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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531645/judgment-of-moral-and-social-transgression-in-schizophrenia
#1
Jonathan McGuire, Martin Brüne, Robyn Langdon
INTRODUCTION: Despite evidence of pervasive social-cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known of moral cognition in this population. While recent research indicates that impairment of explicit moral reasoning is explained by these individuals' other cognitive deficits, their capacities for basic moral judgment are unknown. METHODS: 45 people with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls completed the Moral-Conventional Distinction Task: a classic task that assesses judgment of violations of moral or social convention on permissibility, severity, and authority-contingence...
May 4, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531176/stigma-of-addiction-and-mental-illness-in-healthcare-the-case-of-patients-experiences-in-dental-settings
#2
Mario A Brondani, Rana Alan, Leeann Donnelly
OBJECTIVE: To explore the ways in which stigma is experienced in healthcare and dental settings by patients with a history of addiction and mental illness. METHODS: Audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews with a purposefully selected convenience sample of residents from two community treatment centres in Vancouver, Canada were conducted. The interview guide contained questions about experiences while seeking health and dental care and was based on an existing framework of labeling, stereotyping, exclusion, discrimination, and power imbalance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529235/alternative-medicine-contagion-and-cure-in-karel-%C3%A4-apek-s-i-the-white-plague-i
#3
Alexis Soloski
Though written amid an atmosphere of unprecedented medical advance in both diagnosis and therapeutics, Karel Čapek's The White Plague takes a starkly critical stance against overconfidence in medical science and its dubious ethical orbit. This article explores Čapek's censure of those who would privilege scientific interest in disease over the holistic plight of the sufferer. Provocatively, Čapek achieves this not only via the play's content, but also-prefiguring aspects of contemporary live art practice by several decades-by placing audience members in worrying proximity to abject ill bodies...
2017: Literature and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527753/asymmetry-and-empathy-higher-asymmetry-is-associated-with-lower-levels-of-mentalizing
#4
Colton B Christian, Azim F Shariff
People differ in their mentalizing abilities. Though past research suggests that individual differences in exposure to prenatal testosterone may be able to explain why some people excel at mentalizing, while others struggle, meta-analyses yield a null relationship between 2D:4D ratio (a proxy for prenatal testosterone) and mentalizing. Importantly, however, past research has not examined the asymmetrical differences between the digit ratios on the right and left hands. In the current work, we test whether the difference between the digit ratios of the left and right hands may function as a better predictor of mentalizing than digit ratio alone...
May 18, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526190/disseminating-effective-clinician-communication-techniques-engaging-clinicians-to-want-to-learn-how-to-engage-patients
#5
Kathryn I Pollak, Anthony L Back, James A Tulsky
Patient-clinician communication that promotes patient engagement enhances health care quality. Yet, disseminating effective communication interventions to practicing clinicians remains challenging. Current methods do not have large and sustainable effects. In this paper, we argue that both top-down approaches (mandated by institutions) should be coupled with bottom-up approaches that address clinician motivation, confidence, and barriers. We need to engage clinicians in the same way we ask them to engage patients - strategically and with empathy...
May 9, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524793/moral-dilemmas-of-women-undergoing-pregnancy-termination-for-medical-reasons-in-poland
#6
Kornelia Zaręba, Michał Ciebiera, Małgorzata Bińkowska, Grzegorz Jakiel
OBJECTIVES: We explored the religious views and dilemmas of Polish women making the decision to terminate a pregnancy. The article discusses the highly restrictive legislation and significant influence of the Church on the lives of Polish citizens. METHODS: This study was designed to investigate the effect of religious and political beliefs, social and moral conditioning and professional support on the decision to abort a fetus. A 65-item questionnaire was administered to 60 participants at the time of their pregnancy termination...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523733/the-development-of-cognitive-empathy-and-concern-in-preschool-children-a-behavioral-neuroscience-investigation
#7
Jean Decety, Kimberly L Meidenbauer, Jason M Cowell
This developmental neuroscience study examined the electrophysiological responses (EEG and ERPs) associated with perspective taking and empathic concern in preschool children, as well as their relation to parental empathy dispositions and children's own prosocial behavior. Consistent with a body of previous studies using stimuli depicting somatic pain in both children and adults, larger early (~200 ms) ERPs were identified when perceiving painful versus neutral stimuli. In the slow wave window (~800 ms), a significant interaction of empathy condition and stimulus type was driven by a greater difference between painful and neutral images in the empathic concern condition...
May 18, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513182/-it-just-opens-up-their-world-autism-empathy-and-the-therapeutic-effects-of-equine-interactions
#8
Roslyn Malcolm, Stefan Ecks, Martyn Pickersgill
Experiences of autism-spectrum disorder are now increasingly studied by social scientists. Human-animal relations have also become a major focus of social inquiry in recent years. Examining horse-assisted therapy for autistic spectrum disorders, this is the first paper that brings these fields together. Drawing on participant observation and interviews at a UK horse therapy Centre, this article examines how staff and the parents of riders account for the successes and limitations of equine therapy. To the respondents, horses 'open up' autistic children and make possible interactions that seemed impossible before...
May 17, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512439/long-time-exposure-to-violent-video-games-does-not-show-desensitization-on-empathy-for-pain-an-fmri-study
#9
Xuemei Gao, Wei Pan, Chao Li, Lei Weng, Mengyun Yao, Antao Chen
As a typical form of empathy, empathy for pain refers to the perception and appraisal of others' pain, as well as the corresponding affective responses. Numerous studies investigated the factors affecting the empathy for pain, in which the exposure to violent video games (VVGs) could change players' empathic responses to painful situations. However, it remains unclear whether exposure to VVG influences the empathy for pain. In the present study, in terms of the exposure experience to VVG, two groups of participants (18 in VVG group, VG; 17 in non-VVG group, NG) were screened from nearly 200 video game experience questionnaires...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510354/that-s-what-friends-are-for-how-intergroup-friendships-promote-historically-disadvantaged-groups-substantive-political-representation
#10
Andrej Kokkonen, David Karlsson
The interests of historically disadvantaged groups risk being overlooked if they are not present in the decision-making process. However, a mere presence in politics does not guarantee political success. Often groups need allies to promote their interests successfully. We argue that one way to identify such allies is to judge politicians by whether they have friends in historically disadvantaged groups, as intergroup friendships have been shown to make people understand and feel empathy for outgroups. In other words, intergroup friendships may function as an important complement to descriptive representation...
May 16, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506927/connecting-minds-and-sharing-emotions-through-mimicry-a-neurocognitive-model-of-emotional-contagion
#11
REVIEW
Eliska Prochazkova, Mariska E Kret
During social interactions, people tend to automatically align with or mimic their interactor's facial expressions, vocalizations, postures, and other bodily states. Automatic mimicry might be implicated in empathy, affiliation, and empathy, and is impaired in several pathologies. Despite a growing body of literature on its phenomenology, the function and underlying mechanisms of mimicry remain poorly understood. The current review puts forward a new Neurocognitive Model of Emotional Contagion (NMEC) demonstrating how basic automatic mimicry can give rise to emotional contagion...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506126/intergenerational-programs-may-be-especially-engaging-for-aged-care-residents-with-cognitive-impairment-findings-from-the-avondale-intergenerational-design-challenge
#12
Jess Rose Baker, Lindl Webster, Nigel Lynn, Julie Rogers, Jessica Belcher
Intergenerational programs are an authentic way to engage elders in meaningful activity and report benefits to both elders and youth. The Avondale Intergenerational Design Challenge (AVID) randomly assigned small teams of technology students aged 13 to 15 years (total N = 59) to 1 of 24 aged care residents with a range of cognitive impairment. Students met with the resident 4 times over 15 weeks and ultimately crafted a personalized item for them. Students showed no change in self-reported attitudes to elders, empathy, or self-esteem post-AVID or at 3-month follow-up, compared to a 3-month within-subject control period pre-AVID...
June 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505384/a-systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-therapists-internalized-models-of-relationships-on-the-quality-of-the-therapeutic-relationship
#13
REVIEW
Catherine Steel, James Macdonald, Thomas Schroder
OBJECTIVE: Previous reviews have found equivocal evidence of an association between therapists' internalized relational models and the therapeutic relationship and have neglected empirical literature based on Sullivan's notion of introject. This review expanded upon previous reviews to examine the effect of therapist internalized relational models on a broader conceptualization of the therapeutic relationship. METHOD: Systematic search processes identified 22 papers measuring therapist attachment and/or introject and therapeutic relationship: 19 on therapist attachment, 5 on introject with 2 overlapping...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505355/uncovering-the-neuroanatomical-correlates-of-cognitive-affective-and-conative-theory-of-mind-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-a-neural-systems-perspective
#14
Nicholas P Ryan, Cathy Catroppa, Richard Beare, Timothy J Silk, Stephen J Hearps, Miriam H Beauchamp, Keith Owen Yeates, Vicki A Anderson
Deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM) are common after neurological insult acquired in the first and second decade of life, however the contribution of large-scale neural networks to ToM deficits in children with brain injury is unclear. Using pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a model, this study investigated the sub-acute effect of brain injury on gray-matter volume of three large-scale, domain-general brain networks (the Default Mode Network, DMN; the Central Executive Network, CEN; and the Salience Network, SN), as well as two domain-specific neural networks implicated in social-affective processes (the Cerebro-Cerebellar Mentalizing Network, CCMN, and the Mirror Neuron/Empathy Network, MNEN)...
May 15, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505180/empathic-nonverbal-behavior-increases-ratings-of-both-warmth-and-competence-in-a-medical-context
#15
Gordon T Kraft-Todd, Diego A Reinero, John M Kelley, Andrea S Heberlein, Lee Baer, Helen Riess
In medicine, it is critical that clinicians demonstrate both empathy (perceived as warmth) and competence. Perceptions of these qualities are often intuitive and are based on nonverbal behavior. Emphasizing both warmth and competence may prove problematic, however, because there is evidence that they are inversely related in other settings. We hypothesize that perceptions of physician competence will instead be positively correlated with perceptions of physician warmth and empathy, potentially due to changing conceptions of the physician's role...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504364/mindfulness-meditation-regulates-anterior-insula-activity-during-empathy-for-social-pain
#16
Davide Laneri, Sören Krach, Frieder M Paulus, Philipp Kanske, Verena Schuster, Jens Sommer, Laura Müller-Pinzler
Mindfulness has been shown to reduce stress, promote health, and well-being, as well as to increase compassionate behavior toward others. It reduces distress to one's own painful experiences, going along with altered neural responses, by enhancing self-regulatory processes and decreasing emotional reactivity. In order to investigate if mindfulness similarly reduces distress and neural activations associated with empathy for others' socially painful experiences, which might in the following more strongly motivate prosocial behavior, the present study compared trait, and state effects of long-term mindfulness meditation (LTM) practice...
May 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503957/a-model-for-developing-disability-confidence
#17
Sally Lindsay, Sara Cancelliere
PURPOSE: Many clinicians, educators, and employers lack disability confidence which can affect their interactions with, and inclusion of people with disabilities. Our objective was to explore how disability confidence developed among youth who volunteered with children who have a disability. METHODS: We conducted 30 in-depth interviews (16 without a disability, 14 with disabilities), with youth aged 15-25. We analyzed our data using an interpretive, qualitative, thematic approach...
May 15, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503015/development-and-pilot-randomized-control-trial-of-a-drama-program-to-enhance-well-being-among-older-adults
#18
Raeanne C Moore, Elizabeth Straus, Sheena I Dev, Steven M Parish, Seema Sueko, Lisa T Eyler
OBJECTIVE: Develop a novel theatre-based program and test its feasibility, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy for improving empathy/compassion and well-being among older adults. METHOD: Thirteen older adults were randomized to a 6-week Drama Workshop (DW) program or time-equivalent Backstage Pass (BP) control condition. Pre- and post-treatment measures included empathy, compassion, and mood scales. Additional post-treatment measures included self-rated change in empathy/compassion, confidence, and affect...
February 2017: Arts in Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501731/learning-and-unlearning-dignity-in-care-experiential-and-experimental-educational-approaches
#19
Richard G Kyle, Wayne Medford, Julie Blundell, Elaine Webster, Sarah-Anne Munoz, Leah Macaden
Guarding against loss of human dignity is fundamental to nursing practice. It is assumed in the existing literature that 'dignity' as a concept and 'dignity in care' as a practice is amenable to education. Building on this assumption, a range of experiential and experimental educational approaches have been used to enhance students' understanding of dignity. However, little is known about student nurses' views on whether dignity is amenable to education and, if so, which educational approaches would be welcomed...
May 4, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501312/preschoolers-social-experiences-and-empathy-based-responding-relate-to-their-fair-resource-allocation
#20
Markus Paulus, Miriam Leitherer
Although the development of fairness has become a topic of wide interest, little is known about the correlates and factors that relate to the early ontogeny of fairness-related decision making in preschoolers. The current study assessed 5-year-old children's consideration of existing inequalities in their resource allocation decisions, that is, their tendency to allocate more resources to poor others than to rich others. In addition, children's prosocial responding toward others in pain, the amount of their social interaction experiences, and their social-cognitive abilities were assessed...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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