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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806822/-multiple-myeloma-current-status-in-diagnostic-testing-and-therapy
#1
Michael Kehrer, Sebastian Koob, Andreas Strauss, Dieter Christian Wirtz, Jan Schmolders
Background Multiple myeloma is a haematological blood cancer of the bone marrow and is classified by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a plasma cell neoplasm. In multiple myeloma, normal plasma cells transform into malignant myeloma cells and produce large quantities of an abnormal immunoglobulin called monoclonal protein or M protein. This ultimately causes multiple myeloma symptoms such as bone damage or kidney problems. The annual worldwide incidence of multiple myeloma is estimated to be 6 - 7/100,000 and accounts for 1% of all cancer...
August 14, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806502/efficacy-of-endoscopic-sinus-surgery-for-chronic-rhinosinusitis-following-primary-radiotherapy-and-concurrent-chemotherapy-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#2
Noel Ayoub, Evan Walgama, Andrew Thamboo, Jayakar V Nayak, Peter H Hwang
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a downstream complication following radiotherapy or chemoradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is an accepted therapy for medically refractory CRS, but its efficacy in addressing CRS symptoms in patients with previously irradiated NPC is unclear. METHODS: All patients at the Stanford Sinus Center with a history of radiation therapy or chemoradiation for NPC between 2006 and 2015 were reviewed...
August 14, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806010/blastomycosis-and-histoplasmosis-in-a-patient-with-glioblastoma-receiving-temozolomide
#3
Aiham H Jbeli, John Yu
Malignant glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is the most common primary malignancy of the brain in the U.S. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the cornerstone of management along with surgical resection and radiotherapy. Because of the reduction in the CD4+ lymphocyte count as a side effect of TMZ use, this patient population is under risk for opportunistic infections like Pneumocystis jiroveci. A male patient with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiform presented with non-productive cough and chest pain. Before presentation, the patient received the standard therapy including surgical resection, radiation and TMZ...
October 2016: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805958/large-orbital-defect-reconstruction-in-the-setting-of-globe-sparing-maxillectomy-the-titanium-hammock-and-layered-fibula-technique
#4
Samuel J Trosman, Timothy M Haffey, Rafael A Couto, Michael A Fritz
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of our study was to describe a novel technique for reconstruction of orbital defects after maxillectomy using a non-anatomic titanium mesh suspension of orbital contents for both support and volume correction. This construct is then articulated with a layered fibula osteocutaneous free flap that restores orbital rim, zygoma, and maxillary alveolus. We herein present our application of this technique, including refinements over time and long-term outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on 12 patients who underwent reconstruction of Brown class III orbitopalatomaxillary defects with extensive orbital involvement (at minimum complete orbital floor and rim absent) with titanium mesh sling and a layered fibula free flap...
August 14, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805940/new-and-current-preventive-treatment-options-in-actinic-keratosis
#5
REVIEW
P Arenberger, M Arenbergerova
Actinic keratosis (AK) is a characteristic skin lesion on skin areas of subjects with mainly phototype I and phototype II, or with specific genetic factors and who are exposed to prolonged ultraviolet radiation. AK may be considered a precursor of in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), a type of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). However, it is still not possible to predict which AK lesions will develop into SCC. Early treatment of AK is therefore recommended. Despite the increasing number of patients with AK developing into SCC, to date, there is still no clear suggestion of therapeutic strategy for AK...
September 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805538/effects-of-far-infrared-therapy-on-arteriovenous-fistulas-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-meta-analysis
#6
Qingsong Wan, Shikun Yang, Li Li, Fenfen Chu
BACKGROUND: Far infrared (FIR) therapy may have a beneficial effect on maturity and function of arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Therefore, we performed this pooled analysis to assess the protective effects of FIR therapy in HD patients. METHODS: The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of FIR therapy for HD patients were searched from multiple databases. Relevant studies were screened according to the predefined inclusion criteria...
November 2017: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805047/outcomes-of-post-prostatectomy-radiotherapy-at-a-regional-cancer-centre
#7
Luke Nicholls, Amber Winter, Ashley Harwood, Ashley Plank, Preeti Bagga, Winnie Wong, Eric Khoo
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer at Radiation Oncology Centres, Toowoomba. METHODS: The electronic medical records of 130 consecutive patients with histologically proven prostate adenocarcinoma who underwent post-prostatectomy RT between January 2008 and December 2014 were analysed. Primary endpoint was Biochemical Recurrence (BCR) after RT. BCR was defined by PSA > 0...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804994/neutron-activatable-needles-for-radionuclide-therapy-of-solid-tumors
#8
Junghyun Kim, Roger J Narayan, Xiuling Lu, Michael Jay
Various approaches have been undertaken to enhance the delivery of therapeutic agents, including tissue-killing radionuclides, into solid tumors. Here we describe the preparation of conical needles composed of Ti and Mo coated by pulsed laser deposition or chemical vapor deposition with elements (Ho and Re) that can readily yield radioactive isotopes following irradiation in a neutron flux. The radioactive needles, whose design were based on solid microneedle arrays used in transdermal drug delivery, can be produced with minimal handling of radioactivity and subsequently inserted into tumors as a means of internal radiation therapy...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803919/therapy-related-clonal-hematopoiesis-in-patients-with-non-hematologic-cancers-is-common-and-associated-with-adverse-clinical-outcomes
#9
Catherine C Coombs, Ahmet Zehir, Sean M Devlin, Ashwin Kishtagari, Aijazuddin Syed, Philip Jonsson, David M Hyman, David B Solit, Mark E Robson, José Baselga, Maria E Arcila, Marc Ladanyi, Martin S Tallman, Ross L Levine, Michael F Berger
Clonal hematopoiesis (CH), as evidenced by recurrent somatic mutations in leukemia-associated genes, commonly occurs among aging human hematopoietic stem cells. We analyzed deep-coverage, targeted, next-generation sequencing (NGS) data of paired tumor and blood samples from 8,810 individuals to assess the frequency and clinical relevance of CH in patients with non-hematologic malignancies. We identified CH in 25% of cancer patients, with 4.5% harboring presumptive leukemia driver mutations (CH-PD). CH was associated with increased age, prior radiation therapy, and tobacco use...
August 9, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803718/total-neoadjuvant-therapy-a-shifting-paradigm-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-management
#10
REVIEW
Aaron J Franke, Hiral Parekh, Jason S Starr, Sanda A Tan, Atif Iqbal, Thomas J George
Colorectal carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with rectal cancer accounting for approximately one-third of newly diagnosed cases, thus representing a major socioeconomic health burden. Although minimally invasive procedures (ie, transanal excision) may be appropriate for a subset of patients with small, superficially invasive tumors, a more comprehensive trimodality approach with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, total mesorectal excision, and systemic chemotherapy is recommended for medically operable patients with nonmetastatic, locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC)...
June 27, 2017: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803168/metastatic-cardiac-angiosarcoma-to-the-lung-spine-and-brain-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Chih-Ta Lin, Katrina Ducis, Suzanne Tucker, Bruce Tranmer
BACKGROUND: Metastatic angiosarcoma to the brain is a rare entity without an established management protocol. CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors describe a case of primary cardiac angiosarcoma with a rare brain metastasis in an adult. This patient underwent successful resection of his brain metastasis and was initiated on only chemotherapy for his systemic disease. The patient did not develop local recurrence. A review of primary and metastatic CNS angiosarcoma, its pathologic features, clinical disease course, treatment strategies and genomics is also described...
August 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802976/prognostic-factors-associated-with-the-accuracy-of-deformable-image-registration-in-lung-cancer-patients-treated-with-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy
#12
Yasuharu Sugawara, Hidenobu Tachibana, Noriyuki Kadoya, Nozomi Kitamura, Amit Sawant, Keiichi Jingu
We evaluated the accuracy of an in-house program in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) cancer patients, and explored the prognostic factors associated with the accuracy of deformable image registrations (DIRs). The accuracy of the 3 programs which implement the free-form deformation and the B-spline algorithm was compared regarding the structures on 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) image datasets between the peak-inhale and peak-exhale phases. The dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and normalized DSC (NDSC) were measured for the gross tumor volumes from 19 lung SBRT patients...
August 9, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802913/salvage-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-and-external-beam-radiotherapy-for-isolated-vaginal-recurrences-of-endometrial-cancer-with-no-prior-adjuvant-therapy
#13
Christopher H Chapman, Kaveh Maghsoudi, Ramey D Littell, Lee-May Chen, I-Chow Hsu
PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical outcomes for isolated vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer without adjuvant therapy treated with salvage external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate CT-based inverse-planned brachytherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty women were included in this retrospective study. Median time to first recurrence was 16.7 months, and median age at recurrence was 73 years. Initial grade was 1 or 2 in 19 patients (63%), and 2009 FIGO stage IA in 19 patients...
August 9, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802252/exploiting-radiation-induced-signaling-to-increase-the-susceptibility-of-resistant-cancer-cells-to-targeted-drugs-akt-and-mtor-inhibitors-as-an-example
#14
Iris Eke, Adeola Y Makinde, Molykutty J Aryankalayil, Veit Sandfort, Sanjeewani T Palayoor, Barbara H Rath, Lance Liotta, Mariaelena Pierobon, Emanuel F Petricoin, Matthew F Brown, Jayne M Stommel, Mansoor M Ahmed, C Norman Coleman
Implementing targeted drug therapy in radio-oncologic treatment regimens has greatly improved the outcome of cancer patients. However, the efficacy of molecular targeted drugs such as inhibitory antibodies or small molecule inhibitors essentially depends on target expression and activity, which both can change during the course of treatment. Radiotherapy has previously been shown to activate pro-survival pathways which can help tumor cells to adapt and thereby survive treatment. Therefore, we aimed to identify changes in signaling induced by radiation and evaluate the potential of targeting these changes with small molecules to increase the therapeutic efficacy on cancer cell survival...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802083/phase-contrast-hard-x-ray-microscopy-using-synchrotron-radiation-for-the-properties-of-skeletal-muscle-in-mouse-hind-limbs
#15
Sanghun Jang, Jaehong Lim, Onseok Lee
Radiation beam interface contrast X-ray microscopy provides resolution of a few dozen nanometers from fixed whole muscle biopsies, allowing better reconstruction of the microstructure of the muscle than is currently possible with classic histological techniques. Fixed soleus muscle biopsies have been evaluated from the walk-in mouse model using phase-contrast X-ray microscopy, and results presented that corroborate the accuracy of the method used, and its potential for application in physiotherapy and occupational therapy studies...
August 12, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801914/blockade-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-enhances-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-efficacy-in-patient-derived-recurrent-glioblastoma-models
#16
Shinichi Esaki, Fares Nigim, Esther Moon, Samantha Luk, Juri Kiyokawa, William Curry, Daniel P Cahill, Andrew S Chi, A John Iafrate, Robert L Martuza, Samuel D Rabkin, Hiroaki Wakimoto
Despite the current standard of multimodal management, glioblastoma (GBM) inevitably recurs and effective therapy is not available for recurrent disease. A subset of tumor cells with stem-like properties, termed GBM stem-like cells (GSCs), are considered to play a role in tumor relapse. Although oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) is a promising therapeutic for GBM, its efficacy against recurrent GBM is incompletely characterized. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays vital roles in maintaining GSC stemness and GBM pathogenesis...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801846/vascular-function-in-breast-cancer-survivors-on-aromatase-inhibitors-a-pilot-study
#17
Anne Blaes, Heather Beckwith, Natalia Florea, Robert Hebbel, Anna Solovey, David Potter, Douglas Yee, Rachel Vogel, Russell Luepker, Daniel Duprez
PURPOSE: Aromatase inhibitors (AI) have been shown to reduce breast cancer-related mortality in women with estrogen positive (ER+) breast cancer. The use of AIs, however, has been associated with higher rates of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular (CV) events. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 25 healthy postmenopausal women and 36 women with curative intent breast cancer on an AI was performed to assess endothelial dysfunction, an indicator of risk for CV events...
August 11, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801178/impact-of-head-and-neck-radiotherapy-on-the-mechanical-behavior-of-composite-resins-and-adhesive-systems-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Cristhian Camilo Madrid Troconis, Alan Roger Santos-Silva, Thaís Bianca Brandão, Marcio Ajudarte Lopes, Mario Fernando de Goes
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the evidence regarding the impact of head and neck radiotherapy (HNRT) on the mechanical behavior of composite resins and adhesive systems. METHODS: Searches were conducted on PubMed, Embase, Scopus and ISI Web of Science databases using "Radiotherapy", "Composite resins" and "Adhesive systems" as keywords. Selected studies were written in English and assessed the mechanical behavior of composite resins and/or adhesive systems when bonding procedure was conducted before and/or after a maximum radiation dose ≥50Gy, applied under in vitro or in vivo conditions...
August 8, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801116/comparative-results-of-three-short-brachytherapy-schedules-as-exclusive-treatment-in-postoperative-endometrial-carcinoma
#19
Ángeles Rovirosa, Antonio Herreros, Cristina Camacho, Carlos Ascaso, Joan Sánchez, Stepphania Cortés, Sebastià Sabater, Jordi Solà, Aureli Torné, Meritxell Arenas
PURPOSE: To compare vaginal control and treatment toxicity of three different high-dose-rate brachytherapy schedules as exclusive treatment in postoperative endometrial carcinoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 2003 to 2015, three different schedules were used as postoperative treatment for 146 patients (p) with intermediate-risk endometrial carcinoma. Group 1 (41 p): six fractions of 4-6 Gy, 3-4 fractions per week; Group 2 (59 p): four fractions of 5-6 Gy administered daily; Group 3 (46 p): 6 Gy × 3 fractions in three consecutive days...
August 8, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801009/management-of-radiation-side-effects-to-the-skin
#20
REVIEW
Tracy Gieger, Michael Nolan
Radiation therapy (RT) is an essential component for management of many cancers. Veterinary health care professionals must counsel owners about the potential side effects of RT, the anticipated management plan, and associated costs. For most veterinary patients treated with RT, acute radiation side effects are mild; however, careful radiation treatment planning and appropriate management of acute side effects are essential to try to prevent chronic sequelae and the need for ongoing wound care. This article reviews acute and late side effects to the skin and their management...
August 9, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
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