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Generalizability theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072462/reliability-of-the-electrocortical-response-to-gains-and-losses-in-the-doors-task
#1
Amanda R Levinson, Brittany C Speed, Zachary P Infantolino, Greg Hajcak
The ability to differentiate between rewards and losses is critical for motivated action, and aberrant reward and loss processing has been associated with psychopathology. The reward positivity (RewP) and feedback negativity (FN) are ERPs elicited by monetary gains and losses, respectively, and are promising individual difference measures. However, few studies have reported on the psychometric properties of the RewP and FN-crucial characteristics necessary for valid individual difference measures. The current study examined the internal consistency and 1-week test-retest reliability of the RewP and FN as elicited by the doors task among 59 young adults...
January 10, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069045/improving-nursing-home-care-through-feedback-on-performance-data-inform-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#2
Matthias Hoben, Peter G Norton, Liane R Ginsburg, Ruth A Anderson, Greta G Cummings, Holly J Lanham, Janet E Squires, Deanne Taylor, Adrian S Wagg, Carole A Estabrooks
BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback is effective in improving the quality of care. However, methods and results of international studies are heterogeneous, and studies have been criticized for a lack of systematic use of theory. In TREC (Translating Research in Elder Care), a longitudinal health services research program, we collect comprehensive data from care providers and residents in Canadian nursing homes to improve quality of care and life of residents, and quality of worklife of caregivers...
January 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069027/reliability-of-health-related-quality-of-life-assessments-made-by-older-adults-and-significant-others-for-health-states-of-increasing-cognitive-impairment
#3
Gina Bravo, Modou Sene, Marcel Arcand
BACKGROUND: Older adults are encouraged by many organizations to engage in advance care planning in the event of decisional incapacity. Planning for future health care often involves anticipating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in states of reduced cognitive functioning. No study has yet examined whether anticipated HRQoL is stable over time. The accuracy with which significant others can predict how an older adult envisions HRQoL in a future state of cognitive impairment is also unknown...
January 7, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056621/a-review-of-psychometrically-tested-instruments-assessing-suicide-risk-in-adults
#4
Elizabeth Kreuze, Dorian A Lamis
OBJECTIVE: Identify suicidal ideation and behavior screening instruments with the strongest psychometric properties, using the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior. METHODS: Information databases PsycINFO and PubMed were systematically searched, and articles evaluating the psychometric properties of instruments assessing suicidal ideation and behavior ( n = 2,238) were reviewed. International populations and articles with diverse methodologies were integrated...
January 1, 2017: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046070/affective-norms-for-italian-words-in-older-adults-age-differences-in-ratings-of-valence-arousal-and-dominance
#5
Beth Fairfield, Ettore Ambrosini, Nicola Mammarella, Maria Montefinese
In line with the dimensional theory of emotional space, we developed affective norms for words rated in terms of valence, arousal and dominance in a group of older adults to complete the adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian and to aid research on aging. Here, as in the original Italian ANEW database, participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance by means of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a paper-and-pencil procedure. We observed high split-half reliabilities within the older sample and high correlations with the affective ratings of previous research, especially for valence, suggesting that there is large agreement among older adults within and across-languages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044014/a-roadmap-for-the-study-of-conscious-audition-and-its-neural-basis
#6
REVIEW
Andrew R Dykstra, Peter A Cariani, Alexander Gutschalk
How and which aspects of neural activity give rise to subjective perceptual experience-i.e. conscious perception-is a fundamental question of neuroscience. To date, the vast majority of work concerning this question has come from vision, raising the issue of generalizability of prominent resulting theories. However, recent work has begun to shed light on the neural processes subserving conscious perception in other modalities, particularly audition. Here, we outline a roadmap for the future study of conscious auditory perception and its neural basis, paying particular attention to how conscious perception emerges (and of which elements or groups of elements) in complex auditory scenes...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018260/thrilling-news-revisited-the-role-of-suspense-for-the-enjoyment-of-news-stories
#7
Kai Kaspar, Daniel Zimmermann, Anne-Kathrin Wilbers
Previous research on news perception has been dominated by a cognitively oriented perspective on reception processes, whereas emotions have been widely neglected. Consequently, it has remained open which features of a news story might elicit affective responses and hence modulate news perception, shifting the focus to the emotional potential of the narrative. According to the affective-disposition theory, the experience of suspense is the striving force of immersion in fictional dramas. Thereby, a positive affective disposition toward the protagonist of a story and a high likelihood of a bad ending should increase suspense that, in turn, should positively influence reading appreciation and lingering interest in the story...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001436/teaching-resident-self-assessment-through-triangulation-of-faculty-and-patient-feedback
#8
Drew M Keister, Susan E Hansen, Julie Dostal
PROBLEM: To accurately determine one's ability in any clinical competency, an individual must be able to self-assess performance and identify personal limitations. Existing research demonstrates that physicians of all levels are unreliable self-assessors. This poses a concern in medical practice, which requires continuous updates to clinical competencies and awareness of personal limitations. Few published studies examine graduate medical education curricula designed to develop self-assessment skills...
December 21, 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991824/symbolic-meanings-of-sex-in-relationships-developing-the-meanings-of-sexual-behavior-inventory
#9
Amanda M Shaw, Ronald D Rogge
Consistent with symbolic interactionism and motivation research, the study explored the meanings of sexual behavior in romantic relationships in a sample of 3,003 online respondents. Starting with a pool of 104 respondent-generated items, Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor analyses in separate sample halves revealed a stable set of 9 dimensions within that item pool that formed 2 higher-order factors representing positive (to share pleasure, to bond, to de-stress, to energize the relationship, to learn more about each other) and negative (to manage conflict, as an incentive, to express anger, and to control partner) meanings of sexual behavior within relationships...
December 19, 2016: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988137/causal-inference-in-cumulative-risk-assessment-the-roles-of-directed-acyclic-graphs
#10
L Elizabeth Brewer, J Michael Wright, Glenn Rice, Lucas Neas, Linda Teuschler
Cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) address exposures to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors and often focus on characterization of health risks in vulnerable populations. Evaluating complex exposure-response relationships in CRAs requires the use of formal and rigorous methods for causal inference. Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) are graphical causal models used to organize and communicate knowledge about the underlying causal structure that generates observable data. Using existing graphical theories for causal inference with DAGs, risk analysts can identify confounders and effect measure modifiers to determine if the available data are both internally valid to obtain unbiased risk estimates and generalizable to populations of interest...
December 14, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966799/infant-attachment-and-maternal-sensitivity-in-the-arab-minority-in-israel
#11
Ghadir Zreik, David Oppenheim, Abraham Sagi-Schwartz
This study is the first to examine infant-mother attachment in the Arab culture. Eighty-five Arab 1-year-old infants from Israel were observed in the strange situation, and maternal sensitivity was assessed from home observations. Supporting attachment theory's normativity hypothesis, no differences were found between the Arab-Israeli attachment distribution and Jewish-Israeli, Western, and non-Western distributions when examined at the two-way secure versus insecure level, although a few differences emerged when examined at the four-way ABCD level...
December 14, 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923482/reproducibility-of-a-new-signal-processing-technique-to-assess-joint-sway-during-standing
#12
Fabian Marcel Rast, Judith Verena Graser, André Meichtry, Markus Josef Ernst, Christoph Michael Bauer
Postural control strategies can be investigated by kinematic analysis of joint movements. However, current research is focussing mainly on the analysis of centre of pressure excursion and lacks consensus on how to assess joint movement during postural control tasks. This study introduces a new signal processing technique to comprehensively quantify joint sway during standing and evaluates its reproducibility. Fifteen patients with non-specific low back pain and ten asymptomatic participants performed three repetitions of a 60-second standing task on foam surface...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914181/can-sonography-be-used-to-estimate-deep-abdominal-muscle-activation-in-different-static-arm-positions-while-standing
#13
Martin Eriksson Crommert, Monica Unsgaard-Tøndel, Ottar Vasseljen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether sonography is a reliable tool for measuring deep abdominal muscle activation in different static arm positions while standing. METHODS: Sonographic recordings were made of the transversus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis in 4 different static arm positions that varied with regard to the postural demand and loading direction posed on the trunk. Ten nonconsecutive repetitions of each arm position were performed, and thickness measurements were made at 2 locations within each muscle...
January 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906769/measuring-harm-in-health-care-optimizing-adverse-event-review
#14
Kathleen E Walsh, Polina Harik, Kathleen M Mazor, Deborah Perfetto, Milena Anatchkova, Colleen Biggins, Joann Wagner, Pamela J Schoettker, Cassandra Firneno, Robert Klugman, Jennifer Tjia
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify modifiable factors that improve the reliability of ratings of severity of health care-associated harm in clinical practice improvement and research. METHODS: A diverse group of clinicians rated 8 types of adverse events: blood product, device or medical/surgical supply, fall, health care-associated infection, medication, perinatal, pressure ulcer, surgery. We used a generalizability theory framework to estimate the impact of number of raters, rater experience, and rater provider type on reliability...
November 30, 2016: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871920/integrating-long-acting-reversible-contraception-larc-services-into-new-york-city-school-based-health-centers-sbhcs-quality-improvement-to-ensure-provision-of-youth-friendly-services
#15
Manaswi Sangraula, Samantha Garbers, Janet Garth, Emily Birchfield Shakibnia, Sarah Timmons, Melanie A Gold
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Adolescents face barriers to accessing youth-friendly family planning services, specifically long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). School-Based Health Centers (SBHCs) can provide youth-friendly care. A quality improvement (QI) project was undertaken to assess quality of care before, during and after LARC services at three SBHCs, and to identify specific strategies for improving these LARC services. METHODS: We interviewed 18 female adolescents who received LARC services...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862985/theory-analysis-of-the-dental-hygiene-human-needs-conceptual-model
#16
L MacDonald, D M Bowen
PURPOSE: Theories provide a structural knowing about concept relationships, practice intricacies, and intuitions and thus shape the distinct body of the profession. Capturing ways of knowing and being is essential to any professions' practice, education and research. This process defines the phenomenon of the profession - its existence or experience. Theory evaluation is a systematic criterion-based assessment of a specific theory. This study presents a theory analysis of the Dental Hygiene Human Needs Conceptual Model (DH HNCM)...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848212/examining-the-role-of-a-community-coalition-in-facilitating-policy-and-environmental-changes-to-promote-physical-activity-the-case-of-get-fit-kaua-i
#17
Lehua B Choy, Jay E Maddock, Beverley Brody, Katherine L Richards, Kathryn L Braun
Community coalitions help to generate policy and environmental changes that address community health problems. This qualitative study examined how one community coalition, Get Fit Kaua'i, catalyzed built environment (BE) policy and infrastructure changes in a rural county in Hawai'i. The purpose was to develop a theory that explained the process by which the community coalition facilitated BE changes to support physical activity. Using a grounded theory approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 25 stakeholders engaged in the coalition's BE activities...
December 2016: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819474/structure-as-cause-and-representation-implications-of-descriptivist-inference-for-structural-modeling-across-multiple-levels-of-analysis
#18
Kristian E Markon, Katherine G Jonas
What does a structural model reflect? Different answers to this question implicitly underlie different nosological paradigms. Traditionally, structural analysis has been seen as a process of identifying true or causative values, states, or conditions. This paradigm has faced mounting challenges, however, as psychopathology theory and research has come to encompass different levels of analysis, with concomitant questions about what constructs are most "correct." Here, we discuss an alternative descriptivist paradigm, in which models are seen as the process of identifying optimally parsimonious, generalizable representations of observations...
November 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805955/why-does-this-learner-perform-poorly-on-tests-using-self-regulated-learning-theory-to-diagnose-the-problem-and-implement-solutions
#19
Mary A Andrews, William F Kelly, Kent J DeZee
PROBLEM: Learners who underperform on standardized tests are common throughout all levels of medical education and require considerable faculty time and effort to remediate. Current methods for remediating test-taking difficulties are typically not grounded in educational theory or supported by high-quality evidence. APPROACH: A test-taking assessment was developed based on self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic assessment and training and used during academic year 2012-2013...
November 1, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792705/-level-of-clinical-competence-in-seven-cohorts-of-medical-students-at-the-end-of-the-internship
#20
Adrián Martínez-González, Melchor Sánchez-Mendiola, Ignacio Méndez-Ramírez, Juan Andrés Trejo-Mejía
INTRODUCTION: Objective structured clinical examination is the instrument with more validated evidence to assess the degree of clinical competence of medical students. OBJECTIVES: To assess the degree of clinical competence of medical students at the end of their internship; to assess the reliability of the instruments with G theory. METHODS: This was an observational, longitudinal, and comparative study. The target population was composed of 5,399 interns of seven generations that finished their internship at the Faculty of Medicine of UNAM, between 2009 and 2015...
September 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
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