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Generalizability theory

Julia Feyerabend, Stefan Lüttke, Fabienne Grosse-Wentrup, Sibylla Wolter, Martin Hautzinger, Larissa Wolkenstein
BACKGROUND: To date, research concerning Theory of Mind (ToM) in remitted bipolar disorder (rBD) has yielded inconclusive results. This may be a result of methodological shortcomings and the failure to consider relevant third variables. Furthermore, studies using ecologically valid stimuli are rare. This study examines ToM in rBD patients, using ecologically valid stimuli. Additionally, the effects of sad mood induction (MI) as well as of age and gender are considered. METHODS: The sample comprises N = 44 rBD patients (rBDPs) and N = 40 healthy controls (HCs)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Benjamin Robira, Emmanuelle Pouydebat, Aurore San-Galli, Ellen J M Meulman, Françoise Aubaile, Thomas Breuer, Shelly Masi
OBJECTIVES: All human populations display a right-biased handedness. Nonetheless, if studies on western populations are plenty, investigations of traditional populations living at subsistence levels are rare. Yet, understanding the geographical variation of phenotypes of handedness is crucial for testing evolutionary hypotheses. We aimed to provide a preliminary investigation of factors affecting handedness in 25 Aka pygmies from Central African Republic when spontaneously gesturing or manipulating food/tools (Nactions  = 593)...
February 10, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Manon Balbi, Aude Ernoult, Pedro Poli, Luc Madec, Annie Guiller, Marie-Claire Martin, Jean Nabucet, Véronique Beaujouan, Eric J Petit
Urban areas are highly fragmented and thereby exert strong constraints on individual dispersal. Despite this, some species manage to persist in urban areas, such as the garden snail, Cornu aspersum, which is common in cityscapes despite its low mobility. Using landscape genetic approaches, we combined study area replication and multi-scale analysis to determine how landscape composition, configuration, and connectivity influence snail dispersal across urban areas. At the overall landscape scale, areas with a high percentage of roads decreased genetic differentiation between populations...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Paige Ethridge, Anna Weinberg
Reward-related event-related potentials (ERPs) are often used to index individual differences that signal the presence or predict the onset of psychopathology. However, relatively little research has explored the psychometric properties of reward-related ERPs. Without understanding their psychometric properties, the value of using ERPs as biomarkers for psychopathology is limited. The present study, therefore, sought to establish the internal consistency reliability and convergent validity of the reward positivity (RewP) and feedback negativity (FN) elicited by two types of incentives commonly used in individual differences research - monetary and social rewards...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Matthew J Hornsey, Emily A Harris, Kelly S Fielding
OBJECTIVE: Strengthening of antivaccination movements in recent decades has coincided with unprecedented increases in the incidence of some communicable diseases. Many intervention programs work from a deficit model of science communication, presuming that vaccination skeptics lack the ability to access or understand evidence. However, interventions focusing on evidence and the debunking of vaccine-related myths have proven to be either nonproductive or counterproductive. Working from a motivated reasoning perspective, we examine the psychological factors that might motivate people to reject scientific consensus around vaccination...
February 1, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Jaime L Pacifico, Cees P M van der Vleuten, Arno M M Muijtjens, Erlyn A Sana, Sylvia Heeneman
BACKGROUND: In postgraduate training, there is a need to continuously assess the learning and working conditions to optimize learning. Students or trainees respond to the learning climate as they perceive it. The Dutch Residency Educational Climate Test (D-RECT) is a learning climate measurement tool with well-substantiated validity. However, it was originally designed for Dutch postgraduate trainees and it remains to be shown whether extrapolation to non-Western settings is viable. The dual objective of this study was to revalidate D-RECT outside of a Western setting and to evaluate the factor structure of a recently revised version of the D-RECT containing 35 items...
January 25, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Lucija Andre, Annelies E M van Vianen, Thea T D Peetsma, Frans J Oort
Future time perspective (FTP) may predict individual attitudes and behaviors. However, FTP research includes different FTP conceptualizations and outcomes which hinder generalizing its findings. To solve the inconsistencies in FTP research and generalize the magnitude of FTP as a driver of motivation and behavior, we conducted the first systematical synthesis of FTP relationships in three crucial life domains. Our meta-analyses of FTP studies in education (k = 28), work (k = 17), and health (k = 32) involved N = 31,558 participants, and used a conceptual model for grouping FTP constructs...
2018: PloS One
Janice M Morse
BACKGROUND: Qualitative research is frequently context bound, lacks generalizability, and is limited in scope. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article was to describe a method, theoretical coalescence, that provides a strategy for analyzing complex, high-level concepts and for developing generalizable theory. Theoretical coalescence is a method of theoretical expansion, inductive inquiry, of theory development, that uses data (rather than themes, categories, and published extracts of data) as the primary source for analysis...
January 23, 2018: Nursing Research
Jennifer S Ma, Philip J Batterham, Alison L Calear, Jin Han
It remains unclear whether the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner, ) is generalizable to the population or holds more explanatory power for certain subgroups compared to others. The aim of this study was to (1) identify subgroups of individuals who endorsed suicide ideation in the past month based on a range of mental health and demographic variables, (2) compare levels of the IPTS constructs within these subgroups, and (3) test the IPTS predictions for suicide ideation and suicide attempt for each group...
January 6, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Fiona Lobban, Victoria Appleton, Duncan Appelbe, Johanna Barraclough, Julie Bowland, Naomi R Fisher, Sheena Foster, Sonia Johnson, Elizabeth Lewis, Céu Mateus, Barbara Mezes, Elizabeth Murray, Puffin O'Hanlon, Vanessa Pinfold, Jo Rycroft-Malone, Ron Siddle, Jo Smith, Chris J Sutton, Andrew Walker, Steven H Jones
BACKGROUND: Web-based interventions to support people to manage long-term health conditions are available and effective but rarely used in clinical services. The aim of this study is to identify critical factors impacting on the implementation of an online supported self-management intervention for relatives of people with recent onset psychosis or bipolar disorder into routine clinical care and to use this information to inform an implementation plan to facilitate widespread use and inform wider implementation of digital health interventions...
December 28, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
Jennifer E Lansford
Theories and empirical findings regarding the development of aggression have included advances in four key areas in the last two years. First, studies have increasingly adopted more nuanced operationalization of forms and functions of aggression. Second, mediators and moderators of links between risk factors and the development of aggression have been examined with more precision. Third, advances in neuroscience and studies of gene by environment interactions have led to greater understanding of genetic and neurobiological underpinnings of the development of aggression...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Alexandra Macmillan, James Woodcock
Background: Increasing urban bicycling has established net benefits for human and environmental health. Questions remain about which policies are needed and in what order, to achieve an increase in cycling while avoiding negative consequences. Novel ways of considering cycling policy are needed, bringing together expertise across policy, community and research to develop a shared understanding of the dynamically complex cycling system. In this paper we use a collaborative learning process to develop a dynamic causal model of urban cycling to develop consensus about the nature and order of policies needed in different cycling contexts to optimise outcomes...
December 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
Tsvetomira Radeva, Anna Dornhaus, Nancy Lynch, Radhika Nagpal, Hsin-Hao Su
Adaptive collective systems are common in biology and beyond. Typically, such systems require a task allocation algorithm: a mechanism or rule-set by which individuals select particular roles. Here we study the performance of such task allocation mechanisms measured in terms of the time for individuals to allocate to tasks. We ask: (1) Is task allocation fundamentally difficult, and thus costly? (2) Does the performance of task allocation mechanisms depend on the number of individuals? And (3) what other parameters may affect their efficiency? We use techniques from distributed computing theory to develop a model of a social insect colony, where workers have to be allocated to a set of tasks; however, our model is generalizable to other systems...
December 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Zhehan Jiang, William Skorupski
In many behavioral research areas, multivariate generalizability theory (mG theory) has been typically used to investigate the reliability of certain multidimensional assessments. However, traditional mG-theory estimation-namely, using frequentist approaches-has limits, leading researchers to fail to take full advantage of the information that mG theory can offer regarding the reliability of measurements. Alternatively, Bayesian methods provide more information than frequentist approaches can offer. This article presents instructional guidelines on how to implement mG-theory analyses in a Bayesian framework; in particular, BUGS code is presented to fit commonly seen designs from mG theory, including single-facet designs, two-facet crossed designs, and two-facet nested designs...
December 12, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Jonathan M Adler
OBJECTIVE: Personality psychology has largely ignored the experiences of people with disabilities. This paper strives to bring the thriving, interdisciplinary field of disability studies to personality psychology via a case study of Samantha (N=1). Samantha feels that she grew up as a hearing person who could not hear and is now a deaf person who can hear. METHOD: Narrative identity provides the theoretical, methodological, and analytical framework for the rich, qualitative examination of Samantha's life story, interwoven with approaches from disability studies and intersectionality theory...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Personality
Jarrod Blinch, Youngdeok Kim, Romeo Chua
A powerful tool in motor behavior research is trajectory analysis of discrete goal-directed pointing movements. The purpose of the present analysis was to estimate the minimum number of trials per participant required to achieve the conventional level of reliability for trajectory analysis. We analyzed basic measurements of movement and three common methods of trajectory analysis within the framework of generalizability theory. Generalizability studies were used to decompose the total variance of these variables into the percent contributions from person, trial, and the person-by-trial interaction...
December 7, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Marco Maselli, Erica Gobbi, Attilio Carraro
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) promotion among university students is important to contribute to a lifelong healthy lifestyle. Nevertheless, research in the field is still limited in quantity, quality and generalizability. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of two individual-based strategies for promoting PA among university students in such university contexts where course-based interventions are difficult to implement. METHOD: Thirty-three university students were recruited by means of face-to-face interviews and randomly assigned to three groups...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Rahul Maitra, Takahito Nakajima
We present an accurate single reference coupled cluster theory in which the conventional Fock operator matrix is suitably dressed to simulate the effect of triple and higher excitations within a singles and doubles framework. The dressing thus invoked originates from a second-order perturbative approximation of a similarity transformed Hamiltonian and induces higher rank excitations through local renormalization of individual occupied and unoccupied orbital lines. Such a dressing is able to recover a significant amount of correlation effects beyond singles and doubles approximation, but only with an economic n5 additional cost...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Janis Paterson, Oleg N Medvedev, Alexander Sumich, El-Shadan Tautolo, Christian U Krägeloh, Rose Sisk, Robert K McNamara, Michael Berk, Ajit Narayanan, Richard J Siegert
BACKGROUND: The distinction between temporary versus enduring or state/trait aspects of depression is important. More precise distinction would improve understanding of the aetiology of depression and those aspects most amenable to intervention thus identifying more homogeneous, dynamic targets for clinical trials. Generalizability Theory has been proposed as useful for disentangling state and trait components of psychopathology. METHODS: We applied Generalizability Theory to determine the relative contributions of temporary and enduring aspects of depression in a widely used screening measure of depression the - 10-item Children's Depression Inventory (CDI-10; Kovacs, 1985)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
Lauren M Schaefer, Natasha L Burke, Rachel M Calogero, Jessie E Menzel, Ross Krawczyk, J Kevin Thompson
Objectification theory asserts that self-objectification, which manifests as self-surveillance, leads to increased body shame and subsequent eating pathology. Although evidence supports the core mediational model, the majority of this work utilizes primarily White samples, limiting generalizability to other ethnic groups. The current study examined whether the core tenets of objectification theory generalize to Black and Hispanic women. Participants were 880 college women from the United States (71.7% White, 15...
November 21, 2017: Body Image
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