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Irradiation or radiotherapy and immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778320/simultaneously-avoiding-the-hippocampus-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis-during-whole-brain-radiotherapy-a-planning-study
#1
Xing-Wen Fan, Juan-Qi Wang, Jun-Lan Wu, Hong-Bing Wang, Kai-Liang Wu
Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is the preferred treatment for multiple brain metastases, and patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer undergo prophylactic cranial irradiation after complete remission. However, neurotoxicity remains a complication. In addition to protecting the hippocampus from irradiation to preserve cognitive function, it is also critical to avoid irradiating the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to preserve endocrine and immune function. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of delivering WBRT while protecting the hippocampus and hypothalamic-pituitary axis...
May 16, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774168/evaluating-the-potential-for-maximized-t-cell-redistribution-entropy-to-improve-abscopal-responses-to-radiotherapy
#2
Rachel Walker, Jonathan D Schoenfeld, Shari Pilon-Thomas, Jan Poleszczuk, Heiko Enderling
The potential for local radiation therapy to elicit systemic (abscopal) anti-tumor immune responses has been receiving a significant amount of attention over the last decade. We recently developed a mathematical framework designed to simulate the systemic dissemination of activated T cells among multiple metastatic sites. This framework allowed the identification of non-intuitive patterns of T cell redistribution after localized therapy, and offered suggestions as to the optimal site to irradiate in order to increase the magnitude of an immune-mediated abscopal response...
September 2017: Convergent Science Physical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764160/combinatorial-strategies-of-radiotherapy-and-immunotherapy-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#3
Eugenia L L Yeo, You Quan Li, Khee-Chee Soo, Joseph T S Wee, Melvin L K Chua
Immunotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) have each demonstrated clinical success in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) when utilized independently. Several characteristics of NPC make it particularly well suited for immunotherapeutic strategies, such as the association with viral infections like EBV and human papilloma virus (HPV), upregulation of PD-L1 expression, and the high number of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Immune checkpoint blockade is one such immunotherapeutic strategy that is gaining popularity rapidly...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719632/molecular-mechanism-of-bystander-effects-and-related-abscopal-cohort-effects-in-cancer-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Rong Wang, Tingyang Zhou, Wei Liu, Li Zuo
Cancer cells subjected to ionizing radiation may release signals which can influence nearby non-irradiated cells, termed bystander effects. The transmission of bystander effects among cancer cells involves the activation of inflammatory cytokines, death ligands, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. In addition to bystander effects, two other forms of non-target effects (NTEs) have been identified in radiotherapy, as one is called cohort effects and the other is called abscopal effects. Cohort effects represent the phenomenon where irradiated cells can produce signals that reduce the survival of neighboring cells within an irradiated volume...
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688039/mathematical-modelling-of-the-synergistic-combination-of-radiotherapy-and-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-ido-inhibitory-immunotherapy-against-glioblastoma
#5
Arthur Chakwizira, Jonatan Ahlstedt, Henrietta Nittby Redebrandt, Crister Ceberg
OBJECTIVE: Recent research has shown that combining radiotherapy and immunotherapy can counteract the ability of cancer to evade and suppress the native immune system. To optimize the synergy of the combined therapies, factors such as radiation dose and fractionation must be considered, alongside numerous parameters resulting from the complexity of cancer-immune system interactions. It is instructive to use mathematical models to tackle this problem. METHODS: In this work, we adapted a model primarily to describe the synergistic effect between single-fraction radiotherapy and immunotherapy (1-methyl tryptophan) observed in previous experiments with glioblastoma-carrying rats...
April 24, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681813/hyperprogressive-disease-in-the-irradiation-field-after-a-single-dose-of-nivolumab-for-gastric-cancer-a-case-report
#6
Takatsugu Ogata, Hironaga Satake, Misato Ogata, Yukimasa Hatachi, Hisateru Yasui
Following the ATTRACTION-2 study, nivolumab was approved for advanced gastric cancer in Japan. However, pseudoprogression and hyperprogressive disease have been reported in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. We report a patient with gastric cancer who received nivolumab after radiotherapy only to experience rapid progression within the irradiation field after the first immunotherapy session. A 66-year-old man with dysphagia visited our hospital and was diagnosed with stage IV gastroesophageal cancer (human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 score = 0)...
January 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644338/hypothesis-can-the-abscopal-effect-explain-the-impact-of-adjuvant-radiotherapy-on-breast-cancer-mortality
#7
REVIEW
Ismail Jatoi, John R Benson, Ian Kunkler
Radiotherapy is an integral component of loco-regional therapy for breast cancer. Randomized controlled trials indicate that increasing the extent of extirpative surgery primarily reduces the risk of local recurrences, while the addition of radiotherapy to surgery can also reduce the risk of distant recurrences, thereby lowering breast cancer-specific mortality. This may suggest an "abscopal" effect beyond the immediate zone of loco-regional irradiation that favorably perturbs the natural history of distant micrometastases...
2018: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625593/radiotherapy-induced-anti-tumor-immune-response-and-immune-related-adverse-events-in-a-case-of-recurrent-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-undergoing-anti-pd-1-immunotherapy
#8
T Finazzi, T Rordorf, K Ikenberg, G F Huber, M Guckenberger, H I Garcia Schueler
BACKGROUND: Treatment of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a challenging clinical problem. We report the case of a 46 year old male showing excellent response and signs of immunostimulation following re-re-irradiation for recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma under systemic treatment with pembrolizumab. CASE PRESENTATION: Patient was first diagnosed with locoregionally advanced, non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma in 2010. After achieving complete remission following induction chemotherapy and concurrent curative chemoradiation, the patient subsequently developed distant and locoregionally recurrent disease...
April 6, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615312/integrated-microrna-and-mrna-expression-profile-analysis-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-after-exposure-to-single-dose-irradiation
#9
Wei-Hsiang Kung, Chi-Lung Lee, Chi-Dung Yang, Ching-Fang Yu, Men-Yee Chiew, Fang-Hsin Chen, Hsien-Da Huang
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy (RT) is a common approach that accounts for nearly 50% of cancer patient treatment and has the potential for long-term tumor control. Recently, we published a research article on gene expression profiling of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) that were exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). Single-dose irradiation of tumors could initiate differentially expressed genes in TAM as a time series from irradiated tumors that are associated with the immune response. It is also well known that human cancers are associated with microRNA (miRNA) alterations that are involved in cancer progression...
March 13, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592896/harnessing-and-optimizing-the-interplay-between-immunotherapy-and-radiotherapy-to-improve-survival-outcomes
#10
Kalpana Mujoo, Clayton R Hunt, Raj K Pandita, Mauro Ferrari, Sunil Krishnan, John P Cooke, Stephen Hahn, Tej K Pandita
In the past, radiation therapy was primarily used to control local disease but recent technological advances in accurate, high-dose ionizing radiation (IR) delivery have not only increased local tumor control but in some cases reduced metastatic burden. These "off target" therapeutic effects of IR at non-irradiated tumor sites, also known as abscopal effects, are thought to be mediated by tumor antigen-primed T cells that travel to metastatic sites and promote tumor regression. Similarly, early indications reveal that IR in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) and nivolumab (anti-PD-1), can provide superior therapeutic responses...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578440/-phytocorrection-of-immunological-and-biochemical-changes-in-the-combined-impact-of-coal-dust-and-high-dose-of-radiation
#11
L Chulenbayeva, O Ilderbayev, Zh Taldykbayev, G Ilderbayeva, A Argynbekova
The objective of this researsh is to study the effects of Eminium Regelii phytopreparation (ERP) on immune status and free radical oxidation in the tissues of the adrenal glands and immunocompetent organs after combined exposure to 6 Gy dose of gamma irradiation and coal dust (remote period). The study was realized on 30 white laboratory male rats of the Wistar line, weighing 240±20g, that were divided into equal 3 groups: I group - intact, ІІ group - were exposured to combined effects of coal dust and gamma irradiation, III group - were exposured to combined effects and in parallel taking phytopreparation Eminium Regel...
February 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536332/comparative-analysis-of-the-effect-of-different-radiotherapy-regimes-on-lymphocyte-and-its-subpopulations-in-breast-cancer-patients
#12
C Yuan, Q Wang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether different radiotherapy (RT) fractionation schemes induce disparate effects on lymphocyte and its subsets in breast cancer patients. METHODS: 60 female patients diagnosed with breast cancer were recruited in this study after receiving modified radical mastectomy and were randomly divided into two groups. One group received irradiation at a standard dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions and the other at a dose of 40...
March 13, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525808/effects-of-12c6-heavy-ion-radiation-on-dendritic-cells-function
#13
Pei Zhang, Xuguang Hu, Bin Liu, Zhe Liu, Cong Liu, Jianming Cai, Fu Gao, Jianguo Cui, Bailong Li, Yanyong Yang
BACKGROUND Carbon ion radiotherapy has been shown to be more effective in cancer radiotherapy than photon irradiation. Influence of carbon ion radiation on cancer microenvironment is very important for the outcomes of radiotherapy. Tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells (DCs) play critical roles in cancer antigen processing and antitumor immunity. However, there is scant literature covering the effects of carbon ion radiation on DCs. In this study, we aimed to uncover the impact of carbon ion irradiation on bone marrow derived DCs...
March 11, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504497/mechanisms-of-inflammatory-responses-to-radiation-and-normal-tissues-toxicity-clinical-implications
#14
Masoud Najafi, Elahe Motevaseli, Alireza Shirazi, Ghazale Geraily, Abolhasan Rezaeyan, Farzad Norouzi, Saeed Rezapoor, Hamid Abdollahi
PURPOSE: Cancer treatment is one of the most challenging diseases in the present era. Among a few modalities for cancer therapy, radiotherapy plays a pivotal role in more than half of all treatments alone or combined with other cancer treatment modalities. Management of normal tissue toxicity induced by radiation is one of the most important limiting factors for an appropriate radiation treatment course. The evaluation of mechanisms of normal tissue toxicity has shown that immune responses especially inflammatory responses play a key role in both early and late side effects of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR)...
April 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502140/efficacy-and-safety-of-concurrent-immunoradiotherapy-in-patients-with-metastatic-melanoma-after-progression-on-nivolumab
#15
Motoo Nomura, Atsushi Otsuka, Michio Yoshimura, Yumi Nonomura, Yo Kaku, Shigemi Matsumoto, Manabu Muto
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of concurrent immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy and radiotherapy (immunoradiotherapy) in patients with metastatic melanoma after progression on nivolumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on 16 consecutive patients with metastatic melanoma treated with concurrent immunoradiotherapy after progression on nivolumab. Best responses to immunoradiotherapy were assessed either inside or outside of the radiation fields...
May 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476019/focal-irradiation-and-systemic-tgf%C3%AE-blockade-in-metastatic-breast-cancer
#16
Silvia C Formenti, Percy Lee, Sylvia Adams, Judith D Goldberg, Xiaochun Li, Mike W Xie, Josephine A Ratikan, Carol Felix, Lin Hwang, Kym F Faull, James W Sayre, Sara Hurvitz, John A Glaspy, Begoña Comin-Anduix, Sandra Demaria, Dörthe Schaue, William H McBride
Purpose: This study examined the feasibility, efficacy (abscopal effect), and immune effects of TGFβ blockade during radiotherapy in metastatic breast cancer patients. Experimental Design: Prospective randomized trial comparing two doses of TGFβ blocking antibody fresolimumab. Metastatic breast cancer patients with at least three distinct metastatic sites whose tumor had progressed after at least one line of therapy were randomized to receive 1 or 10 mg/kg of fresolimumab, every 3 weeks for five cycles, with focal radiotherapy to a metastatic site at week 1 (three doses of 7...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449659/using-immunotherapy-to-boost-the-abscopal-effect
#17
REVIEW
Wilfred Ngwa, Omoruyi Credit Irabor, Jonathan D Schoenfeld, Jürgen Hesser, Sandra Demaria, Silvia C Formenti
More than 60 years ago, the effect whereby radiotherapy at one site may lead to regression of metastatic cancer at distant sites that are not irradiated was described and called the abscopal effect (from 'ab scopus', that is, away from the target). The abscopal effect has been connected to mechanisms involving the immune system. However, the effect is rare because at the time of treatment, established immune-tolerance mechanisms may hamper the development of sufficiently robust abscopal responses. Today, the growing consensus is that combining radiotherapy with immunotherapy provides an opportunity to boost abscopal response rates, extending the use of radiotherapy to treatment of both local and metastatic disease...
May 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443050/a-co-culture-method-to-investigate-the-crosstalk-between-x-ray-irradiated-caco-2-cells-and-pbmc
#18
Gabriele Babini, Jacopo Morini, Sofia Barbieri, Giorgio Baiocco, Giovanni Battista Ivaldi, Marco Liotta, Paola Tabarelli de Fatis, Andrea Ottolenghi
The protocol adopted in this work aims at unraveling how X-rays perturb the functioning of the intestinal barrier, focusing on the interplay between colorectal tumor cells and the immune system. Colorectal carcinoma is among the most common type of cancer, typically treated by surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Advantages of radiotherapy in targeting the tumor are well known. However, even limited exposures of healthy tissues are of great concern, particularly regarding the effects on the intestinal barrier and the immune system...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437879/characterizing-the-potency-and-impact-of-carbon-ion-therapy-in-a-primary-mouse-model-of-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#19
Jeremy M Brownstein, Amy J Wisdom, Katherine D Castle, Yvonne M Mowery, Peter Guida, Chang-Lung Lee, Francesco Tommasino, Chiara La Tessa, Emanuele Scifoni, Junheng Gao, Lixia Luo, Lorraine Da Silva Campos, Yan Ma, Nerissa Williams, Sin-Ho Jung, Marco Durante, David G Kirsch
Carbon ion therapy (CIT) offers several potential advantages for treating cancers compared with X-ray and proton radiotherapy, including increased biological efficacy and more conformal dosimetry. However, CIT potency has not been characterized in primary tumor animal models. Here, we calculate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ions compared with X-rays in an autochthonous mouse model of soft tissue sarcoma. We used Cre/loxP technology to generate primary sarcomas in KrasLSL-G12D/+ ; p53fl/fl mice...
April 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437535/safety-and-clinical-activity-of-pembrolizumab-and-multisite-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors
#20
Jason J Luke, Jeffrey M Lemons, Theodore G Karrison, Sean P Pitroda, James M Melotek, Yuanyuan Zha, Hania A Al-Hallaq, Ainhoa Arina, Nikolai N Khodarev, Linda Janisch, Paul Chang, Jyoti D Patel, Gini F Fleming, John Moroney, Manish R Sharma, Julia R White, Mark J Ratain, Thomas F Gajewski, Ralph R Weichselbaum, Steven J Chmura
Purpose Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) may stimulate innate and adaptive immunity to augment immunotherapy response. Multisite SBRT is an emerging paradigm for treating metastatic disease. Anti-PD-1-treatment outcomes may be improved with lower disease burden. In this context, we conducted a phase I study to evaluate the safety of pembrolizumab with multisite SBRT in patients with metastatic solid tumors. Patients and Methods Patients progressing on standard treatment received SBRT to two to four metastases...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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