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Spinal cord protection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057962/tnfr1-inhibition-with-a-nanobody-protects-against-eae-development-in-mice
#1
Sophie Steeland, Sara Van Ryckeghem, Griet Van Imschoot, Riet De Rycke, Wendy Toussaint, Leen Vanhoutte, Christian Vanhove, Filip De Vos, Roosmarijn E Vandenbroucke, Claude Libert
TNF has as detrimental role in multiple sclerosis (MS), however, anti-TNF medication is not working. Selective TNF/TNFR1 inhibition whilst sparing TNFR2 signaling reduces the pro-inflammatory effects of TNF but preserves the important neuroprotective signals via TNFR2. We previously reported the generation of a Nanobody-based selective inhibitor of human TNFR1, TROS that will be tested in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We specifically antagonized TNF/TNFR1 signaling using TROS in a murine model of MS, namely MOG35-55-induced EAE...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054367/monoamine-oxidase-b-inhibitor-protects-degenerating-spinal-neurons-enhances-nerve-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-in-sciatic-nerve-crush-injury-model
#2
Al-Shimali M Hussain, Waleed M Renno, Hanaa L Sadek, Noura M Kayali, Aseel Al Salem, Muddanna S Rao, Khalid M Khan
Monoamine oxidase-B (MAOB), a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), is an enzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of amines. MAOB is proposed to play a major role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neurotoxins. The present study was designed to outline the effects of the MAOB inhibitor (MAOB-I) on neuroprotection of spinal neurons, regeneration of sciatic nerve fibers, and recovery of sensory-motor functions in the sciatic nerve crush injury model...
October 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051763/il-12p35-inhibits-neuroinflammation-and-ameliorates-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#3
Jin Kyeong Choi, Ivy M Dambuza, Chang He, Cheng-Rong Yu, Anita N Uche, Mary J Mattapallil, Rachel R Caspi, Charles E Egwuagu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease in which cytokines produced by immune cells that infiltrate the brain and spinal cord play a central role. We show here that the IL-12p35, the alpha subunit of IL-12 or IL-35 cytokine, might be an effective biologic for suppressing neuroinflammatory responses and ameliorating the pathology of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the mouse model of human MS. We further show that IL-12p35 conferred protection from neuropathy by inhibiting the expansion of pathogenic Th17 and Th1 cells and inhibiting trafficking of inflammatory cells into the brain and spinal cord...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049608/acute-administration-of-oestradiol-or-progesterone-in-a-spinal-cord-ischaemia-reperfusion-model-in-rats
#4
Leonardo Pessoa Cavalcante, Sueli Gomes Ferreira, Daniel Romano Pereira, Sergio Rodrigues de Moraes, Rafael Simas, Paulina Sannomiya, Ana Cristina Breithaupt-Faloppa, Luiz Felipe Pinho Moreira
OBJECTIVES: Despite research into protective pharmacological adjuncts, paraplegia persists as a dreaded complication after thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic interventions. Reports on gender-related neurological outcomes after ischaemic and traumatic brain injuries have led to increased interest in hormonal neuroprotective effects and have generated other studies seeking to prove the neuroprotective effects of the therapeutic administration of 17β-oestradiol and of progesterone. We hypothesised that acute administration of oestradiol or progesterone would prevent or attenuate spinal cord ischaemic injury induced by occlusion of the descending thoracic aorta...
September 26, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048243/mithramycin-a-improves-functional-recovery-by-inhibiting-bscb-disruption-and-hemorrhage-after-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Jee Youn Lee, Hye Y Choi, Chan S Park, Bong G Ju, Tae Y Yune
After spinal cord injury (SCI), blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption and progressive hemorrhage lead to secondary injury, subsequent apoptosis and/or necrosis of neuron and glia, causing permanent neurological deficits. Growing evidences indicate that mithramycin A (MA), an anticancer drug, has neuroprotective effects in ischemic brain injury and Huntington's disease. However, the precise mechanism underlying its protective effects is largely unknown. Here, we examined the effect of MA on BSCB breakdown and hemorrhage as well as subsequent inflammation after SCI...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044773/integrated-analysis-of-microrna-and-mrna-expression-profiles-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-under-inflammatory-pain-conditions
#6
Chien Cheng Liu, Jiin Tsuey Cheng, Tien Yui Li, Ping Heng Tan
Recent studies using microarray-based approaches have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in pain processing pathways. However, a significant proportion of computational predictions of miRNA targets are false-positive interactions. To increase the chance of identifying biologically relevant targets, we performed an integrated analysis of both miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in the rat spinal cord during complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain. We generated miRNA and mRNA arrays from the same corresponding samples on Days 5 and 14 after CFA injection...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044129/priming-with-fgf2-stimulates-human-dental-pulp-cells-to-promote-axonal-regeneration-and-locomotor-function-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Kosuke Nagashima, Takahiro Miwa, Hitomi Soumiya, Daisuke Ushiro, Tomoko Takeda-Kawaguchi, Naritaka Tamaoki, Saho Ishiguro, Yumi Sato, Kei Miyamoto, Takatoshi Ohno, Masatake Osawa, Takahiro Kunisada, Toshiyuki Shibata, Ken-Ichi Tezuka, Shoei Furukawa, Hidefumi Fukumitsu
Human dental pulp cells (DPCs), adherent cells derived from dental pulp tissues, are potential tools for cell transplantation therapy. However, little work has been done to optimize such transplantation. In this study, DPCs were treated with fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) for 5-6 consecutive serial passages and were transplanted into the injury site immediately after complete transection of the rat spinal cord. FGF2 priming facilitated the DPCs to promote axonal regeneration and to improve locomotor function in the rat with spinal cord injury (SCI)...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039467/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-6-released-from-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-confers-neuronal-protection-through-igf-1r-mediated-signaling
#8
Hyo-Jin Jeon, Jihye Park, Joo-Hyun Shin, Mi-Sook Chang
Human bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a desirable cell source for cell‑based therapy to treat nervous system injuries due to their ability to differentiate into specific cell types. In addition to their multipotency, hMSCs render the tissue microenvironment more favorable for tissue repair by secreting various growth factors. Our previous study demonstrated that hMSCs secrete several growth factors, including several insulin‑like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs). Among these, IGFBP‑6 binds with high affinity and inhibits insulin growth factor‑2 (IGF‑2) to inhibit the growth of IGF‑2‑dependent tumors...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035401/skydiving-and-the-risk-of-cervical-disc-herniation
#9
Ayşe Coşkun Beyan, Yücel Demiral, Banu Dilek, Nur Şafak Alici, Cem Bediz, Arif Çimrin
The skydiving/parachuting sport which has recently gained popularity is also known for its accidents and injuries. However, there are a few studies related to its occupational ergonomic risks and occupational musculoskeletal diseases. It has been reported that the sudden hyperextension of the neck during the parachute opening, so called opening shock results in neck pain. It has been found that the jumpers are subjected to an average deceleration of 3-5 times the earth's gravitational acceleration (3-5 G) during parachute opening shock...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029628/erythropoietin-reduces-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-severity-via-neuroprotective-mechanisms
#10
M Moransard, M Bednar, K Frei, M Gassmann, O O Ogunshola
BACKGROUND: Treatment with erythropoietin (Epo) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the rodent model of multiple sclerosis (MS), has consistently been shown to ameliorate disease progression and improve overall outcome. The effect has been attributed to modulation of the immune response and/or preservation of the central nervous system (CNS) tissue integrity. It remains unclear, however, if (a) Epo acts primarily in the CNS or the periphery and if (b) Epo's beneficial effect in EAE is mainly due to maintaining CNS tissue integrity or to modulation of the immune response...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027761/oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-malfunction-are-linked-in-pelizaeus-merzbacher-disease
#11
Montserrat Ruiz, Mélina Bégou, Nathalie Launay, Pablo Ranea-Robles, Patrizia Bianchi, Jone López-Erauskin, Laia Morató, Cristina Guilera, Bérengère Petit, Catherine Vaurs-Barriere, Céline Guéret-Gonthier, Marie-Noëlle Bonnet-Dupeyron, Stéphane Fourcade, Johan Auwerx, Odile Boespflug-Tanguy, Aurora Pujol
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a fatal hypomyelinating disorder characterized by early impairment of motor development, nystagmus, choreoathetotic movements, ataxia and progressive spasticity. PMD is caused by variations in the proteolipid protein gene PLP1, which encodes the two major myelin proteins of the central nervous system, PLP and its spliced isoform DM20, in oligodendrocytes. Large duplications including the entire PLP1 gene are the most frequent causative mutation leading to the classical form of PMD...
October 13, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025962/therapeutic-hypothermia-in-acute-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#12
James Collis
Therapeutic hypothermia is already widely acknowledged as an effective neuroprotective intervention, especially within the acute care setting in relation to conditions such as cardiac arrest and neonatal encephalopathy. Its multifactorial mechanisms of action, including lowering metabolic rate and reducing acute inflammatory cellular processes, ultimately provide protection for central nervous tissue from continuing injury following ischaemic or traumatic insult. Its clinical application within acute traumatic spinal cord injury would therefore seem very plausible, it having the potential to combat the pathophysiological secondary injury processes that can develop in the proceeding hours to days following the initial injury...
October 12, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024413/deep-tissue-loads-in-the-seated-buttocks-on-an-off-loading-wheelchair-cushion-versus-air-cell-based-and-foam-cushions-finite-element-studies
#13
Lea Peko Cohen, Amit Gefen
For wheelchair users, a common injury is a sitting-acquired pressure ulcer (PU) which typically onsets near the interface between the ischial tuberosity (IT) and the overlying soft tissues. The risk of developing PUs can be reduced considerably if an adequate cushion is placed on the wheelchair in order to protect tissues from PUs by minimising interface mechanical loads between the body and cushion and also, exposure to internal soft tissue loads. In this work, we studied the biomechanical performances of an off-loading (OL) cushion with limited adjustability, in comparison to a standard foam cushion and a fully adjustable air-cell-based (ACB) cushion...
September 6, 2017: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024187/diversity-of-oxytocin-neurons-beyond-magno-and-parvocellular-cell-types
#14
REVIEW
Ferdinand Althammer, Valery Grinevich
The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), which is evolutionarily conserved among different species throughout the animal kingdom, is a key modulator of a variety of socio-emotional behaviors such as fear, trust and empathy. OT cells in the mammalian hypothalamus have been traditionally divided into two distinct types - magnocellular (magnOT) and parvocellular (parvOT) or preautonomic neurons. This distinction is based on OT cell sizes and shapes, projections, electrophysiological activity and functions...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024167/imaging-spinal-cord-atrophy-in-progressive-myelopathies-htlv-i-associated-neurologic-disease-ham-tsp-and-multiple-sclerosis-ms
#15
Shila Azodi, Govind Nair, Yoshimi Enose-Akahata, Emily Charlip, Ashley Vellucci, Irene Cortese, Jennifer Dwyer, B Jeanne Billioux, Thomas Chevaz, Joan Ohayon, Daniel S Reich, Steven Jacobson
OBJECTIVE: Previous work measures spinal cord thinning in chronic progressive myelopathies, including HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Quantitative measurements of spinal cord atrophy are important in fully characterizing these and other spinal cord diseases. We aimed to investigate patterns of spinal cord atrophy and correlations with clinical markers. METHODS: Spinal cord cross sectional area was measured in individuals (24 healthy controls (HC), 17 asymptomatic carriers of HTLV-1 (AC), 47 HAM/TSP, 74 RRMS, 17 SPMS, and 40 PPMS) from C1 to T10...
October 10, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023798/intrathecal-antibody-distribution-in-the-rat-brain-surface-diffusion-perivascular-transport-and-osmotic-enhancement-of-delivery
#16
Michelle E Pizzo, Daniel J Wolak, Niyanta N Kumar, Eric Brunette, Christina L Brunnquell, Melanie-Jane Hannocks, N Joan Abbott, M Elizabeth Meyerand, Lydia Sorokin, Danica B Stanimirovic, Robert G Thorne
The precise mechanisms governing the central distribution of macromolecules from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the brain and spinal cord remain poorly understood, despite their importance for physiological processes such as antibody trafficking for central immune surveillance as well as several ongoing intrathecal clinical trials. Here, we clarify how immunoglobulin G (IgG) and smaller single-domain antibodies (sdAb) distribute throughout the whole brain in a size-dependent manner after intrathecal infusion in rats using ex vivo fluorescence and in vivo 3D magnetic resonance imaging...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022274/midazolam-prevents-motor-neuronal-death-from-oxidative-stress-attack-mediated-by-jnk-erk-pathway
#17
Guo-Zheng Li, Hong-Lei Tao, Cheng Zhou, Dong-Dong Wang, Cong-Bin Peng
Midazolam is a sedative used by patients with mechanical ventilation. However, the potential clinical value is not fully explored. In this report, we made use of a neuroblastoma-spinal cord hybrid motor neuron-like cell line NSC34, and elucidated the potential role of Midazolam on these cells under the insult of oxidative stress. We found the protective effect of Midazolam on motor neurons against cytotoxicity induced by the combination of oligomycin A and rotenone (O/R) or phenylarsine oxide. The characteristics of apoptosis, such as the ratio of TUNEL+ cells or the expression level of cleaved Caspase-3, was decreased by 22 or 45% in the presence of Midazolam...
October 11, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019146/spinal-cord-injury-after-thoracic-endovascular-aortic-aneurysm-repair
#18
Hamdy Awad, Mohamed Ehab Ramadan, Hosam F El Sayed, Daniel A Tolpin, Esmerina Tili, Charles D Collard
PURPOSE: Thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (TEVAR) has become a mainstay of therapy for aneurysms and other disorders of the thoracic aorta. The purpose of this narrative review article is to summarize the current literature on the risk factors for and pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI) following TEVAR, and to discuss various intraoperative monitoring and treatment strategies. SOURCE: The articles considered in this review were identified through PubMed using the following search terms: thoracic aortic aneurysm, TEVAR, paralysis+TEVAR, risk factors+TEVAR, spinal cord ischemia+TEVAR, neuromonitoring+thoracic aortic aneurysm, spinal drain, cerebrospinal fluid drainage, treatment of spinal cord ischemia...
October 10, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986946/effect-of-decellularized-spinal-scaffolds-on-spinal-axon-regeneration-in-rats
#19
Junyi Zhu, Yingfeng Lu, Fangzheng Yu, Lebin Zhou, Jiawei Shi, Qihui Chen, Weili Ding, Xin Wen, Yu-Qiang Ding, Jin Mei, Jian Wang
A series of complex influencing factors lead to failure of neural regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). Up to now, there is no robust treatment that can restore the loss of function caused by injury. Because damaged spinal axons do not spontaneously regenerate in their naturally inhibitory microenvironments, biomaterials that induce neural regeneration to appear as attractive treatments to improve the microenvironmental conditions after SCI. In this study, we report the novel use of decellularized (DC) scaffolds to provide contact guidance for axonal regrowth in vivo...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985337/dars2-protects-against-neuroinflammation-and-apoptotic-neuronal-loss-but-is-dispensable-for-myelin-producing-cells
#20
Marijana Aradjanski, Sukru Anil Dogan, Stephan Lotter, Shuaiyu Wang, Steffen Hermans, Rolf Wibom, Elena Rugarli, Aleksandra Trifunovic
Although mitochondria are ubiquitous, each mitochondrial disease has surprisingly distinctly different pattern of tissue and organ involvement. Congruently, mutations in genes encoding for different mitochondrial tRNA synthetases result in the development of a very flamboyant group of diseases. Mutations in some of these genes, including aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (DARS2), lead to the onset of a white matter disease-leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement, and lactate elevation (LBSL) characterized by progressive spastic ataxia and characteristic leukoencephalopathy signature with multiple long-tract involvements...
August 3, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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