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Clinical performance

B K Singleton, M Ahmed, C A Green, H Heimpel, M J Woźniak, L Ranjha, F Seeney, A Bomford, P Mehta, A Guest, R Mushens, M-J King
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow examination has been the confirmatory test for congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II (CDAII). Occasional spherocytes on peripheral blood smear can confound the diagnosis. Since a screening test is still unavailable, we explored the feasibility of using flow cytometry as a preliminary screening method. METHODS: Thirteen monoclonal antibodies with specificities for eight erythrocyte membrane proteins were used in FACS analysis to probe the cellular features of red cells from CDAII, normal adults, hereditary spherocytosis (HS), and cord red cells...
October 26, 2016: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
Matthew J Klebanoff, Jagpreet Chhatwal, Jacob D Nudel, Kathleen E Corey, Lee M Kaplan, Chin Hur
Importance: Severe obesity affects 4% to 6% of US youth and is increasing in prevalence. Bariatric surgery for the treatment of adolescents with severe obesity is becoming more common, but data on cost-effectiveness are limited. Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery for adolescents with obesity using recently published results from the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study. Design, Setting, and Patients: A state-transition model was constructed to compare 2 strategies: no surgery and bariatric surgery...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Surgery
Jarrod D Frizzell, Li Liang, Phillip J Schulte, Clyde W Yancy, Paul A Heidenreich, Adrian F Hernandez, Deepak L Bhatt, Gregg C Fonarow, Warren K Laskey
Importance: Several attempts have been made at developing models to predict 30-day readmissions in patients with heart failure, but none have sufficient discriminatory capacity for clinical use. Machine-learning (ML) algorithms represent a novel approach and may have potential advantages over traditional statistical modeling. Objective: To develop models using a ML approach to predict all-cause readmissions 30 days after discharge from a heart failure hospitalization and to compare ML model performance with models developed using "conventional" statistically based methods...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Paolo Fusar-Poli, Grazia Rutigliano, Daniel Stahl, André Schmidt, Valentina Ramella-Cravaro, Shetty Hitesh, Philip McGuire
Importance: Pretest risk estimation is routinely used in clinical medicine to inform further diagnostic testing in individuals with suspected diseases. To our knowledge, the overall characteristics and specific determinants of pretest risk of psychosis onset in individuals undergoing clinical high risk (CHR) assessment are unknown. Objectives: To investigate the characteristics and determinants of pretest risk of psychosis onset in individuals undergoing CHR assessment and to develop and externally validate a pretest risk stratification model...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Jacques Klein, Arachk de Górski, Daniel Benamran, Jean-Paul Vallee, Thomas De Perrot, Gregory J Wirth, Christophe E Iselin
INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to evaluate 3 different modalities of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies (PBs; 2D-, 3D- and targeted 3D-TRUS with fusion to MRI - T3D). Primary end point was the detection rate of prostate cancer (PC). Secondary end point was the detection rate of insignificant PC according to the Epstein criteria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Inclusion of 284 subsequent patients who underwent 2D-, 3D- or T3D PB from 2011 to 2015. All patients having PB for initial PC detection with a serum prostate-specific antigen value ≤20 ng/ml were included...
October 27, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
Lorena P Suarez-Kelly, Gregory M Kemper, Megan C Duggan, Andrew Stiff, Tiffany C Nole, Joseph Markowitz, Eric A Luedke, Vedat O Yildiz, Lianbo Yu, Alena Cristina Jaime-Ramirez, Volodymyr Karpa, Xiaoli Zhang, William E Carson
The ubiquitin-proteasome signaling pathway is critical for cell cycle regulation and neoplastic growth. Proteasome inhibition can activate apoptotic pathways. Bortezomib, a selective proteasome inhibitor, has anti-melanoma activity. MLN2238 (ixazomib), an oral proteasome inhibitor, has improved pharmacotherapeutic parameters compared to bortezomib. Interferon-alpha (IFN-α), an immune boosting agent, is FDA-approved for treatment of melanoma. In this study in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antitumor potential of ixazomib and combination treatments with ixazomib and IFN-α were performed...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Anke M Klein, Rianne van Niekerk, Giovanni Ten Brink, Ronald M Rapee, Jennifer L Hudson, Susan M Bögels, Eni S Becker, Mike Rinck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive theories suggest that cognitive biases may be related and together influence the anxiety response. However, little is known about the interrelations of cognitive bias tasks and whether they allow for an improved prediction of fear-related behavior in addition to self-reports. This study simultaneously addressed several types of cognitive biases in children, to investigate attention bias, interpretation bias, memory bias and fear-related associations, their interrelations and the prediction of behavior...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Nancy W Selix, Stefan Rowniak
INTRODUCTION: Transgender individuals have unique health care needs and experience health disparities. There is an increased need for transgender health care services and primary care for this underserved population. However, provision of appropriate health care services for transgender persons requires cultural competency and skill on the part of the health care provider, and providers need specific skills to address the needs of this population. METHODS: A review of the literature was performed by accessing CINAHL, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
Roopali Khanna, Deepchandh Raja, Pravin K Goel
Coronary cameral fistula is a rare congenital cardiac abnormality. An 18-year-old boy presented with features of right heart volume overload. Clinical examination was suggestive of hyperdynamic circulation with continuous murmur in precordium. 2D echocardiography showed dilated right coronary artery, and 3D echocardiography added information in tracing the track of the fistula which was consistent with the diagnosis of right coronary cameral fistula draining into the right ventricle. Coronary angiograms revealed an unusually dilated right coronary artery giving the appearance of an "elephant trunk" and with a fistulous tract into the right ventricle...
October 2016: Echocardiography
Ana B Castro, Nastaran Meschi, Andy Temmerman, Nelson Pinto, Paul Lambrechts, Wim Teughels, Marc Quirynen
AIM: To analyse the regenerative potential of Leucocyte- and Platelet Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) during periodontal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic and hand search were conducted in three databases. Only randomised clinical trials were selected and no follow-up limitation was applied. Pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bone fill, keratinized tissue width (KTW), recession reduction, and root coverage (%) were considered as outcome. When possible, meta-analysis was performed...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Nilesh Chande, Cassandra M Townsend, Claire E Parker, John K MacDonald
BACKGROUND: The results from controlled clinical trials investigating the efficacy of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine for the treatment of active Crohn's disease have been conflicting and controversial. An updated meta-analysis was performed to assess the effectiveness of these drugs for the induction of remission in active Crohn's disease. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the efficacy and safety of azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine for induction of remission in active Crohn's disease...
October 26, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Shoji Nishio, Shigeo Fukunishi, Shinichi Yoshiya, David C Sing, Erik N Hansen, Thomas P Vail
The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of patients who required revision and the rate of early complications after revision for metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (MOM THA) and metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty (MOP THA). Matched cohorts were selected by retrospective review from a single-center database of revision THAs for failed MOM and MOP THAs from 2010 to 2014. A total of 140 hips in 140 patients comprised the study population; 39 revisions were performed for failed MOM THAs (MOM group), and 101 revisions were performed for failed MOP THAs (MOP group)...
October 25, 2016: Orthopedics
Cristhiene Montone Nunes Ramires, Fátima Cristina Alves Branco-Barreiro, Érica Toledo Piza Peluso
Hearing loss among children, particularly those with severe and profound hearing impairment, has an effect on their communication and development, which in turn can have a significant impact on their parents. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of parents of children with hearing loss and identify the associated factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving parents of children that went through phonoaudiological therapy at a public university clinic in the city of São Paulo. The research instruments used were: the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-bref), the Social Support Questionnaire 6 (SSQ-6) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12)...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Sarah E Baum, Kari White, Kristine Hopkins, Joseph E Potter, Daniel Grossman
BACKGROUND: In November 2013, Texas implemented three abortion restrictions included in House Bill 2 (HB 2). Within six months, the number of facilities providing abortion decreased by almost half, and the remaining facilities were concentrated in large urban centers. The number of medication abortions decreased by 70% compared to the same period one year prior due to restrictions on this method imposed by HB 2. The purpose of this study was to explore qualitatively the experiences of women who were most affected by the law: those who had to travel farther to reach a facility and those desiring medication abortion...
2016: PloS One
Athumani M Ramadhani, Tamsyn Derrick, David Macleod, Martin J Holland, Matthew J Burton
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is a blinding disease, initiated in early childhood by repeated conjunctival infection with the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The population prevalence of the clinical signs of active trachoma; ''follicular conjunctivitis" (TF) and/or ''intense papillary inflammation" (TI), guide programmatic decisions regarding the initiation and cessation of mass drug administration (MDA). However, the persistence of TF following resolution of infection at both the individual and population level raises concerns over the suitability of this clinical sign as a marker for C...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Chwan Hong Foo, Christina L Rootes, Karla Cowley, Glenn A Marsh, Cathryn M Gould, Celine Deffrasnes, Christopher J Cowled, Reuben Klein, Sarah J Riddell, Deborah Middleton, Kaylene J Simpson, Lin-Fa Wang, Andrew G D Bean, Cameron R Stewart
Hendra and Nipah viruses (family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus) are bat-borne viruses that cause fatal disease in humans and a range of other mammalian species. Gaining a deeper understanding of host pathways exploited by henipaviruses for infection may identify targets for new anti-viral therapies. Here we have performed genome-wide high-throughput agonist and antagonist screens at biosafety level 4 to identify host-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) impacting henipavirus infection in human cells. Members of the miR-181 and miR-17~93 families strongly promoted Hendra virus infection...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Michel Tchuenche, Eurica Palmer, Vibhuti Haté, Ananthy Thambinayagam, Dayanund Loykissoonlal, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli, Steven Forsythe
Given compelling evidence associating voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) with men's reduced HIV acquisition through heterosexual intercourse, South Africa in 2010 began scaling up VMMC. To project the resources needed to complete 4.3 million circumcisions between 2010 and 2016, we (1) estimated the unit cost to provide VMMC; (2) assessed cost drivers and cost variances across eight provinces and VMMC service delivery modes; and (3) evaluated the costs associated with mobilize and motivate men and boys to access VMMC services...
2016: PloS One
Xiurong Yu, Hongying Sun, Xiangyun Lin, Xiuxiang Liu
BACKGROUND Breast feeding can enhance preterm infants' neurodevelopmental outcome, regulate immune function development. This study aims to develop breastfeeding evaluation indicators system in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and to provide theoretical basis for all-round evaluation of breast feeding quality for hospitalized preterm infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was performed based on Avedis Donabedian's theory of medical care quality. Preterm infant breast feeding evaluation indicators system frame was initially formed by using literature review, clinical on-spot observation and expert consultation methods...
October 26, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
James P MacDonald, Pierre A dʼHemecourt, Lyle J Micheli
OBJECTIVE: Young athletes not uncommonly complain of back pain. Many patient-reported outcome measures are used to evaluate back pain, but none have been designed specifically to assess young, athletic patients. The Micheli Functional Scale (MFS) was developed to measure impairment due to back pain in this population. This study examined the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the MFS used in routine clinical assessments. DESIGN: Retrospective Cohort Study...
November 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Joshua D Brown, Anand R Shewale, Jeffery C Talbert
BACKGROUND: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are widely used for prevention of stroke secondary to nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Increased use of NOACs is partially a result of simplified regimens compared with warfarin, which has been associated with poor adherence and persistence to therapy. Few studies have assessed adherence to NOACs, especially using contemporary data now that multiple NOACs are available. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adherence to NOACs in a cohort of newly diagnosed NVAF patients who are commercially insured...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
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