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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329428/the-diagnosis-and-lived-experience-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-qualitative-study
#1
Julie Tomlinson, Jonathan Pinkney, Linda Adams, Elizabeth Stenhouse, Alison Bendall, Oonagh Corrigan, Gayle Letherby
AIMS: To explore the impact of the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome on health/ill health identity, how women experience this diagnosis and their health beliefs. BACKGROUND: polycystic ovary syndrome is a common and heterogeneous condition, giving rise to a wide range of different health concerns. Previous research on polycystic ovary syndrome has been dominated by the medical perspective and less is known about the experiences and needs of women. DESIGN: A qualitative study of 32 premenopausal adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (diagnosis confirmed by Rotterdam criteria), aged between 18-45 years, recruited from a primary and secondary care setting...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326048/developing-a-taxonomy-of-dark-triad-triggers-at-work-a-grounded-theory-study-protocol
#2
Annika Nübold, Josef Bader, Nera Bozin, Romil Depala, Helena Eidast, Elisabeth A Johannessen, Gerhard Prinz
In past years, research and corporate scandals have evidenced the destructive effects of the dark triad at work, consisting of narcissism (extreme self-centeredness), psychopathy (lack of empathy and remorse) and Machiavellianism (a sense of duplicity and manipulativeness). The dark triad dimensions have typically been conceptualized as stable personality traits, ignoring the accumulating evidence that momentary personality expressions - personality states - may change due to the characteristics of the situation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322858/a-neuroendocrine-account-of-facial-mimicry-and-its-dynamic-modulation
#3
REVIEW
Eline J Kraaijenvanger, Dennis Hofman, Peter A Bos
Facial expressions are considered central in conveying information about one's emotional state. During social encounters, facial expressions of another individual is often automatically imitated by the observer, a process referred to as 'facial mimicry'. This process is assumed to facilitate prosocial behaviour and is thought to rely on the mirror neuron system, known for its involvement in both observation and execution of motor actions. However, recent studies have revealed mimicry to be a more dynamic process than previously conceptualized, leaving mere perception-action coupling insufficient to explain its behavioural flexibility...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321806/patient-satisfaction-in-musculoskeletal-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Matthew J Smith, Theodore J Choma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This is a literature review of the measurement of patient satisfaction in musculoskeletal medicine. Its purpose is to better understand the motivation for such measurements, the potential confounders, and the potential physician behaviors that may modulate such measures. RECENT FINDINGS: There have been studies documenting that physician conveyance of empathy, the extent to which patients' expectations for pain control and timeliness of care are met, as well as patient demographics and health status all affect the current measures of patient satisfaction...
March 20, 2017: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321201/placebo-and-nocebo-effects-the-advantage-of-measuring-expectations-and-psychological-factors
#5
Nicole Corsi, Luana Colloca
Several studies have explored the predictability of placebo and nocebo individual responses by investigating personality factors and expectations of pain decreases and increases. Psychological factors such as optimism, suggestibility, empathy and neuroticism have been linked to placebo effects, while pessimism, anxiety and catastrophizing have been associated to nocebo effects. We aimed to investigate the interplay between psychological factors, expectations of low and high pain and placebo hypoalgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318335/the-cognitive-affective-and-somatic-empathy-scales-cases-for-children
#6
Adrian Raine, Frances R Chen
Although the assessment of empathy has moved from general empathy to differentiating between cognitive and affective empathy, no instruments have assessed somatic (motor) empathy, and none have separated positive from negative affect empathy. The main objective of this study was to develop a 30-item self-report cognitive, affective, and somatic empathy scale (CASES) with positive and negative affect components for use with children and adolescents. A community sample of 428 male and female 11-year-olds completed the CASES together with validity questionnaires and were assessed on IQ...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318319/medical-student-perceptions-of-the-learning-environment-in-medical-school-change-as-students-transition-to-clinical-training-in-undergraduate-medical-school
#7
Lisette Dunham, Michael Dekhtyar, Gregory Gruener, Eileen CichoskiKelly, Jennifer Deitz, Donna Elliott, Margaret L Stuber, Susan E Skochelak
Phenomenon: The learning environment is the physical, social, and psychological context in which a student learns. A supportive learning environment contributes to student well-being and enhances student empathy, professionalism, and academic success, whereas an unsupportive learning environment may lead to burnout, exhaustion, and cynicism. Student perceptions of the medical school learning environment may change over time and be associated with students' year of training and may differ significantly depending on the student's gender or race/ethnicity...
March 20, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315981/the-development-of-severe-and-chronic-violence-among-youth-the-role-of-psychopathic-traits-and-reward-processing
#8
Dennis E Reidy, Elizabeth Krusemark, David S Kosson, Megan C Kearns, Joanne Smith-Darden, Kent A Kiehl
Psychopathic traits are a manifestation of a personality pathology that comprises a core affective-interpersonal dysfunction (callous-unemotional traits) and an impulsive-antisocial behavioral component. Of particular importance, psychopathic traits are associated with the perpetration of some of the most severe acts of violence, and they appear to indicate a subset of youth at risk for earlier onset, greater frequency, and persistence of violent offending. Although these youth represent a minority of the population, they commit a significant proportion of the violence in the general community...
March 18, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314942/empathy-einf%C3%A3-hlung-and-aesthetic-experience-the-effect-of-emotion-contagion-on-appreciation-of-representational-and-abstract-art-using-femg-and-scr
#9
Gerger Gernot, Matthew Pelowski, Helmut Leder
Since the advent of the concept of empathy in the scientific literature, it has been hypothesized, although not necessarily empirically verified, that empathic processes are essential to aesthetic experiences of visual art. We tested how the ability to "feel into" ("Einfühlung") emotional content-a central aspect of art empathy theories-affects the bodily responses to and the subjective judgments of representational and abstract paintings. The ability to feel into was measured by a standardized pre-survey on "emotional contagion"-the ability to pick up and mirror, or in short to "feel into", emotions, which often overlaps with higher general or interpersonal empathetic abilities...
March 17, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301323/deciphering-the-modulatory-role-of-oxytocin-in-human-altruism
#10
René Hurlemann, Nina Marsh
Unlike any other species, humans frequently engage in altruistic behaviors by which they increase another individual's welfare even if this implies personal costs. The psychological motives underlying altruistic behaviors remain diverse, ranging from the ability to reciprocate trust and cooperation to bonding and empathizing with family members or even genetically unrelated others. This article explores the neuroendocrine architecture of altruism by emphasizing the crucial role of the evolutionarily highly conserved peptide hormone oxytocin as a modulator of cooperative behaviors including empathy-driven altruism...
March 16, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300949/increased-affective-empathy-in-bipolar-patients-during-a-manic-episode
#11
Anna Bodnar, Janusz K Rybakowski
Objective: To assess both cognitive and affective empathy in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) during an acute manic or depressive episode. Methods: The study included 25 patients with BD (aged 35±14 years) during an acute manic episode, 25 bipolar patients (aged 41±14 years) during a depressive episode, and 25 healthy control subjects (aged 36±11 years). Cognitive and affective empathy were assessed using the Multifaceted Empathy Test. Results: In both manic and depressive patients, a significant deficit in cognitive empathy was demonstrated...
March 13, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296216/a-new-test-of-advanced-theory-of-mind-the-strange-stories-film-task-captures-social-processing-differences-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#12
Kim Murray, Kate Johnston, Helen Cunane, Charlotte Kerr, Debbie Spain, Nicola Gillan, Neil Hammond, Declan Murphy, Francesca Happé
Real-life social processing abilities of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be hard to capture in lab-based experimental tasks. A novel measure of social cognition, the "Strange Stories Film task' (SSFt), was designed to overcome limitations of available measures in the field. Brief films were made based on the scenarios from the Strange Stories task (Happé) and designed to capture the subtle social-cognitive difficulties observed in ASD adults. Twenty neurotypical adults were recruited to pilot the new measure...
March 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294929/-written-advance-euthanasia-directives-in-mentally-incompetent-patients-with-dementia-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#13
K de Nooijer, V E van de Wetering, E C T Geijteman, L Postma, J A C Rietjens, A van der Heide
OBJECTIVE: To present the knowledge, experiences and attitudes of the general population, patients, relatives and health care professionals concerning written advance euthanasia directives in patients who have become mentally incompetent. DESIGN: Systematic review of the literature. METHOD: We systematically searched Medline, Cochrane Library and Embase for articles published in the period 2002-2016. RESULTS: The search yielded 775 articles, of which 11 met the inclusion criteria...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292820/-deal-with-it-name-it-the-diagnostic-moment-in-film
#14
Thierry Jutel, Annemarie Jutel
The moment a serious diagnosis is announced creates an important crisis for a patient, as it shifts their sense of self and of their future potential. This essay discusses the creative representation and use of this diagnostic moment in film narratives. Using Still Alice, A Late Quartet, Wit and Cléo from 5 to 7 as examples, we describe how each of these uses the diagnostic moment in relation to narrative construction and characterisation in recognisable ways. We associate the diagnostic moment with certain narrative and visual devices that are frequently implemented in films as means for character development, and for managing the audience's empathy...
March 14, 2017: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290504/disease-dynamics-in-a-stochastic-network-game-a-little-empathy-goes-a-long-way-in-averting-outbreaks
#15
Ceyhun Eksin, Jeff S Shamma, Joshua S Weitz
Individuals change their behavior during an epidemic in response to whether they and/or those they interact with are healthy or sick. Healthy individuals may utilize protective measures to avoid contracting a disease. Sick individuals may utilize preemptive measures to avoid spreading a disease. Yet, in practice both protective and preemptive changes in behavior come with costs. This paper proposes a stochastic network disease game model that captures the self-interests of individuals during the spread of a susceptible-infected-susceptible disease...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289112/cannabis-and-young-users-a-brief-intervention-to-reduce-their-consumption-canabic-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-in-primary-care
#16
Catherine Laporte, Hélène Vaillant-Roussel, Bruno Pereira, Olivier Blanc, Bénédicte Eschalier, Shérazade Kinouani, Georges Brousse, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Philippe Vorilhon
PURPOSE: Brief intervention to reduce cannabis is a promising technique that could be adapted for use in primary care, but it has not been well studied in this setting. We tested the efficacy of a brief intervention conducted by general practitioners among cannabis users aged 15 to 25 years. METHODS: We performed a cluster randomized controlled trial with 77 general practitioners in France. The intervention consisted of an interview designed according to the FRAMES (feedback, responsibility, advice, menu, empathy, self-efficacy) model, while the control condition consisted of routine care...
March 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288549/the-psychometric-properties-of-the-reading-the-mind-in-the-eyes-test-an-item-response-theory-irt-analysis
#17
Antonio Preti, Marcello Vellante, Donatella R Petretto
INTRODUCTION: The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test (hereafter: Eyes Test) is considered an advanced task of the Theory of Mind aimed at assessing the performance of the participant in perspective-takingthat is, the ability to sense or understand other people's cognitive and emotional states. In this study, the item response theory analysis was applied to the adult version of the Eyes Test. METHODS: The Italian version of the Eyes Test was administered to 200 undergraduate students of both genders (males = 46%)...
March 13, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287827/intensive-care-unit-educators-a-multicenter-evaluation-of-behaviors-residents-value-in-attendings
#18
Lekshmi Santhosh, Snigdha Jain, Anna Brady, Michelle Sharp, W Graham Carlos
RATIONALE: It is important for attendings to know which behaviors influence learner perceptions. To date, two studies focusing on general medicine attendings have been published addressing internal medicine residents' perceptions of attendings; there are no data on intensive care unit (ICU) attendings. OBJECTIVES: We sought to expand the evidence regarding this topic through a multicenter study at four geographically diverse academic medical centers. Our study focused on identifying the teaching behaviors of ICU physicians that learners observe in attendings they value as effective educators...
March 13, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286867/a-technology-prototype-system-for-rating-therapist-empathy-from-audio-recordings-in-addiction-counseling
#19
Bo Xiao, Chewei Huang, Zac E Imel, David C Atkins, Panayiotis Georgiou, Shrikanth S Narayanan
Scaling up psychotherapy services such as for addiction counseling is a critical societal need. One challenge is ensuring quality of therapy, due to the heavy cost of manual observational assessment. This work proposes a speech technology-based system to automate the assessment of therapist empathy-a key therapy quality index-from audio recordings of the psychotherapy interactions. We designed a speech processing system that includes voice activity detection and diarization modules, and an automatic speech recognizer plus a speaker role matching module to extract the therapist's language cues...
April 2016: PeerJ. Computer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286487/empathy-related-responses-to-depicted-people-in-art-works
#20
Ladislav Kesner, Jiří Horáček
Existing theories of empathic response to visual art works postulate the primacy of automatic embodied reaction to images based on mirror neuron mechanisms. Arguing for a more inclusive concept of empathy-related response and integrating four distinct bodies of literature, we discuss contextual, and personal factors which modulate empathic response to depicted people. We then present an integrative model of empathy-related responses to depicted people in art works. The model assumes that a response to empathy-eliciting figural artworks engages the dynamic interaction of two mutually interlinked sets of processes: socio-affective/cognitive processing, related to the person perception, and esthetic processing, primarily concerned with esthetic appreciation and judgment and attention to non-social aspects of the image...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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