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irradiation and immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445487/bmt-decreases-hfd-induced-weight-gain-associated-with-decreased-preadipocyte-number-and-insulin-secretion
#1
Saeed Katiraei, Lisa R Hoving, Lianne van Beek, Sharida Mohamedhoesein, Françoise Carlotti, Janna A van Diepen, Patrick C N Rensen, Mihai G Netea, Ko Willems van Dijk, Jimmy F P Berbée, Vanessa van Harmelen
Experimental bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in mice is commonly used to assess the role of immune cell-specific genes in various pathophysiological settings. The application of BMT in obesity research is hampered by the significant reduction in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. We set out to characterize metabolic tissues that may be affected by the BMT procedure and impair the HFD-induced response. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent syngeneic BMT using lethal irradiation. After a recovery period of 8 weeks they were fed a low-fat diet (LFD) or HFD for 16 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438509/effect-of-photodynamic-therapy-based-on-indocyanine-green-on-expression-of-apoptosis-related-genes-in-human-gingival-fibroblast-cells
#2
Samira Gharesi, Maryam Pourhajibagher, Nasim Chiniforush, Reza Raoofian, Mehrdad Hashemi, Sima Shahabi, Abbas Bahador
BACKGROUND: Periodontal diseases refer to inflammation of the gingiva, induction of apoptosis in human gingival fibroblast cells, destruction of the surrounding tissues, and early bone loss resulting in infections due to the pathogenic activity of the microorganisms and the host immune inflammatory responses. Recent investigations have suggested that antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) can be an adjunct treatment therapy for periodontal infections. AIM: To prove the lack of side effects of PDT on periodontal tissues, we investigated the expression of BAX and BCL-2 genes that are involved in apoptosis after the PDT on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells...
April 21, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436514/cpg-loaded-mos2-nanosheets-as-multifunctional-agents-for-photothermal-enhanced-cancer-immunotherapy
#3
Qiusen Han, Xinhuan Wang, Xinghang Jia, Shuangfei Cai, Wei Liang, Yan Qin, Rong Yang, Chen Wang
Single or few-layered MoS2 nanosheets, as a novel class of 2D nanomaterials, have received tremendous attention due to their fantastic physical and chemical properties. Here, we fabricated MoS2-PEG-CpG with a small and uniform size as a multifunctional platform for photothermal enhanced immunotherapy. MoS2 nanosheets were fabricated by chemical exfoliation and further probe sonication. To realize MoS2-based adjuvant delivery, MoS2 nanosheets were functionalized with cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to form MoS2-PEG-CpG nanoconjugates...
April 24, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436335/localization-of-the-werner-protein-together-with-h2ax-in-%C3%AE-irradiation-induced-neoplastic-transformed-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Nedime Serakinci, Tufan Cankaya, Steen Kølvraa
The H2A histone family, member X (H2AX), and Werner (WRN) are important proteins for genome and telomere maintenance. WRN has a major role in genome stability, particularly during DNA replication, transcription, recombination, and repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) via base excision repair, homologous recombination, or nonhomologous end joining. H2AX plays a part in the rapid, sensitive, cellular response to the ionizing radiation or DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents that cause DSBs. This occurs when radiation-induced DSBs trigger the activation of H2AX and begin the damage-repair process...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435470/downregulation-of-sirt7-by-5-fluorouracil-induces-radiosensitivity-in-human-colorectal-cancer
#5
Ming Tang, Xiaopeng Lu, Chaohua Zhang, Changzheng Du, Linlin Cao, Tianyun Hou, Zhiming Li, Bo Tu, Ziyang Cao, Yinglu Li, Yongcan Chen, Lu Jiang, Hui Wang, Lina Wang, Baohua Liu, Xingzhi Xu, Jianyuan Luo, Jiadong Wang, Jin Gu, Haiying Wang, Wei-Guo Zhu
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) combined with radiotherapy is a common treatment strategy to treat human cancers, but the underlying mechanisms of this combination treatment remain unclear. Here, we report that NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-7 (SIRT7) protein levels were decreased due to 5-FU exposure rendering colorectal cancer cells sensitive to radiation. We found that SIRT7 downregulation was mediated via a Tat-binding Protein 1 (TBP1) proteasome-dependent pathway. Specifically, TBP1 was dephosphorylated at tyrosine 381 upon 5-FU treatment, which enhanced its direct interaction with SIRT7 and targeted it for degradation...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431920/the-microbiome-in-anti-cancer-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Stavros Bashiardes, Timur Tuganbaev, Sara Federici, Eran Elinav
The commensal microbiome constitutes an important modulator of host physiology and risk of disease, including cancer development and progression. Lately, the microbiome has been suggested to modulate the efficacy of anti-cancer treatment. Examples include chemotherapy and total body irradiation-induced barrier function disruption, leading to microbial efflux that drives activation of anti-tumorigenic T cells; Microbiome-driven release of reactive oxygen species contributing to the efficacy of platinum salts; and microbiome-induced immune priming promoting the anti-tumor effects of alkylating chemotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors...
April 18, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424327/rig-i-mavs-and-sting-signaling-promote-gut-integrity-during-irradiation-and-immune-mediated-tissue-injury
#7
Julius C Fischer, Michael Bscheider, Gabriel Eisenkolb, Chia-Ching Lin, Alexander Wintges, Vera Otten, Caroline A Lindemans, Simon Heidegger, Martina Rudelius, Sébastien Monette, Kori A Porosnicu Rodriguez, Marco Calafiore, Sophie Liebermann, Chen Liu, Stefan Lienenklaus, Siegfried Weiss, Ulrich Kalinke, Jürgen Ruland, Christian Peschel, Yusuke Shono, Melissa Docampo, Enrico Velardi, Robert R Jenq, Alan M Hanash, Jarrod A Dudakov, Tobias Haas, Marcel R M van den Brink, Hendrik Poeck
The molecular pathways that regulate the tissue repair function of type I interferon (IFN-I) during acute tissue damage are poorly understood. We describe a protective role for IFN-I and the RIG-I/MAVS signaling pathway during acute tissue damage in mice. Mice lacking mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) were more sensitive to total body irradiation- and chemotherapy-induced intestinal barrier damage. These mice developed worse graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a preclinical model of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) than did wild-type mice...
April 19, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421248/indications-for-cellular-migration-from-the-central-nervous-system-to-its-draining-lymph-nodes-in-cd11c-gfp-bone-marrow-chimeras-following-eae
#8
Fridtjof Schiefenhövel, Kerstin Immig, Carolin Prodinger, Ingo Bechmann
The concept as to how the brain maintains its immune privilege has initially been based on observations that it is lacking classical lymph vessels and later, the absence of dendritic cells (DC). This view has been challenged by several groups demonstrating drainage/migration of injected tracers and cells into cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) and the presence of brain antigens in CLNs in the course of various brain pathologies. Using CD11c-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic (tg) mice, we have shown the existence of CD11c(+) cells, a main DC marker, within the brain parenchyma...
April 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413062/assessment-of-mucosal-integrity-by-quantifying-neutrophil-granulocyte-influx-in-murine-models-of-acute-intestinal-injury
#9
Julius Clemens Fischer, Alexander Wintges, Tobias Haas, Hendrik Poeck
Intact epithelial body surfaces represent physical barriers which protect the organism from invading pathogens and loss of nutrients. Barrier malfunction is closely linked to disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and graft-versus-host disease. In fact, several pharmacological or radiobiological therapeutic strategies have side effects that affect epithelial surfaces. In this context, assays that accurately assess epithelial barrier integrity in patients and animal models are crucial to create a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to disease or limiting therapeutic approaches due to barrier disruption...
April 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410606/in-vivo-quantification-of-quantum-dot-systemic-transport-in-c57bl-6-hairless-mice-following-skin-application-post-ultraviolet-radiation
#10
Samreen Jatana, Brian C Palmer, Sarah J Phelan, Robert Gelein, Lisa A DeLouise
BACKGROUND: Previous work has demonstrated size, surface charge and skin barrier dependent penetration of nanoparticles into the viable layers of mouse skin. The goal of this work was to characterize the tissue distribution and mechanism of transport of nanoparticles beyond skin, with and without Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) induced skin barrier disruption. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to examine the effect of UVR dose (180 and 360 mJ/cm(2) UVB) on the skin penetration and systemic distribution of quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles topically applied at different time-points post UVR using a hairless C57BL/6 mouse model...
April 14, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406748/radiation-induced-dermatitis-is-mediated-by-il17-expressing-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells
#11
Wupeng Liao, Tom K Hei, Simon K Cheng
Radiation dermatitis is a serious cutaneous injury caused by radiation therapy or upon accidental nuclear exposure. However, the pathogenic immune mechanisms underlying this injury are still poorly understood. We seek to discover how the dysregulated immune response after irradiation orchestrates skin inflammation. The skin on the left flank of C57BL/6J wild-type and C57BL/6J Tcrd(-/-) mice, which are deficit in γδ T cells, was exposed to a single X-ray dose of 25 Gy, and the right-flank skin was used as a sham-irradiated control...
April 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406627/diindolylmethane-derivatives-potent-agonists-of-the-immunostimulatory-orphan-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gpr84
#12
Thanigaimalai Pillaiyar, Meryem Köse, Katharina Sylvester, Heike Weighardt, Dominik Thimm, Gleice Borges, Irmgard Förster, Ivar von Kügelgen, Christa E Müller
The Gi protein-coupled receptor GPR84, which is activated by (hydroxy)fatty acids, is highly expressed on immune cells. Recently 3,3'-diindolylmethane was identified as a heterocyclic, non-lipid-like GPR84 agonist. We synthesized a broad range of diindolylmethane derivatives by condensation of indoles with formaldehyde in water under microwave irradiation. The products were evaluated at the human GPR84 in cAMP and β-arrestin assays. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) were steep. 3,3'-Diindolylmethanes bearing small lipophilic residues at the 5- and/or 7-position of the indole rings displayed the highest activity in cAMP assays, the most potent agonists being di-(5-fluoro-1H-indole-3-yl)methane (38, PSB-15160, EC50 80...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396668/extracellular-vesicles-mediate-radiation-induced-systemic-bystander-signals-in-the-bone-marrow-and-spleen
#13
Tünde Szatmári, Dávid Kis, Enikő Noémi Bogdándi, Anett Benedek, Scott Bright, Deborah Bowler, Eszter Persa, Enikő Kis, Andrea Balogh, Lívia N Naszályi, Munira Kadhim, Géza Sáfrány, Katalin Lumniczky
Radiation-induced bystander effects refer to the induction of biological changes in cells not directly hit by radiation implying that the number of cells affected by radiation is larger than the actual number of irradiated cells. Recent in vitro studies suggest the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in mediating radiation-induced bystander signals, but in vivo investigations are still lacking. Here, we report an in vivo study investigating the role of EVs in mediating radiation effects. C57BL/6 mice were total-body irradiated with X-rays (0...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385367/-radiation-induced-bronchiolitis-obliterans-with-organizing-pneumonia
#14
J Ducray, S Vignot, A Lacout, I Pougnet, P-Y Marcy, C Chapellier, N Foray, A Creisson, J Thariat
Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia is an inflammatory reaction that can occur as a consequence of various pulmonary affections. Radiotherapy is not the sole and systematic cause of bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia. Radiation-induced should not be confused with post-radiation, dose-dependent, inflammatory pulmonary fibrosis, which is non-immunological and located within the irradiation field. The role of immunity, local inflammation and individual radiosensitivity in bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia is not well defined...
April 3, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379630/uv-induced-somatic-mutations-elicit-a-functional-t-cell-response-in-the-yummer1-7-mouse-melanoma-model
#15
Jake Wang, Curtis Jamison Perry, Katrina Meeth, Durga Thakral, William Damsky, Goran Micevic, Susan Kaech, Kim Blenman, Marcus Bosenberg
Human melanomas exhibit relatively high somatic mutation burden compared to other malignancies. These somatic mutations may produce neoantigens that are recognized by the immune system, leading to an anti-tumor response. By irradiating a parental mouse melanoma cell line carrying three driver mutations with UVB and expanding a single cell clone, we generated a mutagenized model that exhibits high somatic mutation burden. When inoculated at low cell numbers in immunocompetent C57BL/6J mice, YUMMER1.7 (YUMM Exposed to Radiation) regresses after a brief period of growth...
April 5, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378637/primary-tr1-cells-from-metastatic-melanoma-eliminate-tumor-promoting-macrophages-through-granzyme-b-and-perforin-dependent-mechanisms
#16
Hongxia Yan, Ping Zhang, Xue Kong, Xianglian Hou, Li Zhao, Tianhang Li, Xiaozhou Yuan, Hongjun Fu
In malignant melanoma, tumor-associated macrophages play multiple roles in promoting tumor growth, such as inducing the transformation of melanocytes under ultraviolet irradiation, increasing angiogenesis in melanomas, and suppressing antitumor immunity. Because granzyme B- and perforin-expressing Tr1 cells could specifically eliminate antigen-presenting cells of myeloid origin, we examined whether Tr1 cells in melanoma could eliminate tumor-promoting macrophages and how the interaction between Tr1 cells and macrophages could affect the growth of melanoma cells...
April 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376268/ahr-mediates-an-anti-inflammatory-feed-back-mechanism-in-human-langerhans-cells-involving-fc%C3%AE%C2%B5ri-and-ido
#17
Susanne Koch, Tim J Stroisch, Julia Vorac, Nadine Herrmann, Nicole Leib, Sylvia Schnautz, Helene Kirins, Irmgard Förster, Heike Weighardt, Thomas Bieber
BACKGROUND: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), an important regulator of immune responses, is activated by UVB irradiation in the skin. Langerhans cells (LC) in the epidermis of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients carry the high affinity receptor for IgE, FcεRI, and are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of AD by inducing inflammatory responses and regulating tolerogenic processes. OBJECTIVES: We investigated AhR and AhR repressor (AhRR) expression and functional consequences of AhR activation in human ex vivo skin cells and in in vitro generated LC...
April 4, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369600/involvement-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-ionizing-radiation-induced-upregulation-of-cell-surface-toll-like-receptor-2-and-4-expression-in-human-monocytic-cells
#18
Hironori Yoshino, Ikuo Kashiwakura
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and are indispensable for antibacterial and antiviral immunity. Our previous report showed that ionizing radiation increases the cell surface expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 and enhances their responses to agonists in human monocytic THP1 cells. The present study investigated how ionizing radiation increases the cell surface expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 in THP1 cells. The THP1 cells treated or not treated with pharmaceutical agents such as cycloheximide and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) were exposed to X-ray irradiation, following which the expressions of TLRs and mitogen-activated protein kinase were analyzed...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363640/sphingosine-1-phosphate-prevents-egress-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-from-liver-to-reduce-fibrosis
#19
Andrew King, Diarmaid D Houlihan, Dean Kavanagh, Debashis Haldar, Nguyet Luu, Andrew Owen, Shankar Suresh, Nwe Ni Than, Gary Reynolds, Jasmine Penny, Henry Sumption, Prakash Ramachandran, Neil C Henderson, Neena Kalia, Jon Frampton, David H Adams, Philip N Newsome
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is growing interest in the use of bone marrow cells to treat liver fibrosis, however little is known about their anti-fibrotic efficacy or the identity of their effector cell(s). Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) mediates egress of immune cells from the lymphoid organs into the lymphatic vessels; we investigated its role in the response of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) to liver fibrosis in mice. METHODS: Purified (c-kit+/sca1+/lin-) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) were repeatedly infused into mice undergoing fibrotic liver injury...
March 28, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362496/near-infrared-triggered-photodynamic-therapy-with-multi-tasking-upconversion-nanoparticles-in-combination-with-checkpoint-blockade-for-immunotherapy-of-colorectal-cancer
#20
Jun Xu, Ligeng Xu, Chenya Wang, Rong Yang, Qi Zhuang, Xiao Han, Ziliang Dong, Wenwen Zhu, Rui Peng, Zhuang Liu
While immunotherapy has become a highly promising paradigm for cancer treatment in recent years, it has long been recognized that photodynamic therapy (PDT) has the ability to trigger antitumor immune responses. However, conventional PDT triggered by visible light has limited penetration depth, and its generated immune responses may not be robust enough to eliminate tumors. Herein, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are simultaneously loaded with chlorin e6 (Ce6), a photosensitizer, and imiquimod (R837), a Toll-like-receptor-7 agonist...
March 31, 2017: ACS Nano
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