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Generalizability theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418721/practical-applications-of-generalizability-theory-for-designing-evaluating-and-improving-psychological-assessments
#1
Walter P Vispoel, Carrie A Morris, Murat Kilinc
In this article, we illustrate how generalizability theory (G-theory) can extend traditional assessment methods for designing, improving, and evaluating results from both objectively and subjectively scored measures of individual differences. Our illustrations include quantification of multiple sources of measurement error, derivation of unique indexes of consistency for norm- and criterion-referenced interpretations of scores, estimation of score consistency when changing a measurement procedure, and disattenuation of correlation coefficients for measurement error...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414484/can-we-apply-the-findings-of-forster-and-lavie-2008-on-the-generalizability-of-attentional-capture-effects-under-varying-levels-of-perceptual-load
#2
Alejandro Lleras, Hengqing Chu, Simona Buetti
Perceptual Load theory states that the degree of perceptual load on a display determines the amount of leftover attentional resources that the system can use to process distracting information. An important corollary of this theory is that the amount of perceptual load determines the vulnerability of the attention system to being captured by completely irrelevant stimuli, predicting larger amounts of capture with low perceptual load than with high perceptual load. This prediction was first confirmed by Forster and Lavie (2008)...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413687/what-we-have-changed-our-minds-about-part-1-borderline-personality-disorder-as-a-limitation-of-resilience
#3
REVIEW
Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten, Elizabeth Allison, Chloe Campbell
This paper sets out a recent transition in our thinking in relation to psychopathology associated with personality disorder, in an approach that integrates our thinking about attachment, mentalizing (understanding ourselves and others in terms of intentional mental states) and epistemic trust (openness to the reception of social communication that is personally relevant and of generalizable significance) with recent findings on the structure of both adult and child psychopathology and resilience. In this paper - the first of two parts - we review evidence suggesting that a general psychopathology or p factor underlies vulnerability for psychopathology...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409713/persistent-complex-bereavement-disorder-and-culture-early-and-prolonged-grief-in-nepali-widows
#4
Jane Kim, Wietse A Tol, Abina Shrestha, Hari Maya Kafle, Rajin Rayamajhi, Nagendra P Luitel, Lily Thapa, Pamela J Surkan
OBJECTIVE: Persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), has not been well studied in socioculturally diverse populations. Thus, this qualitative study examined (a) how widows in Nepal understand grief, (b) whether a local construct of PCBD exists, and (c) its comparability with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), terminology. METHODS: Using an adapted Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) framework, semistructured interviews with 25 widows and 12 key informants, as well as three focus-group discussions (n = 20), were conducted between October 2014 and April 2015...
2017: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395704/evaluating-the-performance-of-a-single-item-global-estimate-of-missed-nursing-care
#5
Patti Hamilton, Eileen Willis, Terry Jones, Rhonda McKelvie, Ian Blackman, Luisa Toffoli, Clare Harvey
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current measures of missed nursing care employ inventories of tasks which are rated for the frequency with which each is missed. These lists have shortcomings for research and clinical evaluation. There is a need for measures with less response burden, wider generalizability, and greater sensitivity and specificity for identifying poor quality care. METHODS: We tested a single-item, global, measure using data from a large study of missed care in Australia...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364430/signal-to-noise-ratio-in-pvt-performance-as-a-cognitive-measure-of-the-effect-of-sleep-deprivation-on-the-fidelity-of-information-processing
#6
Venkata P Chavali, Samantha M Riedy, Hans P A Van Dongen
Study Objectives: There is a long-standing debate about the best way to characterize performance deficits on the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT), a widely used assay of cognitive impairment in human sleep deprivation studies. Here, we address this issue through the theoretical framework of the diffusion model and propose to express PVT performance in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Methods: From the equations of the diffusion model for one-choice, reaction-time tasks, we derived an expression for a novel SNR metric for PVT performance...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343391/single-molecule-peptide-lipid-affinity-assay-reveals-interplay-between-solution-structure-and-partitioning
#7
Tina R Matin, Krishna P Sigdel, Milica Utjesanovic, Brendan P Marsh, Fabio Gallazzi, Virginia F Smith, Ioan Kosztin, Gavin M King
Interactions between short protein segments and phospholipid bilayers dictate fundamental aspects of cellular activity and have important applications in biotechnology. Yet, the lack of a suitable methodology for directly probing these interactions has hindered the mechanistic understanding. We developed a precision atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule force spectroscopy assay and probed partitioning into lipid bilayers by measuring the mechanical force experienced by a peptide. Protein segments were constructed from the peripheral membrane protein SecA, a key ATPase in bacterial secretion...
April 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333163/universality-of-schmidt-decomposition-and-particle-identity
#8
Stefania Sciara, Rosario Lo Franco, Giuseppe Compagno
Schmidt decomposition is a widely employed tool of quantum theory which plays a key role for distinguishable particles in scenarios such as entanglement characterization, theory of measurement and state purification. Yet, its formulation for identical particles remains controversial, jeopardizing its application to analyze general many-body quantum systems. Here we prove, using a newly developed approach, a universal Schmidt decomposition which allows faithful quantification of the physical entanglement due to the identity of particles...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290739/minimum-accelerometer-wear-time-in-infants-a-generalizability-study
#9
E Andrew Pitchford, Leah R Ketcheson, Hyun-Jin Kwon, Dale A Ulrich
BACKGROUND: Research measuring physical activity behaviors during infancy is critical for evaluation of early intervention efforts to reduce rapid weight gain. There is little known about the physical activity patterns of infants, due in part to limited evidence for measurement procedures. This study sought to determine the minimal number of days and hours of accelerometry needed to reliably measure daily physical activity in infants using Generalizability (G) theory. METHODS: A total of 23 infants (14 F, 9 M) wore an accelerometer on the right ankle and right wrist for 7 days...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290127/jumping-the-gun-faster-response-latencies-to-deceptive-questions-in-a-realistic-scenario
#10
Tessa Mapala, Lara Warmelink, Sally A Linkenauger
Most theories of lie detection assume that lying increases cognitive load, resulting in longer response latencies during questioning. However, the studies supporting this theory are typically laboratory-based, in settings with no specific validity in security contexts. Consequently, using virtual reality (VR), we investigated how response latencies were influenced in an ecologically valid environment of interest to security professionals. In a highly realistic airport security terminal presented in VR, a security officer asked participants yes/no questions about their belongings...
March 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236693/attachment-style-moderates-theory-of-mind-abilities-in-depression
#11
Katja Koelkebeck, Carla Liedtke, Waldemar Kohl, Judith Alferink, Mariska Esther Kret
INTRODUCTION: Being able to understand other people's emotions and intentions is crucial for social interactions and well-being. Deficits in theory of mind (ToM) functioning hamper this ability and have been observed in depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, results of previous research in depression have been inconclusive, possibly due to the presence of comorbid disorders and the disregarding of other modulating factors. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with a major depressive disorder (MDD) and forty healthy matched controls were assessed with a ToM task using animated triangles...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228339/the-effect-on-reliability-and-sensitivity-to-level-of-training-of-combining-analytic-and-holistic-rating-scales-for-assessing-communication-skills-in-an-internal-medicine-resident-osce
#12
Vijay John Daniels, Dwight Harley
OBJECTIVE: Although previous research has compared checklists to rating scales for assessing communication, the purpose of this study was to compare the effect on reliability and sensitivity to level of training of an analytic, a holistic, and a combined analytic-holistic rating scale in assessing communication skills. METHODS: The University of Alberta Internal Medicine Residency runs OSCEs for postgraduate year (PGY) 1 and 2 residents and another for PGY-4 residents...
February 14, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218984/closing-the-patient-experience-chasm-a-two-level-validation-of-the-consumer-quality-index-inpatient-hospital-care
#13
Alina Smirnova, Kiki M J M H Lombarts, Onyebuchi A Arah, Cees P M van der Vleuten
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of patients' health care experiences is central to measuring patient-centred care. However, different instruments tend to be used at the hospital or departmental level but rarely both, leading to a lack of standardization of patient experience measures. OBJECTIVE: To validate the Consumer Quality Index (CQI) Inpatient Hospital Care for use on both department and hospital levels. DESIGN: Using cross-sectional observational data, we investigated the internal validity of the questionnaire using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), and the generalizability of the questionnaire for use at the department and hospital levels using generalizability theory...
February 20, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199925/minimum-number-of-days-required-for-a-reliable-estimate-of-daily-step-count-and-energy-expenditure-in-people-with-ms-who-walk-unaided
#14
Michelle Norris, Ross Anderson, Robert W Motl, Sara Hayes, Susan Coote
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the minimum number of days needed to reliably estimate daily step count and energy expenditure (EE), in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) who walked unaided. METHODS: Seven days of activity monitor data were collected for 26 participants with MS (age=44.5±11.9years; time since diagnosis=6.5±6.2years; Patient Determined Disease Steps=≤3). Mean daily step count and mean daily EE (kcal) were calculated for all combinations of days (127 combinations), and compared to the respective 7-day mean daily step count or mean daily EE using intra-class correlations (ICC), the Generalizability Theory and Bland-Altman...
February 8, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168539/assessment-of-residents-readiness-to-perform-lumbar-puncture-a-validation-study
#15
Mikael Johannes Vuokko Henriksen Md, Troels Wienecke Md PhD, Helle Thagesen Md, Rikke Vita Borre Jacobsen Md PhD, Yousif Subhi Md, Charlotte Ringsted Md PhD, Lars Konge Md PhD
BACKGROUND: Lumbar puncture is a common procedure in many specialties. The procedure serves to diagnose life-threatening conditions, often requiring rapid performance. However, junior doctors possess uncertainties regarding performing the procedure and frequently perform below expectations. Hence, proper training and assessment of performance is crucial before entering clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To develop and collect validity evidence for an assessment tool for lumbar puncture performance, including a standard to determine when trainees are ready for clinical practice...
February 6, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164333/weak-coordination-between-leaf-structure-and-function-among-closely-related-tomato-species
#16
Christopher D Muir, Miquel À Conesa, Emilio J Roldán, Arántzazu Molins, Jeroni Galmés
Theory predicts that natural selection should favor coordination between leaf physiology, biochemistry and anatomical structure along a functional trait spectrum from fast, resource-acquisitive syndromes to slow, resource-conservative syndromes. However, the coordination hypothesis has rarely been tested at a phylogenetic scale most relevant for understanding rapid adaptation in the recent past or for the prediction of evolutionary trajectories in response to climate change. We used a common garden to examine genetically based coordination between leaf traits across 19 wild and cultivated tomato taxa...
March 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128674/-and-yet-it-was-a-blessing-the-case-for-existential-maturity
#17
Linda L Emanuel, Neha Reddy, Joshua Hauser, Sarah B Sonnenfeld
We are interested in the kind of well-being that can occur as a person approaches death; we call it "existential maturity." We describe a conceptual model of this state that we felt was realized in an individual case, illustrating the state by describing the case. Our goal is to articulate a generalizable, working model of existential maturity in concepts and terms taken from fundamentals of psychodynamic theory. We hope that a recognizable case and a model-based way of thinking about what was going on can both help guide care that fosters existential maturity and stimulate more theoretical modeling of the state...
April 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114776/applications-of-generalizability-theory-and-their-relations-to-classical-test-theory-and-structural-equation-modeling
#18
Walter P Vispoel, Carrie A Morris, Murat Kilinc
Although widely recognized as a comprehensive framework for representing score reliability, generalizability theory (G-theory), despite its potential benefits, has been used sparingly in reporting of results for measures of individual differences. In this article, we highlight many valuable ways that G-theory can be used to quantify, evaluate, and improve psychometric properties of scores. Our illustrations encompass assessment of overall reliability, percentages of score variation accounted for by individual sources of measurement error, dependability of cut-scores for decision making, estimation of reliability and dependability for changes made to measurement procedures, disattenuation of validity coefficients for measurement error, and linkages of G-theory with classical test theory and structural equation modeling...
January 23, 2017: Psychological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104901/reliability-of-a-viva-assessment-of-clinical-reasoning-in-an-australian-pre-professional-osteopathy-program-assessed-using-generalizability-theory
#19
Brett Vaughan, Paul Orrock, Sandra Grace
Clinical reasoning is situation-dependent and case-specific; therefore, assessments incorporating different patient presentations are warranted. The present study aimed to determine the reliability of a multi-station case-based viva assessment of clinical reasoning in an Australian pre-registration osteopathy program using generalizability theory. Students (from years 4 and 5) and examiners were recruited from the osteopathy program at Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia. The study took place on a single day in the student teaching clinic...
2017: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072462/reliability-of-the-electrocortical-response-to-gains-and-losses-in-the-doors-task
#20
Amanda R Levinson, Brittany C Speed, Zachary P Infantolino, Greg Hajcak
The ability to differentiate between rewards and losses is critical for motivated action, and aberrant reward and loss processing has been associated with psychopathology. The reward positivity (RewP) and feedback negativity (FN) are ERPs elicited by monetary gains and losses, respectively, and are promising individual difference measures. However, few studies have reported on the psychometric properties of the RewP and FN-crucial characteristics necessary for valid individual difference measures. The current study examined the internal consistency and 1-week test-retest reliability of the RewP and FN as elicited by the doors task among 59 young adults...
January 10, 2017: Psychophysiology
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