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Hyperosmolar state

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875539/secular-trends-in-admissions-and-mortality-rates-from-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-central-belt-of-ghana-a-31-year-review
#1
Osei Sarfo-Kantanka, Fred Stephen Sarfo, Eunice Oparebea Ansah, Benjamin Eghan, Nana Kwame Ayisi-Boateng, Emmanuel Acheamfour-Akowuah
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes Mellitus is currently a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where a significant proportion of diabetes cases are now found. Longitudinal profiling of in-patient admissions and mortality trends from diabetes provide useful insights into the magnitude of the burden of diabetes, serve as a sentinel on the state of out-patient diabetes care and provide effective tools for planning, delivering and evaluating the health care needs relating to the disease in sub-Saharan Africa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863115/reversible-splenial-lesion-syndrome-with-a-hyperosmolar-hyperglycemic-state-and-neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-caused-by-olanzapine
#2
Kenta Kaino, Ryo Kumagai, Shoko Furukawa, Momoko Isono, Aiko Muramatsu, Masanao Fujii, Yumiko Muta, Tomoyuki Asada, Kazuya Fujihara, Hiroaki Yagyu
A 27-year-old woman with panic disorder taking 20 mg olanzapine daily for 4 months was admitted to our hospital because of disturbed consciousness with fever, hyperglycemia, hyperosmolarity, and elevated creatine phosphokinase. She was diagnosed with a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed transiently restricted diffusion in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC), with a high signal intensity on diffusion-weighted imaging...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851450/1815-opsoclonus-a-rare-and-interesting-neurologic-manifestation-of-hyperosmolar-hyperglycemic-state
#3
Shyam Shankar, Hatem Desoky, Ishan Malhotra, Mangalore Amith Shenoy, Anand Kumar Rai, Benhoor Shamian, Yizhak Kupfer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797837/phaeochromocytoma-presenting-as-an-acute-coronary-syndrome
#4
Towhid Imam, Philip Finny, Alan Choo-Kang, Rehman Khan
A 44-year-old Caucasian man presented to the emergency department in acute cardiogenic shock, with pulmonary oedema, secondary to an acute myocardial infarction and in a hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. The previous day he had undergone a colonoscopy, which revealed features of colitis, and was started on prednisolone. He had been previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, migraine and anxiety attacks. While awaiting a coronary angiogram he developed abdominal pain and a CT scan was performed and found a large right adrenal mass...
October 26, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787883/hyperosmolarity-induces-armanni-ebstein-like-renal-tubular-epithelial-swelling-and-cytoplasmic-vacuolization
#5
Chong Zhou, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard
Armanni-Ebstein lesions have been considered pathognomonic for diabetes mellitus and appear as markedly swollen renal tubular epithelial cells with cytoplasmic clearing and glycogen accumulation. However, the extent to which hyperosmolarity contributes to the Armanni-Ebstein phenotype is unclear. Ten sheep were injected intravenously with 20% mannitol at 11 mOsm/kg, and subsequent histological evaluation of the kidneys showed variable degrees of osmotic nephrosis and cytoplasmic clearing of renal tubular epithelial cells similar to that seen with Armanni-Ebstein lesions...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640667/hyperglycaemic-hyperosmolar-state
#6
Lucy-Anne Frank, Andrew Solomon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2016: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581233/acute-peritoneal-dialysis-in-a-jehovah-s-witness-post-laparotomy
#7
Usha Devi Appalsawmy, Habib Akbani
A 56-year-old man who was a Jehovah's Witness with an advanced directive against autologous procedures developed acute kidney injury needing renal replacement therapy while he was intubated and ventilated on the intensive care unit. He was being treated for hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. He also had a healing laparotomy wound, having undergone a splenectomy less than a month ago following a road traffic accident. His hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis were refractory to medical treatment. As he became oligoanuric, decision was taken to carry out acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) by inserting a Tenckhoff catheter in his abdomen using peritoneoscopic technique...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395337/inverse-relationship-between-ambient-temperature-and-admissions-for-diabetic-ketoacidosis-and-hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar-state-a-14-year-time-series-analysis
#8
Chin-Li Lu, Hsin-Hui Chang, Hua-Fen Chen, Li-Jung Elizabeth Ku, Ya-Hui Chang, Hsiu-Nien Shen, Chung-Yi Li
This study aimed to investigate the association of admissions for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) with ambient temperature and season, respectively in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), after excluding known co-morbidities that predispose onset of acute hyperglycemia events. This was a time series correlation analysis based on medical claims of 40,084 and 33,947 episodes of admission for DKA and HHS, respectively over a 14-year period in Taiwan. These episodes were not accompanied by co-morbidities known to trigger incidence of DKA and HHS...
September 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27266068/-hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar-state
#9
Tetsuyuki Yasuda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215244/na-k-citrate-versus-sodium-bicarbonate-in-prevention-of-contrast-induced-nephropathy
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sameh Mohamed Abouzeid, Hossam E ElHossary
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalinization medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient...
May 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27057390/tropical-diabetic-hand-syndrome
#11
T C Okpara, B A Ezeala-Adikaibe, O Omire, E Nwonye, J Maluze
Any adult with diabetes in the tropics with hand cellulitis, infection and gangrene qualifies for tropical diabetic hand syndrome (TDHS). We reviewed a 39-year-old woman with a 3-week history of swelling of the left index finger following an insect bite. The swelling progressively increased in size, was very painful, and extended to the palm. There was no history or symptoms suggestive of chronic complications of diabetes. Random blood sugar on presentation was above 600 mg/dl using a glucometer. Examination revealed an edematous left palm draining pus from multiple sinuses, necrotic and gangrenous left index finger extending down to just above the thenar eminence...
November 2015: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27057222/exogenous-lactate-infusion-improved-neurocognitive-function-of-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Tatang Bisri, Billy A Utomo, Iwan Fuadi
BACKGROUND: Many studies showed a better recovery of cognitive function after administration of exogenous lactate during moderate-severe traumatic brain injury. However, the study evaluating lactate effect on mild traumatic brain injury is still limited. AIMS: To evaluate the effect of exogenous lactate on cognitive function in mild traumatic brain injury patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective, single blind, randomized controlled study on 60 mild traumatic brain injury patients who were undergoing neurosurgery...
April 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27055605/hamman-syndrome-pneumomediastinum-combined-with-hyperosmolar-hyperglycemic-state
#13
Ichiro Hirayama, Takahiro Hiruma, Yoshihiro Ueda, Kent Doi, Susumu Nakajima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025998/hiperglycemic-hyperosmolar-state-an-unsual-way-of-first-appearance-of-type-1-diabetes-in-children
#14
Ana Hernández Moreno, María Sanz Fernández, María D Ballesteros Pomar, Amparo Rodríguez Sánchez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Endocrinología y Nutrición: órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26968192/hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar-state-associated-with-invasive-rhino-orbital-aspergillosis-in-a-patient-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#15
Ju Hyun Seo, Jin Ah Kim, Bomi Choi, Kyo Hee Kim, Ha Neul Park, Hannah Seok, Tae Seo Sohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2016: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26956764/a-diabetes-acute-care-day-for-medical-students-increases-their-knowledge-and-confidence-of-diabetes-care-a-pilot-study
#16
A W MacEwen, D M Carty, A McConnachie, G A McKay, J G Boyle
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that junior doctors lack the confidence and skills to manage acute/inpatient diabetes. We investigated the impact of the introduction of a "Diabetes Acute Care Day" on undergraduate medical students' knowledge and confidence in acute/inpatient diabetes. METHODS: Participants attended four short lectures on the basics of diabetes, diabetic emergencies, inpatient diabetes management and peri-operative/procedure care followed by case-based learning tutorials on diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) and hypoglycaemia using capillary blood glucose charts to interpret and practice subsequent insulin prescription and adjustment...
2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26893262/diabetic-emergencies-ketoacidosis-hyperglycaemic-hyperosmolar-state-and-hypoglycaemia
#17
REVIEW
Guillermo Umpierrez, Mary Korytkowski
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) and hypoglycaemia are serious complications of diabetes mellitus that require prompt recognition, diagnosis and treatment. DKA and HHS are characterized by insulinopaenia and severe hyperglycaemia; clinically, these two conditions differ only by the degree of dehydration and the severity of metabolic acidosis. The overall mortality recorded among children and adults with DKA is <1%. Mortality among patients with HHS is ~10-fold higher than that associated with DKA...
April 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26791475/role-of-vasopressin-in-the-regulation-of-renal-sodium-excretion-interaction-with-glucagon-like-peptide-1
#18
A V Kutina, D V Golosova, A S Marina, E I Shakhmatova, Y V Natochin
The present study aimed to investigate the potential physiological role of vasopressin and the incretin hormone of the gastrointestinal tract (glucagon-like peptide-1; GLP-1) in the regulation of the water-salt balance in a hyperosmolar state as a result of sodium loadings. In rats, the administration of hypertonic NaCl solution resulted in a significant increase in natriuresis, which correlated with the vasopressin excretion rate. Natriuresis following an i.p. NaCl load (23.2 ± 1.4 μmol/min/kg) was enhanced by inhibition of V2 receptors (51...
April 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26741957/antipsychotic-therapy-induced-new-onset-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#19
Yashwant Agrawal, Kiran Lingala, Hemasri Tokala, Jagadeesh K Kalavakunta
Atypical antipsychotics are very widely used for various psychiatric ailments because of their less extrapyramidal side effects. Various reports of disturbances in glucose metabolism in the form of new onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of preexisting diabetes mellitus, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar nonketotic coma, acute pancreatitis, and increased adiposity have been reported. We present a case of new onset diabetic ketoacidosis in a patient without a history of glucose intolerance who was being treated with olanzapine for bipolar disorder...
November 2016: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26720317/pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-severe-traumatic-brain-injuries-in-children
#20
Kimberly A Allen
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in children are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Severe TBIs account for 15,000 admissions annually and a mortality rate of 24% in children in the United States. The purpose of this article is to explore pathophysiologic events, examine monitoring techniques, and explain current treatment modalities and nursing care related to caring for children with severe TBI. The primary injury of a TBI is because of direct trauma from an external force, a penetrating object, blast waves, or a jolt to the head...
February 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
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