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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447501/imaging-acute-and-chronic-pain-in-the-human-brainstem-and-spinal-cord
#1
Luke A Henderson, Kevin A Keay
While acute pain serves as a protective mechanism designed to warn an individual of potential or actual damaging stimuli, chronic pain provides no benefit and is now considered a disease in its own right. Since the advent of human brain imaging techniques, many investigations that have explored the central representation of acute and chronic pain have focused on changes in higher order brain regions. In contrast, far fewer have explored brainstem and spinal cord function, mainly due to significant technical difficulties...
April 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445714/the-toll-like-receptor-2-agonist-pam3csk4-is-neuroprotective-after-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Nicole S Stivers, Nicolas Pelisch, Ben C Orem, Joshua Williams, Jacqueline M Nally, David P Stirling
Microglia/macrophage activation and recruitment following spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with both detrimental and reparative functions. Stimulation of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) has shown to be beneficial following SCI, and it increases axonal regeneration following optic nerve crush. However, the mechanism(s) remain unclear. As microglia express high levels of TLR2, we hypothesized that modulating the microglial response to injury using a specific TLR2 agonist, Pam3CSK4, would prevent secondary-mediated white matter degeneration following SCI...
April 23, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444833/chronic-stress-induced-mechanical-hyperalgesia-is-controlled-by-capsaicin-sensitive-neurones-in-the-mouse
#3
B Scheich, P Vincze, É Szőke, É Borbély, Á Hunyady, J Szolcsányi, Á Dénes, Zs Környei, B Gaszner, Zs Helyes
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies demonstrated peripheral nociceptor deficit in stress-related chronic pain states, such as fibromyalgia. The interactions of stress and nociceptive systems have special relevance in chronic pain, but the underlying mechanisms including the role of specific nociceptor populations remain unknown. We investigated the role of capsaicin-sensitive neurones in chronic stress-related nociceptive changes. METHOD: Capsaicin-sensitive neurones were desensitized by the capsaicin analogue resiniferatoxin (RTX) in CD1 mice...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444817/microtubule-stabilization-promoted-axonal-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-spinal-root-avulsion
#4
Heng Li, Wutian Wu
A spinal root avulsion injury disconnects spinal roots with the spinal cord. The rampant motoneuron death, inhibitory CNS/PNS transitional zone (TZ) for axonal regrowth and limited regeneration speed together lead to motor dysfunction. Microtubules rearrange to assemble a new growth cone and disorganized microtubules underline regeneration failure. It's been shown that microtubule-stabilizing drug, Epothilone B, enhanced axonal regeneration and attenuated fibrotic scaring after spinal cord injury. Here, we are reporting that after spinal root avulsion+ re-implantation in adult rats, EpoB treatment improved motor functional recovery and potentiated electrical responses of motor units...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443372/cord-blood-as-a-potential-therapeutic-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#5
Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis, Jared Ehrhart, Paul R Sanberg
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor neuron degeneration in the brain and spinal cord. Treatment options are limited due to the complexity of underlying disease factors. Cell therapy, using human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) cells may be a promising new treatment for ALS, mainly by providing a protective microenvironment for motor neuron survival. Areas covered: Composition and in vitro and in vivo differentiation of hUCB cells and the advantages of cord blood as a source of transplant cells are discussed...
April 26, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441708/dosimetric-comparison-of-three-different-radiotherapy-techniques-in-antrum-located-stomach-cancer
#6
Alparslan Serarslan, Nilgun Ozbek Okumus, Bilge Gursel, Deniz Meydan, Yalcin Dastan, Talat Aksu
Background: The current optimal radiotherapy (RT) planning technique for stomach cancer is controversial. The design of RT for stomach cancer is difficult and differs according to tumor localization. Dosimetric and clinical studies have been performed in patients with different tumor localizations. This may be the main source of inconsistencies in study results. For this reason, we attempted to find the optimal RT technique for patients with stomach cancer in similar locations. Methods: This study was based on the computed tomography datasets of 20 patients with antrum-located stomach cancer...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439957/prognostic-indicators-in-pediatric-clinically-isolated-syndrome
#7
Pietro Iaffaldano, Marta Simone, Giuseppe Lucisano, Angelo Ghezzi, Gabriella Coniglio, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Giuseppe Salemi, Francesco Patti, Alessandra Lugaresi, Guillermo Izquierdo, Roberto Bergamaschi, Jose Antonio Cabrera-Gomez, Carlo Pozzilli, Enrico Millefiorini, Raed Alroughani, Cavit Boz, Eugenio Pucci, Giovanni Bosco Zimatore, Patrizia Sola, Giacomo Lus, Davide Maimone, Carlo Avolio, Eleonora Cocco, Seyed Aidin Sajedi, Gianfranco Costantino, Pierre Duquette, Vahid Shaygannejad, Thor Petersen, Ricardo Fernández Bolaños, Damiano Paolicelli, Carla Tortorella, Tim Spelman, Lucia Margari, Maria Pia Amato, Giancarlo Comi, Helmut Butzkueven, Maria Trojano
OBJECTIVE: To assess prognostic factors for a second clinical attack and a first disability worsening event in pediatric clinically isolated syndrome (pCIS) suggestive of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: A cohort of 770 pCIS patients was followed-up for at least 10 years. Cox proportional hazard models and RECursive Partitioning and AMalgamation (RECPAM) tree-regression were used to analyze data. RESULTS: In pCIS, female sex and a multifocal onset were risk factors for a second clinical attack (HR, 95% CI: 1...
April 25, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436583/physical-activity-and-exercise-for-chronic-pain-in-adults-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#8
REVIEW
Louise J Geneen, R Andrew Moore, Clare Clarke, Denis Martin, Lesley A Colvin, Blair H Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning...
April 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433567/ppar-%C3%AE-agonist-rosiglitazone-reduces-autophagy-and-promotes-functional-recovery-in-experimental-traumaticspinal-cord-injury
#9
Hongpeng Li, Qin Zhang, Xiaohui Yang, Liping Wang
BACKGROUND: Secondary damage is often more important in determining the functional outcome and provides a practical target for therapeutic intervention. Rosiglitazone (ROSG) is a potent PPAR-γ agonist and has been shown to induce neuroprotection in animal models of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, it is still unclear whether this PPAR-γ agonist can mediate neuronal autophagy after SCI. METHODS: SCI was induced by application of vascular clips (force of 24g) to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433350/open-repair-of-chronic-thoracic-and-thoracoabdominal-aortic-dissection-using-deep-hypothermia-and-circulatory-arrest
#10
Joel Corvera, Hannah Copeland, David Blitzer, Adam Hicks, Joshua Manghelli, Philip Hess, John Fehrenbacher
BACKGROUND: Chronic dissection of the thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta as sequela of a prior type A or B dissection is a challenging problem that requires close radiographic surveillance and prompt operative intervention in the presence of symptoms or aneurysm formation. Open repair of chronic thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic dissection using deep hypothermia has been our preferred method to treat this complex pathology. The advantages of this technique include organ and spinal cord protection, the flexibility to extend the repair proximally into the arch, and the ability to limit ischemia to all vascular beds...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422399/dorsal-root-ganglion-stimulation-for-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-crps-recurrence-after-amputation-for-crps-and-failure-of-conventional-spinal-cord-stimulation
#11
Andreas Goebel, Sarah Lewis, Rhodri Phillip, Manohar Sharma
Limb amputation is sometimes being performed in long-standing complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), although little evidence is available guiding management decisions, including how CRPS recurrence should be managed. This report details the management of a young soldier with CRPS recurrence 2 years after midtibial amputation for CRPS. Conventional spinal cord stimulation did not achieve paraesthetic coverage, or pain relief in the stump, whereas L4 dorsal root ganglion stimulation achieved both coverage and initially modest pain relief, and over time, substantial pain relief...
April 18, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422349/effects-of-extrinsic-cardiac-nerve-stimulation-on-atrial-fibrillation-inducibility-the-regulatory-role-of-the-spinal-cord
#12
Zixuan Dai, Congxin Huang, Qingyan Zhao, Shujuan Zhang, Hongyi Zhao, Youjing Zhang, Yongsheng Qian, Yanhong Tang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the mutual regulation of the extrinsic cardiac nerves on atrial electrophysiology and atrial fibrillation (AF) vulnerability. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fourteen dogs were randomly divided into 2 groups: spinal cord stimulation (SCS) group (n = 7) and spinal cord block (SCB) group (n = 7). SCS was performed with 90% of the threshold voltage stimulating the T1 -T2 spinal level, while SCB was performed by injecting 2% lidocaine into the epidural space at the T2-3 level...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419784/four-extremity-neurostimulation-using-two-cervical-octapolar-leads-and-high-frequency-of-10-khz
#13
Shervin Harandi, Leonardo Kapural
OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: A few published reports describe successful clinical use of low-frequency spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in the cervical spine resulting in bilateral upper and lower extremity pain relief. Major side-effect when using this modality of SCS is the uneven intensity of paresthesias which are frequently excessive in upper extremities while attempting to achieve optimal paresthesia coverage in all four extremities. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Here we describe a successful case of high frequency SCS at 10 kHz where profound control of neuropathic pain of all four extremities was achieved without the complication of paresthesias...
April 18, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417262/melatonin-inhibits-neural-cell-apoptosis-and-promotes-locomotor-recovery-via-activation-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-after-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Zhaoliang Shen, Zipeng Zhou, Shuang Gao, Yue Guo, Kai Gao, Haoyu Wang, Xiaoqian Dang
The spinal cord is highly sensitive to spinal cord injury (SCI) by external mechanical damage, resulting in irreversible neurological damage. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway can effectively reduce apoptosis and protect against SCI. Melatonin, an indoleamine originally isolated from bovine pineal tissue, exerts neuroprotective effects after SCI through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrated that melatonin exhibited neuroprotective effects on neuronal apoptosis and supported functional recovery in a rat SCI model by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway...
April 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411102/zl006-protects-spinal-cord-neurons-against-ischemia-induced-oxidative-stress-through-ampk-pgc-1%C3%AE-sirt3-pathway
#15
Shu-Guang Liu, Yun-Mei Wang, Yan-Jun Zhang, Xi-Jing He, Tao Ma, Wei Song, Yu-Min Zhang
Spinal cord ischemia (SCI) induces a range of cellular and molecular cascades, including activation of glutamate receptors and downstream signaling. Post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) links neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors to form a ternary complex in the CNS. This molecular complex-mediated cytotoxicity has been implicated in brain ischemia, but its role in SCI has not been determined. The goal of the study was to investigate the potential protective effects of ZL006, a small-molecule inhibitor of the PSD-95/nNOS interaction, in an in vitro SCI model induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in cultured spinal cord neurons...
April 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408816/zonisamide-loaded-triblock-copolymer-nanomicelles-as-a-novel-drug-delivery-system-for-the-treatment-of-acute-spinal-cord-injury
#16
JingLun Li, JiaoJiao Deng, JinXian Yuan, Jie Fu, XiaoLing Li, AiPing Tong, YueLong Wang, YangMei Chen, Gang Guo
Spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly leads to lifelong disability due to the limited regenerative capacity of the adult central nervous system. Nanomicelles can be used as therapeutic systems to provide effective treatments for SCI. In this study, a novel triblock monomethyl poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-lactide)-poly(trimethylene carbonate) copolymer was successfully synthesized. Next, polymeric nanomicelles loaded with zonisamide (ZNS), a Food and Drug Administration-approved antiepileptic drug, were prepared and characterized...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402080/application-of-ischemic-postconditioning-s-algorithms-in-tissues-protection-response-to-methodological-gaps-in-preclinical-and-clinical-studies
#17
Saeid Feyzizadeh, Reza Badalzadeh
Ischaemic postconditioning (IPostC) was introduced for the first time by Zhao et al. as a feasible method for reduction of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. The cardioprotection by this protocol has been extensively evaluated in various species. Then, further research revealed that IPostC is a safe and convenient approach in limiting IR injury of non-myocardial tissues such as lung, liver, kidney, intestine, skeletal muscle, brain and spinal cord. IPostC has been conducted with different algorithms, resulting in diverse effects...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401686/axonal-loss-in-the-multiple-sclerosis-spinal-cord-revisited
#18
N Petrova, D Carassiti, D R Altmann, D Baker, K Schmierer
Preventing chronic disease deterioration is an unmet need in people with multiple sclerosis, where axonal loss is considered a key substrate of disability. Clinically, chronic multiple sclerosis often presents as progressive myelopathy. Spinal cord cross-sectional area assessed using MRI predicts increasing disability and has, by inference, been proposed as an indirect index of axonal degeneration. However, the association between cross-sectional area and axonal loss, and their correlation with demyelination, have never been systematically investigated using human post mortem tissue...
April 12, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400812/edaravone-protects-against-oxygen-glucose-serum-deprivation-restoration-induced-apoptosis-in-spinal-cord-astrocytes-by-inhibiting-integrated-stress-response
#19
Bin Dai, Ting Yan, Yi-Xing Shen, You-Jia Xu, Hai-Bin Shen, Dong Chen, Jin-Rong Wang, Shuang-Hua He, Qi-Rong Dong, Ai-Liang Zhang
We previously found that oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation/restoration (OGSD/R) induces apoptosis of spinal cord astrocytes, possibly via caspase-12 and the integrated stress response, which involves protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), eukaryotic initiation factor 2-alpha (eIF2α) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). We hypothesized that edaravone, a low molecular weight, lipophilic free radical scavenger, would reduce OGSD/R-induced apoptosis of spinal cord astrocytes. To test this, we established primary cultures of rat astrocytes, and exposed them to 8 hours/6 hours of OGSD/R with or without edaravone (0...
February 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400721/mir-384-regulates-the-th17-treg-ratio-during-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-pathogenesis
#20
Xuebin Qu, Jingjing Han, Ying Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Jun Zhou, Hongbin Fan, Ruiqin Yao
Specific miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), during which IL-17-producing CD4(+) T helper (Th17) cells accumulate in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we identified levels of miR-384 as significantly increased in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Over-expression of miR-384 in vivo led to severe EAE, characterized by exacerbated demyelination, and increased inflammatory cell infiltration of the spinal cord; inhibition of miR-384 reversed these changes...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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