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Vaccines post transplant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405517/hematopoietic-stem-cell-derived-myeloid-and-plasmacytoid-dc-based-vaccines-are-highly-potent-inducers-of-tumor-reactive-t-cell-and-nk-cell-responses-ex-vivo
#1
Soley Thordardottir, Nicolaas Schaap, Elja Louer, Michel G D Kester, J H Frederik Falkenburg, Joop Jansen, Timothy R D Radstake, Willemijn Hobo, Harry Dolstra
Because of the potent graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect, allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) can be a curative therapy for hematological malignancies. However, relapse remains the most frequent cause of treatment failure, illustrating the necessity for development of adjuvant post-transplant therapies to boost GVT immunity. Dendritic cell (DC) vaccination is a promising strategy in this respect, in particular, where distinct biologic functions of naturally occurring DC subsets, i.e. myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), are harnessed...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263288/a-pilot-randomized-trial-of-adjuvanted-influenza-vaccine-in-adult-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#2
Y Natori, A Humar, J Lipton, D D Kim, P Ashton, K Hoschler, D Kumar
The annual influenza vaccine is recommended for hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients although studies have shown suboptimal immunogenicity. Influenza vaccine containing an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant (MF59) may lead to greater immunogenicity in HSCT recipients. We randomized adult allogeneic HSCT patients to receive the 2015-2016 influenza vaccine with or without MF59 adjuvant. Preimmunization and 4-week post-immunization sera underwent strain-specific hemagglutination inhibition assay. We randomized 73 patients and 67 (35 adjuvanted; 32 non-adjuvanted) had paired samples available at follow-up...
March 6, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228321/immunization-of-bighorn-sheep-against-mannheimia-haemolytica-with-a-bovine-herpesvirus-1-vectored-vaccine
#3
Sai A Batra, Sudarvili Shanthalingam, Gaetano Donofrio, Gary J Haldorson, Shafiqul Chowdhury, Stephen N White, Subramaniam Srikumaran
Mannheimia haemolytica is an important pathogen of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS), consistently causing 100% mortality under experimental conditions. Leukotoxin is the critical virulence factor of M. haemolytica. In a 'proof of concept' study, a vaccine containing leukotoxin and surface antigens of M. haemolytica induced 100% protection in BHS, but required multiple booster doses. Vaccination of wildlife is difficult. BHS, however, can be vaccinated at the time of transplantation, but administration of booster doses is impossible...
February 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154282/the-successful-treatment-of-a-cord-blood-transplant-recipient-with-varicella-zoster-virus-meningitis-radiculitis-and-myelitis-with-foscarnet
#4
Ryo Shimizu, Chikako Ohwada, Yuhei Nagao, Emi Togasaki, Chika Kawajiri, Tomoya Muto, Shokichi Tsukamoto, Shio Sakai, Yusuke Takeda, Naoya Mimura, Masahiro Takeuchi, Emiko Sakaida, Tohru Iseki, Chiaki Nakaseko
Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) with varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a rare occurrence after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We herein report a case of VZV meningitis, radiculitis and myelitis that developed 8 months after cord blood transplantation, shortly after the cessation of cyclosporine and low-dose acyclovir. Although treatment with acyclovir did not achieve a satisfactory response, the patient was successfully treated with foscarnet. Our report indicates that VZV infection should be considered in allo-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients with CNS symptoms and that foscarnet may be effective for the treatment of acyclovir-resistant VZV infections of the CNS...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146188/-vaccination-of-adult-patients-receiving-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-perspective-of-costa-rica
#5
M Del Rosario Espínoza Mora, Gustavo Lazo Páez, M Paz León Bratti, Christian Schauer
In this article the present recommendations for immunization of adult patients who received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation -a common procedure in therapy of many types of hematological diseases and serious inborn defects of the immune system- are reviewed and discussed. Patients that undergo this kind of transplantation procedure exhibit, compared to the general population, an elevated susceptibility of immune-preventable infections, due to loss of the humoral and cellular protective immunity. A revaccination strategy for transplanted patients can result in a significant diminution of morbidity and mortality related to the treatment of these diseases...
December 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141843/zika-virus-tissue-and-blood-compartmentalization-in-acute-infection-of-rhesus-macaques
#6
Lark L Coffey, Patricia A Pesavento, Rebekah I Keesler, Anil Singapuri, Jennifer Watanabe, Rie Watanabe, JoAnn Yee, Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Christina Cruzen, Kari L Christe, J Rachel Reader, Wilhelm von Morgenland, Anne M Gibbons, A Mark Allen, Jeff Linnen, Kui Gao, Eric Delwart, Graham Simmons, Mars Stone, Marion Lanteri, Sonia Bakkour, Michael Busch, John Morrison, Koen K A Van Rompay
Animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV) are needed to better understand tropism and pathogenesis and to test candidate vaccines and therapies to curtail the pandemic. Humans and rhesus macaques possess similar fetal development and placental biology that is not shared between humans and rodents. We inoculated 2 non-pregnant rhesus macaques with a 2015 Brazilian ZIKV strain. Consistent with most human infections, the animals experienced no clinical disease but developed short-lived plasma viremias that cleared as neutralizing antibody developed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088400/hospitalizations-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-vaccine-preventable-infections-in-the-first-2-years-after-pediatric-liver-transplant
#7
Amy G Feldman, Shikha S Sundaram, Brenda L Beaty, Allison Kempe
OBJECTIVES: To examine in liver transplant recipients at centers participating in the Pediatric Health Information System dataset the number of hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and vaccine-preventable infections (VPIs) in the first 2 years after transplantation, morbidity and mortality associated with these hospitalizations, and costs associated with these hospitalizations. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of patients <18 years of age who underwent liver transplantation at a Pediatric Health Information System center between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2012...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012778/b-cell-and-antibody-responses-in-mice-induced-by-a-putative-cell-surface-peptidase-of-pneumocystis-murina-protect-against-experimental-infection
#8
Sanbao Ruan, Yang Cai, Alistair J Ramsay, David A Welsh, Karen Norris, Judd E Shellito
RATIONALE: Pneumocystis pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected subjects, cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and solid organ transplant recipients. No vaccine is currently available. By chemical labeling coupled with proteomic approach, we have identified a putative surface protein (SPD1, Broad Institute gene accession number PNEG_01848) derived from single suspended P. murina cysts. SPD1 was expressed in an insect cell line and tested for vaccine development...
January 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996360/liver-transplantation-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-young-adults-a-united-network-for-organ-sharing-study
#9
Stefanie M Thomas, Diana Moke, Rocio Lopez, Rabi Hanna, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Naim Alkhouri
PURPOSE: Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is curative for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is typically a disease of older adults (OAs); therefore, characteristics and outcomes of OLT for young adults (YAs) (ages 18-40) are not described. The objective of this study was to assess the characteristics and outcomes of YAs with HCC receiving OLT and compare these to OAs (ages >40 years). METHODS: YAs with HCC who had OLT from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database were included in this study...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867073/immune-status-assessment-in-adult-lung-transplant-candidates
#10
Diana A van Kessel, Thijs W Hoffman, Heleen van Velzen-Blad, Ed A van de Graaf, Jan C Grutters, Ger T Rijkers
BACKGROUND: Lung transplant recipients have an increased susceptibility to a variety of infections due to immunosuppressive therapy. Current guidelines recommend pneumococcal and other vaccinations, prior to lung transplantation to protect against post-transplant infections, but measurement of the antibody response to vaccination is not advised. Immune status investigation in lung transplant candidates, including the response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination, has not been described...
November 17, 2016: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863635/cochlear-implantation-of-solid-organ-transplant-patients-receiving-immunosuppressive-therapy
#11
Bushra Ayub, Nancy M Young
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of infectious complications and healing problems in cochlear implant (CI) patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy following solid organ transplant. STUDY DESIGN: IRB-approved retrospective chart review of implanted patients. SETTING: Tertiary care children's hospital. METHODS: Seven patients of the more than 1000 implanted during the time period between 1991 and 2014 underwent cochlear implantation while on immunosuppressive therapy after having received a solid organ transplant...
December 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862712/invasive-pneumococcal-infections-in-children-following-transplantation-in-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#12
Liset Olarte, Philana Ling Lin, William J Barson, Jose R Romero, Tina Q Tan, Laurence B Givner, Jill A Hoffman, John S Bradley, Kristina G Hultén, Edward O Mason, Sheldon L Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Pediatric recipients of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplants are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal infections (IPI). Data on IPI in this population are scarce. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing the epidemiology of IPI among pediatric transplant recipients in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) era. METHODS: We identified transplant recipients with IPI at 8 children's hospitals in the U.S. from our surveillance database (2000-2014)...
November 9, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739111/estimating-the-size-of-the-u-s-population-at-risk-of-severe-adverse-events-from-replicating-smallpox-vaccine
#13
Ellen P Carlin, Nichole Giller, Rebecca Katz
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the population at risk of serious adverse reactions to replicating smallpox vaccine. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Conditions known or suspected to carry risk were identified via Centers for Disease Control and Prevention planning documents, other federal publications, and peer-reviewed literature. Conditions identified were categorized as historically recognized risks or more recently recognized immunocompromised states that may pose risk. Major historical risk factors were as follows: eczema/atopic dermatitis, pregnancy, HIV, and primary immunodeficiency...
October 13, 2016: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732587/pediatric-kidney-transplantation-a-historical-review
#14
REVIEW
Priya S Verghese
Successful renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for chronic kidney failure, but this was not always so for children. Beginning with the first kidney transplants in the 1950s, children experienced poorer patient and graft survival rates than adult patients. But over the last 6 decades, an improved understanding of the immune system which has steered pediatric multi-center clinical/pharmacokinetic and mechanistic studies that have sculpted our immunosuppression with markedly better patient and graft survivals...
January 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721032/timing-is-everything-combining-post-transplantation-adoptive-cell-therapy-and-tumor-vaccines
#15
Miguel-Angel Perales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688651/epidemiology-of-hepatitis-c-in-greece
#16
REVIEW
Christos Triantos, Christos Konstantakis, Paraskeui Tselekouni, Maria Kalafateli, Ioanna Aggeletopoulou, Spilios Manolakopoulos
Hepatitis C is a global health issue and constitutes a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. In this article, a comprehensive literature search was conducted for the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Greece, since data on the HCV prevalence, viremia and genotypes are important for developing strategies to manage or eliminate HCV infection. In addition, the pattern of HCV infection was analyzed according to the geographic region and the risk factors. These differences reflect not only distinct epidemiological characteristics among populations, but also differences on the strategy of data acquisition and quantification...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646791/the-effect-of-cyclophosphamide-on-the-immune-system-implications-for-clinical-cancer-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Martina Ahlmann, Georg Hempel
Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent belonging to the group of oxazaphosporines. As cyclophosphamide is in clinical use for more than 40 years, there is a lot of experience using this drug for the treatment of cancer and as an immunosuppressive agent for the treatment of autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases. Besides antimitotic and antireplicative effects, cyclophosphamide has immunosuppressive as well as immunomodulatory properties. Cyclophosphamide shows selectivity for T cells and is therefore now frequently used in tumour vaccination protocols and to control post-transplant allo-reactivity in haplo-identical unmanipulated bone marrow after transplantation...
October 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634018/induction-of-immune-response-after-allogeneic-wilms-tumor-1-dendritic-cell-vaccination-and-donor-lymphocyte-infusion-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies-and-post-transplantation-relapse
#18
Nirali N Shah, David M Loeb, Hahn Khuu, David Stroncek, Tolu Ariyo, Mark Raffeld, Cindy Delbrook, Crystal L Mackall, Alan S Wayne, Terry J Fry
Relapse of hematologic malignancies is the primary cause of treatment failure after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Treatment for post-HCT relapse using donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) has limited utility, particularly in the setting of acute leukemia, and can result in the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) gene product is a tumor-associated antigen that is expressed in acute leukemia and other hematologic malignancies, with limited expression in normal tissues...
September 12, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625399/travel-vaccination-recommendations-and-endemic-infection-risks-in-solid-organ-transplantation-recipients
#19
REVIEW
Jason A Trubiano, Douglas Johnson, Asma Sohail, Joseph Torresi
BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are often heavily immunosuppressed and consequently at risk of serious illness from vaccine preventable viral and bacterial infections or with endemic fungal and parasitic infections. We review the literature to provide guidance regarding the timing and appropriateness of vaccination and pathogen avoidance related to the immunological status of SOT recipients. METHODS: A PUBMED search ([Vaccination OR vaccine] AND/OR ["specific vaccine"] AND/OR [immunology OR immune response OR cytokine OR T lymphocyte] AND transplant was performed...
June 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580355/cmv-specific-immune-reconstitution-following-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#20
Emily Blyth, Barbara Withers, Leighton Clancy, David Gottlieb
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality following allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) despite widespread use of viraemia monitoring and pre-emptive antiviral therapy. Uncontrolled viral replication occurs primarily in the first 100 d post transplant but this high risk period can extend to many months if immune recovery is delayed. The re-establishment of a functional population of cellular effectors is essential for control of virus replication and depends on recipient and donor serostatus, the stem cell source, degree of HLA matching and post-transplant factors such as CMV antigen exposure, presence of GVHD and ongoing use of immune suppression...
November 16, 2016: Virulence
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