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Empathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654757/overthrowing-barriers-to-empathy-in-healthcare-empathy-in-the-age-of-the-internet
#1
J Howick, S Rees
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646784/premenstrual-mood-and-empathy-after-a-single-light-therapy-session
#2
Marije Aan Het Rot, Kristina Miloserdov, Anna L F Buijze, Ybe Meesters, Marijke C M Gordijn
To examine whether acute changes in cognitive empathy might mediate the impact of light therapy on mood, we assessed the effects of a single light-therapy session on mood and cognitive empathy in 48 premenstrual women, including 17 who met Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool criteria for moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome / premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS/PMDD). Using a participant-blind between-groups design, 23 women underwent 30min of morning light therapy (5,000lx; blue-enriched polychromatic light, 17,000K) while 25 women had a sham session (200lx, polychromatic light, 5,000K)...
June 16, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645979/the-2015-middle-childhood-survey-mcs-of-mental-health-and-well-being-at-age-11-years-in-an-australian-population-cohort
#3
Kristin R Laurens, Stacy Tzoumakis, Kimberlie Dean, Sally A Brinkman, Miles Bore, Rhoshel K Lenroot, Maxwell Smith, Allyson Holbrook, Kim M Robinson, Robert Stevens, Felicity Harris, Vaughan J Carr, Melissa J Green
PURPOSE: The Middle Childhood Survey (MCS) was designed as a computerised self-report assessment of children's mental health and well-being at approximately 11 years of age, conducted with a population cohort of 87 026 children being studied longitudinally within the New South Wales (NSW) Child Development Study. PARTICIPANTS: School Principals provided written consent for teachers to administer the MCS in class to year 6 students at 829 NSW schools (35.0% of eligible schools)...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645415/pain-and-empathy
#4
EDITORIAL
Joshua C Lerner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645236/a-quantitative-study-of-empathy-in-pakistani-medical-students-a-multicentered-approach
#5
Nabia Tariq, Tariq Rasheed, Mohsen Tavakol
OBJECTIVE: To examine the empathy level of undergraduate medical students in Pakistan. Three hypotheses are developed based on the literature review. (1) Female medical students have a higher level of empathy than do male students. (2) Empathy scores vary during the medical school years in Pakistani students. (3) Medical students interested in people-oriented specialties would score higher than the students interested in technology-oriented specialties. METHODS: This is a quantitative inquiry approach using a cross-sectional design of 1453 students from 8 Pakistani medical schools, both private and state...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Primary Care & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643399/distributed-health-literacy-among-people-living-with-type-2-diabetes-in-portugal-defining-levels-of-awareness-and-support
#6
Liliana Abreu, João Arriscado Nunes, Peter Taylor, Susana Silva
This study embraces a patient-centred and narrative-oriented notion of health literacy, exploring how social networks and personal experiences constitute distributed health literacy (DHL) by mapping out health literacy mediators of each individual and how they enable self-management skills and knowledge of health conditions. Semi-structured interviews with 26 patients with type 2 diabetes were conducted in a Primary Care Center of Porto (Portugal) from October 2014 to December 2015. Data were collected based on McGill Illness Narrative Interview (MINI)...
June 22, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639815/a-multivariate-meta-analysis-of-motivational-interviewing-process-and-outcome
#7
Brian T Pace, Aaron Dembe, Christina S Soma, Scott A Baldwin, David C Atkins, Zac E Imel
Motivational interviewing (MI) theory proposes a process whereby a set of therapist behaviors has direct effects on client outcomes and indirect effects through in-session processes (e.g., client change talk). Despite clear empirical support for the efficacy of MI across settings, the results of studies evaluating proposed links between MI process and outcome have been less clear. In the present study, we used a series of multivariate meta-analyses to test whether there are differential relationships between specific MI-consistent and MI-inconsistent therapist behaviors, MI therapist global ratings, client change language, and clinical outcomes...
June 22, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639206/are-associations-between-sexist-video-games-and-decreased-empathy-toward-women-robust-a-reanalysis-of-gabbiadini-et-al-2016
#8
Christopher J Ferguson, M Brent Donnellan
Gabbiadini, A., Riva, P., Andrighetto, L., Volpato, C., & Bushman, B, (PloS ONE, 2016) provided evidence for a connection between "sexist" video games and decreased empathy toward girls using an experimental paradigm. These claims are based on a moderated mediation model. They reported a three-way interaction between game condition, gender, and avatar identification when predicting masculine ideology in their original study. Masculine ideology was associated, in turn, with decreased empathy. However, there were no main experimental effects for video game condition on empathy...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638715/rat-intersubjective-decisions-are-encoded-by-frequency-specific-oscillatory-contexts
#9
Jana Schaich Borg, Sanvesh Srivastava, Lizhen Lin, Joseph Heffner, David Dunson, Kafui Dzirasa, Luis de Lecea
INTRODUCTION: It is unknown how the brain coordinates decisions to withstand personal costs in order to prevent other individuals' distress. Here we test whether local field potential (LFP) oscillations between brain regions create "neural contexts" that select specific brain functions and encode the outcomes of these types of intersubjective decisions. METHODS: Rats participated in an "Intersubjective Avoidance Test" (IAT) that tested rats' willingness to enter an innately aversive chamber to prevent another rat from getting shocked...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638517/writing-well-the-long-term-effect-on-empathy-observation-and-physician-writing-through-a-residency-writers-workshop
#10
Megan Lemay, John Encandela, Lisa Sanders, Anna Reisman
BACKGROUND: Writing narratives during medical training can provide a way to derive meaning from challenging experiences, enhance reflection, and combat burnout. The Yale Internal Medicine Residency Writers' Workshop, an annual 2-day intensive workshop followed by faculty-guided writing revision and publication, has been training resident physicians in the craft of writing since 2003. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess the long-term effects of a craft-focused writers' workshop for residents on empathy, observation skills, and future writing...
June 2017: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638326/commentary-decoding-the-charitable-brain-empathy-perspective-taking-and-attention-shifts-differentially-predict-altruistic-giving
#11
COMMENT
Vanessa Era, Martina Fusaro, Selene Gallo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637246/effect-of-psilocybin-on-empathy-and-moral-decision-making
#12
Thomas Pokorny, Katrin H Preller, Michael Kometer, Isabel Dziobek, Franz X Vollenweider
Background: Impaired empathic abilities lead to severe negative social consequences and influence the development and treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, empathy has been shown to play a crucial role in moral and prosocial behaviour. Although the serotonin (5-HT) system has been implicated in modulating empathy and moral behaviour, the relative contribution of the various 5-HT receptor subtypes is still unknown. Methods: We investigated the acute effect of psilocybin (0...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633172/burnout-and-depression-in-ms1-and-ms3-years-a-comparison-of-cohorts-at-one-medical-school
#13
Cinthia Elkins, Kyle P Plante, Lauren J Germain, Christopher P Morley
BACKGROUND: Losses of idealism, empathy, and professionalism over the course of medical education have been described previously in the literature. A 2012 national survey of medical students estimated 37%-44% with burnout, 58% screen positive for depression, and 9.4% with suicidal ideation in the past 12 months. Given changes in related traits, we sought to explore whether burnout and symptoms of depression change over time. The objectives of this study were to assess the differences in medical student burnout and symptoms of depression between first year (MS1) and third-year (MS3) medical students at one medical college...
June 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633023/the-insular-cortex
#14
Nadine Gogolla
Whether you see the person you are in love with, try to listen to your own heartbeat, suffer from a headache, or crave for a chocolate cookie, one part of your brain is sure to increase its activity strongly: the insular cortex. The insular cortex, or 'insula' for short, is part of the cerebral cortex. J.C. Reil, a German neurologist, first named this brain structure in the early 19(th) century. Subsequent research findings have implicated the insula in an overwhelming variety of functions ranging from sensory processing to representing feelings and emotions, autonomical and motor control, risk prediction and decision-making, bodily- and self-awareness, and complex social functions like empathy...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632770/men-women%C3%A2-who-cares-a-population-based-study-on-sex-differences-and-gender-roles-in-empathy-and-moral-cognition
#15
Sandra Baez, Daniel Flichtentrei, María Prats, Ricardo Mastandueno, Adolfo M García, Marcelo Cetkovich, Agustín Ibáñez
Research on sex differences in empathy has revealed mixed findings. Whereas experimental and neuropsychological measures show no consistent sex effect, self-report data consistently indicates greater empathy in women. However, available results mainly come from separate populations with relatively small samples, which may inflate effect sizes and hinder comparability between both empirical corpora. To elucidate the issue, we conducted two large-scale studies. First, we examined whether sex differences emerge in a large population-based sample (n = 10,802) when empathy is measured with an experimental empathy-for-pain paradigm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631432/profile-effects-and-toxicity-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-studies
#16
Sulaf Assi, Nargilya Gulyamova, Kinda Ibrahim, Paul Kneller, David Osselton
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the profile, effects, and toxicity of novel psychoactive substances (NPS). METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted between May 2015 and February 2016 and included 19 databases. Search terms included "novel psychoactive substance(s)," "effect(s)," and "toxicity" and their synonyms. Studies included were those from any country, in any language, and between January 2007 and April 2015. Studies published before 2007 and those regarding the synthesis of NPS were excluded...
June 19, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630815/acquisition-and-generalization-of-complex-empathetic-responses-among-children-with-autism
#17
Paul J Argott, Dawn Buffington Townsend, Claire L Poulson
Empathy can be defined as a social interaction skill that consists of four components: (1) a statement voiced in the (2) appropriate intonation, accompanied by a (3) facial expression and (4) gesture that correspond to the affect of another individual. A multiple-baseline across response categories experimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a prompt sequence (video modeling, in vivo modeling, manual and verbal prompting) and reinforcement to increase the frequency of complex empathetic responding by four children with autism...
June 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630515/emotional-intelligence-and-its-effect-on-pharmacists-and-pharmacy-students-with-autistic-like-traits
#18
Yuji Higuchi, Masatoshi Inagaki, Toshihiro Koyama, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Toshiaki Sendo, Maiko Fujimori, Hitomi Kataoka, Chinatsu Hayashibara, Yosuke Uchitomi, Norihito Yamada
Objective. To measure whether Emotional intelligence (EI) would minimize the negative association between autistic-like traits (ALT) and empathic behavior and enhance the positive association between ALT and psychological distress. Methods. Our sample population included 823 hospital pharmacists belonging to a district society, and 378 pharmacy students. Analyses were performed to examine relationships between scores on the Emotional Intelligence Scale (EQS), Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE), and General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ)...
May 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627907/the-role-of-empathy-in-experiencing-vicarious-anxiety
#19
Jocelyn Shu, Samuel Hassell, Jochen Weber, Kevin N Ochsner, Dean Mobbs
With depictions of others facing threats common in the media, the experience of vicarious anxiety may be prevalent in the general population. However, the phenomenon of vicarious anxiety-the experience of anxiety in response to observing others expressing anxiety-and the interpersonal mechanisms underlying it have not been fully investigated in prior research. In 4 studies, we investigate the role of empathy in experiencing vicarious anxiety, using film clips depicting target victims facing threats. In Studies 1 and 2, trait emotional empathy was associated with greater self-reported anxiety when observing target victims, and with perceiving greater anxiety to be experienced by the targets...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627387/observational-fear-learning-in-degus-is-correlated-with-temporal-vocalization-patterns
#20
Navdeep Lidhar, Nathan Insel, June Yue Dong, Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
Some animals learn to fear a situation after observing another individual come to harm, and this learning is influenced by the animals' social relationship and history. An important but sometimes overlooked factor in studies of observational fear learning is that social context not only affects observers, but may also influence the behavior and communications expressed by those being observed. Here we sought to investigate whether observational fear learning in the degu (Octodon degus) is affected by social familiarity, and the degree to which vocal expressions of alarm or distress contribute...
June 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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