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irradiation and immune

Jutaek Nam, Sejin Son, Lukasz J Ochyl, Rui Kuai, Anna Schwendeman, James J Moon
Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a promising cancer treatment modality, but PTT generally requires direct access to the source of light irradiation, thus precluding its utility against disseminated, metastatic tumors. Here, we demonstrate that PTT combined with chemotherapy can trigger potent anti-tumor immunity against disseminated tumors. Specifically, we have developed polydopamine-coated spiky gold nanoparticles as a new photothermal agent with extensive photothermal stability and efficiency. Strikingly, a single round of PTT combined with a sub-therapeutic dose of doxorubicin can elicit robust anti-tumor immune responses and eliminate local as well as untreated, distant tumors in >85% of animals bearing CT26 colon carcinoma...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
C Yuan, Q Wang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether different radiotherapy (RT) fractionation schemes induce disparate effects on lymphocyte and its subsets in breast cancer patients. METHODS: 60 female patients diagnosed with breast cancer were recruited in this study after receiving modified radical mastectomy and were randomly divided into two groups. One group received irradiation at a standard dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions and the other at a dose of 40...
March 13, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Xuanwei Zhang, Gabriele Niedermann
PURPOSE: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (hRT) combined with immune checkpoint blockade can induce T-cell-mediated local and abscopal antitumor effects. We had previously observed peak levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) between days 5 and 8 after hRT. Because TILs are regarded as radiosensitive, hRT schedules extending into this period might be less immunogenic, prompting us to compare clinically relevant, short and extended schedules with equivalent biologically effective doses combined with anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD1) antibody treatment...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Tünde Szatmári, Eszter Persa, Enikő Kis, Anett Benedek, Rita Hargitai, Géza Sáfrány, Katalin Lumniczky
PURPOSE: Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) imply the involvement of complex signaling mechanisms, which can be mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs). Using an in vivo model, we investigated EV-transmitted RIBE in blood plasma and radiation effects on plasma EV miRNA profiles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57Bl/6 mice were total-body irradiated with 0.1 and 2Gy, bone marrow-derived EVs were isolated, and injected systemically into naïve, "bystander" animals...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Reginald M Gorczynski, Nuray Erin, Tahir Maqbool, Christopher P Gorczynski, Laura Y Gorczynski
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In BALB/c mice with transplantable breast tumors, we showed that CD200R1KO mice were cured of local and metastatic growth of EMT6 cells following surgical resection of localized tumor and immunization with irradiated cells along with CpG as adjuvant. On the other hand, wild-type (WT) animals treated in the same fashion develop pulmonary and liver metastases within 20 days of surgery. To develop an in vitro system which would mimic the in vivo model and allow exploration of factors controlling tumor invasion as a precursor to in vivo metastasis, we have developed and characterized a two-phase culture system...
March 12, 2018: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
Simona Delle Monache, Patrizia Di Fulvio, Ester Iannetti, Luca Valerii, Ludovica Capone, Maria Giovanna Nespoli, Mauro Bologna, Adriano Angelucci
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Vitamin D is a pleiotropic hormone targeting several tissues and is involved in basic homeostatic processes, including bone mineralization, immune response and muscle strength. Although hypovitaminosis D is common in Europe and North America, representing a risk factor for several chronic diseases, the contribution of factors other than sun exposure is largely underestimated. METHODS: In our study, we retrospectively collected data from medical records of women with age between 19 and 80 screened in Central Italy (42°N) for increased risk of metabolic syndrome...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Pei Zhang, Xuguang Hu, Bin Liu, Zhe Liu, Cong Liu, Jianming Cai, Fu Gao, Jianguo Cui, Bailong Li, Yanyong Yang
BACKGROUND Carbon ion radiotherapy has been shown to be more effective in cancer radiotherapy than photon irradiation. Influence of carbon ion radiation on cancer microenvironment is very important for the outcomes of radiotherapy. Tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells (DCs) play critical roles in cancer antigen processing and antitumor immunity. However, there is scant literature covering the effects of carbon ion radiation on DCs. In this study, we aimed to uncover the impact of carbon ion irradiation on bone marrow derived DCs...
March 11, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Aditya K Gupta, Sarah G Versteeg
Because of the ubiquitous nature of dermatophytes and a lack of an adaptive immune response in the nail plate, recurrence and relapse rates associated with superficial fungal infections are high (10%-53%). Cured or improved dermatophytosis patients could become reinfected if exposed to fungal reservoirs, such as an infected shoe, sock, or textile. To prevent this, footwear, sock, and textile sanitization methods can be used. To provide insight into effective sanitization options, the focus of this article is to review footwear, sock, and textile sanitization studies conducted throughout history (1920-2016)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Jee-Youn Kim, Yong-Min An, Byeong Rok Yoo, Jin-Mo Kim, Song Yee Han, Younghwa Na, Yun-Sil Lee, Jaeho Cho
Radiation therapy has been used to treat over 70% of thoracic cancer; however, the method usually causes radiation pneumonitis. In the current study, we investigated the radioprotective effects of HSP27 inhibitor (J2) on radiation-induced lung inflammation in comparison to amifostine. In gross and histological findings, J2 treatment significantly inhibited immune cell infiltration in lung tissue, revealing anti-inflammatory potential of J2. Normal lung volume, evaluated by micro-CT analysis, in J2-treated mice was higher compared to that in irradiated mice...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qin Xiao, Yongzhou Lu, Min Chen, Bo Chen, Yuming Yang, Daxiang Cui, Bo Pan, Nan Xu
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast. There is still little quick and effective solution for the diagnosis or treatment of C. neoformans infection at an early stage in clinical. Antibody-conjugated silica-modified gold nanorods (GNR-SiO2 -Ab) can conjugate C. neoformans selectively. It may provide a possibility for treatment of cryptococcosis safely and effectively. METHODS: Gold nanorods (GNRs) were synthesized according to the seed-mediated template-assisted protocol...
March 7, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Paula Jáuregui, Nathaniel R Landau
Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) are an important target for HIV-1 despite SAMHD1, a myeloid restriction factor for which HIV-1 lacks a counteracting accessory protein. The antiviral activity of SAMHD1 is modulated by phosphorylation of T592 by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). We show that treatment of MDMs with neocarzinostatin, a compound that introduces double strand breaks (DBS) in genomic DNA, results in the decrease of phosphorylated SAMHD1, activating its antiviral activity and blocking HIV-1 infection...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fengqiang Cao, Mengmeng Yan, Yijia Liu, Lanxia Liu, Guilei Ma
Cancer vaccines aim to induce a strong major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I)-restricted CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell response, which is an important prerequisite for successful cancer immunotherapy. Herein, a hyaluronic acid (HA) and antigen (ovalbumin, OVA)-decorated gold nanoparticle (AuNPs)-based (HA-OVA-AuNPs) vaccine is developed for photothermally controlled cytosolic antigen delivery using near-infrared (NIR) irradiation and is found to induce antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. Chemical binding of thiolated HA and OVA to AuNPs facilitates antigen uptake of dendritic cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis...
March 6, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Masoud Najafi, Elahe Motevaseli, Alireza Shirazi, Ghazale Graily, Abolhasan Rezaeyan, Farzad Norouzi, Saeed Rezapoor, Hamid Abdollahi
PURPOSE: Cancer treatment is one of the most challenging diseases in the present era. Among a few modalities for cancer therapy, radiotherapy plays a pivotal role in more than half of all treatments alone or combined with other cancer treatment modalities. Management of normal tissue toxicity induced by radiation is one of the most important limiting factors for an appropriate radiation treatment course. The evaluation of mechanisms of normal tissue toxicity has shown that immune responses especially inflammatory responses play a key role in both early and late side effects of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR)...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Motoo Nomura, Atsushi Otsuka, Michio Yoshimura, Yumi Nonomura, Yo Kaku, Shigemi Matsumoto, Manabu Muto
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of concurrent immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy and radiotherapy (immunoradiotherapy) in patients with metastatic melanoma after progression on nivolumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on 16 consecutive patients with metastatic melanoma treated with concurrent immunoradiotherapy after progression on nivolumab. Best responses to immunoradiotherapy were assessed either inside or outside of the radiation fields...
March 3, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Kyung-Ho Roh, Hannah W Song, Pallab Pradhan, Kevin Bai, Caitlin D Bohannon, Gordon Dale, Jardin Leleux, Joshy Jacob, Krishnendu Roy
B cells play a major role in the adaptive immune response by producing antigen-specific antibodies against pathogens and imparting immunological memory. Following infection or vaccination, antibody-secreting B cells and memory B cells are generated in specialized regions of lymph nodes and spleens, called germinal centers. Here, we report a fully synthetic ex-vivo system that recapitulates the generation of antigen-specific germinal-center (GC) like B cells using material-surface driven polyvalent signaling...
February 21, 2018: Biomaterials
Abdelmounaim Nouri, Faez Amokrane Nait Mohamed, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
Envenoming by scorpion is a major health problem in Maghreb regions as well as in several regions of the world. Immunotherapy is the only effective treatment for scorpion stings. The immune sera are obtained from hyper-immunized animals with a formulation of venom associated to Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA). This formulation seems to protect against several alterations in immunized animals leading to worsening of their health due to added toxicity of native venom and FCA adjuvant. This study aims to provide a more efficient and non-toxic alternative to this formulation...
February 23, 2018: Vaccine
Mingjun Xuan, Jingxin Shao, Jie Zhao, Qi Li, Luru Dai, Junbai Li
Targeted drug delivery represents an emerging technological strategy, and enables nanoparticle systems are responsible for tumor therapy. This work describes a magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MMSN) cloaked with red blood cell membrane (RBC), which integrates with long circulation, photosensitizer delivery, and magnetic targeting feature for cancer therapy. In vivo experiments demonstrate that RBC@MMSNs can avoid the immune clearance, and achieve magnetic field (MF) induced high-accumulation in tumor...
February 26, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Silvia C Formenti, Percy Lee, Sylvia Adams, Judith D Goldberg, Xiaochun Li, Michael Xie, Josephine Ratikan, Carol Felix, Lin Hwang, Kym Faull, James W Sayre, Sara Hurvitz, John Glaspy, Begoña Comin-Anduix, Sandra Demaria, Dorthe Schaue, William H McBride
PURPOSE: This study examined the feasibility, efficacy (abscopal effect) and immune effects of TGFβ blockade during radiotherapy in metastatic breast cancer patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Prospective randomized trial comparing two doses of TGFβ blocking antibody fresolimumab. Metastatic breast cancer patients with at least three distinct metastatic sites whose tumor had progressed after at least one line of therapy were randomized to receive 1 or 10 mg/kg of fresolimumab, every 3 weeks for 5 cycles, with focal radiotherapy to a metastatic site at week 1, (3 doses of 7...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Aiman Q Khan, Jeffrey B Travers, Michael G Kemp
The growing incidence of melanoma is a serious public health issue that merits a thorough understanding of potential causative risk factors, which includes exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Though UVR has been classified as a complete carcinogen and has long been recognized for its ability to damage genomic DNA through both direct and indirect means, the precise mechanisms by which the UVA and UVB components of UVR contribute to the pathogenesis of melanoma have not been clearly defined. In this review, we therefore highlight recent studies that have addressed roles for UVA radiation in the generation of DNA damage and in modulating the subsequent cellular responses to DNA damage in melanocytes, which are the cell type that gives rise to melanoma...
February 21, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Li-Yin Hung, Taylor K Oniskey, Debasish Sen, Matthew F Krummel, Andrew E Vaughan, Noam A Cohen, De'Broski R Herbert
Trefoil factors are small secreted proteins that regulate tissue integrity and repair at mucosal surfaces, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. However, their relative contribution(s) to controlling baseline lung function or the extent of infection-induced lung injury are unknown issues. Using irradiation bone marrow chimeras, we found that Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) produced from both hematopoietic- and non-hematopoietic-derived cells is essential for host protection, proliferation of alveolar type 2 cells, and restoration of pulmonary gas exchange following infection with the hookworm parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
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