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Vaccines post transplant

Ellen P Carlin, Nichole Giller, Rebecca Katz
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the population at risk of serious adverse reactions to replicating smallpox vaccine. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Conditions known or suspected to carry risk were identified via Centers for Disease Control and Prevention planning documents, other federal publications, and peer-reviewed literature. Conditions identified were categorized as historically recognized risks or more recently recognized immunocompromised states that may pose risk. Major historical risk factors were as follows: eczema/atopic dermatitis, pregnancy, HIV, and primary immunodeficiency...
October 13, 2016: Public Health Nursing
Priya S Verghese
Successful renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for chronic kidney failure, but this was not always so for children. Beginning with the first kidney transplants in the 1950s, children experienced poorer patient and graft survival rates than adult patients. But over the last 6 decades, an improved understanding of the immune system which has steered pediatric multi-center clinical / pharmacokinetic and mechanistic studies that have sculpted our immunosuppression with markedly better patient and graft survivals...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Research
Miguel-Angel Perales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Christos Triantos, Christos Konstantakis, Paraskeui Tselekouni, Maria Kalafateli, Ioanna Aggeletopoulou, Spilios Manolakopoulos
Hepatitis C is a global health issue and constitutes a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. In this article, a comprehensive literature search was conducted for the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Greece, since data on the HCV prevalence, viremia and genotypes are important for developing strategies to manage or eliminate HCV infection. In addition, the pattern of HCV infection was analyzed according to the geographic region and the risk factors. These differences reflect not only distinct epidemiological characteristics among populations, but also differences on the strategy of data acquisition and quantification...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Martina Ahlmann, Georg Hempel
Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent belonging to the group of oxazaphosporines. As cyclophosphamide is in clinical use for more than 40 years, there is a lot of experience using this drug for the treatment of cancer and as an immunosuppressive agent for the treatment of autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases. Besides antimitotic and antireplicative effects, cyclophosphamide has immunosuppressive as well as immunomodulatory properties. Cyclophosphamide shows selectivity for T cells and is therefore now frequently used in tumour vaccination protocols and to control post-transplant allo-reactivity in haplo-identical unmanipulated bone marrow after transplantation...
October 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Nirali N Shah, David M Loeb, Hahn Khuu, David Stroncek, Tolu Ariyo, Mark Raffeld, Cindy Delbrook, Crystal L Mackall, Alan S Wayne, Terry J Fry
Relapse of hematologic malignancies is the primary cause of treatment failure after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Treatment for post-HCT relapse using donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) has limited utility, particularly in the setting of acute leukemia, and can result in the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) gene product is a tumor-associated antigen that is expressed in acute leukemia and other hematologic malignancies, with limited expression in normal tissues...
September 12, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Jason A Trubiano, Douglas Johnson, Asma Sohail, Joseph Torresi
BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are often heavily immunosuppressed and consequently at risk of serious illness from vaccine preventable viral and bacterial infections or with endemic fungal and parasitic infections. We review the literature to provide guidance regarding the timing and appropriateness of vaccination and pathogen avoidance related to the immunological status of SOT recipients. METHODS: A PUBMED search ([Vaccination OR vaccine] AND/OR ["specific vaccine"] AND/OR [immunology OR immune response OR cytokine OR T lymphocyte] AND transplant was performed...
June 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
Emily Blyth, Barbara Withers, Leighton Clancy, David Gottlieb
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality following allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) despite widespread use of viraemia monitoring and pre-emptive antiviral therapy. Uncontrolled viral replication occurs primarily in the first 100 d post transplant but this high risk period can extend to many months if immune recovery is delayed. The re-establishment of a functional population of cellular effectors is essential for control of virus replication and depends on recipient and donor serostatus, the stem cell source, degree of HLA matching and post-transplant factors such as CMV antigen exposure, presence of GVHD and ongoing use of immune suppression...
August 9, 2016: Virulence
Stuart P Adler, Anne-Marie Manganello, Ronzo Lee, Michael A McVoy, Daniel E Nixon, Stanley Plotkin, Edward Mocarski, Josephine H Cox, Patricia E Fast, Pavlo A Nesterenko, Susan E Murray, Ann B Hill, George Kemble
BACKGROUND:  Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection causes disease in newborns and transplant recipients. A HCMV vaccine (Towne) protects transplant recipients. METHODS:  The genomes of Towne and unattenuated Toledo strain were recombined yielding four Towne/Toledo chimera vaccines. Each of 36 HCMV-seronegative men received one subcutaneous dose at 10, 100, or 1000 pfu in cohorts of three. Safety and immunogenicity were evaluated over 12 weeks post-immunization and 52 weeks for those seroconverting...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Seyed Ali Asghar Fakhrmousavi, Azar Hadadi, Seyed Hamed Hosseini, Maryam Rahbar, Reza Hamidian, Amitis Ramezani, Gholamreza Pourmand, Effat Razeghi
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus potentially accelerates graft rejection and mortality in renal transplantation population. Vaccination of graft candidates without prior immunization against HBV seems essential before transplantation but some candidates of transplantation have not received HBV vaccine at the time of receiving graft. We aimed to evaluate immunogenicity of an enhanced regimen (4 doses of double-strength intramuscular shots) after kidney transplantation in candidates without history of prior HBV vaccination...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pathology
Amy G Feldman, Allison Kempe, Brenda L Beaty, Shikha S Sundaram
Vaccination of pediatric liver transplant candidates and recipients represents an opportunity to decrease infectious complications following transplant. Although vaccine recommendations exist, studies have shown that many transplant candidates and recipients are under-immunized. The goals of this study were to assess among pediatric transplant hepatologists: (i) current immunization practices before and after transplantation, (ii) involvement of an ID physician in the transplant evaluation, and (iii) perceptions about vaccine safety and barriers to immunization...
July 22, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Geoffrey D E Cuvelier, Tamar S Rubin, Donna A Wall, Marlis L Schroeder
ZAP70 deficiency is a rare T + B + NK+ combined immunodeficiency with limited outcome data to help guide decisions around hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). We sought to understand the long-term clinical and immunologic outcomes of both conditioned and unconditioned HSCT for ZAP70 deficiency following transplant from a variety of graft sources. We performed a retrospective, single center review of all cases of HSCT for genetically confirmed ZAP70 deficiency since 1992. At a median of 13.5-year post-HSCT, 8/8 (100 %) patients are alive...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Ayako Urabe, Michio Imamura, Masataka Tsuge, Hiromi Kan, Hatsue Fujino, Takayuki Fukuhara, Keiichi Masaki, Tomoki Kobayashi, Atsushi Ono, Takashi Nakahara, Tomokazu Kawaoka, Akira Hiramatsu, Yoshiiku Kawakami, Hiroshi Aikata, Clair Nelson Hayes, Noboru Maki, Hideaki Ohdan, Kazuaki Chayama
BACKGROUND: Post-transplant hepatitis B virus (HBV) reinfection is one of the major problems facing patients who undergo HBV-related liver transplantation (LT). We analyzed the clinical impact of serum hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) on HBV reinfection in post-LT patients with HBV-related liver diseases. METHODS: Serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HBV DNA, and HBcrAg were measured over time in 32 post-LT patients. Twenty-one out of 32 patients had HCC at LT...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Deepali Kumar, Victor H Ferreira, Patricia Campbell, Katja Hoschler, Atul Humar
Influenza vaccine is known to have suboptimal immunogenicity in transplant recipients. Despite this, influenza vaccine may have the added benefit of inducing a cross-reactive immune response to viral strains not found in the vaccine. This is termed heterologous immunity and has not been previously assessed in transplant patients. Pre- and post-vaccination sera from kidney transplant recipients (n=60) immunized with the 2012-13 adjuvanted or nonadjuvanted influenza vaccine underwent testing by hemagglutination inhibition assay for strains not present in vaccine: A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Texas/50/2012 (H3N2), B/Brisbane/60/2008...
July 12, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Shreena S Patel, Daniel H Leung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection contributes significantly to vaccine-preventable disease related deaths, and insufficient HBV immunity may have unique implications for the pediatric liver transplant population. This article reviews the significance of HBV infection and the vaccination and screening measures needed to achieve adequate HBV immunity in these children. RECENT FINDINGS: HBV non-immunity among transplant candidates is higher than expected, even after appropriate completion of the vaccine series...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Ugur Sahin, Selami Kocak Toprak, Pinar Ataca Atilla, Erden Atilla, Taner Demirer
Infections are the most common and significant cause of mortality and morbidity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The presence of neutropenia and mucosal damage are the leading risk factors in the early pre-engraftment phase. In the early post-engraftment phase, graft versus host disease (GvHD) induced infection risk is increased in addition to catheter related infections. In the late phase, in which reconstitution of cellular and humoral immunity continues, as well as the pathogens seen during the early post-engraftment phase, varicella-zoster virus and encapsulated bacterial infections due to impaired opsonization are observed...
August 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Haifeng Wang, Kan Gao, Ke Wen, Irving Coy Allen, Guohua Li, Wenming Zhang, Jacob Kocher, Xingdong Yang, Ernawati Giri-Rachman, Guan-Hong Li, Sherrie Clark-Deener, Lijuan Yuan
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of mechanisms underlying dose-effects of probiotics in their applications as treatments of intestinal infectious or inflammatory diseases and as vaccine adjuvant is needed. In this study, we evaluated the modulatory effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on transplanted human gut microbiota (HGM) and on small intestinal immune cell signaling pathways in gnotobiotic pigs vaccinated with an oral attenuated human rotavirus (AttHRV) vaccine. RESULTS: Neonatal HGM transplanted pigs were given two doses of AttHRV on 5 and 15 days of age and were divided into three groups: none-LGG (AttHRV), 9-doses LGG (AttHRV + LGG9X), and 14-doses LGG (AttHRV + LGG14X) (n = 3-4)...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Xinle Cui, Zhouhong Cao, Quanyi Chen, Swadhinya Arjunaraja, Andrew L Snow, Clifford M Snapper
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the primary cause of infectious mononucleosis and has been strongly implicated in the etiology of multiple epithelial and lymphoid cancers, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. There is currently no licensed prophylactic vaccine for EBV. Most efforts to develop prophylactic vaccines have focused on EBV gp350, which binds to CD21/CD35 to gain entry into B cells, and is a major target of serum neutralizing antibody in EBV seropositive humans...
July 25, 2016: Vaccine
Amrita Krishnan, Ravi Vij, Jesse Keller, Binod Dhakal, Parameswaran Hari
For multiple myeloma, introduction of novel agents as part of the front-line treatment followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) induces deep responses in a majority of patients with this disease. However, disease relapse is inevitable, and, with each relapse, the remission duration becomes shorter, ultimately leading to a refractory disease. Consolidation and maintenance strategy after ASCT is one route to provide sustained disease control and prevent repeated relapses...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Delphine Héquet, Manuel Pascual, Sarah Lartey, Rishi D Pathirana, Geir Bredholt, Katja Hoschler, Roger Hullin, Pascal Meylan, Rebecca J Cox, Oriol Manuel
BACKGROUND: We analyzed the impact of the anti-T-cell agents basiliximab and antithymocyte globulins (ATG) on antibody and cell-mediated immune responses after influenza vaccination in solid-organ transplant recipients. METHODS: 71 kidney and heart transplant recipients (basiliximab [n=43] and ATG [n=28]) received the trivalent influenza vaccine. Antibody responses were measured at baseline and 6 weeks post-vaccination by hemagglutination inhibition assay; T-cell responses were measured by IFN-γ ELISpot assays and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS); and influenza-specific memory B-cell (MBC) responses were evaluated using ELISpot...
June 30, 2016: Vaccine
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