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Generalizability theory

Peter E Clayson, Gregory A Miller
Generalizability theory (G theory) provides a flexible, multifaceted approach to estimating score reliability. G theory's approach to estimating score reliability has important advantages over classical test theory that are relevant for research using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). For example, G theory does not require parallel forms (i.e., equal means, variances, and covariances), can handle unbalanced designs, and provides a single reliability estimate for designs with multiple sources of error. This monograph provides a detailed description of the conceptual framework of G theory using examples relevant to ERP researchers, presents the algorithms needed to estimate ERP score reliability, and provides a detailed walkthrough of newly-developed software, the ERP Reliability Analysis (ERA) Toolbox, that calculates score reliability using G theory...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Saeeda Khanum, Rubina Hanif, Elizabeth S Spelke, Ilaria Berteletti, Daniel C Hyde
Current theories of numerical cognition posit that uniquely human symbolic number abilities connect to an early developing cognitive system for representing approximate numerical magnitudes, the approximate number system (ANS). In support of this proposal, recent laboratory-based training experiments with U.S. children show enhanced performance on symbolic addition after brief practice comparing or adding arrays of dots without counting: tasks that engage the ANS. Here we explore the nature and generality of this effect through two brief training experiments...
2016: PloS One
Richard A Gray, Pras Pathmanathan
Elucidating the underlying mechanisms of fatal cardiac arrhythmias requires a tight integration of electrophysiological experiments, models, and theory. Existing models of transmembrane action potential (AP) are complex (resulting in over parameterization) and varied (leading to dissimilar predictions). Thus, simpler models are needed to elucidate the "minimal physiological requirements" to reproduce significant observable phenomena using as few parameters as possible. Moreover, models have been derived from experimental studies from a variety of species under a range of environmental conditions (for example, all existing rabbit AP models incorporate a formulation of the rapid sodium current, INa, based on 30 year old data from chick embryo cell aggregates)...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Carmit K McMullen, Joanna E Bulkley, Andrea Altschuler, Christopher S Wendel, Marcia Grant, Mark C Hornbrook, Virginia Sun, Robert S Krouse
BACKGROUND: Eliciting the priorities of cancer survivors is essential to address the specific needs of cancer survivor subgroups. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the greatest challenges related to treatment for long-term rectal cancer survivors. DESIGN: This was an observational study with a cross-sectional survey. SETTINGS: The study included members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California and Northwest health plans...
November 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Stephanie Noble, Dustin Scheinost, Emily S Finn, Xilin Shen, Xenophon Papademetris, Sarah C McEwen, Carrie E Bearden, Jean Addington, Bradley Goodyear, Kristin S Cadenhead, Heline Mirzakhanian, Barbara A Cornblatt, Doreen M Olvet, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Aysenil Belger, Larry J Seidman, Heidi Thermenos, Ming T Tsuang, Theo G M van Erp, Elaine F Walker, Stephan Hamann, Scott W Woods, Tyrone D Cannon, R Todd Constable
Recent years have witnessed an increasing number of multisite MRI functional connectivity (fcMRI) studies. While multisite studies are an efficient way to speed up data collection and increase sample sizes, especially for rare clinical populations, any effects of site or MRI scanner could ultimately limit power and weaken results. Little data exists on the stability of functional connectivity measurements across sites and sessions. In this study, we assess the influence of site and session on resting state functional connectivity measurements in a healthy cohort of traveling subjects (8 subjects scanned twice at each of 8 sites) scanned as part of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS)...
October 13, 2016: NeuroImage
Eva Heim, Holger Steinmetz, Matthew D Zeigenfuse, Andreas Maercker, Juergen Margraf
This study examined the circular structure of values in China. The circular structure is a central element of Schwartz value theory and visualises the idea that some values are similar while others conflict with one another. Whereas numerous studies addressed the question whether the circular structure of values can be generalised cross-culturally, results for China are inconclusive. In this paper, we argue that taking a closer look at China provides a challenge to the circular structure and allows for drawing conclusions regarding the limits versus generalizability of Schwartz' theory...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Qi Wang
I call the attention of psychologists to the pivotal role of cultural psychology in extending and enriching research programs. I argue that it is not enough to simply acknowledge the importance of culture and urge psychologists to practice cultural psychology in their research. I deconstruct five assumptions about cultural psychology that seriously undermine its contribution to the building of a true psychological science, including that cultural psychology (a) is only about finding group differences, (b) does not appertain to group similarities, (c) concerns only group-level analysis, (d) is irrelevant to basic psychological processes, and (e) is used only to confirm the generalizability of theories...
September 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Stephen Furmanek, Carlee Lehna, Carol Hanchette
There is a gap in the use of predictive risk models to identify areas at risk for home fires and burn injury. The purpose of this study was to describe the creation, validation, and application of such a model using a sample from an intervention study with parents of newborns in Jefferson County, KY, as an example. Performed was a literature search to identify risk factors for home fires and burn injury in the target population. Obtained from the American Community Survey at the census tract level and synthesized to create a predictive cartographic risk model was risk factor data...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Peter E Clayson, Gregory A Miller
Failing to consider psychometric issues related to reliability and validity, differential deficits, and statistical power potentially undermines the conclusions of a study. In research using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), numerous contextual factors (population sampled, task, data recording, analysis pipeline, etc.) can impact the reliability of ERP scores. The present review considers contextual factors that influence ERP score reliability and downstream effects that reliability has on statistical analyses...
September 10, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
David Budden, Mitchell Jones
Modeling biology as classical problems in computer science allows researchers to leverage the wealth of theoretical advancements in this field. Despite countless studies presenting heuristics that report improvement on specific benchmarking data, there has been comparatively little focus on exploring the theoretical bounds on the performance of practical (polynomial-time) algorithms. Conversely, theoretical studies tend to overstate the generalizability of their conclusions to physical biological processes...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
Sarah Kate McGowan, Elizabeth S Stevens, Evelyn Behar, Matt R Judah, Adam C Mills, DeMond M Grant
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Worry and anticipatory processing are forms of repetitive negative thinking (RNT) that are associated with maladaptive characteristics and negative consequences. One key maladaptive characteristic of worry is its abstract nature (Goldwin & Behar, 2012; Stöber & Borkovec, 2002). Several investigations have relied on inductions of worry that are social-evaluative in nature, which precludes distinctions between worry and RNT about social-evaluative situations...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Matthew R Nassar, Michael J Frank
Generalizing knowledge from experimental data requires constructing theories capable of explaining observations and extending beyond them. Computational modeling offers formal quantitative methods for generating and testing theories of cognition and neural processing. These techniques can be used to extract general principles from specific experimental measurements, but introduce dangers inherent to theory: model-based analyses are conditioned on a set of fixed assumptions that impact the interpretations of experimental data...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Nikki L Bibler Zaidi, Christopher M Swoboda, Benjamin M Kelcey, R Stephen Manuel
The extant literature has largely ignored a potentially significant source of variance in multiple mini-interview (MMI) scores by "hiding" the variance attributable to the sample of attributes used on an evaluation form. This potential source of hidden variance can be defined as rating items, which typically comprise an MMI evaluation form. Due to its multi-faceted, repeated measures format, reliability for the MMI has been primarily evaluated using generalizability (G) theory. A key assumption of G theory is that G studies model the most important sources of variance to which a researcher plans to generalize...
August 20, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Juan Andrés Trejo-Mejía, Melchor Sánchez-Mendiola, Ignacio Méndez-Ramírez, Adrián Martínez-González
BACKGROUND: The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a widely used method for assessing clinical competence in health sciences education. Studies using this method have shown evidence of validity and reliability. There are no published studies of OSCE reliability measurement with generalizability theory (G-theory) in Latin America. The aims of this study were to assess the reliability of an OSCE in medical students using G-theory and explore its usefulness for quality improvement...
2016: Medical Education Online
Avinash R Patwardhan
Research on yoga is witnessing an unprecedented proliferation currently, partly because of great interest in yoga's health utility. However, yoga research does not seem to be sufficiently public health oriented, or its quality corresponding to its quantity. Yoga research is falling short to enable key stakeholders like end users, prescribers, and payers to meaningfully, confidently, and fruitfully answer the questions like: Is it generalizable? Is it standardizable? Which yoga style should be used/recommended/paid for? Or will it be worth the money? Therefore, it is important to examine the alignment to purpose or value of yoga research from a public health point of view so as to make it more practical...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Primary Care & Community Health
Lauren S Miller, Richard H Gramzow
BACKGROUND: Although the mental and physical benefits of physical activity are well-established, there is a racial/ethnic disparity in activity such that minorities are much less likely to engage in physical activity than are White individuals. Research suggests that a lack of motivation may be an important barrier to physical activity for racial/ethnic minorities. Therefore, interventions that increase participants' motivation may be especially useful in promoting physical activity within these groups...
2016: BMC Public Health
Nicholaus P Brosowsky, Matthew J C Crump
Recent work suggests that environmental cues associated with previous attentional control settings can rapidly and involuntarily adjust attentional priorities. The current study tests predictions from adaptive-learning and memory-based theories of contextual control about the role of intentions for setting attentional priorities. To extend the empirical boundaries of contextual control phenomena, and to determine whether theoretical principles of contextual control are generalizable we used a novel bi-dimensional stimulus sampling task...
August 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Robert J Cramer, Claire N Bryson, Morgam K Eichorst, Lee N Keyes, Brittany E Ridge
OBJECTIVES: As professional psychology training programs and continuing education have moved toward competency based approaches, it has become equally important to develop uniform, evidence-based approaches for suicide risk assessment and management. The present article presents a workshop curriculum based on established core competencies in suicide risk assessment and management. METHOD: Drawing on theories suicide risk formation, the workshop features an integration of didactic, process, and experiential components...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Jason C Levine, Raymond Fleming, Joanna I Piedmont, Samantha M Cain, Wei-Ju Chen
BACKGROUND: To date only a few published studies have examined the effect of disorder-relevant stressors on heart rate variability (HRV) in participants meeting a clinical diagnosis of GAD, with conflicting results. The primary aim of this study was to determine if GAD is associated with lower HRV at rest, and whether vagal regulation during task varies by type (i.e., baseline, anticipation, imagery, or worry). METHODS: This study investigated resting cardiac vagal tone and vagal regulation in a sample of 40 participants with or without a validated diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Peter L Phalen, Giancarlo Dimaggio, Raffaele Popolo, Paul H Lysaker
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the apparent relevance of persecutory delusions to social relationships, evidence linking these beliefs to social functioning has been inconsistent. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that theory of mind moderates the relationship between persecutory delusions and social functioning. METHODS: 88 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed concurrently for social functioning, severity of persecutory delusions, and two components of theory of mind: mental state decoding and mental state reasoning...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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