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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351885/repetitive-tms-to-augment-cognitive-processing-therapy-in-combat-veterans-of-recent-conflicts-with-ptsd-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
F Andrew Kozel, Michael A Motes, Nyaz Didehbani, Bambi DeLaRosa, Christina Bass, Caitlin D Schraufnagel, Penelope Jones, Cassie Rae Morgan, Jeffrey S Spence, Michael A Kraut, John Hart
BACKGROUND: The objective was to test whether repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) just prior to Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) would significantly improve the clinical outcome compared to sham rTMS prior to CPT in veterans with PTSD. METHODS: Veterans 18-60 years of age with current combat-related PTSD symptoms were randomized, using a 1:1 ratio in a parallel design, to active (rTMS+CPT) versus sham (sham+CPT) rTMS just prior to weekly CPT for 12-15 sessions...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340968/a-novel-blink-detection-method-based-on-pupillometry-noise
#2
Ronen Hershman, Avishai Henik, Noga Cohen
Pupillometry (or the measurement of pupil size) is commonly used as an index of cognitive load and arousal. Pupil size data are recorded using eyetracking devices that provide an output containing pupil size at various points in time. During blinks the eyetracking device loses track of the pupil, resulting in missing values in the output file. The missing-sample time window is preceded and followed by a sharp change in the recorded pupil size, due to the opening and closing of the eyelids. This eyelid signal can create artificial effects if it is not removed from the data...
January 16, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320916/the-reliability-of-the-montreal-cognitive-assessment-using-telehealth-in-a-rural-setting-with-veterans
#3
Nathaniel DeYoung, Brian V Shenal
Background Telehealth neuropsychological services can increase the availability of specialised care for individuals in rural areas where barriers to these services are faced. As this practice becomes more commonplace, the reliability and validity of neuropsychological assessment administered by telehealth continues to be established. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, a screener for general neurocognitive dysfunction, may be particularly useful since this measure can be given by telehealth with minimal adaptation...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281940/the-cognitive-tools-that-support-mentally-constructing-event-and-scene-representations
#4
Signy Sheldon, Nadim El-Asmar
Constructing mental representations is critical for many cognitive tasks, yet it is unclear if forming different representations relies on distinct cognitive processes. We tested how episodic memory contributes to constructing scene and event-based mental scenarios as well as the effects of two types of imagery ability (object and spatial imagery) on this contribution. Forty participants were given a series of scenario cues that were classified as scenes (e.g., a beach) or events (e.g., a family meal) by independent raters...
December 27, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250771/the-synergistic-effect-of-prosociality-and-physical-attractiveness-on-mate-desirability
#5
Daniel Ehlebracht, Olga Stavrova, Detlef Fetchenhauer, Daniel Farrelly
Mate selection requires a prioritization and joint evaluation of different traits present or absent in potential mates. Herein, we focus on two such traits - physical attractiveness and prosociality - and examine how they jointly shape impressions of overall desirability. We report on two related experiments which make use of an innovative methodology combining large samples of raters and target persons (i.e., stimuli) and information on targets' behaviour in economic games representing altruistic behaviour (Experiment 1) and trustworthiness (Experiment 2), two important facets of prosociality...
December 17, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227845/does-d-cycloserine-facilitate-the-effects-of-homework-compliance-on-social-anxiety-symptom-reduction
#6
Andres D Roque, David Rosenfield, Jasper A J Smits, Naomi Simon, Michael W Otto, Luana Marques, Mark H Pollack, Stefan G Hofmann, Alicia E Meuret
BACKGROUND: Prior studies examining the effect of d-cycloserine (DCS) on homework compliance and outcome in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) have yielded mixed results. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DCS facilitates the effects of homework compliance on symptom reduction in a large-scale study for social anxiety disorder (SAD). METHODS: 169 participants with generalized SAD received DCS or pill placebo during 12-session exposure-based group CBT...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227709/a-review-study-on-the-beneficial-effects-of-baduanjin
#7
Liye Zou, Zhujun Pan, Albert Yeung, Saira Talwar, Chaoyi Wang, Yang Liu, Yankai Shu, Xiaoan Chen, Garrett Anthony Thomas
AIM: Baduanjin, a Chinese traditional Qigong exercise that focuses on a mind-body integration, is considered to be an effective exercise in promoting health. Thus, we systematically and critically evaluated the emerging literature relating to the effects of Baduanjin on health outcomes. METHODS: We used seven English-language electronic databases for the literature search. At least one health-related parameter was reported in retrievable full-text Baduanjin intervention studies...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223871/intensity-ratio-to-improve-black-hole-assessment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Gautam Adusumilli, Kathryn Trinkaus, Peng Sun, Samantha Lancia, Jeffrey D Viox, Jie Wen, Robert T Naismith, Anne H Cross
BACKGROUND: Improved imaging methods are critical to assess neurodegeneration and remyelination in multiple sclerosis. Chronic hypointensities observed on T1-weighted brain MRI, "persistent black holes," reflect severe focal tissue damage. Present measures consist of determining persistent black holes numbers and volumes, but do not quantitate severity of individual lesions. OBJECTIVE: Develop a method to differentiate black and gray holes and estimate the severity of individual multiple sclerosis lesions using standard magnetic resonance imaging...
December 2, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207980/pilot-randomised-controlled-trial-of-culturally-adapted-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-psychosis-cacbtp-in-pakistan
#9
Muhammed Omair Husain, Imran B Chaudhry, Nasir Mehmood, Raza Ur Rehman, Ajmal Kazmi, Munir Hamirani, Tayyeba Kiran, Ameer Bukhsh, Paul Bassett, Muhammad Ishrat Husain, Farooq Naeem, Nusrat Husain
BACKGROUND: Evidence for efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in treatment of schizophrenia is growing. CBT is effective and cost efficient in treating positive and negative symptoms. To effectively meet the needs of diverse cultural groups, CBT needs to be adapted to the linguistic, cultural and socioeconomic context. We aimed to assess the feasibility, efficacy and acceptability of a culturally adapted CBT for treatment of psychosis (CaCBTp) in a low-income country. METHODS: Rater-blind, randomised, controlled trial of the use of standard duration CBT in patients with psychosis from a low-income country...
December 6, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205282/instructor-personality-matters-for-student-evaluations-evidence-from-two-subject-areas-at-university
#10
Lisa E Kim, Carolyn MacCann
BACKGROUND: Instructors are under pressure to produce excellent outcomes in students. Although the contribution of student personality on student outcomes is well established, the contribution of instructor personality to student outcomes is largely unknown. AIM: This study examined the influence of instructor personality (as reported by both students and instructors themselves) on student educational outcomes at university. SAMPLE AND METHOD: Mathematics and psychology university students (N = 515) and their instructors (n = 45) reported their personality under the Big Five framework...
December 4, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205065/ecas-a-b-c-alternate-forms-of-the-edinburgh-cognitive-and-behavioural-als-screen
#11
Christopher J Crockford, Michaela Kleynhans, Evelyn Wilton, Ratko Radakovic, Judith Newton, Elaine H Niven, Ammar Al-Chalabi, Orla Hardiman, Thomas H Bak, Sharon Abrahams
BACKGROUND: The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) is a short assessment by which neuropsychological symptoms can be detected and quantified in people with ALS. To avoid potential practice effects with repeated administration, here we present alternative versions of the ECAS suitable for measuring change over time. OBJECTIVE: To develop two alternate versions of the ECAS: ECAS-B and ECAS-C. METHOD: One hundred and forty-nine healthy adult participants were recruited...
December 5, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196478/efficacy-of-hypnotherapy-compared-to-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-mild-to-moderate-depression-study-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-rater-blind-trial-wiki-d
#12
Kristina Fuhr, Cornelie Schweizer, Christoph Meisner, Anil Batra
INTRODUCTION: Despite a substantial number of studies providing evidence for the efficacy of psychological treatment for mild-to-moderate depression, maximally only 50% of participants respond to treatment, even when using gold-standard treatments such as cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy. New approaches such as the 'third wave' psychotherapies have provided promising results; however, studies concerning the comparison with evidence-based treatments are lacking...
December 1, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195125/effects-of-continuation-electroconvulsive-therapy-on-quality-of-life-in-elderly-depressed-patients-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
W Vaughn McCall, Sarah H Lisanby, Peter B Rosenquist, Mary Dooley, Mustafa M Husain, Rebecca G Knapp, Georgios Petrides, Matthew V Rudorfer, Robert C Young, Shawn M McClintock, Martina Mueller, Joan Prudic, Robert M Greenberg, Richard D Weiner, Samuel H Bailine, Nagy A Youssef, Laryssa McCloud, Charles H Kellner
We examined whether electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) plus medications ("STABLE + PHARM" group) had superior HRQOL compared with medications alone ("PHARM" group) as continuation strategy after successful acute right unilateral ECT for major depressive disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that scores from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) would be higher during continuation treatment in the "STABLE + PHARM" group versus the "PHARM" group. The overall study design was called "Prolonging Remission in Depressed Elderly" (PRIDE)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192871/what-does-the-dap-iq-measure-drawing-comparisons-between-drawing-performance-and-developmental-assessments
#14
Gwendolyn Rehrig, Karin Stromswold
Human figure drawing tasks such as the Draw-a-Person test have long been used to assess intelligence (F. Goodenough, 1926). The authors investigate the skills tapped by drawing and the risk factors associated with poor drawing. Self-portraits of 345 preschool children were scored by raters trained in using the Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability test (DAP:IQ) rubric (C. R. Reynolds & J. A. Hickman, 2004). Analyses of children's fine motor, gross motor, social, cognitive, and language skills revealed that only fine motor skill was an independent predictor of DAP:IQ scores...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Genetic Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178338/disorder-and-treatment-specific-therapeutic-competence-scales-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-intervention-development-and-psychometric-properties
#15
Clara Dittmann, Meike Müller-Engelmann, Ulrich Stangier, Kathlen Priebe, Thomas Fydrich, Nora Görg, Sophie Rausch, Patricia A Resick, Regina Steil
Although the assessment of therapeutic competence in psychotherapy research is essential for examining its possible associations with treatment outcomes, it is often neglected due to high costs and a lack of valid instruments. This study aimed to develop two therapeutic competence scales that assess disorder-specific and treatment-specific therapeutic competence, and to examine these scales' psychometric properties along with those of the already established Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS) in a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) sample...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173737/targeted-family-intervention-for-complex-cases-of-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a%C3%A2-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Tara S Peris, Michelle S Rozenman, Catherine A Sugar, James T McCracken, John Piacentini
OBJECTIVE: Although evidence-based treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exist, many youth fail to respond, and interventions tailored to the needs of specific subsets of patients are lacking. This study examines the efficacy of a family intervention module designed for cases of OCD complicated by poor family functioning. METHOD: Participants were 62 youngsters aged 8 to 17 years (mean age = 12.71 years; 57% male; 65% white) with a primary diagnosis of OCD and at least 2 indicators of poor family functioning...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164405/genetic-variance-in-homophobia-evidence-from-self-and-peer-reports
#17
Alexandra Zapko-Willmes, Christian Kandler
The present twin study combined self- and peer assessments of twins' general homophobia targeting gay men in order to replicate previous behavior genetic findings across different rater perspectives and to disentangle self-rater-specific variance from common variance in self- and peer-reported homophobia (i.e., rater-consistent variance). We hypothesized rater-consistent variance in homophobia to be attributable to genetic and nonshared environmental effects, and self-rater-specific variance to be partially accounted for by genetic influences...
January 2018: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154580/what-goes-up-must-keep-going-up-cultural-differences-in-cognitive-styles-influence-evaluations-of-dynamic-performance
#18
D Lance Ferris, Jochen Reb, Huiwen Lian, Samantha Sim, Dionysius Ang
Past research on dynamic workplace performance evaluation has taken as axiomatic that temporal performance trends produce naïve extrapolation effects on performance ratings. That is, we naïvely assume that an individual whose performance has trended upward over time will continue to improve, and rate that individual more positively than an individual whose performance has trended downward over time-even if, on average, the 2 individuals have performed at an equivalent level. However, we argue that such naïve extrapolation effects are more pronounced in Western countries than Eastern countries, owing to Eastern countries having a more holistic cognitive style...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145914/development-and-initial-validation-of-the-retrospective-indigenous-childhood-enrichment-scale-rice
#19
Cecilia Minogue, Kim Delbaere, Kylie Radford, Tony Broe, Wendy Sue Forder, Suncica Lah
BACKGROUND: Years of education is the most commonly used proxy measure of cognitive reserve. Other forms of cognitive stimulation in childhood may provide similar protection against cognitive decline, particularly in Indigenous groups, where education may have been lacking in quality or quantity. The Retrospective Indigenous Childhood Enrichment (RICE) scale was developed to measure non-school-based activities and environmental stimulation during childhood that are likely to have enhanced cognitive reserve...
November 17, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119582/emotions-and-assessment-considerations-for-rater-based-judgements-of-entrustment
#20
Carlos Gomez-Garibello, Meredith Young
CONTEXT: Assessment is subject to increasing scrutiny as medical education transitions towards a competency-based medical education (CBME) model. Traditional perspectives on the roles of assessment emphasise high-stakes, summative assessment, whereas CBME argues for formative assessment. Revisiting conceptualisations about the roles and formats of assessment in medical education provides opportunities to examine understandings and expectations of the assessment of learners. The act of the rater generating scores might be considered as an exclusively cognitive exercise; however, current literature has drawn attention to the notion of raters as measurement instruments, thereby attributing additional factors to their decision-making processes, such as social considerations and intuition...
November 9, 2017: Medical Education
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