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Spinal cord protection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916623/multiple-beneficial-effects-of-melanocortin-mc4-receptor-agonists-in-experimental-neurodegenerative-disorders-therapeutic-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Daniela Giuliani, Alessandra Ottani, Laura Neri, Davide Zaffe, Paolo Grieco, Jerzy Jochem, Gian Maria Cavallini, Anna Catania, Salvatore Guarini
Melanocortin peptides induce neuroprotection in acute and chronic experimental neurodegenerative conditions. Melanocortins likewise counteract systemic responses to brain injuries. Furthermore, they promote neurogenesis by activating critical signaling pathways. Melanocortin-induced long-lasting improvement in synaptic activity and neurological performance, including learning and memory, sensory-motor orientation and coordinated limb use, has been consistently observed in experimental models of acute and chronic neurodegeneration...
December 1, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910226/successful-treatment-of-post-dural-puncture-headache-using-epidural-fibrin-glue-patch-after-persistent-failure-of-epidural-blood-patches
#2
Kevin Wong, Brian R Monroe
OBJECTIVES: Epidural blood patch is the gold standard for the treatment of post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) when conservative treatments have failed to provide any relief. However, alternative therapies are lacking when epidural blood patch persistently fails to improve symptoms. Failure to treat PDPH may lead to significant functional impairment of daily living. Alternative therapies should be sought to accelerate recovery from PDPH. CASE REPORT: This case describes a woman who developed PDPH secondary to accidental dural puncture during a spinal cord stimulator trial...
December 2, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910210/microbiological-evaluation-of-the-extension-wire-and-percutaneous-epidural-lead-anchor-site-following-a-2-stage-cut-down-spinal-cord-stimulator-procedure
#3
Abdul Ghaaliq Lalkhen, Mahindra Chincholkar, Jiten Patel
OBJECTIVES: There are concerns regarding bacterial colonization of the temporary extension leads and subsequent infection risk using the 2-stage cut-down approach in spinal cord stimulation (SCS). We sought to quantify the extent of bacterial colonization of the temporary extension wire and percutaneous epidural lead anchor site. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study recruiting a pragmatic sample of 25 consecutive patients listed for a cut-down trial of SCS...
December 2, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905554/increased-plasma-vegf-levels-following-ischemic-preconditioning-are-associated-with-downregulation-of-mirna-762-and-mir-3072-5p
#4
Koji Ueno, Makoto Samura, Tamami Nakamura, Yuya Tanaka, Yuriko Takeuchi, Daichi Kawamura, Masaya Takahashi, Tohru Hosoyama, Noriyasu Morikage, Kimikazu Hamano
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has protective effects against ischemia-perfusion injury of organs. In the present study, we investigated the associated mechanisms after performing remote IPC (rIPC) of lower limbs by clamping abdominal aorta in mice. Subsequent experiments showed decreased damage and paralysis of lower limbs following spinal cord injury (SCI). Concomitantly, plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were increased 24 h after rIPC compared with those in sham-operated animals. In subsequent microRNA analyses, thirteen microRNAs were downregulated in exosomes 24 h after rIPC...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897187/a-latent-structural-equation-model-of-protective-behaviors-and-pressure-ulcer-outcomes-among-people-living-with-spinal-cord-injury
#5
C Li, N D DiPiro, J Krause
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. OBJECTIVE: To develop a latent structural model to demonstrate the relationship between factor structures of protective health behaviors and pressure ulcer (PrU) outcomes among participants with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Data were collected at a large specialty hospital and analyzed at a medical university in the Southeastern USA. METHODS: A total of 1871 participants with traumatic SCI of at least 1 year duration were included...
November 29, 2016: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889959/fumaric-acid-esters-attenuate-secondary-degeneration-following-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Marika Cordaro, Giovanna Casili, Irene Paterniti, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Emanuela Esposito
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes permanent changes in motor, sensory and autonomic functions. Unfortunately, there are not a stable cures and current treatments include surgical decompression, methylprednisolone and hemodynamic control that lead to modest function recovery. Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) were firstly used in the management of an immunological skin disorder, such as psoriasis. Because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects, they have been introduced in multiple sclerosis. Investigation shown not only anti-inflammatory, but also supposed neuroprotective mechanism of action...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889433/the-protective-effect-of-curcumin-in-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-exposed-to-hypoxia
#7
Roberta Bonfanti, Teresa Musumeci, Cristina Russo, Rosalia Pellitteri
Curcumin, a phytochemical component derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, has shown a great variety of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-depression and anti-oxidant activity. Therefore, in the last years it has been used as a therapeutic agent since it confers protection in different neurodegenerative diseases, cerebral ischemia and excitotoxicity. Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OECs) are glial cells of the olfactory system. They are able to secrete several neurotrophic growth factors, promote axonal growth and support the remyelination of damaged axons...
November 23, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887979/protective-effect-of-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-nad-against-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-reducing-oxidative-stress-induced-neuronal-apoptosis
#8
Lei Xie, Zhenfei Wang, Changwei Li, Kai Yang, Yu Liang
As previous studies demonstrate that oxidative stress and apoptosis play crucial roles in ischemic pathogenesis and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) treatment attenuates oxidative stress-induced cell death among primary neurons and astrocytes as well as significantly reduce cerebral ischemic injury in rats. We used a spinal cord ischemia injury (SCII) model in rats to verify our hypothesis that NAD(+) could ameliorate oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. Adult male rats were subjected to transient spinal cord ischemia for 60min, and different doses of NAD(+) were administered intraperitoneally immediately after the start of reperfusion...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884333/c-spine-injury-and-mandibular-fractures-lifesaver-broken-in-two-spots
#9
Michael W Chu, Tahereh Soleimani, Tyler A Evans, Sarah I Fernandez, Leigh Spera, Carrie Klene, Ben L Zarzaur, Sunil S Tholpady
BACKGROUND: Trauma is a leading cause of injury and mortality and may involve mandibular fractures and cervical spine injuries. Manipulation of the spine during trauma protocols and operative treatment has the potential to cause serious spinal cord injuries. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors associated with cervical spine injury (CSI) in patients with mandibular fractures. METHODS: The National Trauma Databank (2007-2010) was used to identify patients with mandibular fractures...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876524/lower-extremity-weakness-is-associated-with-elevated-blood-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-glucose-levels-following-multibranched-endovascular-aortic-aneurysm-repair
#10
Jade S Hiramoto, Charlene Fernandez, Warren Gasper, Shant Vartanian, Linda Reilly, Timothy Chuter
OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia is associated with worsened clinical outcomes after central nervous system injury. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between lower extremity weakness (LEW) and the glucose levels of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients undergoing multibranched endovascular aneurysm repair (MBEVAR) of thoracoabdominal and pararenal aortic aneurysms. METHODS: Blood and CSF samples were collected preoperatively, immediately after aneurysm repair, and on postoperative day 1 in 21 patients undergoing MBEVAR...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872031/penile-prosthesis-infections-a-review-of-risk-factors-prevention-and%C3%A2-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Miguel Pineda, Arthur L Burnett
INTRODUCTION: Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) surgery has been performed for more than 40 years. IPP infection rates have decreased owing to advances in manufacturing and surgical technique but have remained a devastating complication. AIMS: To describe the pathophysiology of infections, examine evidence associating clinical risk factors with IPP infection, assess the benefit of techniques aimed at preventing and managing infection, and discuss future directions...
October 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870483/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-regenerating-tail-versus-the-scarring-limb-in-lizard-reveals-pathways-leading-to-successful-versus-unsuccessful-organ-regeneration-in-amniotes
#12
Nicola Vitulo, Luisa Dalla Valle, Tatjana Skobo, Giorgio Valle, Lorenzo Alibardi
BACKGROUND: lizards are amniotes regenerating the tail but not the limb and no information on their different gene expression is available. RESULTS: transcriptomes of regenerating tail and limb blastemas show differences in gene expression between the two organs. In tail blastema snoRNAs and Wnt signals appear up-regulated probably in association with the Apical Epidermal Peg (AEP), an epithelial region that sustains tail regeneration but is absent in the limb. A balance between pro-oncogenes and tumor suppressors is likely present in tail blastema allowing a regulated proliferation...
November 21, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865878/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-decrease-chop-expression-and-neuronal-apoptosis-after-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Chuanlong Gu, Heyangzi Li, Chao Wang, Xinghui Song, Yuemin Ding, Mingzhi Zheng, Wei Liu, Yingying Chen, Xiaoming Zhang, Linlin Wang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to irreversible neuronal loss and ultimately leads to paralysis. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been demonstrated to be an effective approach to treat SCI. The present study was designed to investigate the role of BMSCs in rats with spinal cord injury and in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) treated motor neurons. The results demonstrated that BMSCs could improve locomotor function and decrease expression of pro-apoptotic transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and apoptosis after SCI...
November 16, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864937/pax3-overexpression-induces-cell-aggregation-and-perturbs-commissural-axon-projection-during-embryonic-spinal-cord-development
#14
Juntang Lin, Sulei Fu, Ciqing Yang, Christoph Redies
Pax3 is a transcription factor that belongs to the paired box family. In the developing spinal cord, it is expressed in the dorsal commissural neurons, which project ascending axons contralaterally to form proper spinal cord-brain circuitry. While it has been shown that Pax3 induces cell aggregation in vitro, little is known about the role of Pax3 in cell aggregation and spinal circuit formation in vivo. We have reported that Pax3 is involved in neuron differentiation and that its overexpression induces ectopic cadherin-7 expression...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864936/effect-of-sphingosine-kinase-modulators-on-interleukin-1%C3%AE-release-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-expression-and-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#15
Mark Barbour, Melissa McNaughton, Stephanie D Boomkamp, Neil MacRitchie, Hui-Rong Jiang, Nigel J Pyne, Susan Pyne
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The sphingosine analogue, FTY720 (Gilenya(R) ) alleviates clinical disease progression in multiple sclerosis. Here we variously assessed the effects of an azide analogue of (S)-FTY720 vinylphosphonate (compound 5; a sphingosine kinase 1 activator), (R)-FTY720 methyl ether (ROMe, a sphingosine kinase 2 inhibitor) and RB-020 (a sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor and sphingosine kinase 2 substrate) on IL-1β formation, sphingosine 1-phosphate levels and S1P1 expression...
November 16, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864898/anti-inflammatory-drugs-decrease-infection-of-endothelial-cells-with-ehv-1-in-vitro
#16
L S Goehring, K Brandes, L V Ashton, L A Wittenburg, F J Olea-Popelka, D P Lunn, G Soboll Hussey
BACKGROUND: Equid Herpesvirus-associated Myeloencephalopathy is the result of endothelial cell infection of the spinal cord vasculature with EHV-1 during cell-associated viraemia. Endothelial cell infection requires contact between infected peripheral blood mononuclear and endothelial cells. Inflammation generated during viraemia likely up-regulates adhesion molecule expression on both cell types increasing contact and facilitating endothelial cell infection. OBJECTIVES: Evaluating the role of anti-inflammatory drugs in decreasing endothelial cell infection with EHV-1...
November 19, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864650/heme-oxygenase-1-protects-spinal-cord-neurons-from-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-apoptosis-via-suppression-of-cdc42-mlk3-mkk7-jnk3-signaling
#17
Siyuan Wang, Tao Zhang, Zhen Yang, Jianhua Lin, Bin Cai, Qingfeng Ke, Wenbin Lan, Jinxing Shi, Shiqiang Wu, Wenping Lin
The mechanisms by which oxidative stress induces spinal cord neuron death has not been completely understood. Investigation on the molecular signal pathways involved in oxidative stress-mediated neuronal death is important for development of new therapeutics for oxidative stress-associated spinal cord disorders. In current study we examined the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the modulation of MLK3/MKK7/JNK3 signaling, which is a pro-apoptotic pathway, after treating primary spinal cord neurons with H2O2...
November 18, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863083/promotion-of-neurological-recovery-in-rat-spinal-cord-injury-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-loaded-on-nerve-guided-collagen-scaffold-through-increasing-alternatively-activated-macrophage-polarization
#18
Zhan Peng, Wei Gao, Bing Yue, Jie Jiang, Yong Gu, Jianwu Dai, Liang Chen, Qin Shi
Mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs)characterized by multi-differentiation potent and immunoregulatory have been used in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI), but the direct transplantation may limit its effectiveness due to quick diffusion. In addition, the role of macrophages in healing is being increasingly recognized because of the ability to polarize into pro- and anti-inflammatory phenotypes. In the present study, we developed the nerve-guide collagen scaffold (CS) and rat MSCs. After CS was confirmed to minimize MSCs distribution in vivo by the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, the repair capacity of combined implantation of CS and MSCs and the effect on classically activated macrophage (M1)/alternatively activated macrophage (M2) polarization was assessed in a hemisected SCI rat model...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861899/sulfatide-species-with-various-fatty-acid-chains-in-oligodendrocytes-at-different-developmental-stages-determined-by-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#19
Yukie Hirahara, Taketoshi Wakabayashi, Tetsuji Mori, Taro Koike, Ikuko Yao, Masayuki Tsuda, Koichi Honke, Hitoshi Gotoh, Katsuhiko Ono, Hisao Yamada
HSO3-3-galactosylceramide (Sulfatide) species comprise the major glycosphingolipid components of oligodendrocytes and myelin and play functional roles in the regulation of oligodendrocyte maturation and myelin formation. Although various sulfatide species contain different fatty acids, it is unclear how these sulfatide species affect oligodendrogenesis and myelination. The O4 monoclonal antibody reaction with sulfatide has been widely used as a useful marker for oligodendrocytes and myelin. However, sulfatide synthesis during the pro-oligodendroblast stage, where differentiation into the oligodendrocyte lineage has already occurred, has not been examined...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860453/targeting-the-d-series-resolvin-receptor-system-for-the-treatment-of-osteoarthritic-pain
#20
Junting Huang, James J Burston, Li Li, Sadaf Ashraf, Paul I Mapp, Andrew J Bennett, Srinivasarao Ravipati, Petros Pousinis, David A Barrett, Brigitte E Scammell, Victoria Chapman
OBJECTIVE: Pain is a major symptom of osteoarthritis (OA); current analgesics either do not offer adequate pain relief or are associated with serious side effects. Herein we have investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the resolvin receptor system to modify OA pain and pathology. METHODS: Gene expression of two resolvin receptors (ALX and ChemR23) was quantified in synovia and medial tibial plateau collected from patients at joint replacement for OA...
November 16, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
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