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Generalizability theory

Jarrod Blinch, Youngdeok Kim, Romeo Chua
A powerful tool in motor behavior research is trajectory analysis of discrete goal-directed pointing movements. The purpose of the present analysis was to estimate the minimum number of trials per participant required to achieve the conventional level of reliability for trajectory analysis. We analyzed basic measurements of movement and three common methods of trajectory analysis within the framework of generalizability theory. Generalizability studies were used to decompose the total variance of these variables into the percent contributions from person, trial, and the person-by-trial interaction...
December 7, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Marco Maselli, Erica Gobbi, Attilio Carraro
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) promotion among university students is important to contribute to a lifelong healthy lifestyle. Nevertheless, research in the field is still limited in quantity, quality and generalizability. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of two individual-based strategies for promoting PA among university students in such university contexts where course-based interventions are difficult to implement. METHOD: Thirty-three university students were recruited by means of face-to-face interviews and randomly assigned to three groups...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Rahul Maitra, Takahito Nakajima
We present an accurate single reference coupled cluster theory in which the conventional Fock operator matrix is suitably dressed to simulate the effect of triple and higher excitations within a singles and doubles framework. The dressing thus invoked originates from a second-order perturbative approximation of a similarity transformed Hamiltonian and induces higher rank excitations through local renormalization of individual occupied and unoccupied orbital lines. Such a dressing is able to recover a significant amount of correlation effects beyond singles and doubles approximation, but only with an economic n5 additional cost...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Janis Paterson, Oleg N Medvedev, Alexander Sumich, El-Shadan Tautolo, Christian U Krägeloh, Rose Sisk, Robert K McNamara, Michael Berk, Ajit Narayanan, Richard J Siegert
BACKGROUND: The distinction between temporary versus enduring or state/trait aspects of depression is important. More precise distinction would improve understanding of the aetiology of depression and those aspects most amenable to intervention thus identifying more homogeneous, dynamic targets for clinical trials. Generalizability Theory has been proposed as useful for disentangling state and trait components of psychopathology. METHODS: We applied Generalizability Theory to determine the relative contributions of temporary and enduring aspects of depression in a widely used screening measure of depression the - 10-item Children's Depression Inventory (CDI-10; Kovacs, 1985)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
Lauren M Schaefer, Natasha L Burke, Rachel M Calogero, Jessie E Menzel, Ross Krawczyk, J Kevin Thompson
Objectification theory asserts that self-objectification, which manifests as self-surveillance, leads to increased body shame and subsequent eating pathology. Although evidence supports the core mediational model, the majority of this work utilizes primarily White samples, limiting generalizability to other ethnic groups. The current study examined whether the core tenets of objectification theory generalize to Black and Hispanic women. Participants were 880 college women from the United States (71.7% White, 15...
November 21, 2017: Body Image
Ashra Kolhatkar, Andrea Keesey, Bob Bluman, Brenna Lynn, Tandi Wilkinson
INTRODUCTION: The challenges facing emergency medicine (EM) services in Canada reflect the limitations of the entire healthcare system. The emergency department (ED) is uniquely situated in the healthcare system such that shortcomings in hospital- and community-based services are often first revealed there. This is especially true in rural settings, where there are additional site-specific barriers to the provision of EM care. Existing studies look at the factors that influence rural EM physicians in isolation...
November 2017: Rural and Remote Health
Rokhsaneh Tehrany, Ruth DeVos, Anne Bruton
Breathing retraining (BR) improves symptoms, psychological well-being and quality of life in adults with asthma; but there remains uncertainty as to mechanism of effect. One of the intuitively logical theories is that BR works through altering breathing pattern. There is currently no evidence, however, that BR does result in measurable changes in breathing pattern. In this case report we describe the effects of physiotherapy BR on a 57-year-old female with a 10-year history of asthma. Data were collected before and after a physiotherapy BR program comprising three sessions over 18 weeks: breathing pattern (respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP); physiology (end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2), heart rate, oxygen saturations, spirometric lung function); questionnaires (Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score, Nijmegen Questionnaire); and medication usage...
November 10, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Dario Cecilio-Fernandes, Harro Medema, Carlos Fernando Collares, Lambert Schuwirth, Janke Cohen-Schotanus, René A Tio
BACKGROUND: Progress testing is an assessment tool used to periodically assess all students at the end-of-curriculum level. Because students cannot know everything, it is important that they recognize their lack of knowledge. For that reason, the formula-scoring method has usually been used. However, where partial knowledge needs to be taken into account, the number-right scoring method is used. Research comparing both methods has yielded conflicting results. As far as we know, in all these studies, Classical Test Theory or Generalizability Theory was used to analyze the data...
November 9, 2017: BMC Medical Education
Tyrone D Cannon, Hengyi Cao, Daniel H Mathalon, Jennifer Forsyth
In this technical note, we clarify the meaning of the generalizability-theory based coefficients reported in our multisite reliability study of fMRI measures of regional brain activation during working memory processing (Forsyth et al., Neuroimage 2014;97:51-52). While the original paper reported generalizability and dependability coefficients based on the design of our traveling subjects study (in which each subject was scanned twice at each of eight sites), those coefficients are of limited applicability outside of the reliability study context...
November 4, 2017: NeuroImage
Gabriela Hurtado, Joseph D Hovey, Aubrey R Dueweke
The cross-cultural generalizability of the interpersonal theory of suicide was examined in this study. One hundred ninety-nine adults in an inpatient setting in Mexico completed the Personal Resources Questionnaire, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire, Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale, and Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised. Analyses revealed the interaction between perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness did not predict suicide ideation. The interactions between perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness and between perceived burdensomeness and acquired capacity significantly predicted suicidal behaviors, whereas the hypothesized three-way interaction did not...
November 6, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Alejandrina Cristia, Emmanuel Dupoux, Michael Gurven, Jonathan Stieglitz
This article provides an estimation of how frequently, and from whom, children aged 0-11 years (Ns between 9 and 24) receive one-on-one verbal input among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of lowland Bolivia. Analyses of systematic daytime behavioral observations reveal < 1 min per daylight hour is spent talking to children younger than 4 years of age, which is 4 times less than estimates for others present at the same time and place. Adults provide a majority of the input at 0-3 years of age but not afterward...
November 2, 2017: Child Development
Feng Zhang, Amanda J Fairchild, Xiaoming Li
Marsolek et al. (2006) have differentiated antipriming effects from priming effects, by adopting a novel priming paradigm comprised of four phases that include a baseline measurement. The general concept of antipriming supports the overlapping representation theory of knowledge. This study extended examination of the Marsolek et al. (2006) paradigm by investigating antipriming and priming effects in a series of Chinese character identification tasks. Results showed that identification accuracy of old characters was significantly higher than baseline measurements (i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Janet O'Brien, Marilyn S Thompson, Debra Hagler
The promotion of competency of nurses and other health-care professionals is a goal shared by many stakeholders. In nursing, observation-based assessments are often better suited than paper-and-pencil tests for assessing many clinical abilities. Unfortunately, few instruments for simulation-based assessment of competency have been published that have undergone stringent reliability and validity evaluation. Reliability analyses typically involve some measure of rater agreement, but other sources of measurement error that affect reliability should also be considered...
January 1, 2017: Evaluation & the Health Professions
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Falsifiability is not optional" by Etienne P. LeBel, Derek Berger, Lorne Campbell and Timothy J. Loving (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2017[Aug], Vol 113[2], 254-261). In the reply, there were two errors in the References list. The publishing year for the 14th and 21st articles was cited incorrectly as 2016. The in-text acronym associated with these citations should read instead as FER2017 and LCL2017. The correct References list citations should read as follows, respectively: Finkel, E...
November 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Sarah C Castle, Benjamin W Sullivan, Joseph Knelman, Eran Hood, Diana R Nemergut, Steven K Schmidt, Cory C Cleveland
A dominant paradigm in ecology is that plants are limited by nitrogen (N) during primary succession. Whether generalizable patterns of nutrient limitation are also applicable to metabolically and phylogenetically diverse soil microbial communities, however, is not well understood. We investigated if measures of N and phosphorus (P) pools inform our understanding of the nutrient(s) most limiting to soil microbial community activities during primary succession. We evaluated soil biogeochemical properties and microbial processes using two complementary methodological approaches-a nutrient addition microcosm experiment and extracellular enzyme assays-to assess microbial nutrient limitation across three actively retreating glacial chronosequences...
November 2017: Oecologia
Stephanie Noble, Marisa N Spann, Fuyuze Tokoglu, Xilin Shen, R Todd Constable, Dustin Scheinost
Best practices are currently being developed for the acquisition and processing of resting-state magnetic resonance imaging data used to estimate brain functional organization-or "functional connectivity." Standards have been proposed based on test-retest reliability, but open questions remain. These include how amount of data per subject influences whole-brain reliability, the influence of increasing runs versus sessions, the spatial distribution of reliability, the reliability of multivariate methods, and, crucially, how reliability maps onto prediction of behavior...
September 12, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Matteo Colombo, Leandra Bucher, Jan Sprenger
Explanation is a central concept in human psychology. Drawing upon philosophical theories of explanation, psychologists have recently begun to examine the relationship between explanation, probability and causality. Our study advances this growing literature at the intersection of psychology and philosophy of science by systematically investigating how judgments of explanatory power are affected by (i) the prior credibility of an explanatory hypothesis, (ii) the causal framing of the hypothesis, (iii) the perceived generalizability of the explanation, and (iv) the relation of statistical relevance between hypothesis and evidence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
David S Lee, Oscar Ybarra
Social support, in theory, should promote individual goal-pursuit. However, a growing number of studies shows that receiving support can undermine goal-pursuit. Addressing this paradox, we investigated a novel idea of the effects of how people think about their social support on their goal-pursuit. Four experiments showed that participants who were led to think abstractly (vs. concretely) about their social support showed higher intent to pursue their goal (Studies 1-3) and worked harder toward their goal (Study 4)...
April 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Luigi Castelli, Francesca D'Alpaos, Luciana Carraro, Florencia Pavan, Giovanni Galfano, Bruno Forti
BACKGROUND: Social cognition is severely impaired in schizophrenia. Emotion processing, attributional biases, and theory of mind are often impaired, as well as the understanding of shared social knowledge. So far, little is known about stereotype knowledge and endorsement in schizophrenia. SAMPLING AND METHODS: White patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy respondents reported both their personal beliefs and the predicted beliefs of other people toward Black (study 1) and Gypsy individuals (study 2)...
September 7, 2017: Psychopathology
Elizabeth R Felix, Rachel E Cowan, Tyler S Clark, Diana D Cardenas, Robert W Irwin
Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is an inexpensive and promising tool for sensitive measurement of tendon pathology. However, few studies have reported the psychometric properties of measurements obtained using this technique for assessments of the supraspinatus tendon. The present study was undertaken to determine the variance contributed by several sources of error (participant, ultrasound operator, image analyst, analysis session) to QUS measures of the supraspinatus tendon. Transverse images of the supraspinatus tendon were captured from eleven subjects (22 shoulders) by two ultrasonographers, and each image was analyzed by two image analysts who each completed two analysis runs...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
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