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irradiation and immune

Rachel Walker, Jonathan D Schoenfeld, Shari Pilon-Thomas, Jan Poleszczuk, Heiko Enderling
The potential for local radiation therapy to elicit systemic (abscopal) anti-tumor immune responses has been receiving a significant amount of attention over the last decade. We recently developed a mathematical framework designed to simulate the systemic dissemination of activated T cells among multiple metastatic sites. This framework allowed the identification of non-intuitive patterns of T cell redistribution after localized therapy, and offered suggestions as to the optimal site to irradiate in order to increase the magnitude of an immune-mediated abscopal response...
September 2017: Convergent Science Physical Oncology
Lijia Jing, Haijing Qu, Dongqi Wu, Chaojian Zhu, Yongbo Yang, Xing Jin, Jian Zheng, Xiangsheng Shi, Xiufeng Yan, Yang Wang
Multidrug resistance (MDR) poses a great challenge to cancer therapy. It is difficult to inhibit the growth of MDR cancer due to its chemoresistance. Furthermore, MDR cancers are more likely to metastasize, causing a high mortality among cancer patients. In this study, a nanomedicine RGD-NPVs@MNPs/DOX was developed by encapsulating melanin nanoparticles (MNPs) and doxorubicin (DOX) inside RGD peptide (c(RGDyC))-modified nanoscale platelet vesicles (RGD-NPVs) to efficiently inhibit the growth and metastasis of drug-resistant tumors via a cancer cells and tumor vasculature dual-targeting strategy...
2018: Theranostics
Eugenia L L Yeo, You Quan Li, Khee-Chee Soo, Joseph T S Wee, Melvin L K Chua
Immunotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) have each demonstrated clinical success in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) when utilized independently. Several characteristics of NPC make it particularly well suited for immunotherapeutic strategies, such as the association with viral infections like EBV and human papilloma virus (HPV), upregulation of PD-L1 expression, and the high number of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Immune checkpoint blockade is one such immunotherapeutic strategy that is gaining popularity rapidly...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Le Jiang, Erin K Morris, Rodrigo Aguilera-Olvera, Zhiwen Zhang, Teik-Chye Chan, Soumya Shashikumar, Chien-Chung Chao, Sofia A Casares, Wei-Mei Ching
Scrub typhus is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi , an obligated intracellular bacterium that affects over one million people per year. Several mouse models have been used to study its pathogenesis, disease immunology, and for testing vaccine candidates. However, due to the intrinsic differences between the immune systems in mouse and human, these mouse models could not faithfully mimic the pathology and immunological responses developed by human patients, limiting their value in both basic and translational studies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Daniel Benitez-Ribas, Raquel Cabezón, Georgina Flórez-Grau, Mari Carmen Molero, Patricia Puerta, Antonio Guillen, Sonia Paco, Angel M Carcaboso, Vicente Santa-Maria Lopez, Ofelia Cruz, Carmen de Torres, Noelia Salvador, Manel Juan, Jaume Mora, Andres Morales La Madrid
Background and objective: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a lethal brainstem tumor in children. Dendritic cells (DCs) have T-cell stimulatory capacity and, therefore, potential antitumor activity for disease control. DCs vaccines have been shown to reactivate tumor-specific T cells in both clinical and preclinical settings. We designed a phase Ib immunotherapy (IT) clinical trial with the use of autologous dendritic cells (ADCs) pulsed with an allogeneic tumors cell-lines lysate in patients with newly diagnosed DIPG after irradiation (radiation therapy)...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Francesca Romana Stefani, Sofia Eberstål, Stefano Vergani, Trine A Kristiansen, Johan Bengzon
Solid tumors, including gliomas, still represent a challenge to clinicians and first line treatments often fail, calling for new paradigms in cancer therapy. Novel strategies to overcome tumor resistance are mainly represented by multi-targeted approaches, and cell vector-based therapy is one of the most promising treatment modalities under development. Here, we show that mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), when primed with low-dose irradiation (irMSCs), undergo changes in their immunogenic and angiogenic capacity and acquire anti-tumoral properties in a mouse model of glioblastoma (GBM)...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Meriem Msaad Guerfali, Wafa Djobbi, Kamel Charaabi, Heithem Hamden, Salma Fadhl, Wafa Marzouki, Ferjani Dhaouedi, Claude Chevrier
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is often referred to as the most severe agricultural pest. Its biological control is mainly through the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Colonization, mass-rearing conditions and the irradiation process impact the competitiveness of sterile males and disrupt symbiotic associations by favoring some bacterial species and suppressing others. Levels of Providencia species have been shown to fluctuate considerably in the gut of the medfly laboratory strain Vienna 8 under irradiation, increasing by up to 22%...
2018: PloS One
Wenfei Chen, Ming Qin, Xiaoyan Chen, Qin Wang, Zhirong Zhang, Xun Sun
Photothermal therapy (PTT) can be an effective antitumor therapy, but it may not completely eliminate tumor cells, leading to the risk of recurrence or metastasis. Here we describe nanocarriers that allow combination therapy involving PTT and immunotherapy. Nanocarriers are prepared by coating Al2 O3 nanoparticles with non-toxic, biodegradable polydopamine, which shows high photothermal efficiency. A near-infrared laser irradiation can kill the majority of tumor tissues, resulting in the release of tumor-associated antigens...
2018: Theranostics
Rong Wang, Tingyang Zhou, Wei Liu, Li Zuo
Cancer cells subjected to ionizing radiation may release signals which can influence nearby non-irradiated cells, termed bystander effects. The transmission of bystander effects among cancer cells involves the activation of inflammatory cytokines, death ligands, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. In addition to bystander effects, two other forms of non-target effects (NTEs) have been identified in radiotherapy, as one is called cohort effects and the other is called abscopal effects. Cohort effects represent the phenomenon where irradiated cells can produce signals that reduce the survival of neighboring cells within an irradiated volume...
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Marina Mojena, María Pimentel-Santillana, Adrián Povo-Retana, Victoria Fernández-García, Silvia González-Ramos, Patricia Rada, Alberto Tejedor, Daniel Rico, Paloma Martín-Sanz, Angela M Valverde, Lisardo Boscá
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is widely expressed in mammalian tissues, in particular in immune cells, and plays a pleiotropic role in dephosphorylating many substrates. Moreover, PTP1B expression is enhanced in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli and to different cell stressors. Taking advantage of the use of mice deficient in PTP1B we have investigated the effect of γ-radiation in these animals and found enhanced lethality and decreased respiratory exchange ratio vs. the corresponding wild type animals...
April 21, 2018: Redox Biology
Milene da Silva Melo, Leandro Procópio Alves, Adriana Barrinha Fernandes, Henrique Cunha Carvalho, Carlos José de Lima, Egberto Munin, Mônica Fernandes Gomes, Miguel Angel Castillo Salgado, Renato Amaro Zângaro
Many studies have been conducted on the treatment of burns because they are important in morbidity and mortality. These studies are mainly focused on improving care and quality of life of patients. The aim of this study was evaluate the LED phototherapy effects in rats skin full-thickness burns induced by CO2 laser. The animals were divided in NT group that did not received any treatment and LED group that received LED irradiation at 685 nm, 220 mW, and 4.5 J/cm2 during 40 s by burned area. Biopsies were obtained after 7, 14, and 21 days of treatment and submitted to histological and immunohistochemical analysis...
April 27, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Long-Bin Zhang, Ming-Guang Feng
Filamentous fungal insect pathogens represent a source of biological insecticides and acaricides formulated using intact cells, such as conidia or other spores. These mycoinsecticides infect arthropod pests through cuticular penetration. In field application, formulated fungal cells are exposed to environmental stresses, including solar UV irradiation, high temperature, and applied chemical herbicides and fungicides, as well as stress from host immune defenses. These stresses often result in accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), generating oxidative stress to the fungal cells and hence affecting the efficacy and persistency of fungi formulated for pest control...
April 28, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Cuilin Cheng, Juanjuan Yi, Rongchun Wang, Li Cheng, Zhenyu Wang, Weihong Lu
The immune system is very sensitive to radiation. This study revealed that adenosine 5′-monophosphate (5′-AMP) increased the DNA contents of the spleen and the spleen index of irradiated mice. Moreover, the exogenous 5′-AMP could significantly repair the ultra-structure of the damaged spleen through transmission electron microscopy. When indicators of the mouse immune system were assessed, the flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that the administration of exogenous 5′-AMP could reduce the apoptosis in the splenic cells...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Arthur Chakwizira, Jonatan Ahlstedt, Henrietta Nittby Redebrandt, Crister Ceberg
OBJECTIVE: Recent research has shown that combining radiotherapy and immunotherapy can counteract the ability of cancer to evade and suppress the native immune system. To optimize the synergy of the combined therapies, factors such as radiation dose and fractionation must be considered, alongside numerous parameters resulting from the complexity of cancer-immune system interactions. It is instructive to use mathematical models to tackle this problem. METHODS: In this work, we adapted a model primarily to describe the synergistic effect between single-fraction radiotherapy and immunotherapy (1-methyl tryptophan) observed in previous experiments with glioblastoma-carrying rats...
April 24, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Sally S M Lee-Sayer, Meghan N Dougan, Jesse Cooper, Leslie Sanderson, Manisha Dosanjh, Christopher A Maxwell, Pauline Johnson
CD44 is a widely expressed cell adhesion molecule that binds to the extracellular matrix component, hyaluronan. However, this interaction is not constitutive in most immune cells at steady state, as the ability of CD44 to engage hyaluronan is highly regulated. While activated T cells and macrophages gain the ability to bind hyaluronan by CD44, the status in other immune cells is less studied. Here we found a percentage of murine eosinophils, natural killer and natural killer T cells were capable of interacting with hyaluronan at steady state...
2018: PloS One
Takatsugu Ogata, Hironaga Satake, Misato Ogata, Yukimasa Hatachi, Hisateru Yasui
Following the ATTRACTION-2 study, nivolumab was approved for advanced gastric cancer in Japan. However, pseudoprogression and hyperprogressive disease have been reported in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. We report a patient with gastric cancer who received nivolumab after radiotherapy only to experience rapid progression within the irradiation field after the first immunotherapy session. A 66-year-old man with dysphagia visited our hospital and was diagnosed with stage IV gastroesophageal cancer (human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 score = 0)...
January 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
Kenny Yu, A Saam Youshani, Fiona L Wilkinson, Claire O'Leary, Peter Cook, Liisi Laaniste, Aiyin Liao, Dominic Mosses, Christopher Waugh, Hannah Shorrock, Omar Pathmanaban, Andrew Macdonald, Ian Kamaly-Asl, Federico Roncaroli, Brian W Bigger
AIMS: Resident and peripherally-derived glioma associated microglia/macrophages (GAMM) play a key role in driving tumour progression, angiogenesis, invasion, and attenuating host immune responses. Differentiating these cells' origins is challenging and current pre-clinical models such as irradiation-based adoptive transfer, parabiosis and transgenic mice have limitations. We aimed to develop a novel non-myeloablative transplantation (NMT) mouse model that permits high levels of peripheral chimerism without blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage or brain infiltration prior to tumour implantation...
April 20, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Tingting Wang, Dangge Wang, Haijun Yu, Bing Feng, Fangyuan Zhou, Hanwu Zhang, Lei Zhou, Shi Jiao, Yaping Li
Vaccines to induce effective and sustained antitumor immunity have great potential for postoperative cancer therapy. However, a robust cancer vaccine simultaneously eliciting tumor-specific immunity and abolishing immune resistance continues to be a challenge. Here we present a personalized cancer vaccine (PVAX) for postsurgical immunotherapy. PVAX is developed by encapsulating JQ1 (a BRD4 inhibitor) and indocyanine green (ICG) co-loaded tumor cells with a hydrogel matrix. Activation of PVAX by 808 nm NIR laser irradiation significantly inhibits the tumor relapse by promoting the maturation of dendritic cells and eliciting tumor infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
Girija Goyal, Karrie Wong, Christopher J Nirschl, Nicholas Souders, Donna Neuberg, Niroshana Anandasabapathy, Glenn Dranoff
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a lipid-activated nuclear receptor that promotes immune tolerance through effects on macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces PPARγ expression in multiple myeloid cell types. GM-CSF contributes to both immune tolerance and protection, but the role of PPARγ in these pathways is poorly understood. Here we reveal an unexpected stimulatory role for PPARγ in the generation of antitumor immunity with irradiated, GM-CSF-secreting tumor-cell vaccines (GVAX)...
April 18, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Elsa N Bou Ghanem, Nang H Tin Maung, Nalat Siwapornchai, Aaron E Goodwin, Stacie Clark, Ernesto J Muñoz-Elías, Andrew Camilli, Rachel M Gerstein, John M Leong
Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly resides asymptomatically in the nasopharyngeal (NP) cavity of healthy individuals but can cause life-threatening pulmonary and systemic infections, particularly in the elderly. NP colonization results in a robust immune response that protects against invasive infections. However, the duration, mechanism, and cellular component of such responses are poorly understood. In this study, we found that repeated NP exposure of mice to S. pneumoniae TIGR4 strain results in pneumococcal-specific Ab responses that protect against lethal lung challenge...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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