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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433961/harnessing-the-medical-humanities-for-experiential-learning
#1
Satendra Singh, Purnima Barua, Upreet Dhaliwal, Navjeevan Singh
A month-long workshop on medical humanities was held in the Jorhat Medical College, Assam in September 2015. It employed experiential learning (both online and onsite) using humanities tools, such as the theatre of the oppressed, art, literature, reflective narratives, movies, the history of medicine, graphic medicine, poetry and diversity studies. As a result of the interactions, 28 volunteer participants, comprising students and faculty members, wrote reflective narratives on doctor​-patient relationships, produced a newsletter and a logo for their medical humanities group, and staged cultural performances and forum theatre...
March 29, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432495/investigating-emotional-contagion-in-dogs-canis-familiaris-to-emotional-sounds-of-humans-and-conspecifics
#2
Annika Huber, Anjuli L A Barber, Tamás Faragó, Corsin A Müller, Ludwig Huber
Emotional contagion, a basic component of empathy defined as emotional state-matching between individuals, has previously been shown in dogs even upon solely hearing negative emotional sounds of humans or conspecifics. The current investigation further sheds light on this phenomenon by directly contrasting emotional sounds of both species (humans and dogs) as well as opposed valences (positive and negative) to gain insights into intra- and interspecies empathy as well as differences between positively and negatively valenced sounds...
April 21, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430567/how-should-clinicians-respond-to-medical-requests-from-clinician-family-members-of-patients
#3
Andrew Thurston
In the medical profession, receiving a request for medical management from a colleague is a routine experience. However, when the colleague is a family member of a patient and the desired or requested medical intervention is not medically indicated in the attending physician's view, the situation becomes more complicated. Ethical issues include respect for patient autonomy and social justice as well as nonmaleficence. Furthermore, interpersonal and professional relationships may be tested in this situation...
April 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424391/-brodmann-areas-11-46-and-47-emotion-memory-and-empathy
#4
Keita Ueda, Gaku Fujimoto, Shiho Ubukata, Toshiya Murai
Brodmann area 11 is one of the main constituent of the orbitofrontal cortex, and area 46 is that of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The main function of Brodmann area 11 is the processing of emotion and value, whereas the main function of Brodmann area 46 is the processing of cognitive information, including working memory. In comparison, the function of area 47 is more complex. This area is related to the feeling of empathy towards the story contents of others, which is thought to be the emotional aspect of this area, while this area is also activated during automated action...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424380/-schizotypy-detachment-or-magical-fusion
#5
János Kállai, Mária Simon, István Hartung, Béla Birkás, Róbert Herold
Nowadays, both in the clinical population, and in general communities, we tend to encounter an increasing number of personality disorder patients, whose social adjustment, partnerships and efficient life management is made difficult by the disorder. The ideas of borderline personality disorder patients, who fluctuate between farfetched expectations and fears of their selves being demolished, schizoid patients, who close their selves in their own alienating prison, avoidant patients, who try to escape difficulties, which would enhance their self-esteem, OCD patients, who build their own mythic superstitious world, and antisocial patients who tend to ignore and aggressively override others' interests are all important in the development of cultures with insecure identities...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424317/the-williams-syndrome-prosociality-gene-gtf2i-mediates-oxytocin-reactivity-and-social-anxiety-in-a-healthy-population
#6
Tanya L Procyshyn, Jason Spence, Silven Read, Neil V Watson, Bernard J Crespi
The neurohormone oxytocin plays a central role in human social behaviour and cognition, and oxytocin dysregulation may contribute to psychiatric disorders. However, genetic factors influencing individual variation in the oxytocinergic system remain poorly understood. We genotyped 169 healthy adults for a functional polymorphism in GTF2I (general transcription factor II-I), a gene associated with high prosociality and reduced social anxiety in Williams syndrome, a condition reported to involve high oxytocin levels and reactivity...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421020/social-dominance-orientation-dispositional-empathy-and-need-for-cognitive-closure-moderate-the-impact-of-empathy-skills-training-but-not-patient-contact-on-medical-students-negative-attitudes-toward-higher-weight-patients
#7
Angela Meadows, Suzanne Higgs, Sara E Burke, John F Dovidio, Michelle van Ryn, Sean M Phelan
Anti-fat bias in healthcare providers and medical students has serious implications for quality of care of higher-weight patients. Studies of interventions aimed at reducing anti-fat attitudes in medical students have generally been disappointing, with little enduring effect. It is possible that some students may be more receptive to prejudice-reducing influences than others, due to underlying differences in their personal characteristics. It is also possible that attitudes toward patients, specifically, may differ from anti-fat attitudes in general, and prejudice-reduction effectiveness on patient-specific attitudes has not yet been evaluated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419862/the-effect-of-tdcs-over-the-right-temporo-parietal-junction-on-pain-empathy
#8
Michel-Pierre Coll, Marie-Pier B Tremblay, Philip L Jackson
Empathy is a complex psychological phenomenon crucial for social perception and interactions. Several lines of evidence suggest that the right temporo-parietal junction is involved in self-other control mechanisms that play an important role in empathic responses. However, limited direct evidence of the involvement of this region in empathic responses is currently available. In this study, inhibitory transcranial direct current stimulation over this region influenced empathic responses to others' pain. It was found that compared to participants that received anodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation, participants who received cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the right temporo-parietal junction perceived the pain of others as less intense compared to sham stimulation and showed decreased late event related potentials to facial expressions of pain...
April 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414477/when-ideology-meets-conflict-related-content-influences-on-emotion-generation-and-regulation
#9
Ruthie Pliskin, Eran Halperin, Daniel Bar-Tal, Gal Sheppes
Do rightists and leftists experience information about suffering and harm with differing emotional intensities, depending on the identity of target depicted? Do they consequently choose differently how to regulate or cope with these emotions? Research has identified ideological differences in emotional processes, but it has yet to identify what types of content lead to ideological differences in emotional intensity or whether these content-dependent differences relate to differing preferences for engaging versus disengaging emotion-regulation strategies...
April 17, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412581/workplace-violence-against-nurses-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Liuyi Zhang, Anni Wang, Xia Xie, Yanhong Zhou, Jing Li, Lijun Yang, Jingping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Workplace violence is a serious problem for clinical nurses, as it leads to a series of adverse consequences. However, little information is available on the prevalence and influencing factors of workplace violence in China. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of workplace violence against Chinese nurses, and its influencing factors. DESIGN: A multi-center, cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: The seven geographical regions (i...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412511/difference-in-neural-response-to-social-exclusion-observation-and-subsequent-altruism-between-adolescents-and-adults
#11
Béatrice Tousignant, Fanny Eugène, Katia Sirois, Philip L Jackson
Empathy and prosocial behaviors toward peers promote successful social development and creation of significant long-term relationships, but surprisingly little is known about the maturation of these skills during the period of adolescence. As the majority of studies have used questionnaires or pain observation paradigms, it remains unknown whether the empathic response of adolescents differs from that of adults in a paradigm that is closer to everyday life. In the current study, fMRI was used to examine the neural correlates of social exclusion observation and subsequent prosocial behavior in 20 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) and 20 adults (aged 22-30 years) while playing a ball-tossing game with what they believed to be real individuals...
April 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412510/empathy-networks-in-the-parental-brain-and-their-long-term-effects-on-children-s-stress-reactivity-and-behavior-adaptation
#12
Eyal Abraham, Gal Raz, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman
Parental empathy is a key component of sensitive parenting that supports children's social adaptation throughout life. Consistent with a two dissociable network perspective on empathy, we measured within- and between-network integrity of two empathy-related networks in the parental brain as predictors of children's social outcomes across the first six years of life. We focused on two empathy networks; embodied simulation, which supports parents' capacity to resonate with infant state and emotions and implicates cingulo-insulary structures, and mentalizing, which underpins parents' theory-of-mind and mental attributions via prefrontal-temporo-parietal circuit...
April 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406430/palliative-care-and-the-family-caregiver-trading-mutual-pretense-empathy-for-a-sustained-gaze-compassion
#13
Joy Goldsmith, Sandra L Ragan
In this conceptual piece, we survey the progress of palliative care communication and reflect back on a chapter we wrote a decade ago, which featured the communication concept of mutual pretense, first described by Glaser and Strauss (1965). This work will include an update on family caregivers and their role in cancer caregiving as well as a review of current palliative care communication curriculum available for providers. And finally, we will spotlight the conversation and research going forward on the subject of health literacy for all stakeholders; patients, families, providers, and systems...
April 13, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406102/strong-correlations-between-empathy-emotional-intelligence-and-personality-traits-among-podiatric-medical-students-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Kurtis Bertram, John Randazzo, Nathaniel Alabi, Jack Levenson, John T Doucette, Peter Barbosa
BACKGROUND: The ability of health-care providers to demonstrate empathy toward their patients results in a number of positive outcomes improving the quality of care. In addition, a provider's level of emotional intelligence (EI) can further the doctor-patient relationship, stimulating a more personalized and comprehensive manner of treating patients. Furthermore, personality traits of a clinician may positively or negatively influence that relationship, as well as clinical outcomes. This study was designed to evaluate empathy levels in podiatric medical students in a 4-year doctoral program...
September 2016: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405409/effects-of-communication-skill-training-cst-based-on-spikes-for-insurance-covered-pharmacy-pharmacists-to-interact-with-simulated-cancer-patients
#15
Manako Hanya, Yoshitake Kanno, Junko Akasaki, Keiko Abe, Kazuhiko Fujisaki, Hiroyuki Kamei
BACKGROUND: With the development of pharmacotherapy and radiotherapy, cancer treatment is being shifted from surgical to outpatient services, consequently increasing insurance-covered pharmacies' frequency of dealing with cancer patients. As the psychology of these patients is complex, it is necessary for pharmacists to educate them in consideration of their cognitive/medical and psychosocial aspects. This study analyzed cancer patient management by pharmacists working in such pharmacies and their communication skills before and after communication skill training based on SPIKES, a six-step protocol for delivering bad news, to confirm the usefulness of such training...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405354/the-interpretation-of-mu-suppression-as-an-index-of-mirror-neuron-activity-past-present-and-future
#16
REVIEW
Hannah M Hobson, Dorothy V M Bishop
Mu suppression studies have been widely used to infer the activity of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) in a number of processes, ranging from action understanding, language, empathy and the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although mu suppression is enjoying a resurgence of interest, it has a long history. This review aimed to revisit mu's past, and examine its recent use to investigate MNS involvement in language, social processes and ASDs. Mu suppression studies have largely failed to produce robust evidence for the role of the MNS in these domains...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405353/effects-of-25-mg-oxazepam-on-emotional-mimicry-and-empathy-for-pain-a-randomized-controlled-experiment
#17
Gustav Nilsonne, Sandra Tamm, Armita Golkar, Karolina Sörman, Katarina Howner, Marianne Kristiansson, Andreas Olsson, Martin Ingvar, Predrag Petrovic
Emotional mimicry and empathy are mechanisms underlying social interaction. Benzodiazepines have been proposed to inhibit empathy and promote antisocial behaviour. First, we aimed to investigate the effects of oxazepam on emotional mimicry and empathy for pain, and second, we aimed to investigate the association of personality traits to emotional mimicry and empathy. Participants (n=76) were randomized to 25 mg oxazepam or placebo. Emotional mimicry was examined using video clips with emotional expressions...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404208/predictors-of-physicians-communication-performance-in-a-decision-making-encounter-with-a-simulated-advanced-stage-cancer-patient-a-longitudinal-study
#18
Yves Libert, Delphine Canivet, Catherine Ménard, Laëtitia Van Achte, Christine Farvacques, Isabelle Merckaert, Aurore Liénard, Jean Klastersky, Christine Reynaert, Jean-Louis Slachmuylder, Jean-François Durieux, Nicole Delvaux, Darius Razavi
OBJECTIVES: Physicians' characteristics that influence their communication performance (CP) in decision-making encounters have been rarely studied. In this longitudinal study, predictors of physicians' CP were investigated with a simulated advanced-stage cancer patient. METHODS: Physicians (n=85) performed a decision-making encounter with a simulated patient (SP). Their CP was calculated by analyzing encounter transcripts with validated interaction analysis systems...
March 4, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402565/impulsive-antisocial-psychopathic-traits-linked-to-increased-volume-and-functional-connectivity-within-prefrontal-cortex
#19
Cole Korponay, Maia Pujara, Philip Deming, Carissa Philippi, Jean Decety, David S Kosson, Kent A Kiehl, Michael Koenigs
Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by callous lack of empathy, impulsive antisocial behavior, and criminal recidivism. Studies of brain structure and function in psychopathy have frequently identified abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. However, findings have not yet converged to yield a clear relationship between specific subregions of prefrontal cortex and particular psychopathic traits. We performed a multimodal neuroimaging study of prefrontal cortex volume and functional connectivity in psychopathy, using a sample of adult male prison inmates (N=124)...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401833/atypical-dimensions-of-caregiver-adolescent-interaction-in-an-economically-disadvantaged-sample
#20
Roger Kobak, Kristyn Zajac, Caroline Abbott, Abby Zisk, Nadia Bounoua
The Goal-Corrected Partnership Adolescent Coding System (GPACS) has shown promise in assessing a secure as well as three atypical patterns of parent-adolescent interaction during a conflict discussion. The current study of 186 economically disadvantaged families examines the degree to which four GPACS patterns: secure/collaborative, hostile/punitive, role confused, and disoriented, prospectively predict adolescents' social competence and maladaptive behavior (internalizing, externalizing, and risk behaviors) at age 15 years after controlling for these social behaviors at age 13 years and contemporaneous GPACS scores...
May 2017: Development and Psychopathology
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