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Spinal cord protection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643358/maximizing-functional-axon-repair-in-the-injured-cns-lessons-from-neuronal-development
#1
Andrew Kaplan, Mardja Bueno, Luyang Hua, Alyson E Fournier
The failure of damaged axons to regrow underlies disability in central nervous system injury and disease. Therapies that stimulate axon repair will be critical to restore function. Extensive axon regeneration can be induced by manipulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, however it has been difficult to translate this into functional recovery in models of spinal cord injury. The current challenge is to maximize the functional integration of regenerating axons to recover motor and sensory behaviours. Insights into axonal growth and wiring during nervous system development are helping guide new approaches to boost regeneration and functional connectivity after injury in the mature nervous system...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632969/vegf-is-neuroprotective-against-ischemic-brain-injury-by-inhibiting-scavenger-receptor-a-expression-on-microglia
#2
Zheng Xu, Kaiwei Han, Jigang Chen, Chunhui Wang, Yan Dong, Mingkun Yu, Rulin Bai, Chenguang Huang, Lijun Hou
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a secreted mitogen associated with angiogenesis. VEGF has long been thought to be a potent neurotrophic factor for the survival of spinal cord neuron. However, the role of VEGF in the regulation of ischemic brain injury remains unclear. In the study rats were subjected to MCAO (middle cerebral artery occlusion) followed by intraperitoneal injection of VEGF165 (10 mg/kg) immediately after surgery and once daily till the day 10, and the expression of target genes was assayed using qPCR, western blot and immunofluorescence, and the role of VEGF165 in regulating ischemic brain injury was assayed...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630630/roles-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-spinal-cord-injury
#3
REVIEW
Jing Qu, Huanxiang Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) represents one of the most complicated and heterogeneous pathological processes of central nervous system (CNS) impairments, which is still beyond functional regeneration. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to promote the repair of the injured spinal cord tissues in animal models, and therefore, there is much interest in the clinical use of these cells. However, many questions which are essential to improve the therapy effects remain unanswered. For instance, the functional roles and related molecular regulatory mechanisms of MSCs in vivo are not yet completely determined...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629465/natural-igm-antibodies-that-bind-neoepitopes-exposed-as-a-result-of-spinal-cord-injury-drive-secondary-injury-by-activating-complement
#4
Aarti Narang, Fei Qiao, Carl Atkinson, Hong Zhu, Xiaofeng Yang, Liudmila Kulik, V Michael Holers, Stephen Tomlinson
BACKGROUND: Natural IgM antibodies (Abs) function as innate immune sensors of injury via recognition of neoepitopes expressed on damaged cells, although how this recognition systems function following spinal cord injury (SCI) exposes various neoepitopes and their precise nature remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of two natural IgM monoclonal Abs (mAbs), B4 and C2, that recognize post-ischemic neoepitopes following ischemia and reperfusion in other tissues. METHODS: Identification of post-SCI expressed neoepitopes was examined using previously characterized monoclonal Abs (B4 and C2 mAbs)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626198/the-therapeutic-effect-of-dexmedetomidine-on-rat-diabetic-neuropathy-pain-and-the-mechanism
#5
Yuecheng Lu, Baohua Lin, Junmin Zhong
Diabetic neuropathy pain (DNP) is a common chronic complication of diabetes characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. Dexmedetomidine is a selective α2 adrenergic agonist that relieves sympathetic nervous tension and reduces the release of glutamate. Thus, it is possible that dexmedetomidine may relieve DNP as well. In this study, we examined the effect of dexmedetomidine on DNP in the presence or absence of the α2 adrenergic antagonist yohimbine in rats utilizing a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes as a model of DNP...
June 14, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623098/acquired-inhibition-of-microrna-124-protects-against-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-partially-through-a-mitophagy-dependent-pathway
#6
Kun Liu, Lihui Yan, Xiaojing Jiang, Yang Yu, Hongbo Liu, Tianxiang Gu, Enyi Shi
OBJECTIVE: Mitophagy results in selective clearance of damaged mitochondria. We investigated whether mitophagy was involved in the neuroprotection by inhibiting microRNA (miRNA)-124 on ischemic spinal cords. METHODS: Inhibition of miRNA-124 was conducted by intrathecal injection of lentivirus vectors containing antagomiR-124. Spinal cord ischemia was induced in rats by crossclamping the descending aorta just distal to the left subclavian artery for 14 minutes. Hind-limb motor function was assessed with the motor deficit index (MDI)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617989/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-induced-dendritic-cells-suppress-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-increasing-proportions-of-the-regulatory-lymphocytes-and-reducing-th1-th17-cells
#7
Zhongxiang Xie, Jingtao Chen, Chao Zheng, Jing Wu, Yun Cheng, Shan Zhu, Chenhong Lin, Qingqing Cao, Jie Zhu, Tao Jin
Dendritic cells (DCs), a bridge of innate and adaptive immune responses, play a key role in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS. Administration of tolerogenic DCs has been used as an immunotherapy in the autoimmune diseases. Deficiency of vitamin D is an environmental risk factor of MS. In this study, we induced tolerogenic DCs by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 D3 ) and adoptive transferred the tolerogenic DCs (VD3-DCs) into EAE mice...
June 15, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617951/altered-expression-of-igf-i-system-in-neurons-of-the-inflamed-spinal-cord-during-acute-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#8
Azita Parvaneh Tafreshi, Farideh Talebi, Samira Ghorbani, Claude Bernard, Farshid Noorbakhsh
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that the impaired IGF-I system contributes to neurodegeneration. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined the spinal cords of the EAE, the animal model of multiple sclerosis, to see if the expression of the IGF-I system is altered. METHODS: To induce EAE, C57/BL6 mice were immunized with the Hooke lab MOG kit, sacrificed at the peak of the disease and their spinal cords were examined for the immunoreactivities (ir) of the IGF-I, IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), as one major downstream molecule in the IGF-I signaling...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616347/intraoperative-care-for-aortic-surgery-using-circulatory-arrest
#9
REVIEW
Félix Ezequiel Fernández Suárez, David Fernández Del Valle, Adrián González Alvarez, Blanca Pérez-Lozano
The total circulatory arrest (CA) is necessary to achieve optimal surgical conditions in certain aortic pathologies, especially in those affecting the ascending aorta and aortic arch. During this procedure it is necessary to protect all the organs of ischemia, especially those of the central nervous system and for this purpose several strategies have been developed. The first and most important protective method is systemic hypothermia. The degree of hypothermia and the route of application have been evolving and currently tend to use moderate hypothermia (MH) (20...
May 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605990/mir-25-protects-pc-12-cells-from-h2o2-mediated-oxidative-damage-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#10
Yi Guo, Shizhen Niu
OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with modulation of different microRNAs (miRs). This study aims to explore the role of miR-25 in PC-12 cells to reveal the potential of miR-25 in SCI treatment. METHODS: SCI model was established in C57BL/6 mice, then miR-expression in the injured spinal cords were detected by qRT-PCR. PC-12 cells were exposed to H2O2 conditions to establish an in vitro model of SCI. PC-12 cells were transfected with expressing vector or antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) of miR-25...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601095/reactive-stepping-with-functional-neuromuscular-stimulation-in-response-to-forward-directed-perturbations
#11
Alexander J Hunt, Brooke M Odle, Lisa M Lombardo, Musa L Audu, Ronald J Triolo
BACKGROUND: Implanted motor system neuroprostheses can be effective at increasing personal mobility of persons paralyzed by spinal cord injuries. However, currently available neural stimulation systems for standing employ patterns of constant activation and are unreactive to changing postural demands. METHODS: In this work, we developed a closed-loop controller for detecting forward-directed body disturbances and initiating a stabilizing step in a person with spinal cord injury...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601045/microrna-494-improves-functional-recovery-and-inhibits-apoptosis-by-modulating-pten-akt-mtor-pathway-in-rats-after-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Huaguang Zhu, Rong Xie, Xiaodong Liu, Jiajun Shou, Wentao Gu, Shixin Gu, Xiaoming Che
Multiple cellular, molecular, and biochemical changes contribute to the etiology and treatment outcome of contusion spinal cord injury (SCI). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) aberrant expression have been found after SCI in recent studies. However, little is known about the functional significance of the unique role of miRNAs in SCI. Here, we established a rat SCI model and performed the miRNA microarray to analyze miRNAs expression at different times post-SCI. Microarray data revealed that 14 miRNAs were upregulated and 46 miRNAs were downregulated by 2 times compared with sham rat spinal cords, and miR-494 was one of the miRNAs being most significantly downregulated...
June 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593744/thermosensitive-heparin-poloxamer-hydrogels-enhance-the-effects-of-gdnf-on-neuronal-circuit-remodelling-and-neuroprotection-after-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Ying-Zheng Zhao, Xi Jiang, Qian Lin, He-Lin Xu, Ya-Dong Huang, Cui-Tao Lu, Jun Cai
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in paraplegia or quadriplegia, and currently, therapeutic interventions for axonal regeneration after SCI are not clinically available. Animal studies have revealed that glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) plays multiple beneficial roles in neuroprotection, glial scarring remodelling, axon regeneration and remyelination in SCI. However, the poor physicochemical stability of GDNF, as well as its limited ability to cross the blood-spinal cord barrier, hampers the development of GDNF as an effective therapeutic intervention in clinical practice...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588731/anti-rheumatic-drug-iguratimod-protects-against-cancer-induced-bone-pain-and-bone-destruction-in-a-rat-model
#14
Yue Sun, Ying-Xing Wu, Peng Zhang, Guang Peng, Shi-Ying Yu
The bone is one of the most common sites of metastasis in patients with cancer. Current treatments for bone metastases include bisphosphonates, denosumab, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics, but each of them has certain limitations. Cytokines and mediators released from various cells in the bone microenvironment may drive a vicious cycle of osteolytic bone metastases. Iguratimod (T-614), a novel disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug, has demonstrated therapeutic effects by suppressing the production of inflammatory cytokines in rats and patients with rheumatoid arthritis...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582898/dosimetric-comparisons-of-imrt-planning-using-mco-and-dmpo-techniques
#15
Xiongfei Liao, Jinyi Lang, Ningshan Li, Pei Wang, Jie Li, Jack Yang, Yazheng Chen
The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of multi-criteria optimization (MCO) in the planning and optimization of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Twenty (20) IMRT patients (ten (10) with prostate cancer and ten (10) with lung cancer) were randomly selected. The treatment plans for these patients were designed using direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO). Based on these plans, new plans were designed using multi-criteria optimization (MCO), keeping the optimization objectives and constraints unchanged...
May 19, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579397/meta-analysis-of-heparin-therapy-for-preventing-venous-thromboembolism-in-acute-spinal-cord-injury
#16
REVIEW
Yang Liu, Hong Xu, Feifei Liu, Zenghui Lv, Shunli Kan, Guangzhi Ning, Shiqing Feng
OBJECTIVE: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication in patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI) and may have serious consequences. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) venous thromboprophylaxis in patients with acute SCI. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and the Cochrane library were searched from January 1980 to August 2016. The primary outcome was the incidence of VTE. Secondary outcomes included the incidences of Deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) and major bleeding...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576833/spinal-cord-stimulation-reduces-ventricular-arrhythmias-during-acute-ischemia-by-attenuation-of-regional-myocardial-excitability
#17
Kimberly Howard-Quijano, Tatsuo Takamiya, Erica A Dale, Jasmine Kipke, Yukiko Kubo, Tristan Grogan, Andyshea Afyouni, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Aman Mahajan
BACKGROUND: Myocardial ischemia creates autonomic nervous system imbalance and can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. We hypothesize that neuromodulation by spinal cord stimulation (SCS) will attenuate local cardiac sympathoexcitation from ischemia-induced increases in afferent signaling, reduce ventricular arrhythmias, and improve myocardial function during acute ischemia. METHODS: Yorkshire pigs (n=20) were randomized to SCS (50 Hz at 200μsec duration, current 90% motor threshold) or Sham for 30 min prior to ischemia...
June 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572150/percutaneous-spinal-ablation-in-a-sheep-model-protective-capacity-of-an-intact-cortex-correlation-of-ablation-parameters-with-ablation-zone-size-and-correlation-of-postablation-mri-and-pathologic-findings
#18
A N Wallace, T J Hillen, M V Friedman, Z S Zohny, B H Stephens, S C Greco, M R Talcott, J W Jennings
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite the growing use of percutaneous ablation therapy for the treatment of metastatic spine disease, several issues have yet to be fully addressed. Our aims were to determine whether the vertebral body cortex protects against ablation-induced spinal cord injury; correlate radiofrequency, cryo-, and microwave ablation parameters with resulting spinal ablation zone dimensions and describe normal spinal marrow postablation changes on MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten thoracolumbar vertebrae in 3 sheep were treated with radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, or microwave ablation under fluoroscopic guidance...
June 1, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565827/neuroprotective-effect-of-combining-tanshinone-iia-with-low-dose-methylprednisolone-following-acute-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#19
Nian-Wei Yao, Yuan Lu, Li-Qi Shi, Feng Xu, Xian-Hua Cai
The present study compared the potential neuroprotective effect of tanshinone IIA (TIIA) monotherapy, methylprednisolone (MP) monotherapy and combined treatment in an adult acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) rat model. The current study used the weight-drop method (Allen's Impactor) in the rat model and the mechanical scratch method in primary spinal cord neuron culture to determine whether the combined treatment was able to reduce the required dosage of MP in the treatment of ASCI to produce a similar or improved therapeutic effect...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561268/near-infrared-spectroscopy-for-measuring-changes-in-bone-hemoglobin-content-after-exercise-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Adina E Draghici, Diane Potart, Joseph L Hollmann, Vivian Pera, Qianqian Fang, Charles A DiMarzio, J Andrew Taylor, Mark J Niedre, Sandra J Shefelbine
Bone blood perfusion has an essential role in maintaining a healthy bone. However, current methods for measuring bone blood perfusion are expensive and highly invasive. This study presents a custom built near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instrument to measure changes in bone blood perfusion. We demonstrated the efficacy of this device by monitoring oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin changes in the human tibia during and after exercise in able-bodied and in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), a population with known impaired peripheral blood perfusion...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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