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Generalizability theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666918/procedure-specific-assessment-tool-for-flexible-pharyngo-laryngoscopy-gathering-validity-evidence-and-setting-pass-fail-standards
#1
Jacob Melchiors, K Petersen, T Todsen, A Bohr, Lars Konge, Christian von Buchwald
OBJECTIVE: The attainment of specific identifiable competencies is the primary measure of progress in the modern medical education system. The system, therefore, requires a method for accurately assessing competence to be feasible. Evidence of validity needs to be gathered before an assessment tool can be implemented in the training and assessment of physicians. This evidence of validity must according to the contemporary theory on validity be gathered from specific sources in a structured and rigorous manner...
April 17, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648892/assessment-of-the-readiness-for-interprofessional-learning-scale-ripls-an-item-response-theory-analysis
#2
Matthew James Kerry, Rongmei Wang, Jinbing Bai
This short report aims to bring evidence from modern psychometric methods to bear on a popularly deployed questionnaire in interprofessional education (IPE) assessment. Specifically, three interrelated problems raised against the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) are examined in a study with 280 medical and nursing student participants. Firstly, findings support RIPLS overall reliability, but fail to support subscale reliabilities. Secondly, findings indicate a strong, general factor underlying the RIPLS that supports unidimensional interpretations...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628529/ssc-eke-semi-supervised-classification-with-extensive-knowledge-exploitation
#3
Pengjiang Qian, Chen Xi, Min Xu, Yizhang Jiang, Kuan-Hao Su, Shitong Wang, Raymond F Muzic
We introduce a new, semi-supervised classification method that extensively exploits knowledge. The method has three steps. First, the manifold regularization mechanism, adapted from the Laplacian support vector machine (LapSVM), is adopted to mine the manifold structure embedded in all training data, especially in numerous label-unknown data. Meanwhile, by converting the labels into pairwise constraints, the pairwise constraint regularization formula (PCRF) is designed to compensate for the few but valuable labelled data...
January 2018: Information Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621264/improving-the-understanding-of-sleep-apnea-characterization-using-recurrence-quantification-analysis-by-defining-overall-acceptable-values-for-the-dimensionality-of-the-system-the-delay-and-the-distance-threshold
#4
Sofía Martín-González, Juan L Navarro-Mesa, Gabriel Juliá-Serdá, G Marcelo Ramírez-Ávila, Antonio G Ravelo-García
Our contribution focuses on the characterization of sleep apnea from a cardiac rate point of view, using Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA), based on a Heart Rate Variability (HRV) feature selection process. Three parameters are crucial in RQA: those related to the embedding process (dimension and delay) and the threshold distance. There are no overall accepted parameters for the study of HRV using RQA in sleep apnea. We focus on finding an overall acceptable combination, sweeping a range of values for each of them simultaneously...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611408/the-effect-of-mental-rotation-on-surgical-pathological-diagnosis
#5
Heejung Park, Hyun Soo Kim, Yoon Jin Cha, Junjeong Choi, Yangki Minn, Kyung Sik Kim, Se Hoon Kim
PURPOSE: Pathological diagnosis involves very delicate and complex consequent processing that is conducted by a pathologist. The recognition of false patterns might be an important cause of misdiagnosis in the field of surgical pathology. In this study, we evaluated the influence of visual and cognitive bias in surgical pathologic diagnosis, focusing on the influence of "mental rotation." MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed three sets of the same images of uterine cervix biopsied specimens (original, left to right mirror images, and 180-degree rotated images), and recruited 32 pathologists to diagnose the 3 set items individually...
May 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606098/learning-from-errors-assessing-final-year-medical-students-reflection-on-safety-improvement-five-year-cohort-study
#6
Vicki Tully, Douglas Murphy, Evridiki Fioratou, Arun Chaudhuri, James Shaw, Peter Davey
BACKGROUND: Investigation of real incidents has been consistently identified by expert reviews and student surveys as a potentially valuable teaching resource for medical students. The aim of this study was to adapt a published method to measure resident doctors' reflection on quality improvement and evaluate this as an assessment tool for medical students. METHODS: The design is a cohort study. Medical students were prepared with a tutorial in team based learning format and an online Managing Incident Review course...
April 2, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605786/firearm-storage-and-shooting-experience-factors-relevant-to-the-practical-capability-for-suicide
#7
Sarah E Butterworth, Samantha E Daruwala, Michael D Anestis
The capability for suicide is posited to facilitate the relatively rare transition from suicidal ideation to suicidal behavior, although the operational definition of the construct continues to evolve. The Three Step Theory proposes that capability is multifaceted and includes practical capability for suicide, defined as comfort with and access to lethal means. Empirical examinations of this construct are thus far limited. Two previous studies have examined the association between firearm storage and shooting experience and common measures of capability for suicide...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570754/computational-fluid-dynamics-of-vascular-disease-in-animal-models
#8
Andrea Acuna, Alycia Berman, Frederick Damen, Brett Myers, Amelia Adelsperger, Kelsey Bayer, Melissa Brindise, Brittani L Bungart, Alexander M Kiel, Rachel Morrison, Joseph Muskat, Kelsey Wasilczuk, Yi Wen, Jiacheng Zhang, Patrick Zito, Craig Goergen
Recent applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) applied to the cardiovascular system have demonstrated its power in investigating the impact of hemodynamics on disease initiation, progression, and treatment outcomes. Flow metrics such as pressure distributions, wall shear stresses, and blood velocity profiles can be quantified to provide insight into observed pathologies, assist with surgical planning, or even predict disease progression. While numerous studies have performed simulations on clinical human patient data, it often lacks pre-diagnosis information and can be subject to large inter-subject variability, limiting the generalizability of findings...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569015/psychometric-properties-of-the-chinese-version-of-resilience-scale-specific-to-cancer-an-item-response-theory-analysis
#9
Zeng Jie Ye, Mu Zi Liang, Hao Wei Zhang, Peng Fei Li, Xue Ren Ouyang, Yuan Liang Yu, Mei Ling Liu, Hong Zhong Qiu
OBJECTIVE: Classic theory test has been used to develop and validate the 25-item Resilience Scale Specific to Cancer (RS-SC) in Chinese patients with cancer. This study was designed to provide additional information about the discriminative value of the individual items tested with an item response theory analysis. METHODS: A two-parameter graded response model was performed to examine whether any of the items of the RS-SC exhibited problems with the ordering and steps of thresholds, as well as the ability of items to discriminate patients with different resilience levels using item characteristic curves...
March 22, 2018: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559936/relationship-of-event-related-potentials-to-the-vigilance-decrement
#10
Ashley Haubert, Matt Walsh, Rachel Boyd, Megan Morris, Megan Wiedbusch, Mike Krusmark, Glenn Gunzelmann
Cognitive fatigue emerges in wide-ranging tasks and domains, but traditional vigilance tasks provide a well-studied context in which to explore the mechanisms underlying it. Though a variety of experimental methodologies have been used to investigate cognitive fatigue in vigilance, relatively little research has utilized electroencephalography (EEG), specifically event-related potentials (ERPs), to explore the nature of cognitive fatigue, also known as the vigilance decrement. Moreover, much of the research that has been done on vigilance and ERPs uses non-traditional vigilance paradigms, limiting generalizability to the established body of behavioral results and corresponding theories...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546334/validating-the-revised-scale-for-caregiving-self-efficacy-a-cross-national-review
#11
Ann M Steffen, Dolores Gallagher-Thompson, Katherine M Arenella, Alma Au, Sheung-Tak Cheng, María Crespo, Victoria Cristancho-Lacroix, Javier López, Andrés Losada-Baltar, María Márquez-González, Celia Nogales-González, Rosa Romero-Moreno
Background and Objectives: This article reviews an instrument used in cross-national research with dementia family caregivers-the Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy (RSCSE). Although the RSCSE has been translated into multiple languages, few studies have examined scale performance across samples. We examine congruence of psychometric, reliability, and validity data to inform research and practice. Methods: We conducted citation searches using Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PsycINFO...
March 12, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531092/metastudies-for-robust-tests-of-theory
#12
Beth Baribault, Chris Donkin, Daniel R Little, Jennifer S Trueblood, Zita Oravecz, Don van Ravenzwaaij, Corey N White, Paul De Boeck, Joachim Vandekerckhove
We describe and demonstrate an empirical strategy useful for discovering and replicating empirical effects in psychological science. The method involves the design of a metastudy, in which many independent experimental variables-that may be moderators of an empirical effect-are indiscriminately randomized. Radical randomization yields rich datasets that can be used to test the robustness of an empirical claim to some of the vagaries and idiosyncrasies of experimental protocols and enhances the generalizability of these claims...
March 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488098/i-assess-evaluating-the-impact-of-electronic-data-capture-for-osce
#13
Sandra Monteiro, Debra Sibbald, Karen Coetzee
INTRODUCTION: Tablet-based assessments offer benefits over scannable-paper assessments; however, there is little known about the impact to the variability of assessment scores. METHODS: Two studies were conducted to evaluate changes in rating technology. Rating modality (paper vs tablets) was manipulated between candidates (Study 1) and within candidates (Study 2). Average scores were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA, Cronbach's alpha and generalizability theory...
February 27, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470762/intergenerational-transmission-of-educational-aspirations-in-chinese-families-identifying-mediators-and-moderators
#14
Nini Wu, Yang Hou, Qian Wang, Chengfu Yu
Parents' educational aspirations for youth play an important role in shaping youth's own educational aspirations; however, little is known about how and in what context parents may transmit their aspirations to youth effectively. This is of particular interest and import to be examined in Chinese families, given Chinese cultural emphasis on educational achievement and Chinese youth's outstanding academic performance internationally. By integrating several key theories of motivation and parental socialization (i...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428351/theory-of-mind-in-remitted-bipolar-disorder-younger-patients-struggle-in-tasks-of-higher-ecological-validity
#15
Julia Feyerabend, Stefan Lüttke, Fabienne Grosse-Wentrup, Sibylla Wolter, Martin Hautzinger, Larissa Wolkenstein
BACKGROUND: To date, research concerning Theory of Mind (ToM) in remitted bipolar disorder (rBD) has yielded inconclusive results. This may be a result of methodological shortcomings and the failure to consider relevant third variables. Furthermore, studies using ecologically valid stimuli are rare. This study examines ToM in rBD patients, using ecologically valid stimuli. Additionally, the effects of sad mood induction (MI) as well as of age and gender are considered. METHODS: The sample comprises N = 44 rBD patients (rBDPs) and N = 40 healthy controls (HCs)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427288/handedness-in-gestural-and-manipulative-actions-in-male-hunter-gatherer-aka-pygmies-from-central-african-republic
#16
Benjamin Robira, Emmanuelle Pouydebat, Aurore San-Galli, Ellen J M Meulman, Françoise Aubaile, Thomas Breuer, Shelly Masi
OBJECTIVES: All human populations display a right-biased handedness. Nonetheless, if studies on western populations are plenty, investigations of traditional populations living at subsistence levels are rare. Yet, understanding the geographical variation of phenotypes of handedness is crucial for testing evolutionary hypotheses. We aimed to provide a preliminary investigation of factors affecting handedness in 25 Aka pygmies from Central African Republic when spontaneously gesturing or manipulating food/tools (Nactions  = 593)...
February 10, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412498/functional-connectivity-in-replicated-urban-landscapes-in-the-land-snail-cornu-aspersum
#17
Manon Balbi, Aude Ernoult, Pedro Poli, Luc Madec, Annie Guiller, Marie-Claire Martin, Jean Nabucet, Véronique Beaujouan, Eric J Petit
Urban areas are highly fragmented and thereby exert strong constraints on individual dispersal. Despite this, some species manage to persist in urban areas, such as the garden snail, Cornu aspersum, which is common in cityscapes despite its low mobility. Using landscape genetic approaches, we combined study area replication and multi-scale analysis to determine how landscape composition, configuration, and connectivity influence snail dispersal across urban areas. At the overall landscape scale, areas with a high percentage of roads decreased genetic differentiation between populations...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402529/psychometric-properties-of-neural-responses-to-monetary-and-social-rewards-across-development
#18
Paige Ethridge, Anna Weinberg
Reward-related event-related potentials (ERPs) are often used to index individual differences that signal the presence or predict the onset of psychopathology. However, relatively little research has explored the psychometric properties of reward-related ERPs. Without understanding their psychometric properties, the value of using ERPs as biomarkers for psychopathology is limited. The present study, therefore, sought to establish the internal consistency reliability and convergent validity of the reward positivity (RewP) and feedback negativity (FN) elicited by two types of incentives commonly used in individual differences research - monetary and social rewards...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389158/the-psychological-roots-of-anti-vaccination-attitudes-a-24-nation-investigation
#19
Matthew J Hornsey, Emily A Harris, Kelly S Fielding
OBJECTIVE: Strengthening of antivaccination movements in recent decades has coincided with unprecedented increases in the incidence of some communicable diseases. Many intervention programs work from a deficit model of science communication, presuming that vaccination skeptics lack the ability to access or understand evidence. However, interventions focusing on evidence and the debunking of vaccine-related myths have proven to be either nonproductive or counterproductive. Working from a motivated reasoning perspective, we examine the psychological factors that might motivate people to reject scientific consensus around vaccination...
February 1, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370793/cross-validation-of-a-learning-climate-instrument-in-a-non-western-postgraduate-clinical-environment
#20
Jaime L Pacifico, Cees P M van der Vleuten, Arno M M Muijtjens, Erlyn A Sana, Sylvia Heeneman
BACKGROUND: In postgraduate training, there is a need to continuously assess the learning and working conditions to optimize learning. Students or trainees respond to the learning climate as they perceive it. The Dutch Residency Educational Climate Test (D-RECT) is a learning climate measurement tool with well-substantiated validity. However, it was originally designed for Dutch postgraduate trainees and it remains to be shown whether extrapolation to non-Western settings is viable. The dual objective of this study was to revalidate D-RECT outside of a Western setting and to evaluate the factor structure of a recently revised version of the D-RECT containing 35 items...
January 25, 2018: BMC Medical Education
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