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Rater cognition

Cecilia Minogue, Kim Delbaere, Kylie Radford, Tony Broe, Wendy Sue Forder, Suncica Lah
BACKGROUND: Years of education is the most commonly used proxy measure of cognitive reserve. Other forms of cognitive stimulation in childhood may provide similar protection against cognitive decline, particularly in Indigenous groups, where education may have been lacking in quality or quantity. The Retrospective Indigenous Childhood Enrichment (RICE) scale was developed to measure non-school-based activities and environmental stimulation during childhood that are likely to have enhanced cognitive reserve...
November 17, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Carlos Gomez-Garibello, Meredith Young
CONTEXT: Assessment is subject to increasing scrutiny as medical education transitions towards a competency-based medical education (CBME) model. Traditional perspectives on the roles of assessment emphasise high-stakes, summative assessment, whereas CBME argues for formative assessment. Revisiting conceptualisations about the roles and formats of assessment in medical education provides opportunities to examine understandings and expectations of the assessment of learners. The act of the rater generating scores might be considered as an exclusively cognitive exercise; however, current literature has drawn attention to the notion of raters as measurement instruments, thereby attributing additional factors to their decision-making processes, such as social considerations and intuition...
November 9, 2017: Medical Education
Sania Shakoor, Philip McGuire, Alastair G Cardno, Daniel Freeman, Angelica Ronald
BACKGROUND: Childhood emotional and behaviour problems are antecedents for later psychopathology. This study investigated genetic and environmental influences shaping the longitudinal association between childhood emotional and behaviour problems and specific PEs. METHOD: In a community-based twin sample, parents reported on emotional and behaviour problems when twins were ages 7 and 12 years. At age 16 years, specific PEs were measured using self-reports and parent reports...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Eun-Young Kang, Sung Ju Jee, Cuk-Seong Kim, Kwang-Sun Suh, Alex W K Wong, Jae Young Moon
PURPOSE: Early cognitive assessment in the intensive care unit (ICU) is essential to monitor cognitive dysfunction after critical illness. We have implemented a Computer Cognitive Senior Assessment System-Screen (CoSAS-S) which is a brief, objective, and tablet-based cognitive screening test as a mobile platform to detect any cognitive problems in ICUs. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and initial validation of a tablet-based CoSAS-S in critically ill patients with sepsis...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
David C Rozek, Jamie L Serrano, Brigid R Marriott, Kelli S Scott, L Brian Hickman, Brittany M Brothers, Cara C Lewis, Anne D Simons
BACKGROUND: Measurement of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) competency is often resource intensive. A popular emerging alternative to independent observers' ratings is using other perspectives for rating competency. AIMS: This pilot study compared ratings of CBT competency from four perspectives - patient, therapist, supervisor and independent observer using the Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS). METHOD: Patients (n = 12, 75% female, mean age 30...
November 2, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Cedric Annweiler, Anastasiia Kabeshova, Alix Callens, Marie-Liesse Paty, Guillaume T Duval, Michael F Holick
BACKGROUND: The 16-item Vitamin D Status Predictor (VDSP) questionnaire helps to identify, without resorting to a blood test, older adults with low vitamin D concentrations. Our objective was to determine whether a self-administered VDSP was concordant with the VDSP administered by a physician, and to examine the concordance of every single item of the VDSP. METHODS: A total of 349 older in- and outpatients (mean, 83.2±7.2years; 59% female) were consecutively recruited in the geriatric ward of the University Hospital of Angers, France...
2017: PloS One
Ana M Cunha, Madalena Esteves, Sofia P das Neves, Sónia Borges, Marco R Guimarães, Nuno Sousa, Armando Almeida, Hugo Leite-Almeida
In rodents, dexterity is commonly analyzed in preference paradigms in which animals are given the chance to use either the left or the right front paws to manipulate food. However, paw preference and dexterity at population and individual levels are controversial as results are incongruent across paradigms. We have therefore developed a semi-quantitative method-the pawdeness trait test (PaTRaT)-to evaluate paw preference degree in rats. The PaTRaT consists in a classification system, ranging from +4 to -4 where increasingly positive and negative values reflect the bias for left or right paw use, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Zafra Cooper, Helen Doll, Suzanne Bailey-Straebler, Kristin Bohn, Dian de Vries, Rebecca Murphy, Marianne E O'Connor, Christopher G Fairburn
BACKGROUND: Recent research interest in how best to train therapists to deliver psychological treatments has highlighted the need for rigorous, but scalable, means of measuring therapist competence. There are at least two components involved in assessing therapist competence: the assessment of their knowledge of the treatment concerned, including how and when to use its strategies and procedures, and an evaluation of their ability to apply such knowledge skillfully in practice. While the assessment of therapists' knowledge has the potential to be completed efficiently on the Web, the assessment of skill has generally involved a labor-intensive process carried out by clinicians, and as such, may not be suitable for assessing training outcome in certain circumstances...
October 31, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
J McCullough, H Marcus, H Keller
OBJECTIVES: Barriers to food intake (FI) exist in hospital that could exacerbate insufficient FI and malnutrition. The Mealtime Audit Tool (MAT) is a staff-administered clinical assessment tool to identify FI barriers for individual patients. Two studies were completed. The objectives of the first study were to test a draft version of the tool and characterize barriers to food intake in older adults in four diverse hospitals, while the second study aimed to demonstrate the inter-rater reliability of the revised MAT...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Samantha Jones, Naomi Davis, Sarah F Tyson
OBJECTIVE: To review children's and their families' needs after a child's traumatic injury and assessment tools to measure needs. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases (2005-September 2017) were searched and screened for papers (of any design) investigating children's and families' needs after a child's traumatic physical injury. REVIEW METHODS: Data regarding children's and families' needs were extracted by two independent raters...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
Angkita Barman, Debasis Pradhan, Prithwis Bhattacharyya, Samarjit Dey, Anirban Bhattacharjee, Sonali Shinde Tesia, Jayanta Kumar Mitra
PURPOSE: Delirium is a disorder of decreased ability to focus, sustain or shift attention, change in cognition and or perception. The main objective was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) and Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) among the nursing and medical staff in a multidisciplinary ICU. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Three hundred ten verbally communicating and non-communicating patients (mean age in years 47...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
Giancarlo Comi, Francesco Patti, Maria Assunta Rocca, Flavia Caterina Mattioli, Maria Pia Amato, Paolo Gallo, Diego Centonze, Carlo Pozzilli, Francesco Saccà, Florian Then Bergh, Marta Bartezaghi, Renato Turrini, Massimo Filippi
Cognitive impairment (CI) affects 40-65% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. This study attempted evaluating the effects of fingolimod and interferon beta-1b (IFN β-1b) on CI progression, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical outcomes in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients over 18 months. The GOLDEN study was a pilot study including RRMS patients with CI randomised (2:1) to fingolimod (0.5 mg daily)/IFN β-1b (250 µg every other day). CI was assessed via Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System test...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neurology
R Lelaidier, B Balança, S Boet, A Faure, M Lilot, F Lecomte, J-J Lehot, T Rimmelé, J-C Cejka
Background: Cognitive aids improve the technical performance of individuals and teams dealing with high-stakes crises. Hand-held electronic cognitive aids have rarely been investigated. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effects of a smartphone application, named MAX (for Medical Assistance eXpert), on the technical and non-technical performance of anaesthesia residents dealing with simulated crises. Methods: This single-centre randomized, controlled, unblinded trial was conducted in the simulation centre at Lyon, France...
November 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Catherine Grotz, Céline Meillon, Hélène Amieva, Ross Andel, Jean-François Dartigues, Stéphane Adam, Luc Letenneur
Objective: this study investigates the role of social and mental occupational characteristics in cognitive decline after retirement. Methods: the study included 1,048 subjects aged ≥65 years from the Three City cohort. Participants were evaluated at home at the initial visit and at 2-year intervals for a period of 12 years. The study includes detailed assessments of cognition, health and information about the subjects' main occupation. The four cognitive tests have been grouped into one latent factor...
July 27, 2017: Age and Ageing
Youjeong Kang, George Demiris
BACKGROUND: Pain is common in older adults, but it is often underreported or undertreated partly because many consider pain to be a normal consequence of ageing. Among the plethora of available self-report pain assessment tools, there is no synthetised evidence which tools are indicated for use among cognitively intact older adults. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To understand documented self-report pain assessment tools that have been used among cognitively intact older adults, and to describe their characteristics including overall performance as well as studies demonstrating their use...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Older People Nursing
Michael E Thase, Jesse H Wright, Tracy D Eells, Marna S Barrett, Stephen R Wisniewski, G K Balasubramani, Paul McCrone, Gregory K Brown
OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated the efficacy and durability of a therapist-supported method for computer-assisted cognitive-behavioral therapy (CCBT) in comparison to standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). METHOD: A total of 154 medication-free patients with major depressive disorder seeking treatment at two university clinics were randomly assigned to either 16 weeks of standard CBT (up to 20 sessions of 50 minutes each) or CCBT using the "Good Days Ahead" program...
October 3, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
Ruth C Brown, Michael A Southam-Gerow, Bryce D McLeod, Emily B Wheat, Carrie B Tully, Steven P Reise, Philip C Kendall, John R Weisz
OBJECTIVE: We describe the development and initial psychometric properties of the observer-rated Global Therapist Competence Scale for Youth Psychosocial Treatment (G-COMP) in the context of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for youth anxiety disorders. METHOD: Independent coders rated 744 sessions from a sample of 68 youth (mean age = 10.56 years) using the G-COMP and the instruments of alliance, involvement, CBT adherence, CBT competence. RESULTS: Inter-rater reliability coefficients, ICC(2,2), were greater than ...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Russell Jude Chander, Levinia Lim, Sagarika Handa, Shaun Hiu, Angeline Choong, Xuling Lin, Rajinder Singh, Daniel Oh, Nagaendran Kandiah
BACKGROUND: While atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important risk factor for ischemic strokes and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Alzheimer's disease, the association between AF and post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI), and the factors mediating this association, is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of AF in PSCI, especially in relation to other markers of cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: 445 subjects with mild ischemic stroke without pre-stroke cognitive decline were assessed 3-6 months post-stroke for cognitive deficits...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ole Schjerning, Per Damkier, Signe Engelhardt Lykkegaard, Klaus Damgaard Jakobsen, Jimmi Nielsen
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety is frequent in patients with schizophrenia and poses a major impact on patients perceived quality of life, daily functioning and risk of suicide. Pregabalin has shown effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and has been suggested for the treatment of anxiety in patients with schizophrenia. As evidence is sparse regarding treatment of anxiety in this patient group, we aimed to investigate the use of pregabalin for anxiety in patients with schizophrenia...
September 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
Ueli Kramer, Diana Ortega, Gilles Ambresin, Jean-Nicolas Despland, Yves de Roten
The concept of biased thinking - or cognitive biases - is relevant to psychotherapy research and clinical conceptualization, beyond cognitive theories. The present naturalistic study aimed to examine the changes in biased thinking over the course of a short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and to discover potential links between these changes and symptomatic improvement. This study focuses on 32 self-referred patients consulting for Adjustment Disorder according to DSM-IV-TR. The therapists were experienced psychodynamically oriented psychiatrists and psychotherapists...
September 13, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
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