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Spinal cord protection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543060/nogo-b-is-the-major-form-of-nogo-at-the-floor-plate-and-likely-mediates-crossing-of-commissural-axons-in-the-mouse-spinal-cord
#1
Liqing Wang, Chao Yu, Jun Wang, Peggy Leung, Ding Ma, Hui Zhao, Jeremy S H Taylor, Sun-On Chan
Using Nogo antibodies with defined binding specificity, Nogo-B, but not Nogo-A, was localized on radial glia in the floor plate of mouse embryos. The presence of Nogo-B was confirmed in Nogo-A knockout mice. In explant cultures of embryonic day (E) 11 and E12 spinal cord, blocking of NgR function with antagonist peptide NEP1-40 reduced the crossing of newly arrived commissural axons, resulting in an accumulation of growth cones in the floor plate. Analysis of growth cone morphology demonstrated an increase in size of growth cones in the floor plate after peptide treatment, which was not detected in axons growing towards the midline...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526092/transapical-aortic-perfusion-using-a-deep-hypothermic-procedure-to-prevent-dissecting-lung-injury-during-re-do-thoracoabdominal-aortic-aneurysm-surgery
#2
Yuya Kise, Yukio Kuniyoshi, Mizuki Ando, Hitoshi Inafuku, Takaaki Nagano, Satoshi Yamashiro
BACKGROUND: Avoiding various complications is a challenge during re-do thoracoabdominal aneurysm surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old man had undergone surgery for type I aortic dissection four times. The residual thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm that had severe adhesions to lung parenchyma was resected. Since the proximal anastomotic site was buried in lung parenchyma, deep hypothermia was essential to avoid lung dissection and to protect the spinal cord during the proximal anastomosis...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524374/possible-role-of-the-myelinated-neural-network-in-the-parietal-peritoneum-in-rats-as-a-mechanoreceptor
#3
Koichi Tanaka, Sachi Kuwahara-Otani, Seishi Maeda, Yusuke Minato, Hideshi Yagi
A network of myelinated nerve fibers in the peritoneum covers the abdominal wall. We studied the topographic distribution of this network, explored the fibers' destination in the central nervous system, and examined the markers in these fibers in order to identify the nature of the sensation conveyed by the network of nerve fibers in rats. We used Sihler's method, which stains myelinated fibers in whole mount materials, and observed a dense nerve network and endings toward the peritoneal cavity in the peritoneum that covers the abdomen's lateral bulge...
May 19, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522414/therapeutic-potential-of-agmatine-for-cns-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Vivian B Neis, Priscila B Rosa, Gislaine Olescowicz, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Agmatine is a neuromodulator that regulates multiple neurotransmitters and signaling pathways. Several studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of this molecule, which seems to be mediated by a reduction in oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and proapoptotic signaling. Since these events are implicated in acute and chronic excitotoxicity-related disorders (ischemia, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders) as well as in nociception, agmatine has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders...
May 15, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512742/differing-intrinsic-biological-properties-between-forebrain-and-spinal-oligodendroglial-lineage-cells
#5
Makoto Horiuchi, Yoko Suzuki-Horiuchi, Tasuku Akiyama, Aki Itoh, David Pleasure, Earl Carstens, Takayuki Itoh
Differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes is known to be regulated by the microenvironment where they differentiate. However, current research has not verified whether or not oligodendroglial lineage cells (OLCs) derived from different anatomical regions of the central nervous system (CNS) respond to microenvironmental cues in the same manner. Here, we isolated pure OPCs from rat neonatal forebrain (FB) and spinal cord (SC) and compared their phenotypes in the same in vitro conditions...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512739/normal-develompent-of-spinal-axons-in-early-embryo-stages-and-posterior-locomotor-function-is-independent-of-gal-1
#6
Juana M Pasquini, Francisco J Barrantes, Héctor R Quintá
It was recently described that Galectin-1 (Gal-1) promotes axonal growth after spinal cord injury. This effect depends on protein dimerization, since monomeric Gal-1 fails to stimulate axonal re-growth. Gal-1 is expressed in vivo at concentrations that favor the monomeric species. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether endogenous Gal-1 is required for spinal axon development and normal locomotor behavior in mice. In order to characterize axonal development, we used a novel combination of 3-DISCO technique with 1-photon microscopy and epifluorescence microscopy under high power LED illumination, followed by serial image section deconvolution and 3-D reconstruction...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511287/generation-and-characterization-of-highly-purified-canine-schwann-cells-from-spinal-nerve-dorsal-roots-as-potential-new-candidates-for-transplantation-strategies
#7
Nicole Steffensen, Annika Lehmbecker, Ingo Gerhauser, Yimin Wang, Regina Carlson, Andrea Tipold, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Veronika M Stein
Schwann cells (SCs) are promising candidates for transplantation-strategies in the central nervous system by promoting axonal regeneration. The dog represents a translational model for human spinal cord injury (SCI) for studies with new repair strategies after intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH). To overcome the necessity for an additional surgical procedure, for the first time a protocol for isolation, and purification of canine SCs from spinal-nerve-biopsies during standard hemilaminectomy in IVDH affected paraplegic dogs for potential transplantation was developed...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501711/protection-of-cortex-by-overlying-meninges-tissue-during-dynamic-indentation-of-the-adolescent-brain
#8
David B MacManus, Baptiste Pierrat, Jeremiah G Murphy, Michael D Gilchrist
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a recent focus of biomedical research with a growing international effort targeting material characterization of brain tissue and simulations of trauma using computer models of the head and brain to try to elucidate the mechanisms and pathogenesis of TBI. The meninges, a collagenous protective tri-layer which encloses the entire brain and spinal cord has been largely overlooked in these material characterization studies. This has resulted in a lack of accurate constitutive data for the cranial meninges, particularly under dynamic conditions such as those experienced during head impacts...
May 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501695/expression-of-aromatase-and-estrogen-receptors-in-lumbar-motoneurons-of-mice
#9
Ying-Xiao Ji, Mei Zhao, Ya-Ling Liu, Li-Sha Chen, Peng-Li Hao, Can Sun
Estrogen exerts protective roles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the expression of aromatase (ARO) and estrogen receptors (ERs) in the motoneurons of spinal cord, has not yet been elucidated. By immunohistochemistry, we found that ARO and ERs were present in the ventral horn of adult mice lumbar spinal cord, and colocalized with SMI-32, a motoneuron specific marker. Within motoneurons, we observed that ARO is detected primarily in the cytoplasm, with fewer ARO in the nucleus; ERα and ERβ mainly localized in the nucleus with less in the cytoplasm; while GPR30 is located in soma and processes...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500623/simultaneous-inhibition-of-nmda-and-mglu1-5-receptors-by-levo-corydalmine-in-rat-spinal-cord-attenuates-bone-cancer-pain
#10
Wen-Ling Dai, Bing Yan, Nan Jiang, Juan-Juan Wu, Xiu-Feng Liu, Ji-Hua Liu, Bo-Yang Yu
Bone cancer pain is a challenge for its not completely clarified mechanism and broad clinical morbidity. Therefore, novel and more effective drugs are urgent needed for improvement of patients' quality of life. Glutamate receptors have been associated with the development of the central sensitization of chronic pain. Inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors can effectively attenuate bone cancer pain respectively. Herein, our results indicated that levo-Corydalmine (l-CDL), a compound from Corydalis yanhusuo W...
May 13, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495589/reduced-fak-stat3-signaling-contributes-to-er-stress-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-death-in-endothelial-cells
#11
Kalpita Banerjee, Matt P Keasey, Vladislav Razskazovskiy, Nishant P Visavadiya, Cuihong Jia, Theo Hagg
Excessive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leads to cell loss in many diseases, e.g., contributing to endothelial cell loss after spinal cord injury. Here, we determined whether ER stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction could be explained by interruption of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-mitochondrial STAT3 pathway we recently discovered. ER stress was induced in brain-derived mouse bEnd5 endothelial cells by thapsigargin or tunicamycin and caused apoptotic cell death over a 72h period. In concert, ER stress caused mitochondrial dysfunction as shown by reduced bioenergetic function, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased mitophagy...
May 8, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487986/sumo-1-delays-neuronal-damage-in-the-spinal-cord-following-ischemia-reperfusion
#12
Hyo Young Jung, Dae Won Kim, Hyun Jung Kwon, Dae Young Yoo, In Koo Hwang, Moo-Ho Won, Tack-Geun Cho, Soo Young Choi, Seung Myung Moon
The present study investigated the protective effects of small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (SUMO-1) on spinal cord ischemic damage in rabbits. A trans‑activator of transcription (Tat)‑SUMO‑1 fusion protein was prepared, and transient spinal cord ischemia was induced by occlusion of the abdominal aorta for 15 min. Vehicle (glycerol) or 1 mg/kg Tat-1-SUMO‑1 was administered intraperitoneally to the rabbits immediately following ischemia/reperfusion. Administration of Tat-SUMO-1 did not lead to significant alterations in arterial blood gases [partial pressure (Pa)CO2 and PaO2], pH, or blood glucose levels prior to ischemia, 10 min after occlusion or 10 min after reperfusion...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486758/stimulation-of-the-l2-l3-dorsal-root-ganglia-induces-effective-pain-relief-in-the-low-back
#13
Frank Huygen, Liong Liem, William Cusack, Jeffery Kramer
INTRODUCTION: Chronic low back pain affects millions of people worldwide and can arise through a variety of clinical origins. In the case of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS), previous surgical procedures can contribute to low back pain that is often unresponsive to intervention. Although spinal cord stimulation can be an effective treatment modality, it does not provide sufficient pain relief for some intractable cases. Recently, alternative neuromodulation options have been developed, including dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation...
May 9, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485493/regionalization-of-the-stretch-reflex-in-the-human-vastus-medialis
#14
Alessio Gallina, Jean-Sébastien Blouin, Tanya D Ivanova, S Jayne Garland
The localization of motor unit territories provides an anatomical basis to suggest that the CNS may have more independence in motor unit recruitment and control strategies than what was previously thought. In this study, we investigated whether the human spinal cord has the neuromuscular circuitry to independently activate motor units located in different regions of the vastus medialis. Mechanical taps were applied to multiple locations in the vastus medialis (VM) in nine healthy individuals. Regional responses within the muscle were observed using a grid of 5 × 13 surface EMG electrodes...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474276/sphingosine-toxicity-in-eae-and-ms-evidence-for-ceramide-generation-via-serine-palmitoyltransferase-activation
#15
Lawrence G Miller, Jennifer A Young, Swapan K Ray, Guanghu Wang, Sharad Purohit, Naren L Banik, Somsankar Dasgupta
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disorder characterized by massive neurodegeneration and profound axonal loss. Since myelin is enriched with sphingolipids and some of them display toxicity, biological function of sphingolipids in demyelination has been investigated in MS brain tissues. An elevation of sphingosine with a decrease in monoglycosylceramide and psychosine (myelin markers) was observed in MS white matter and plaque compared to normal brain tissue. This indicated that sphingosine toxicity might mediate oligodendrocyte degeneration...
May 5, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469668/anesthetic-considerations-for-patients-with-acute-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#16
REVIEW
Fang-Ping Bao, Hong-Gang Zhang, Sheng-Mei Zhu
Anesthesiologists work to prevent or minimize secondary injury of the nervous system and improve the outcome of medical procedures. To this end, anesthesiologists must have a thorough understanding of pathophysiology and optimize their skills and equipment to make an anesthesia plan. Anesthesiologists should conduct careful physical examinations of patients and consider neuroprotection at preoperative interviews, consider cervical spinal cord movement and compression during airway management, and suggest awake fiberoptic bronchoscope intubation for stable patients and direct laryngoscopy with manual in-line immobilization in emergency situations...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468657/hsya-alleviates-secondary-neuronal-death-through-attenuating-oxidative-stress-inflammatory-response-and-neural-apoptosis-in-sd-rat-spinal-cord-compression-injury
#17
Jun-Peng Pei, Li-Hong Fan, Kai Nan, Jia Li, Xiao-Qian Dang, Kun-Zheng Wang
BACKGROUND: Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a major active component of yellow pigment extracted from safflowers; this compound possesses potent neuroprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo. However, underlying mechanism of HSYA is not fully elucidated. The present study investigated the protective effects of HSYA in rat spinal cord compression injury model and related mechanisms involved. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided as Sham, Control, and HSYA groups (n = 30 per group)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458638/oriental-medicine-samhwangsasim-tang-alleviates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-suppressing-th1-cell-responses-and-upregulating-treg-cell-responses
#18
Min J Lee, Jong H Choi, Sung J Lee, Ik-Hyun Cho
Oriental medicine Samhwangsasim-tang (SHSST) has traditionally been used in East Asia to treat hypertension and its complications. However, little is known about its potential value regarding the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigated whether SHSST has a beneficial effect in treating myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Onset-treatment with SHSST was found to alleviate neurological symptoms as well as demyelination and glial activation in the spinal cords from the EAE mice...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458631/inhibition-of-mitochondrial-p53-accumulation-by-pft-%C3%AE-prevents-cisplatin-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#19
Magdalena A Maj, Jiacheng Ma, Karen N Krukowski, Annemieke Kavelaars, Cobi J Heijnen
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), a debilitating major side effect of cancer treatment, is characterized by pain and sensory loss in hand and feet. Platinum-based chemotherapeutics like cisplatin frequently induce CIPN. The molecular mechanism underlying these neurotoxic symptoms is incompletely understood and there are no preventive or curative interventions. We hypothesized that cisplatin acts as a cellular stressor that triggers p53 accumulation at mitochondria, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and CIPN...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452087/cytotoxic-cd8-t-cells-ablation-enhances-the-capacity-of-regulatory-t-cells-to-delay-viral-elimination-in-theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis
#20
Malgorzata Ciurkiewicz, Vanessa Herder, Muhammad Akram Khan, Ann-Kathrin Uhde, René Teich, Stephan Floess, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Jochen Huehn, Andreas Beineke
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) of susceptible mouse strains is a commonly used infectious animal model for multiple sclerosis. The study aim was to test the hypothesis whether cytotoxic T cell responses account for the limited impact of regulatory T cells on antiviral immunity in TME virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) resistant C57BL/6 mice. TME virus-infected C57BL/6 mice were treated with (i) interleukin-2/-anti-interleukin-2-antibody-complexes to expand regulatory T cells ('Treg-expansion'), (ii) anti-CD8-antibodies to deplete cytotoxic T cells ('CD8-depletion') or (iii) with a combination of Treg-expansion and CD8-depletion ('combined treatment') prior to infection...
April 27, 2017: Brain Pathology
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