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Empathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781776/empathy-present-and-future
#1
Judith Hall, Rachel Schwartz
The empathy concept has central significance for social and personality psychology, and in many other domains including neuroscience, clinical/abnormal psychology, and the health professions. However, the current diversity in conceptual and operational definitions, and the promiscuous use of the term "empathy," threaten the ability of researchers to advance the field. The present article provides a quantitative review and conceptual analysis of empathy definitions and usages by examining 393 studies published between 2001 and 2013, and 96 studies published in 2017...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780888/empathy-in-internal-medicine-residents-at-community-based-hospitals-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Jami Foreback, Halina Kusz, Brenda Lovegrove Lepisto, Barbara Pawlaczyk
Introduction: Many research reports revealed declining empathy in medical schools that continues in postgraduate years of training. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the self-reported empathy levels of internal medicine (IM) residents in 3 community-based teaching hospitals. Methods: The Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy, Health Professionals version, is an online, self-administered, questionnaire that was offered to 129 current and incoming residents at 1 osteopathic and 2 allopathic, IM training programs in Flint, Michigan...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779460/is-there-really-a-relationship-between-empathy-and-aggression-evidence-from-physiological-and-self-report-measures
#3
Carlos Gantiva, Rocio Cendales, Maite Díaz, Yesenia González
A strong relationship between empathy and aggression has traditionally been argued, but a recent meta-analysis showed that this relationship is surprisingly weak. However, none of the studies that were analyzed in the meta-analysis used physiological measures of empathy to assess differences between aggressive and nonaggressive subjects. The present study evaluated the activity of the corrugator and zygomatic muscles, galvanic skin response, and heart rate response to pictures with different social content in 30 aggressive and 30 nonaggressive subjects...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773509/the-role-of-the-inferior-frontal-gyrus-in-vicarious-social-touch-a-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-study
#4
Leehe Peled-Avron, Laura Glasner, Hila Z Gvirts, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
The neural mechanisms facilitating the experience of vicarious social touch are largely unknown. The right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) has been suggested as part of a simulation observation-execution neural network that plays a key role in the perception of tactile stimuli. Considering that vicarious social touch involves vicarious sharing of emotions, we hypothesized that emotional empathy, i.e., the ability to feel what another individual is feeling, modulates the neural responses to vicarious touch. To examine the role of the rIFG in vicarious touch and its modulation by levels of emotional empathy, we used anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on forty participants who observed photos depicting social touch, nonsocial touch or no touch during tDCS or sham stimulation...
April 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772912/relations-between-empathy-and-anxiety-dimensions-in-inpatient-adolescents
#5
Malgorzata Gambin, Carla Sharp
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A better understanding of the relationships between empathy and internalizing disorders is needed to plan therapeutic interventions for children and adolescents. Several studies have revealed positive relations of internalizing symptoms to personal distress and affective empathy. However, there is a lack of studies that take into account the multidimensional nature of anxiety in its relation to empathy. DESIGN: Structural equation modeling was used to test the moderated mediation model of the relations between empathy, depression and anxiety dimensions and the moderating role of gender on these associations in inpatient adolescents...
May 17, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771564/contagious-yawning-empathy-and-their-relation-to-prosocial-behavior
#6
Axel Franzen, Sebastian Mader, Fabian Winter
Humans express facial mimicry across a variety of actions. This article explores a distinct example, contagious yawning, and the links to empathy and prosocial behavior. Prior studies have suggested that there is a positive link between empathy and the susceptibility to contagious yawning. However, the existing evidence has been sparse and contradictory. We present results from 2 laboratory studies conducted with 171 (Study 1) and 333 (Study 2) student volunteers. Subjects were video-recorded while watching muted videos of individuals yawning, scratching, or laughing...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770733/the-relationship-between-mirror-touch-synaesthesia-and-empathy-new-evidence-and-a-new-screening-tool
#7
Jamie Ward, Patricia Schnakenberg, Michael J Banissy
People with mirror-touch synaesthesia (MTS) report tactile sensations on their own body when seeing another person being touched. Although this has been associated with heightened empathy and emotion perception, this finding has been disputed. Here, we conduct two experiments to explore this relationship further. In Experiment 1, we develop a new screening measure for MTS. We show that MTS is related to vicarious experiences more generally, but is not a simple exaggerated version of normality. For example, people with MTS report videos of scratching as "touch" rather than "itchiness" and have localized sensations when watching others in pain...
May 17, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766344/from-einf%C3%A3-hlung-to-empathy-exploring-the-relationship-between-aesthetic-and-interpersonal-experience
#8
EDITORIAL
Joanna Ganczarek, Thomas Hünefeldt, Marta Olivetti Belardinelli
Is there a relationship between aesthetic and interpersonal experience? This question is motivated not only by the fact that historically experiences of both kinds have often been accounted for in terms of "empathy", the English translation of the German term "Einfühlung", but also by the fact that some contemporary theories refer to mechanisms underlying both aesthetic and interpersonal experience. In this Editorial introducing the special section titled "From 'Einfühlung' to empathy: exploring the relationship between aesthetic and interpersonal experience", we briefly sketch these two motivations and the relationship between the different mechanisms that have been associated with both aesthetic and interpersonal experience...
May 15, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765573/the-relationship-between-emotional-intelligence-with-administrators-performance-at-mashhad-university-of-medical-sciences
#9
Tooraj Sadeghi, Mohammad Ali Kiani, Masumeh Saeidi, Habibolah Taghizade Moghaddam, Mohammad Jafari Ghodsi, Rasoul Hoseini
Background: The leadership of an organization requires specific features to adapt to changes and to survive and grow in new environments, and emotional intelligence is one of the most important attributes that can help leaders and managers respond to these changes. Objective: This study aimed to determine the relationship between emotional intelligence with administrators' performance at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 basic and middle managers of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran who were selected by census method in 2016...
March 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765310/economic-holobiont-influence-of-parasites-microbiota-and-chemosignals-on-economic-behavior
#10
Petr Houdek
The article is a perspective on utilization of microorganisms and chemosignals in studying human economic behavior. Research in biological roots of economic development has already confirmed that parasitic pressure influenced the creation and development of cultural norms and institutions. However, other effects of microorganisms on human groups and individual decision-making and behavior are heavily understudied. The perspective discusses how parasitic infections, sexually transmitted organisms and microbiota (i...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762797/contrasting-incoming-medical-students-attitudes-dual-degree-vs-traditional-tracks
#11
Kristina A Monteiro, Karl Dietrich, Jeffrey Borkan, Luba Dumenco, Allan R Tunkel, Richard Dollase, Paul George
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University (AMS) recently implemented a novel dual degree MD-ScM program in primary care and population medicine (PC-PM) that enrolls up to 24 of its nearly 144 yearly matriculants. The overarching goal of this track is to train medical students to become physician leaders who focus on issues in population medicine within primary care. METHODS: We conducted a baseline assessment of the students enrolled in this parallel track in comparison to our traditional students to identify characteristics of and group differences between students in the PC-PM program and traditional students...
May 2018: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762648/a-new-framework-for-conceptualizing-symptoms-in-frontotemporal-dementia-from-animal-models-to-the-clinic
#12
Stephanie Wong, Bernard W Balleine, Fiona Kumfor
Behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia is characterized by a number of ostensibly disparate clinical features, which have largely been considered independently. This Update proposes an integrated conceptual framework for these symptoms, by bringing together findings from animal studies, functional neuroimaging and behavioural neurology. The combined evidence indicates that many of the clinical symptoms--such as altered eating behaviour; overspending and susceptibility to scams; reduced empathy and socially inappropriate behaviour; apathy and stereotyped/ritualistic behaviour--can be conceptualized as a common underlying deficiency in goal-directed behaviour and the concomitant emergence of habits...
May 11, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758396/callous-unemotional-traits-and-the-relationship-between-aggressive-parenting-practices-and-conduct-problems-in-singaporean-families
#13
Khai Imm Sng, David J Hawes, Adrian Raine, Rebecca P Ang, Yoon Phaik Ooi, Daniel S S Fung
Research into parenting influences on child conduct problems in Asian countries has been limited compared to that conducted in Western countries, especially with regard to interplay between parenting and callous unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., lack of guilt and empathy). This study examined associations between dimensions of aggressive parenting practices (psychological aggression, mild and severe physical aggression), dimensions of child aggression (proactive, reactive), and child CU traits, in Singapore. Participants were children and adolescents with clinic-referred externalizing problems (N = 282; 87...
May 11, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758166/does-online-technology-make-us-more-or-less-sociable-a-preliminary-review-and-call-for-research
#14
Adam Waytz, Kurt Gray
How does online technology affect sociability? Emerging evidence-much of it inconclusive-suggests a nuanced relationship between use of online technology (the Internet, social media, and virtual reality) and sociability (emotion recognition, empathy, perspective taking, and emotional intelligence). Although online technology can facilitate purely positive behavior (e.g., charitable giving) or purely negative behavior (e.g., cyberbullying), it appears to affect sociability in three ways, depending on whether it allows a deeper understanding of people's thoughts and feelings: (a) It benefits sociability when it complements already-deep offline engagement with others, (b) it impairs sociability when it supplants deeper offline engagement for superficial online engagement, and (c) it enhances sociability when deep offline engagement is otherwise difficult to attain...
May 1, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756402/-friends-that-last-a-lifetime-the-importance-of-emotions-amongst-volunteers-working-with-refugees-in-calais
#15
Mark Doidge, Elisa Sandri
The European 'refugee crisis' has generated a broad movement of volunteers offering their time and skills to support refugees across the continent, in the absence of nation states. This article focuses on volunteers who helped in the informal refugee camp in Calais called the 'Jungle'. It looks at the importance of emotions as a motivating factor for taking on responsibilities that are usually carried out by humanitarian aid organizations. We argue that empathy is not only the initial motivator for action, but it also sustains the voluntary activity as volunteers make sense of their emotions through working in the camp...
May 13, 2018: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754514/what-sources-of-bereavement-support-are-perceived-helpful-by-bereaved-people-and-why-empirical-evidence-for-the-compassionate-communities-approach
#16
Samar M Aoun, Lauren J Breen, Ishta White, Bruce Rumbold, Allan Kellehear
AIMS: To determine who provides bereavement support in the community, what sources are perceived to be the most or least helpful and for what reason, and to identify the empirical elements for optimal support in developing any future compassionate communities approach in palliative care. DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional investigation of bereavement experiences. Sources of support (informal, community and professional) were categorised according to the Public Health Model of Bereavement Support; most helpful reasons were categorised using the Social Provisions Scale, and least helpful were analysed using inductive content analysis...
May 1, 2018: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752662/executive-attention-and-empathy-related-responses-in-boys-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder-or-conduct-disorder-with-and-without-comorbid-anxiety-disorder
#17
Jarla Pijper, Minet de Wied, Sophie van Rijn, Stephanie van Goozen, Hanna Swaab, Wim Meeus
This is a first study that investigated the relationships between executive attention-as an important aspect of emotion regulation-and state empathy and sympathy in ODD/CD boys with (N = 31) and without (N = 18) comorbid anxiety disorder (7-12 years). Empathic reactions were evoked using three sadness-inducing film clips. One clip was highly evocative involving a bear cub losing his mother, whilst two other clips were mildly evocative involving children in common childhood situations. Self-reports of empathy and sympathy were collected and executive attention was assessed with a performance task...
May 11, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752249/virtual-antenatal-encounter-and-standardized-simulation-assessment-vanessa-pilot-study
#18
Patrick Motz, Megan Gray, Taylor Sawyer, Jennifer Kett, Douglas Danforth, Kellen Maicher, Rachel Umoren
BACKGROUND: Prenatal counseling at the limits of newborn viability involves sensitive interactions between neonatal providers and families. Empathetic discussions are currently learned through practice in times of high stress. Decision aids may help improve provider communication but have not been universally adopted. Virtual standardized patients are increasingly recognized as a modality for education, but prenatal counseling simulations have not been described. To be valuable as a tool, a virtual patient would need to accurately portray emotions and elicit a realistic response from the provider...
May 11, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751291/shame-and-avoidance-as-barriers-in-midwives-communication-about-body-weight-with-pregnant-women-a-qualitative-interview-study
#19
Anne Christenson, Eva Johansson, Signy Reynisdottir, Jarl Torgerson, Erik Hemmingsson
INTRODUCTION: Excessive gestational weight gain, regardless of initial BMI, is associated with perinatal risks for both mother and offspring and contributes to obesity in women. Studies report that healthcare professionals find it difficult to communicate about weight and pregnant women perceive healthcare professionals as unconcerned, leaving many women uninformed about weight recommendations and risks. We aimed to explore how midwives approach communication about gestational weight gain recommendations, and to characterize communication barriers and facilitators...
April 26, 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749287/a-qualitative-exploration-of-weight-bias-and-quality-of-health-care-among-health-care-professionals-using-hypothetical-patient-scenarios
#20
Justine Seymour, Jennifer L Barnes, Julie Schumacher, Rachel L Vollmer
The purpose of this study was to determine whether weight bias exhibited by health care professionals (HCPs) impacts quality of health care provided to individuals with obesity. HCPs (n = 220; 88% female, 87% nurses) in the Midwest region of the United States were recruited to complete an online survey. In this within-subjects study design, participants completed the Attitudes Towards Obese Persons (ATOP) scale to assess weight bias and responded to 2 (1 person with obesity and 1 person without obesity) hypothetical patient scenarios to evaluate quality of care...
January 2018: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
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