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Rater cognition

Alexandra S Atkins, Vicki Davis, Tina Tseng, Adam Vaughan, Philip Harvey, Tom Patterson, Meera Narasimhan, Richard S E Keefe
Computerized tests benefit from automated scoring procedures and standardized administration instructions. These methods can reduce the potential for rater error. However, especially in patients with severe mental illnesses, the equivalency of traditional and tablet-based tests cannot be assumed. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is a pen-and-paper cognitive assessment tool that has been used in hundreds of research studies and clinical trials, and has normative data available for generating age- and gender-corrected standardized scores...
October 19, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Robert S C Amaral, Min Tae M Park, Gabriel A Devenyi, Vivian Lynn, Jon Pipitone, Julie Winterburn, Sofia Chavez, Mark Schira, Nancy Lobaugh, Aristotle N Voineskos, Jens C Pruessner, M Mallar Chakravarty
Recently, much attention has been focused on the definition and structure of the hippocampus and its subfields, while the projections from the hippocampus have been relatively understudied. Here, we derive a reliable protocol for manual segmentation of hippocampal white matter regions (alveus, fimbria, and fornix) using high-resolution magnetic resonance images that are complementary to our previous definitions of the hippocampal subfields, both of which are freely available at
October 17, 2016: NeuroImage
Thammanard Charernboon, Kankamol Jaisin, Tiraya Lerthattasilp
The objective of our study was to assess the accuracy of the Thai version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-T). We used the ACE-T to assess 107 participants aged 60 or over, divided into the following groups: early dementia, n=30; mild cognitive impairment (MCI), n=29; and normal controls (NC), n=48. The ACE-T exhibited good internal consistency (0.93) and inter-rater reliability (1.0). The optimal cut-off score for the ACE-T to differentiate MCI from NC was 75/76, giving a sensitivity of 0...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Angelo Alonzo, Scott Aaronson, Marom Bikson, Mustafa Husain, Sarah Lisanby, Donel Martin, Shawn M McClintock, William M McDonald, John O'Reardon, Zeinab Esmailpoor, Colleen Loo
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a new, non-invasive neuromodulation approach for treating depression that has shown promising efficacy. The aim of this trial was to conduct the first international, multicentre randomised controlled trial of tDCS as a treatment for unipolar and bipolar depression. The study recruited 120 participants across 6 sites in the USA and Australia. Participants received active or sham tDCS (2.5mA, 20 sessions of 30min duration over 4weeks), followed by a 4-week open label active treatment phase and a 4-week taper phase...
October 15, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Adina C Rusu, Tamar Pincus
Depression is a common feature of chronic pain, but the content of depressed cognitions in groups with chronic pain may be qualitatively different from other depressed groups. Future thinking has been extensively studied in depressed population, however, to our knowledge this is the first study to investigate future thinking, using a verbal fluency task, in chronic pain. This study investigated the content of cognitions about the future, which are postulated to be a key mechanism in the development of clinical depression, but have not been studies in groups with chronic pain...
October 1, 2016: Pain
Gordon Parker, Stacey McCraw
BACKGROUND: The CORE measure was designed to assess a central feature of melancholia - signs of psychomotor disturbance (PMD) - and so provide an alternate non-symptom based measure of melancholia or of its probability. This review evaluates development and application studies undertaken over the last 25 years to consider how well it has met its original objectives. METHODS: All studies published using the CORE measure as either the only or an adjunctive measure of melancholia were obtained and are considered in this review...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Kathryn L Butler, David A Hirsh, Emil R Petrusa, D Dante Yeh, Dana Stearns, David E Sloane, Jeffrey A Linder, Gaurab Basu, Lisa A Thompson, Marc A de Moya
OBJECTIVE: Optimal methods for medical student assessment in surgery remain elusive. Faculty- and housestaff-written evaluations constitute the chief means of student assessment in medical education. However, numerous studies show that this approach has poor specificity and a high degree of subjectivity. We hypothesized that an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the surgery clerkship would provide additional data on student performance that would confirm or augment other measures of assessment...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
Ann-Marie Towers, Nick Smith, Sinead Palmer, Elizabeth Welch, Ann Netten
BACKGROUND: The Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT) measures social care related quality of life (SCRQoL) and can be used to measure outcomes and demonstrate impact across different social care settings. This exploratory study built on previous work by collecting new inter-rater reliability data on the mixed-methods version of the toolkit and exploring how it might be used to inform practice in four case study homes. METHOD: We worked with two care home providers to agree an in-depth study collecting SCRQoL data in four case-study homes...
September 29, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Vanessa Burholt, Matthew Steven Roberts, Charles Brian Alexander Musselwhite
BACKGROUND: The potential for environmental interventions to improve health and wellbeing has assumed particular importance in the face of unprecedented population ageing. However, presently observational environmental assessment tools are unsuitable for 'all ages'. This article describes the development of the Older People's External Residential Assessment Tool (OPERAT). METHODS: Potential items were identified through review and consultation with an Expert Advisory Group...
September 29, 2016: BMC Public Health
Marie-Doriane Morard, Carole Vuillerot, Mickael Dinomais, Stéphane Chabrier, Mathilde Chevignard, Kim Bull, Eleni Papathanasiou
OBJECTIVE: To translate and validate a French version of the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure - summary of impressions (PSOM-SOI), for application in a population of French children after neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS). The PSOM measures deficiency of body functions and structures. On completion of this examination, the PSOM-SOI was developed containing and scoring 5 subscales: right sensorimotor, left sensorimotor (each with subcategories), language production, language comprehension and cognitive/behavioral...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Gopalkumar Rakesh, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Channaveerachari Naveen Kumar, Kesavan Muralidharan, Vivek H Phutane, Bangalore N Gangadhar
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for major affective disorders. The combined use of ECT and anticonvulsant mood stabilizers is a common clinical scenario. There is dearth of systematic studies on the use of this combination with regard to clinical or cognitive outcomes. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to compare clinical improvement and cognitive adverse effects between patients who received only ECT versus those who received ECT and anticonvulsants...
September 23, 2016: Journal of ECT
Joel M Sternbach, Kevin Wang, Rym El Khoury, Ezra N Teitelbaum, Shari L Meyerson
BACKGROUND: Although error identification and recovery skills are essential for the safe practice of surgery, they have not traditionally been taught or evaluated in residency training. This study validates a method for assessing error identification and recovery skills in surgical residents using a thoracoscopic lobectomy simulator. METHODS: We developed a 5-station, simulator-based examination containing the most commonly encountered cognitive and technical errors occurring during division of the superior pulmonary vein for left upper lobectomy...
September 19, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Andrea Gingerich, Susan E Ramlo, Cees P M van der Vleuten, Kevin W Eva, Glenn Regehr
Whenever multiple observers provide ratings, even of the same performance, inter-rater variation is prevalent. The resulting 'idiosyncratic rater variance' is considered to be unusable error of measurement in psychometric models and is a threat to the defensibility of our assessments. Prior studies of inter-rater variation in clinical assessments have used open response formats to gather raters' comments and justifications. This design choice allows participants to use idiosyncratic response styles that could result in a distorted representation of the underlying rater cognition and skew subsequent analyses...
September 20, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Rinad S Beidas, Johanna Catherine Maclean, Jessica Fishman, Shannon Dorsey, Sonja K Schoenwald, David S Mandell, Judy A Shea, Bryce D McLeod, Michael T French, Aaron Hogue, Danielle R Adams, Adina Lieberman, Emily M Becker-Haimes, Steven C Marcus
BACKGROUND: This randomized trial will compare three methods of assessing fidelity to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth to identify the most accurate and cost-effective method. The three methods include self-report (i.e., therapist completes a self-report measure on the CBT interventions used in session while circumventing some of the typical barriers to self-report), chart-stimulated recall (i.e., therapist reports on the CBT interventions used in session via an interview with a trained rater, and with the chart to assist him/her) and behavioral rehearsal (i...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Emmah Doig, Jenny Fleming, Tamara Ownsworth, Stephanie Fletcher
BACKGROUND/AIM: Online awareness is the ability to self-monitor, identify and self-correct errors while engaged in an activity. Current assessments of online awareness involve observing and classifying error behaviour during structured, uniform tasks. However, during rehabilitation, practitioners typically work towards improving performance in individually meaningful tasks unique to the client. This article presents a metacognitive, task analytic approach to assessing online awareness involving observation and classification of errors during meaningful occupations determined after client-centred goal setting with two male clients with severe traumatic brain injury (aged 22 and 23)...
September 12, 2016: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
Ana M Sánchez-Torres, María Rosa Elosúa, Ruth Lorente-Omeñaca, Lucía Moreno-Izco, Victor Peralta, Manuel J Cuesta
The Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI) is an interview-based instrument to assess cognition considering the impact of cognitive impairment on daily activities. We aimed to explore the associations of the Spanish version of the CAI (CAI-Sp) with a neuropsychological battery and a measure of psychosocial functioning in psychosis. The sample consisted of fifty-six first episode psychosis (FEP) patients and 66 non-FEP patients, who were assessed with a neuropsychological battery, the CAI-Sp and the Short Disability Schedule (DAS-S)...
September 8, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Anthony S J Mullin, Mark J Hilsenroth, Jerold Gold, Barry A Farber
This study explores the effectiveness of psychodynamic psychotherapy in improving facets of object relations (OR) functioning over the course of treatment. The sample consisted of 75 outpatients engaged in short-term dynamic psychotherapy at a university-based psychological services clinic. Facets of OR functioning were assessed at pre- and posttreatment by independent raters using the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global rating method (SCORS-G; Stein, Hilsenroth, Slavin-Mulford, & Pinsker, 2011 ; Westen, 1995 ) from in-session patient relational narratives...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
Olivia A Skrobot, Johannes Attems, Margaret Esiri, Tibor Hortobágyi, James W Ironside, Rajesh N Kalaria, Andrew King, George A Lammie, David Mann, James Neal, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Patrick G Kehoe, Seth Love
There are no generally accepted protocols for post-mortem assessment in cases of suspected vascular cognitive impairment. Neuropathologists from seven UK centres have collaborated in the development of a set of vascular cognitive impairment neuropathology guidelines (VCING), representing a validated consensus approach to the post-mortem assessment and scoring of cerebrovascular disease in relation to vascular cognitive impairment. The development had three stages: (i) agreement on a sampling protocol and scoring criteria, through a series of Delphi method surveys; (ii) determination of inter-rater reliability for each type of pathology in each region sampled (Gwet's AC2 coefficient); and (iii) empirical testing and validation of the criteria, by blinded post-mortem assessment of brain tissue from 113 individuals (55 to 100 years) without significant neurodegenerative disease who had had formal cognitive assessments within 12 months of death...
September 2, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Christine E Carter, Jessica A Grahn
Repetition is the most commonly used practice strategy by musicians. Although blocks of repetition continue to be suggested in the pedagogical literature, work in the field of cognitive psychology suggests that repeated events receive less processing, thereby reducing the potential for long-term learning. Motor skill learning and sport psychology research offer an alternative. Instead of using a blocked practice schedule, with practice completed on one task before moving on to the next task, an interleaved schedule can be used, in which practice is frequently alternated between tasks...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Kerstin Ritter, Catharina Lange, Martin Weygandt, Anja Mäurer, Anna Roberts, Melanie Estrella, Per Suppa, Lothar Spies, Vikas Prasad, Ingo Steffen, Ivayla Apostolova, Daniel Bittner, Mehmet Gövercin, Winfried Brenner, Christine Mende, Oliver Peters, Joachim Seybold, Jochen B Fiebach, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Harald Hampel, John-Dylan Haynes, Ralph Buchert
BACKGROUND: The cause of cognitive impairment in acutely hospitalized geriatric patients is often unclear. The diagnostic process is challenging but important in order to treat potentially life-threatening etiologies or identify underlying neurodegenerative disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the add-on diagnostic value of structural and metabolic neuroimaging in newly manifested cognitive impairment in elderly geriatric inpatients. METHODS: Eighty-one inpatients (55 females, 81...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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