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Generalizability theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333163/universality-of-schmidt-decomposition-and-particle-identity
#1
Stefania Sciara, Rosario Lo Franco, Giuseppe Compagno
Schmidt decomposition is a widely employed tool of quantum theory which plays a key role for distinguishable particles in scenarios such as entanglement characterization, theory of measurement and state purification. Yet, its formulation for identical particles remains controversial, jeopardizing its application to analyze general many-body quantum systems. Here we prove, using a newly developed approach, a universal Schmidt decomposition which allows faithful quantification of the physical entanglement due to the identity of particles...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290739/minimum-accelerometer-wear-time-in-infants-a-generalizability-study
#2
E Andrew Pitchford, Leah R Ketcheson, Hyun-Jin Kwon, Dale A Ulrich
BACKGROUND: Research measuring physical activity behaviors during infancy is critical for evaluation of early intervention efforts to reduce rapid weight gain. There is little known about the physical activity patterns of infants, due in part to limited evidence for measurement procedures. This study sought to determine the minimal number of days and hours of accelerometry needed to reliably measure daily physical activity in infants using Generalizability (G) theory. METHODS: A total of 23 infants (14 F, 9 M) wore an accelerometer on the right ankle and right wrist for 7 days...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290127/jumping-the-gun-faster-response-latencies-to-deceptive-questions-in-a-realistic-scenario
#3
Tessa Mapala, Lara Warmelink, Sally A Linkenauger
Most theories of lie detection assume that lying increases cognitive load, resulting in longer response latencies during questioning. However, the studies supporting this theory are typically laboratory-based, in settings with no specific validity in security contexts. Consequently, using virtual reality (VR), we investigated how response latencies were influenced in an ecologically valid environment of interest to security professionals. In a highly realistic airport security terminal presented in VR, a security officer asked participants yes/no questions about their belongings...
March 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236693/attachment-style-moderates-theory-of-mind-abilities-in-depression
#4
Katja Koelkebeck, Carla Liedtke, Waldemar Kohl, Judith Alferink, Mariska Esther Kret
INTRODUCTION: Being able to understand other people's emotions and intentions is crucial for social interactions and well-being. Deficits in theory of mind (ToM) functioning hamper this ability and have been observed in depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, results of previous research in depression have been inconclusive, possibly due to the presence of comorbid disorders and the disregarding of other modulating factors. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with a major depressive disorder (MDD) and forty healthy matched controls were assessed with a ToM task using animated triangles...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228339/the-effect-on-reliability-and-sensitivity-to-level-of-training-of-combining-analytic-and-holistic-rating-scales-for-assessing-communication-skills-in-an-internal-medicine-resident-osce
#5
Vijay John Daniels, Dwight Harley
OBJECTIVE: Although previous research has compared checklists to rating scales for assessing communication, the purpose of this study was to compare the effect on reliability and sensitivity to level of training of an analytic, a holistic, and a combined analytic-holistic rating scale in assessing communication skills. METHODS: The University of Alberta Internal Medicine Residency runs OSCEs for postgraduate year (PGY) 1 and 2 residents and another for PGY-4 residents...
February 14, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218984/closing-the-patient-experience-chasm-a-two-level-validation-of-the-consumer-quality-index-inpatient-hospital-care
#6
Alina Smirnova, Kiki M J M H Lombarts, Onyebuchi A Arah, Cees P M van der Vleuten
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of patients' health care experiences is central to measuring patient-centred care. However, different instruments tend to be used at the hospital or departmental level but rarely both, leading to a lack of standardization of patient experience measures. OBJECTIVE: To validate the Consumer Quality Index (CQI) Inpatient Hospital Care for use on both department and hospital levels. DESIGN: Using cross-sectional observational data, we investigated the internal validity of the questionnaire using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), and the generalizability of the questionnaire for use at the department and hospital levels using generalizability theory...
February 20, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199925/minimum-number-of-days-required-for-a-reliable-estimate-of-daily-step-count-and-energy-expenditure-in-people-with-ms-who-walk-unaided
#7
Michelle Norris, Ross Anderson, Robert W Motl, Sara Hayes, Susan Coote
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the minimum number of days needed to reliably estimate daily step count and energy expenditure (EE), in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) who walked unaided. METHODS: Seven days of activity monitor data were collected for 26 participants with MS (age=44.5±11.9years; time since diagnosis=6.5±6.2years; Patient Determined Disease Steps=≤3). Mean daily step count and mean daily EE (kcal) were calculated for all combinations of days (127 combinations), and compared to the respective 7-day mean daily step count or mean daily EE using intra-class correlations (ICC), the Generalizability Theory and Bland-Altman...
February 8, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168539/assessment-of-residents-readiness-to-perform-lumbar-puncture-a-validation-study
#8
Mikael Johannes Vuokko Henriksen Md, Troels Wienecke Md PhD, Helle Thagesen Md, Rikke Vita Borre Jacobsen Md PhD, Yousif Subhi Md, Charlotte Ringsted Md PhD, Lars Konge Md PhD
BACKGROUND: Lumbar puncture is a common procedure in many specialties. The procedure serves to diagnose life-threatening conditions, often requiring rapid performance. However, junior doctors possess uncertainties regarding performing the procedure and frequently perform below expectations. Hence, proper training and assessment of performance is crucial before entering clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To develop and collect validity evidence for an assessment tool for lumbar puncture performance, including a standard to determine when trainees are ready for clinical practice...
February 6, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164333/weak-coordination-between-leaf-structure-and-function-among-closely-related-tomato-species
#9
Christopher D Muir, Miquel À Conesa, Emilio J Roldán, Arántzazu Molins, Jeroni Galmés
Theory predicts that natural selection should favor coordination between leaf physiology, biochemistry and anatomical structure along a functional trait spectrum from fast, resource-acquisitive syndromes to slow, resource-conservative syndromes. However, the coordination hypothesis has rarely been tested at a phylogenetic scale most relevant for understanding rapid adaptation in the recent past or for the prediction of evolutionary trajectories in response to climate change. We used a common garden to examine genetically based coordination between leaf traits across 19 wild and cultivated tomato taxa...
March 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128674/-and-yet-it-was-a-blessing-the-case-for-existential-maturity
#10
Linda L Emanuel, Neha Reddy, Joshua Hauser, Sarah B Sonnenfeld
We are interested in the kind of well-being that can occur as a person approaches death; we call it "existential maturity." We describe a conceptual model of this state that we felt was realized in an individual case, illustrating the state by describing the case. Our goal is to articulate a generalizable, working model of existential maturity in concepts and terms taken from fundamentals of psychodynamic theory. We hope that a recognizable case and a model-based way of thinking about what was going on can both help guide care that fosters existential maturity and stimulate more theoretical modeling of the state...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114776/applications-of-generalizability-theory-and-their-relations-to-classical-test-theory-and-structural-equation-modeling
#11
Walter P Vispoel, Carrie A Morris, Murat Kilinc
Although widely recognized as a comprehensive framework for representing score reliability, generalizability theory (G-theory), despite its potential benefits, has been used sparingly in reporting of results for measures of individual differences. In this article, we highlight many valuable ways that G-theory can be used to quantify, evaluate, and improve psychometric properties of scores. Our illustrations encompass assessment of overall reliability, percentages of score variation accounted for by individual sources of measurement error, dependability of cut-scores for decision making, estimation of reliability and dependability for changes made to measurement procedures, disattenuation of validity coefficients for measurement error, and linkages of G-theory with classical test theory and structural equation modeling...
January 23, 2017: Psychological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104901/reliability-of-a-viva-assessment-of-clinical-reasoning-in-an-australian-pre-professional-osteopathy-program-assessed-using-generalizability-theory
#12
Brett Vaughan, Paul Orrock, Sandra Grace
Clinical reasoning is situation-dependent and case-specific; therefore, assessments incorporating different patient presentations are warranted. The present study aimed to determine the reliability of a multi-station case-based viva assessment of clinical reasoning in an Australian pre-registration osteopathy program using generalizability theory. Students (from years 4 and 5) and examiners were recruited from the osteopathy program at Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia. The study took place on a single day in the student teaching clinic...
2017: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072462/reliability-of-the-electrocortical-response-to-gains-and-losses-in-the-doors-task
#13
Amanda R Levinson, Brittany C Speed, Zachary P Infantolino, Greg Hajcak
The ability to differentiate between rewards and losses is critical for motivated action, and aberrant reward and loss processing has been associated with psychopathology. The reward positivity (RewP) and feedback negativity (FN) are ERPs elicited by monetary gains and losses, respectively, and are promising individual difference measures. However, few studies have reported on the psychometric properties of the RewP and FN-crucial characteristics necessary for valid individual difference measures. The current study examined the internal consistency and 1-week test-retest reliability of the RewP and FN as elicited by the doors task among 59 young adults...
January 10, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069045/improving-nursing-home-care-through-feedback-on-performance-data-inform-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#14
Matthias Hoben, Peter G Norton, Liane R Ginsburg, Ruth A Anderson, Greta G Cummings, Holly J Lanham, Janet E Squires, Deanne Taylor, Adrian S Wagg, Carole A Estabrooks
BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback is effective in improving the quality of care. However, methods and results of international studies are heterogeneous, and studies have been criticized for a lack of systematic use of theory. In TREC (Translating Research in Elder Care), a longitudinal health services research program, we collect comprehensive data from care providers and residents in Canadian nursing homes to improve quality of care and life of residents, and quality of worklife of caregivers...
January 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069027/reliability-of-health-related-quality-of-life-assessments-made-by-older-adults-and-significant-others-for-health-states-of-increasing-cognitive-impairment
#15
Gina Bravo, Modou Sene, Marcel Arcand
BACKGROUND: Older adults are encouraged by many organizations to engage in advance care planning in the event of decisional incapacity. Planning for future health care often involves anticipating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in states of reduced cognitive functioning. No study has yet examined whether anticipated HRQoL is stable over time. The accuracy with which significant others can predict how an older adult envisions HRQoL in a future state of cognitive impairment is also unknown...
January 7, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056621/a-review-of-psychometrically-tested-instruments-assessing-suicide-risk-in-adults
#16
Elizabeth Kreuze, Dorian A Lamis
OBJECTIVE: Identify suicidal ideation and behavior screening instruments with the strongest psychometric properties, using the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior. METHODS: Information databases PsycINFO and PubMed were systematically searched, and articles evaluating the psychometric properties of instruments assessing suicidal ideation and behavior ( n = 2,238) were reviewed. International populations and articles with diverse methodologies were integrated...
January 1, 2017: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046070/affective-norms-for-italian-words-in-older-adults-age-differences-in-ratings-of-valence-arousal-and-dominance
#17
Beth Fairfield, Ettore Ambrosini, Nicola Mammarella, Maria Montefinese
In line with the dimensional theory of emotional space, we developed affective norms for words rated in terms of valence, arousal and dominance in a group of older adults to complete the adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian and to aid research on aging. Here, as in the original Italian ANEW database, participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance by means of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a paper-and-pencil procedure. We observed high split-half reliabilities within the older sample and high correlations with the affective ratings of previous research, especially for valence, suggesting that there is large agreement among older adults within and across-languages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044014/a-roadmap-for-the-study-of-conscious-audition-and-its-neural-basis
#18
REVIEW
Andrew R Dykstra, Peter A Cariani, Alexander Gutschalk
How and which aspects of neural activity give rise to subjective perceptual experience-i.e. conscious perception-is a fundamental question of neuroscience. To date, the vast majority of work concerning this question has come from vision, raising the issue of generalizability of prominent resulting theories. However, recent work has begun to shed light on the neural processes subserving conscious perception in other modalities, particularly audition. Here, we outline a roadmap for the future study of conscious auditory perception and its neural basis, paying particular attention to how conscious perception emerges (and of which elements or groups of elements) in complex auditory scenes...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018260/thrilling-news-revisited-the-role-of-suspense-for-the-enjoyment-of-news-stories
#19
Kai Kaspar, Daniel Zimmermann, Anne-Kathrin Wilbers
Previous research on news perception has been dominated by a cognitively oriented perspective on reception processes, whereas emotions have been widely neglected. Consequently, it has remained open which features of a news story might elicit affective responses and hence modulate news perception, shifting the focus to the emotional potential of the narrative. According to the affective-disposition theory, the experience of suspense is the striving force of immersion in fictional dramas. Thereby, a positive affective disposition toward the protagonist of a story and a high likelihood of a bad ending should increase suspense that, in turn, should positively influence reading appreciation and lingering interest in the story...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001436/teaching-resident-self-assessment-through-triangulation-of-faculty-and-patient-feedback
#20
Drew M Keister, Susan E Hansen, Julie Dostal
PROBLEM: To accurately determine one's ability in any clinical competency, an individual must be able to self-assess performance and identify personal limitations. Existing research demonstrates that physicians of all levels are unreliable self-assessors. This poses a concern in medical practice, which requires continuous updates to clinical competencies and awareness of personal limitations. Few published studies examine graduate medical education curricula designed to develop self-assessment skills...
December 21, 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
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