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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539430/physiologic-thymic-involution-underlies-age-dependent-accumulation-of-senescence-associated-cd4-t-cells
#1
Kyosuke Sato, Aiko Kato, Miho Sekai, Yoko Hamazaki, Nagahiro Minato
Immune aging may underlie various aging-related disorders, including diminished resistance to infection, chronic inflammatory disorders, and autoimmunity. PD-1(+) and CD153(+) CD44(high) CD4(+) T cells with features of cellular senescence, termed senescence-associated T (SA-T) cells, increasingly accumulate with age and may play a role in the immune aging phenotype. In this article, we demonstrate that, compared with young mice, the aged mouse environment is highly permissive for spontaneous proliferation of transferred naive CD4(+) T cells, and it drives their transition to PD-1(+) and CD153(+) CD44(high) CD4(+) T cells after extensive cell divisions...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539271/gene-expression-profiling-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-after-exposure-to-single-dose-irradiation
#2
Wei-Hsiang Kung, Ching-Fang Yu, Andy Chi-Lung Lee, Chi-Dung Yang, Yu-Chen Liu, Fang-Hsin Chen, Hsien-Da Huang
Radiotherapy (RT) is a common cancer treatment approach that accounts for nearly 50% of patient treatment; however, tumor relapse after radiotherapy is still a major issue. To study the crucial role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the regulation of tumor progression post-RT, microarray experiments comparing TAM gene expression profiles between unirradiated and irradiated tumors were conducted to discover possible roles of TAMs in initiation or contribution to tumor recurrence following RT, taking into account the relationships among gene expression, tumor microenvironment, and immunology...
April 30, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533222/fractionated-radiation-therapy-stimulates-anti-tumor-immunity-mediated-by-both-resident-and-infiltrating-polyclonal-t-cell-populations-when-combined-with-pd1-blockade
#3
Simon J Dovedi, Eleanor J Cheadle, Amy Popple, Edmund Poon, Michelle Morrow, Ross Stewart, Erik Yusko, Catherine Sanders, Marissa Vignali, Ryan Emerson, Harlan Robins, Robert W Wilkinson, Jamie Honeychurch, Timothy Illidge
Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) is a highly effective anti-cancer treatment forming part of the standard of care for the majority of patients, but local and distal disease recurrence remains a major cause of mortality. RT is known to enhance tumor immunogenicity; however, the contribution and mechanisms of RT induced immune responses are unknown. <p>Experimental Design: The impact of low-dose fractionated RT (5 x 2 Gy) alone and in combination with αPD-1 mAb on the tumor microenvironment was evaluated by flow cytometry and next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the T-cell receptor (TCR)-repertoire...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529575/japanese-kampo-medicine-ninjin-yoeito-synergistically-enhances-tumor-vaccine-effects-mediated-by-cd8-t-cells
#4
Shun Takaku, Masumi Shimizu, Hidemi Takahashi
Although Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo) has been widely applied to the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, their mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in detail, particularly regarding their role in tumor immunology. The present study investigated the antitumor effects of the Japanese Kampo medicine, ninjin'yoeito (NYT; Ren-Shen-Yang-Rong-Tang in Chinese), which was orally administered with or without an irradiated tumor cell vaccine to a subcutaneous CT26 colon carcinoma tumor model...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529551/history-and-current-state-of-immunotherapy-in-glioma-and-brain-metastasis
#5
REVIEW
Tresa McGranahan, Gordon Li, Seema Nagpal
Malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma (GBM) and brain metastasis have poor prognosis despite conventional therapies. Successful use of vaccines and checkpoint inhibitors in systemic malignancy has increased the hope that immune therapies could improve survival in patients with brain tumors. Manipulating the immune system to fight malignancy has a long history of both modest breakthroughs and pitfalls that should be considered when applying the current immunotherapy approaches to patients with brain tumors...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529513/ionizing-radiation-induced-immune-and-inflammatory-reactions-in-the-brain
#6
REVIEW
Katalin Lumniczky, Tünde Szatmári, Géza Sáfrány
Radiation-induced late brain injury consisting of vascular abnormalities, demyelination, white matter necrosis, and cognitive impairment has been described in patients subjected to cranial radiotherapy for brain tumors. Accumulating evidence suggests that various degrees of cognitive deficit can develop after much lower doses of ionizing radiation, as well. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these alterations are not elucidated so far. A permanent deficit in neurogenesis, chronic microvascular alterations, and blood-brain barrier dysfunctionality are considered among the main causative factors...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522277/-immunotherapy-and-radiotherapy
#7
S Bockel, D Antoni, É Deutsch, F Mornex
Radiotherapy, primarily known for its cytotoxic effect on the tumor cells, via the induction of DNA damages, has the ability to induce a systemic antitumoral response. By an immunologic cell death, tumor cells exposed to radiation release a large amount of neoantigenes and pro-inflammatory mediators, acting as an in situ vaccine, resulting in an tumor regression within the primary irradiated site, but also in the distant "out of field" secondary tumors. However, this phenomenon is extremly rare with radiotherapy alone, suggesting that the radiation-induced antitumor immunity is not sufficient for overcoming the tumor's and its microenvironnement immunosuppressing effect...
May 15, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521800/immunogenicity-and-immunomodulatory-effects-of-the-human-chondrocytes-hchonj
#8
Chae-Lyul Lim, Yeon-Ju Lee, Jong-Ho Cho, Heonsik Choi, Bumsup Lee, Myung Chul Lee, Sujeong Kim
BACKGROUND: Invossa™ (TissueGene-C) is a cell and gene therapy for osteoarthritis. It is composed of primary human chondrocytes (hChonJ cells) and irradiated human chondrocytes modified to express TGF-β1 (hChonJb#7 cells). The hChonJ cells were isolated from a polydactyly donor, and TGF-β1 cDNA was delivered to the cells, generating hChonJb#7 cells. Since the cells are allogeneic, the concern of immune response against cells has been raised. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity of allogenic human chondrocyte, hChonJ cells...
May 18, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507789/calreticulin-promotes-immunity-and-type-i-interferon-dependent-survival-in-mice-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#9
Xiufen Chen, Dominick Fosco, Douglas E Kline, Justin Kline
Exposure of cancer cells to particular chemotherapeutic agents or γ-irradiation induces a form of cell death that stimulates an immune response in mice. This "immunogenic cell death" requires calreticulin (CRT) translocation to the plasma membrane, which has been shown to promote cancer cell phagocytosis. However, it remains unclear whether the effect of CRT on cancer cell phagocytosis is alone sufficient to affect tumor immunity. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells expressing cell-surface CRT were generated in order to characterize the mechanism(s) through which CRT activates tumor immune responses...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507545/clinical-and-molecular-heterogeneity-of-rtel1-deficiency
#10
Carsten Speckmann, Sushree Sangita Sahoo, Marta Rizzi, Shinsuke Hirabayashi, Axel Karow, Nina Kathrin Serwas, Marc Hoemberg, Natalja Damatova, Detlev Schindler, Jean-Baptiste Vannier, Simon J Boulton, Ulrich Pannicke, Gudrun Göhring, Kathrin Thomay, J J Verdu-Amoros, Holger Hauch, Wilhelm Woessmann, Gabriele Escherich, Eckart Laack, Liliana Rindle, Maximilian Seidl, Anne Rensing-Ehl, Ekkehart Lausch, Christine Jandrasits, Brigitte Strahm, Klaus Schwarz, Stephan R Ehl, Charlotte Niemeyer, Kaan Boztug, Marcin W Wlodarski
Typical features of dyskeratosis congenita (DC) resulting from excessive telomere shortening include bone marrow failure (BMF), mucosal fragility, and pulmonary or liver fibrosis. In more severe cases, immune deficiency and recurring infections can add to disease severity. RTEL1 deficiency has recently been described as a major genetic etiology, but the molecular basis and clinical consequences of RTEL1-associated DC are incompletely characterized. We report our observations in a cohort of six patients: five with novel biallelic RTEL1 mutations p...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501459/-cancer-radiotherapy-and-immune-system
#11
J P Nesseler, D Peiffert, G Vogin, P Nickers
Novel paradigms emerge in oncology today. Systemic treatments are more effective and diversified along with an increased life expectancy in oligometastatic patients. Stereotactic radiotherapy using hypofractionation opens new perspectives for local tumour control. The area of radiobiology has expanded with integration of tumour microenvironment in which radiation-induced inflammation mediators and immune system play a major role. Immunity checkpoints inhibitors experience a major development. This rapidly evolving field seems involved in the abscopal effects, especially when radiation is combined with checkpoints inhibitors, as demonstrated in numerous preclinical studies and several clinical trials...
May 10, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495643/humoral-immune-reconstitution-kinetics-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-children-a-maturation-block-of-igm-memory-b-cells-may-lead-to-impaired-antibody-immune-reconstitution
#12
Hisham Abdel-Azim, Amro Elshoury, Kris M Mahadeo, Robertson Parkman, Neena Kapoor
Although T cell immune reconstitution following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been well studied, long-term B cell immune reconstitution remains less characterized. We evaluated humoral immune reconstitution among 71-pediatric allo-HSCT recipients. While tetanus toxoid (TT) antibody levels were normal at 1-year post allo-HSCT, anti-polysaccharide carbohydrate (PRP) antibodies remained persistently low for up to 5-years. While naive B cell counts normalized by 6-months, IgM memory B cell deficiency persisted for up to 2-years (P=0...
May 8, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494100/paracrine-regulation-of-melanogenesis
#13
REVIEW
X H Yuan, Z H Jin
Melanocytes are generally characterized by the basic ability of melanin synthesis and transfer to adjacent keratinocytes to constitute individual skin phenotype and provide epidermal protection from various stimuli, such as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, through a complex process called melanogenesis, which can be regulated by autocrine or paracrine factors. Recent evidences have revealed the paracrine effects of keratinocytes on melanogenesis by secreting cytokines, including alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and endothelin-1...
May 11, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485267/blue-light-induced-immunosuppression-in-bactrocera-dorsalis-adults-as-a-carryover-effect-of-larval-exposure
#14
K Tariq, M Noor, M Hori, A Ali, A Hussain, W Peng, C-J Chang, H Zhang
Detrimental effects of ultraviolet (UV) light on living organisms are well understood, little is known about the effects of blue light irradiation. Although a recent study revealed that blue light caused more harmful effects on insects than UV light and blue light irradiation killed insect pests of various orders including Diptera, the effects of blue light on physiology of insects are still largely unknown. Here we studied the effects of blue light irradiation on cuticular melanin in larval and the immune response in adult stage of Bactrocera dorsalis...
May 9, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480786/ultraviolet-a1-irradiation-therapy-for-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#15
H McGrath
Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus, SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies, which bind to antigens and are deposited within tissues to fix complement, resulting in widespread systemic inflammation. The studies presented herein are consistent with hyperpolarized, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-deficient mitochondria being central to the disease process. These hyperpolarized mitochondria resist the depolarization required for activation-induced apoptosis. The mitochondrial ATP deficits add to this resistance to apoptosis and also reduce the macrophage energy that is needed to clear apoptotic bodies...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480192/localized-irradiation-of-mouse-legs-using-an-image-guided-robotic-linear-accelerator
#16
Markus Kufeld, Helena Escobar, Andreas Marg, Diana Pasemann, Volker Budach, Simone Spuler
BACKGROUND: To investigate the potential of human satellite cells in muscle regeneration small animal models are useful to evaluate muscle regeneration. To suppress the inherent regeneration ability of the tibialis muscle of mice before transplantation of human muscle fibers, a localized irradiation of the mouse leg should be conducted. We analyzed the feasibility of an image-guided robotic irradiation procedure, a routine treatment method in radiation oncology, for the focal irradiation of mouse legs...
April 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469081/c3d-regulates-immune-checkpoint-blockade-and-enhances-antitumor-immunity
#17
Jeffrey L Platt, Inês Silva, Samuel J Balin, Adam R Lefferts, Evan Farkash, Ted M Ross, Michael C Carroll, Marilia Cascalho
Despite expression of immunogenic polypeptides, tumors escape immune surveillance by engaging T cell checkpoint regulators and expanding Tregs, among other mechanisms. What orchestrates these controls is unknown. We report that free C3d, a fragment of the third component of complement, inside tumor cells - or associated with irradiated tumor cells and unattached to antigen - recruits, accelerates, and amplifies antitumor T cell responses, allowing immunity to reverse or even to prevent tumor growth. C3d enhances antitumor immunity independently of B cells, NK cells, or antibodies, but it does so by increasing tumor infiltrating CD8+ lymphocytes, by depleting Tregs, and by suppressing expression of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) by T cells...
May 4, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464516/photobiomodulation-therapy-on-wound-treatment-subsequent-to-q-switched-nd-yag-laser-tattoo-removal-in-rat-model
#18
Nada Abusalah Almabrouk Imrigha, Noriah Bidin, Pik Suan Lau, Nurfatin Musa, Nurlaily Zakaria, Ganesan Krishnan
Q-switched Nd: YAG laser is the most effective laser for tattoo removal. Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy is an alternative method applied to accelerate the wound healing. This paper investigated the effects of PBM therapy using 808 nm diode laser on tattooed skin after laser tattoo removal. Forty-five rats were selected and tattooed with black ink on their dorsal, and then distributed into three groups. G0 was received non-laser irradiation. G1 was treated by laser tattoo removal using 1064 nm with energy density of 3...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463153/multicenter-evaluation-of-the-tolerability-of-combined-treatment-with-pd-1-and-ctla-4-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-and-palliative-radiation-therapy
#19
Andrew Bang, Tyler J Wilhite, Luke R G Pike, Daniel N Cagney, Ayal A Aizer, Allison Taylor, Alexander Spektor, Monica Krishnan, Patrick A Ott, Tracy A Balboni, F Stephen Hodi, Jonathan D Schoenfeld
PURPOSE: To analyze immune-related adverse events (ir-AEs) in patients treated with radiation and immune checkpoint blockade. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed records from patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, or renal cell cancer who received at least 1 cycle of a CTLA-4 or PD-1 inhibitor and radiation. Immune-related adverse events, defined using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0, were tabulated in relation to treatment variables, and associations with sequencing and timing were assessed...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455312/administration-of-rankl-boosts-thymic-regeneration-upon-bone-marrow-transplantation
#20
Noella Lopes, Hortense Vachon, Julien Marie, Magali Irla
Cytoablative treatments lead to severe damages on thymic epithelial cells (TECs), which result in delayed de novo thymopoiesis and a prolonged period of T-cell immunodeficiency. Understanding the mechanisms that govern thymic regeneration is of paramount interest for the recovery of a functional immune system notably after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Here, we show that RANK ligand (RANKL) is upregulated in CD4(+) thymocytes and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells during the early phase of thymic regeneration...
April 28, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
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