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Hyperosmolar state

Lucy-Anne Frank, Andrew Solomon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2016: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
Usha Devi Appalsawmy, Habib Akbani
A 56-year-old man who was a Jehovah's Witness with an advanced directive against autologous procedures developed acute kidney injury needing renal replacement therapy while he was intubated and ventilated on the intensive care unit. He was being treated for hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. He also had a healing laparotomy wound, having undergone a splenectomy less than a month ago following a road traffic accident. His hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis were refractory to medical treatment. As he became oligoanuric, decision was taken to carry out acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) by inserting a Tenckhoff catheter in his abdomen using peritoneoscopic technique...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Chin-Li Lu, Hsin-Hui Chang, Hua-Fen Chen, Li-Jung Elizabeth Ku, Ya-Hui Chang, Hsiu-Nien Shen, Chung-Yi Li
This study aimed to investigate the association of admissions for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) with ambient temperature and season, respectively in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), after excluding known co-morbidities that predispose onset of acute hyperglycemia events. This was a time series correlation analysis based on medical claims of 40,084 and 33,947 episodes of admission for DKA and HHS, respectively over a 14-year period in Taiwan. These episodes were not accompanied by co-morbidities known to trigger incidence of DKA and HHS...
September 2016: Environment International
Tetsuyuki Yasuda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
Sameh Mohamed Abouzeid, Hossam E ElHossary
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalinization medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient...
May 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
T C Okpara, B A Ezeala-Adikaibe, O Omire, E Nwonye, J Maluze
Any adult with diabetes in the tropics with hand cellulitis, infection and gangrene qualifies for tropical diabetic hand syndrome (TDHS). We reviewed a 39-year-old woman with a 3-week history of swelling of the left index finger following an insect bite. The swelling progressively increased in size, was very painful, and extended to the palm. There was no history or symptoms suggestive of chronic complications of diabetes. Random blood sugar on presentation was above 600 mg/dl using a glucometer. Examination revealed an edematous left palm draining pus from multiple sinuses, necrotic and gangrenous left index finger extending down to just above the thenar eminence...
November 2015: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
Tatang Bisri, Billy A Utomo, Iwan Fuadi
BACKGROUND: Many studies showed a better recovery of cognitive function after administration of exogenous lactate during moderate-severe traumatic brain injury. However, the study evaluating lactate effect on mild traumatic brain injury is still limited. AIMS: To evaluate the effect of exogenous lactate on cognitive function in mild traumatic brain injury patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective, single blind, randomized controlled study on 60 mild traumatic brain injury patients who were undergoing neurosurgery...
April 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Ichiro Hirayama, Takahiro Hiruma, Yoshihiro Ueda, Kent Doi, Susumu Nakajima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ana Hernández Moreno, María Sanz Fernández, María D Ballesteros Pomar, Amparo Rodríguez Sánchez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Endocrinología y Nutrición: órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
Ju Hyun Seo, Jin Ah Kim, Bomi Choi, Kyo Hee Kim, Ha Neul Park, Hannah Seok, Tae Seo Sohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2016: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
A W MacEwen, D M Carty, A McConnachie, G A McKay, J G Boyle
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that junior doctors lack the confidence and skills to manage acute/inpatient diabetes. We investigated the impact of the introduction of a "Diabetes Acute Care Day" on undergraduate medical students' knowledge and confidence in acute/inpatient diabetes. METHODS: Participants attended four short lectures on the basics of diabetes, diabetic emergencies, inpatient diabetes management and peri-operative/procedure care followed by case-based learning tutorials on diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) and hypoglycaemia using capillary blood glucose charts to interpret and practice subsequent insulin prescription and adjustment...
2016: BMC Medical Education
Guillermo Umpierrez, Mary Korytkowski
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) and hypoglycaemia are serious complications of diabetes mellitus that require prompt recognition, diagnosis and treatment. DKA and HHS are characterized by insulinopaenia and severe hyperglycaemia; clinically, these two conditions differ only by the degree of dehydration and the severity of metabolic acidosis. The overall mortality recorded among children and adults with DKA is <1%. Mortality among patients with HHS is ~10-fold higher than that associated with DKA...
April 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
A V Kutina, D V Golosova, A S Marina, E I Shakhmatova, Y V Natochin
The present study aimed to investigate the potential physiological role of vasopressin and the incretin hormone of the gastrointestinal tract (glucagon-like peptide-1; GLP-1) in the regulation of the water-salt balance in a hyperosmolar state as a result of sodium loadings. In rats, the administration of hypertonic NaCl solution resulted in a significant increase in natriuresis, which correlated with the vasopressin excretion rate. Natriuresis following an i.p. NaCl load (23.2 ± 1.4 μmol/min/kg) was enhanced by inhibition of V2 receptors (51...
April 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Yashwant Agrawal, Kiran Lingala, Hemasri Tokala, Jagadeesh K Kalavakunta
Atypical antipsychotics are very widely used for various psychiatric ailments because of their less extrapyramidal side effects. Various reports of disturbances in glucose metabolism in the form of new onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of preexisting diabetes mellitus, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar nonketotic coma, acute pancreatitis, and increased adiposity have been reported. We present a case of new onset diabetic ketoacidosis in a patient without a history of glucose intolerance who was being treated with olanzapine for bipolar disorder...
January 6, 2016: American Journal of Therapeutics
Kimberly A Allen
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in children are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Severe TBIs account for 15,000 admissions annually and a mortality rate of 24% in children in the United States. The purpose of this article is to explore pathophysiologic events, examine monitoring techniques, and explain current treatment modalities and nursing care related to caring for children with severe TBI. The primary injury of a TBI is because of direct trauma from an external force, a penetrating object, blast waves, or a jolt to the head...
February 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Michael Grabner, Xiaomei Peng, Caroline Geremakis, Jay Bae
BACKGROUND: Canagliflozin is the first sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor-a new class of oral antidiabetic (OAD) medication-approved for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment in the United States. Approved less than 2 years ago, use of canagliflozin is largely uncharacterized. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare baseline demographic, clinical, and economic characteristics of patients initiating canagliflozin and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors in the real-world setting...
December 2015: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Siu Yan Amy Yeung, Sue Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Critical Care Medicine
Ah Hyun Jun, Marina Rabinovich, Shauntrell Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Critical Care Medicine
Caitlin Schaapveld, Ana Negrete, Joanna Hudson, Jagannath Saikumar, Christopher Finch, Mehmet Kocak, Pan Hu, Megan Van Berkel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Critical Care Medicine
Antonio Jose Reyes, Kanterpersad Ramcharan, Rishi Ramtahal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: BMJ Case Reports
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