specific therapeutic conclusions for the disease...
April 2018: Harefuah
Francesco Locatelli, Fabio Carfagna, Lucia Del Vecchio, Vincenzo La Milia
Despite the technological and pharmacological advancements in the last 30 years, morbidity and mortality of dialysis patients are still astonishingly high. Today, convective treatments, such as high-flux haemodialysis (hf-HD) and haemodiafiltration (HDF), are established techniques; the online production of fresh pure dialysate has provided clinical and economic advantages. Nevertheless, the actual benefits of HDF, even with high-convective-volume treatments, are still debatable. Three recent, randomized controlled trials compared survival outcomes in prevalent patients receiving conventional HD or post-dilution HDF and reported conflicting results...
April 24, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Weijia Wang, Cynthia A James, Hugh Calkins
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is a rare inherited heart muscle disease characterized by ventricular tachyarrhythmia, predominant right ventricular dysfunction, and sudden cardiac death. Its pathophysiology involves close interaction between genetic mutations and exposure to physical activity. Mutations in genes encoding desmosomal protein are the most common genetic basis. Genetic testing plays important roles in diagnosis and screening of family members. Syncope, palpitation, and lightheadedness are the most common symptoms...
April 23, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Nubia E Barbosa, Sandra M Forero, Claudia P Galeano, Edgar D Hernández, Nancy S Landinez, Katharina S Sunnerhagen, Margit Alt Murphy
PURPOSE: Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) is the most widely used and recommended clinical scale for evaluation of sensorimotor impairment post stroke, but an official Spanish version is not available today. This study aimed to establish methodological structure for translation and cultural adaptation process and perform a transcultural validation of the upper and lower extremity FMA to Colombian Spanish. METHODS: Procedures included forward and backward translation, step-wise reviewing by bilingual and professional experts to ensure conceptual and semantic equivalence...
April 24, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Kate Gridley, Yvonne Birks, Gillian Parker
Introduction Despite growing international interest in life story work as a tool for person-centred dementia care, there is little agreement on what constitutes good practice and little evidence from the perspectives of people with dementia or their family carers. Design and methods This paper reports the findings from the qualitative element of a larger study looking at the feasibility of evaluating life story work. Ten focus groups were held with 73 participants: four groups of people with dementia (25 participants); three with family carers (21 participants); and three with staff, professionals and volunteers with experience of life story work (27 participants)...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Alan D Grinnell
Almost 80 years ago, Griffin and Galambos discovered the phenomenon of echolocation in bats. Since then, the field has grown exponentially as new generations of investigators have joined the chase and technological advances have revolutionized working with ultrasound in the laboratory and in the field. Today our understanding of the diversity of behavioral and neural adaptations for echolocation constitutes one of the paramount triumphs of neuroethology. At the invitation of the editor in chief, I here review some of the important milestones in the discovery and early understanding of echolocation in bats through about the mid-1980s...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
A Ganesan
Epigenetics is a natural progression of genetics as it aims to understand how genes and other heritable elements are regulated in eukaryotic organisms. The history of epigenetics is briefly reviewed, together with the key issues in the field today. This themed issue brings together a diverse collection of interdisciplinary reviews and research articles that showcase the tremendous recent advances in epigenetic chemical biology and translational research into epigenetic drug discovery.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Frontiers in epigenetic chemical biology'...
June 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Tsuyoshi Ito, Yung-Jo Lee, Takeshi D Nishimura, Mikiko Tanaka, Jong-Yoon Woo, Masanaru Takai
Little is known about the biogeographical and evolutionary histories of macaques (Macaca spp.) in East Asia because the phylogenetic positions of fossil species remain unclear. Here we examined the zygomaxillary remains of a fossil macaque (M. cf. robusta) from the Durubong Cave Complex, South Korea, that dates back to the late Middle to Late Pleistocene, to infer its phylogenetic relationship to extant species. We took 195 fixed- and semi-landmarks from the zygomaxillary regions of the fossil specimen and from 147 specimens belonging to 14 extant species...
June 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
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