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Spinal cord protection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206674/effects-of-spinal-cord-stimulation-on-cardiac-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#1
Jan Naar, Deborah Jaye, Cecilia Linde, Petr Neužil, Petr Doškář, Filip Málek, Frieder Braunschweig, Lars H Lund, Lars Mortensen, Bengt Linderoth, Göran Lind, Dianna Bone, Arthur J Scholte, Fred Kueffer, Jodi Koehler, Kambiz Shahgaldi, Otto Lang, Marcus Ståhlberg
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) reduces sympathetic activity in animal models of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF) but limited data exist of SCS in patients with HF. The aim of the present study was to test the primary hypothesis that SCS reduces cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in HF patients. Secondary hypotheses were that SCS improves left ventricular function and dimension, exercise capacity and clinical variables relevant to HF. METHODS: HF patients with a SCS device previously participating in the DEFEAT-HF trial were included in this crossover study with 6-week intervention periods (SCS-ON and SCS-OFF)...
February 16, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204825/morroniside-protects-sk-n-sh-human-neuroblastoma-cells-against-h2o2-induced-damage
#2
Jing-Xing Zhang, Rui Wang, Jin Xi, Lin Shen, An-You Zhu, Qi Qi, Qi-Yi Wang, Lun-Jun Zhang, Feng-Chao Wang, He-Zuo Lü, Jian-Guo Hu
Oxidative stress-induced cell injury has been linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Morroniside is an antioxidant derived from the Chinese herb Shan-Zhu-Yu. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effect of morroniside against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells. H2O2 increased cell apoptosis, as determined by flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 staining. This effect was reversed by pretreatment with morroniside at concentrations of 1-100 µM...
March 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199003/applications-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-technologies-in-spinal-cord-injury
#3
REVIEW
Narihito Nagoshi, Hideyuki Okano
Numerous basic research studies have suggested the potential efficacy of neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation in spinal cord injury (SCI). However, in most such studies the origin of the cells used was mainly fetal tissue or embryonic stem cells, both of which carry potential ethical concerns with respect to clinical use. The development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) opened a new path toward regenerative medicine for SCI. iPSCs can be generated from somatic cells by induction of transcription factors, and induced to differentiate into NPCs with characteristics of cells of the central nervous system...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198092/the-burden-of-neurological-disease-in-the-united-states-a-summary-report-and-call-to-action
#4
EDITORIAL
Clifton L Gooch, Etienne Pracht, Amy R Borenstein
: The United States carries a substantial fiscal burden resulting from the nearly 100 million Americans with neurological disease. The combined annual costs of Alzheimer's and other dementias, low back pain, stroke, traumatic brain injury, migraine, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury and Parkinson's disease totals nearly 800 billion dollars and is rapidly rising due to the aging of the U.S. POPULATION: We provide a summary overview of the substantial current and future economic impact of neurological disease, and provide an action plan for reducing this burden through neurological research and enhanced clinical management of neurological disorders in the United States...
February 15, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197201/-three-methods-and-three-points-regulates-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-in-the-dorsal-horn-of-the-spinal-cord-in-a-rat-model-of-sciatic-nerve-injury
#5
Xin Guo, Tian-Yuan Yu, Wong Steven, Wen-Duan Jia, Chi Ma, Yan-Hong Tao, Chao Yang, Tao-Tao Lv, Shuai Wu, Meng-Qian Lu, Jia-Li Liu
Tuina is a traditional Chinese treatment for sensory disturbances caused by peripheral nerve injury and related diseases. Our previous studies showed that tuina regulates relevant regions and indices of the spinal dorsal horn using the Dian, Bo, and Rou method in Yinmen (BL37), Yanglingquan (GB34), and Weizhong (BL40). Treatment prevents muscle atrophy, protects spinal cord neurons, and promotes sciatic nerve repair. The mechanisms of action of tuina for treating peripheral nerve injury remain poorly understood...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197199/electroacupuncture-at-dazhui-gv14-and-mingmen-gv4-protects-against-spinal-cord-injury-the-role-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#6
Xin Wang, Su-Hua Shi, Hai-Jiang Yao, Quan-Kai Jing, Yu-Ping Mo, Wei Lv, Liang-Yu Song, Xiao-Chen Yuan, Zhi-Gang Li, Li-Na Qin
Electroacupuncture at Dazhui (GV14) and Mingmen (GV4) on the Governor Vessel has been shown to exhibit curative effects on spinal cord injury; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we established rat models of spinal cord injury using a modified Allen's weight-drop method. Ninety-nine male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three equal groups: sham (only laminectomy), SCI (induction of spinal cord injury at T10), and EA (induction of spinal cord injury at T10 and electroacupuncture intervention at GV14 and GV4 for 20 minutes once a day)...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193684/an-agonist-of-the-protective-factor-sirt1-improves-functional-recovery-and-promotes-neuronal-survival-by-attenuating-inflammation-after-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Haihong Chen, Hao Ji, Ming Zhang, Zude Liu, Lifeng Lao, Chao Deng, Jianwei Chen, Guibin Zhong
Targeting posttraumatic inflammation is crucial for improving locomotor function. SIRT1 has been shown to play a critical role in disease processes such as hepatic inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis and acute lung inflammation by regulating inflammation. However, the role of SIRT1 in spinal cord injury (SCI) is unknown. We hypothesized that SIRT1 plays an important role in improving locomotor function after SCI by regulating neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigated the effect of SIRT1 in SCI using pharmacological intervention (SRT1720) and the Mx1-Cre/loxP recombination system to knock out target genes...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192611/deficiency-of-trek-1-potassium-channel-exacerbates-secondary-injury-following-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#8
Yongkang Fang, Xiaojiang Huang, Yue Wan, Hao Tian, Yeye Tian, Wei Wang, Suiqiang Zhu, Minjie Xie
Spinal cord injury (SCI) involves complex pathological process which can be complicated by secondary injury. TREK-1 is a member of the two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel family, which can be modulated by a number of physiological and pathological stimuli. Recent studies suggest that TREK-1 plays an active role in depression, pain and neuroprotection. However, its role in the pathological process after SCI remains unclear. In this study, we tested the expression and function of TREK-1 in spinal cord of mice after traumatic SCI...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188938/multipotent-stem-cell-and-current-application
#9
Aligholi Sobhani, Neda Khanlarkhani, Maryam Baazm, Farzaneh Mohammadzadeh, Atefeh Najafi, Shayesteh Mehdinejadiani, Fereydoon Sargolzaei Aval
Stem cells are self-renewing and undifferentiated cell types that can be differentiate into functional cells. Stem cells can be classified into two main types based on their source of origin: Embryonic and Adult stem cells. Stem cells also classified based on the range of differentiation potentials into Totipotent, Pluripotent, Multipotent, and Unipotent. Multipotent stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all cell types within one particular lineage. There are plentiful advantages and usages for multipotent stem cells...
January 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188848/electroacupuncture-preconditioning-and-postconditioning-inhibit-apoptosis-and-neuroinflammation-induced-by-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-enhancing-autophagy-in-rats
#10
Bo Fang, Meiman Qin, Yun Li, Xiaoqian Li, Wenfei Tan, Ying Zhang, Hong Ma
Electroacupuncture (EA) has beneficial effects on spinal cord ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy in the protection of EA preconditioning and postconditioning against spinal cord I/R injury. For this, spinal cord I/R injury was induced by 14min occlusion of the aortic arch, and rats were treated with EA for 20min before or after the surgery. The expression of autophagy components, light chain 3 and Beclin 1, was assessed by Western blot...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188847/pharmacological-inhibition-of-spinal-cord-injury-stimulated-ribosomal-biogenesis-does-not-affect-locomotor-outcome
#11
Ewa Kilanczyk, Kariena R Andres, Justin Hallgren, Sujata Saraswat Ohri, Marikki Laiho, Scott R Whittemore, Michal Hetman
After unresolved endoplasmic reticulum stress, recovery of protein synthesis including increased expression of ribosomal components and translation factors may induce cell death. Using a mouse model of moderate contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) at the T9 level, upregulation of ribosomal biogenesis was observed in the injury epicenter at 24h after trauma. Such upregulation coincided with endoplasmic reticulum stress response as previously reported in this model. It was also accompanied by changes in expression of many other genes associated with translational regulation...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188691/zebrafish-transgenic-constructs-label-specific-neurons-in-xenopus-laevis-spinal-cord-and-identify-frog-v0v-spinal-neurons
#12
José L Juárez-Morales, Reyna I Martinez-De Luna, Michael E Zuber, Alan Roberts, Katharine E Lewis
A correctly functioning spinal cord is crucial for locomotion and communication between body and brain but there are fundamental gaps in our knowledge of how spinal neuronal circuitry is established and functions. To understand the genetic program that regulates specification and functions of this circuitry, we need to connect neuronal molecular phenotypes with physiological analyses. Studies using Xenopus laevis tadpoles have increased our understanding of spinal cord neuronal physiology and function, particularly in locomotor circuitry...
February 11, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186109/astragali-radix-could-it-be-an-adjuvant-for-oxaliplatin-induced-neuropathy
#13
Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Alessandra Pacini, Laura Micheli, Angelo Pietro Femia, Mario Maresca, Matteo Zanardelli, Alfredo Vannacci, Eugenia Gallo, Anna Rita Bilia, Giovanna Caderni, Fabio Firenzuoli, Alessandro Mugelli, Carla Ghelardini
Neurotoxicity is a major side effect of platinum derivatives both during and after treatment. In the absence of effective pharmacological compounds, the opportunity to identify safe adjuvant treatments among medicinal plants seems appropriate. Astragali radix is an adaptogenic herbal product recently analyzed in platinum-treated cancer patients. With the aim of evaluating the anti-neuropathic profile of Astragali radix, a previously characterized aqueous (Aqu) and two hydroalcoholic (20%HA and 50%HA) extracts were tested in a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181797/a-thermosensitive-heparin-poloxamer-hydrogel-bridges-afgf-to-treat-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Qingqing Wang, Yan He, Yingzheng Zhao, Huixu Xie, Qian Lin, Zili He, Xiaoyan Wang, Jiawei Li, Hongyu Zhang, Chenggui Wang, Fanghua Gong, Xiaokun Li, Huazi Xu, Qingsong Ye, Jian Xiao
Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) exerts a protective effect on spinal cord injury (SCI) but is limited by the lack of physicochemical stability and the ability to cross the blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB). As promising biomaterials, hydrogels contain substantial amounts of water and a three-dimensional porous structure and are commonly used to load and deliver growth factors. Heparin can not only enhance growth factor loading onto hydrogels but also can stabilize the structure and control the release behavior...
February 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180096/the-frozen-elephant-trunk-technique-european-association-for-cardio-thoracic-surgery-position-and-bologna-experience
#15
REVIEW
Luca Di Marco, Antonio Pantaleo, Alessandro Leone, Giacomo Murana, Roberto Di Bartolomeo, Davide Pacini
Complex lesions of the thoracic aorta are traditionally treated in 2 surgical steps with the elephant trunk technique. A relatively new approach is the frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique, which potentially allows combined lesions of the thoracic aorta to be treated in a 1-stage procedure combining endovascular treatment with conventional surgery using a hybrid prosthesis. These are very complex and time-consuming operations, and good results can be obtained only if appropriate strategies for myocardial, cerebral, and visceral protection are adopted...
February 2017: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178768/distribution-of-endomorphin-like-immunoreactive-neurones-in-the-brain-of-the-cichlid-fish-oreochromis-mossambicus
#16
Vijayalaxmi, C B Ganesh
Endomorphins are tetrapeptides involved in pain and neuroendocrine responses with high affinity for mu opioid receptors in mammals. In the present investigation, we studied the distribution of endomorphin-like-immunoreactive (EM-L-ir) neurones in the brain of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Application of antisera against endomorphin 1 and 2 (EM-1-2) revealed the presence of EM-L-ir somata and fibres throughout the different subdivisions of the olfactory bulb such as the olfactory nerve layer and the granule cell layer...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176445/the-screening-emperor-has-no-clothes-on-primary-prevention-will-always-trump-testing-for-preterm-birth
#17
Khalid Khan, Donald Dudley
When a woman planning a pregnancy seeks advice, say regarding neural tube defects, we do not tell her, "we have a great screening test that we will use to see if your baby has risk of a serious defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord and as soon as we know that the test is positive we will try to do something about it." In fact we say, "her are some vitamin pills called folate that you should start taking right now so that we can reduce the risk of these defects developing in the first place". This is a primary prevention strategy that we know that works well, and we determined this by performing trials of sufficient sample size with the right design to address this question...
February 8, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153013/effects-of-dexamethasone-and-meloxicam-on-borrelia-burgdorferi-induced-inflammation-in-glial-and-neuronal-cells-of-the-central-nervous-system
#18
Geeta Ramesh, Alejandra N Martinez, Dale S Martin, Mario T Philipp
BACKGROUND: Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), affects both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Previously, we reported that in a model of acute LNB in rhesus monkeys, treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone significantly reduced both pleocytosis and levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune mediators that were induced by Bb. Dexamethasone also inhibited the formation of inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and demyelinating lesions in the brain and spinal cord of these animals...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151078/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-marine-brucella-from-a-southern-sea-otter-enhydra-lutris-nereis-california-usa
#19
Melissa A Miller, Tristan L Burgess, Erin M Dodd, Jack C Rhyan, Spencer S Jang, Barbara A Byrne, Frances M Gulland, Michael J Murray, Sharon Toy-Choutka, Patricia A Conrad, Cara L Field, Inga F Sidor, Woutrina A Smith
We characterize Brucella infection in a wild southern sea otter ( Enhydra lutris nereis) with osteolytic lesions similar to those reported in other marine mammals and humans. This otter stranded twice along the central California coast over a 1-yr period and was handled extensively at two wildlife rehabilitation facilities, undergoing multiple surgeries and months of postsurgical care. Ultimately the otter was euthanized due to severe, progressive neurologic disease. Necropsy and postmortem radiographs revealed chronic, severe osteoarthritis spanning the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left hind fifth digit...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144959/atrophin-protein-rere-positively-regulates-notch-targets-in-the-developing-vertebrate-spinal-cord
#20
Hui Wang, Hongxing Gui, Michael S Rallo, Zhiyan Xu, Michael P Matise
The Notch signaling pathway controls cell fate decision, proliferation and other biological functions in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Precise regulation of the canonical Notch pathway ensures robustness of the signal throughout development and adult tissue homeostasis. Aberrant Notch signaling results in profound developmental defects and is linked to many human diseases. In this study, we identified the Atrophin family protein RERE (also called Atro2) as a positive regulator of Notch target Hes genes in the developing vertebrate spinal cord...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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