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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031156/hiv-misdiagnosis-a-root-cause-analysis-leading-to-improvements-in-hiv-diagnosis-and-patient-care
#1
Raynell Lang, Carmen Charlton, Brenda Beckthold, Kiana Kadivar, Stephanie Lavoie, Doug Caswell, Paul Levett, Greg Horsman, John Kim, M John Gill
BACKGROUND: Standard diagnostic testing for HIV infection has traditionally relied on a high sensitivity HIV antibody screening test using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) followed by a high specificity antibody confirmatory test such as a Western Blot. Recently several of the screening assays have been enhanced with an ability to identify p24 antigen thereby narrowing the diagnostic window. OBJECTIVES: To explore the implications of enhanced HIV screening methods that may be leading to HIV misdiagnoses...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031107/accuracy-precision-and-inter-rater-reliability-of-micro-ct-analysis-of-false-starts-on-bones-a-preliminary-validation-study
#2
Guido Pelletti, Giovanni Cecchetto, Alessia Viero, Paolo Fais, Michael Weber, Diego Miotto, Massimo Montisci, Guido Viel, Chiara Giraudo
Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) has already been proposed as a useful technique for the qualitative analysis of false starts (FS) produced on human bones, although the reliability and the error rate of this technique have not been tested yet, neither for qualitative nor for quantitative assessments. The aim of the present study was to test the morphological agreement, accuracy, precision and inter-rater reliability of micro-CT analysis of FS on bones. The morphological agreement was assessed through the degree of concordance among the 3 independent blind raters in the identification of the shape of 24 FS manually produced on bones by 3 different saws (8 FS for each saw)...
October 6, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031099/shear-wave-elastography-for-characterization-of-breast-lesions-shearlet-transform-and-local-binary-pattern-histogram-techniques
#3
U Rajendra Acharya, Wei Lin Ng, Kartini Rahmat, Vidya K Sudarshan, Joel E W Koh, Jen Hong Tan, Yuki Hagiwara, Arkadiusz Gertych, Farhana Fadzli, Chai Hong Yeong, Kwan Hoong Ng
Shear wave elastography (SWE) examination using ultrasound elastography (USE) is a popular imaging procedure for obtaining elasticity information of breast lesions. Elasticity parameters obtained through SWE can be used as biomarkers that can distinguish malignant breast lesions from benign ones. Furthermore, the elasticity parameters extracted from SWE can speed up the diagnosis and possibly reduce human errors. In this paper, Shearlet transform and local binary pattern histograms (LBPH) are proposed as an original algorithm to differentiate malignant and benign breast lesions...
October 2, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031083/neural-network-robust-tracking-control-with-adaptive-critic-framework-for-uncertain-nonlinear-systems
#4
Ding Wang, Derong Liu, Yun Zhang, Hongyi Li
In this paper, we aim to tackle the neural robust tracking control problem for a class of nonlinear systems using the adaptive critic technique. The main contribution is that a neural-network-based robust tracking control scheme is established for nonlinear systems involving matched uncertainties. The augmented system considering the tracking error and the reference trajectory is formulated and then addressed under adaptive critic optimal control formulation, where the initial stabilizing controller is not needed...
September 21, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031081/optimization-of-the-promega-powerseq%C3%A2-auto-y-system-for-efficient-integration-within-a-forensic-dna-laboratory
#5
E A Montano, J M Bush, A M Garver, M M Larijani, S M Wiechman, C H Baker, M R Wilson, R A Guerrieri, E A Benzinger, D N Gehres, M L Dickens
The application of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) is growing in the forensic DNA field, as forensic DNA laboratories are continuously seeking methods to gain information from a limited or degraded forensic sample. However, the laborious nature of current MPS methodologies required for successful library preparation and sequencing leave opportunities for improvement to make MPS a practical option for processing forensic casework. In this study, the Promega PowerSeq™ Auto/Y System Prototype, a MPS laboratory workflow that incorporates multiplex amplification, was selected for optimization with the objectives to introduce automation for relieving manual processing, and to reduce the number of steps recommended by the standard protocol...
October 5, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031025/measurement-variation-and-repeatability-of-echocardiographic-variables-used-to-estimate-pulmonary-artery-pressure-in-dogs
#6
J A Abbott, J M Gentile-Solomon
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important clinical entity in dogs. Pulmonary hypertension is generally identified based on echocardiographic findings, but measurement variation of the variables most often used in this context has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To define measurement variation of echocardiographic variables that are used to estimate pulmonary artery pressure. ANIMALS: Four dogs with subclinical tricuspid valve regurgitation were selected from a hospital population...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031018/strategies-to-define-performance-specifications-in-laboratory-medicine-3-years-on-from-the-milan-strategic-conference
#7
Mauro Panteghini, Ferruccio Ceriotti, Graham Jones, Wytze Oosterhuis, Mario Plebani, Sverre Sandberg
Measurements in clinical laboratories produce results needed in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients. These results are always characterized by some uncertainty. What quality is needed and what measurement errors can be tolerated without jeopardizing patient safety should therefore be defined and specified for each analyte having clinical use. When these specifications are defined, the total examination process will be "fit for purpose" and the laboratory professionals should then set up rules to control the measuring systems to ensure they perform within specifications...
October 14, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029338/to-include-or-not-to-include-the-impact-of-gene-filtering-on-species-tree-estimation-methods
#8
Erin K Molloy, Tandy Warnow
With the increasing availability of whole genome data, many species trees are being constructed from hundreds to thousands of loci. Although concatenation analysis using maximum likelihood is a standard approach for estimating species trees, it does not account for gene tree heterogeneity, which can occur due to many biological processes, such as incomplete lineage sorting. Coalescent species tree estimation methods, many of which are statistically consistent in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting, include Bayesian methods that co-estimate the gene trees and the species tree, summary methods that compute the species tree by combining estimated gene trees, and site-based methods that infer the species tree from site patterns in the alignments of different loci...
September 15, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029337/protective-effect-of-indoor-residual-spraying-of-insecticide-on-preterm-birth-among-pregnant-women-with-hiv-in-uganda-a-secondary-data-analysis
#9
Michelle E Roh, Stephen Shiboski, Paul Natureeba, Abel Kakuru, Mary Muhindo, Teddy Ochieng, Albert Plenty, Catherine A Koss, Tamara D Clark, Patricia Awori, Miriam Nakalambe, Deborah Cohan, Prasanna Jagannathan, Roly Gosling, Diane V Havlir, Moses R Kamya, Grant Dorsey
Background: Recent evidence demonstrated improved birth outcomes among HIV-uninfected pregnant women protected by indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS). Evidence regarding its impact on HIV-infected pregnant women is lacking. Methods: Data were pooled from two studies conducted before-and-after an IRS campaign in Tororo, Uganda among HIV-infected pregnant women who received bednets, daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), and combination antiretroviral therapy (c-ART) at enrollment...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029241/fragmentary-gene-sequences-negatively-impact-gene-tree-and-species-tree-reconstruction
#10
Erfan Sayyari, James B Whitfield, Siavash Mirarab
Species tree reconstruction from genome-wide data is increasingly being attempted, in most cases using a two-step approach of first estimating individual gene trees and then summarizing them to obtain a species tree. The accuracy of this approach, which promises to account for gene tree discordance, depends on the quality of the inferred gene trees. At the same time, phylogenomic and phylotranscriptomic analyses typically use involved bioinformatics pipelines for data preparation. Errors and shortcomings resulting from these preprocessing steps may impact the species tree analyses at the other end of the pipeline...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029201/a-comprehensive-comparison-of-quantifications-of-intraindividual-variability-in-response-times-a-measurement-burst-approach
#11
Robert S Stawski, Stuart W S MacDonald, Paul W H Brewster, Elizabeth Munoz, Eric S Cerino, Drew W R Halliday
Objectives: To formally identify and contrast the most commonly-employed quantifications of response time inconsistency (RTI) and elucidate their utility for understanding within-person (WP) and between-person (BP) variation in cognitive function with increasing age. Method: Using two measurement burst studies of cognitive aging, we systematically identified and computed five RTI quantifications from select disciplines to examine: (a) correlations among RTI quantifications; (b) the distribution of BP and WP variation in RTI; and (c) the comparability of RTI quantifications for predicting attention switching...
September 28, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029192/paracoccidioidomycosis-associated-with-a-heterozygous-stat4-mutation-and-impaired-ifn-%C3%AE-immunity
#12
Lena F Schimke, James Hibbard, Ruben Martinez-Barricarte, Taj Ali Khan, Ricardo de Souza Cavalcante, Edgar Borges de Oliveira Junior, Tabata Takahashi França, Asif Iqbal, Guilherme Yamamoto, Christina Arslanian, Claudia Feriotti, Tania Alves da Costa, Jacinta Bustamante, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Jean-Laurent Casanova, José Alexandre Marzagao Barbuto, Mayana Zatz, Rinaldo Poncio Mendes, Vera Lucia Garcia Calich, Hans D Ochs, Troy R Torgerson, Otávio Cabral-Marques, Antonio Condino-Neto
Background: Mutations in genes affecting interferon (IFN)-γ immunity have contributed to understand the essential role of IFN-γ in the protection against intracellular pathogens. However, inborn errors in STAT4, which controls IL-12 responses, have not yet been reported. Objective: To determine the underlying genetic defect in a family with a history of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) disease. Methods: Genetic analysis was performed by whole-exome sequencing and sanger sequencing...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029106/iatrogenic-cushing-syndrome-in-a-child-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-erroneous-compounding-of-hydrocortisone
#13
Julia E Barillas, Daniel Eichner, Ryan Van Wagoner, Phyllis W Speiser
Context: Patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) require lifelong treatment with glucocorticoids. In growing children the drug of choice is hydrocortisone. Commercially available hydrocortisone tablets do not conform to very low doses prescribed to infants and toddlers, and compounded hydrocortisone is often dispensed to meet therapeutic needs. However, safety, efficacy and uniformity of compounded products are not tested. We report a case of Cushing syndrome in a child with CAH who was inadvertently receiving excessive hydrocortisone in compounded form...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029029/a-manifesto-for-cardiovascular-imaging-addressing-the-human-factor
#14
Alan G Fraser
Our use of modern cardiovascular imaging tools has not kept pace with their technological development. Diagnostic errors are common but seldom investigated systematically. Rather than more impressive pictures, our main goal should be more precise tests of function which we select because their appropriate use has therapeutic implications which in turn have a beneficial impact on morbidity or mortality. We should practise analytical thinking, use checklists to avoid diagnostic pitfalls, and apply strategies that will reduce biases and avoid overdiagnosis...
September 28, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028988/quasar-mpra-accurate-allele-specific-analysis-for-massively-parallel-reporter-assays
#15
Cynthia A Kalita, Gregory A Moyerbrailean, Christopher Brown, Xiaoquan Wen, Francesca Luca, Roger Pique-Regi
Motivation: The majority of the human genome is composed of non-coding regions containing regulatory elements such as enhancers, which are crucial for controlling gene expression. Many variants associated with complex traits are in these regions, and may disrupt gene regulatory sequences. Consequently, it is important to not only identify true enhancers but also to test if a variant within an enhancer affects gene regulation. Recently, allele-specific analysis in high-throughput reporter assays, such as massively parallel reporter assays (MPRA), have been used to functionally validate non-coding variants...
September 22, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028943/a-joint-model-for-mixed-and-truncated-longitudinal-data-and-survival-data-with-application-to-hiv-vaccine-studies
#16
Tingting Yu, Lang Wu, Peter B Gilbert
In HIV vaccine studies, a major research objective is to identify immune response biomarkers measured longitudinally that may be associated with risk of HIV infection. This objective can be assessed via joint modeling of longitudinal and survival data. Joint models for HIV vaccine data are complicated by the following issues: (i) left truncations of some longitudinal data due to lower limits of quantification; (ii) mixed types of longitudinal variables; (iii) measurement errors and missing values in longitudinal measurements; (iv) computational challenges associated with likelihood inference...
September 23, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028925/influence-of-bayesian-optimization-on-the-performance-of-propofol-target-controlled-infusion
#17
J P van den Berg, D J Eleveld, T De Smet, A V M van den Heerik, K van Amsterdam, B J Lichtenbelt, T W L Scheeren, A R Absalom, M M R F Struys
Background: Target controlled infusion (TCI) systems use population-based pharmacokinetic (PK) models that do not take into account inter-individual residual variation. This study compares the bias and inaccuracy of a population-based vs a personalized TCI propofol titration using Bayesian adaptation. Haemodynamic and hypnotic stability, and the prediction probability of alternative PK models, was studied. Methods: A double-blinded, prospective randomized controlled trial of 120 subjects undergoing cardiac surgery was conducted...
October 3, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028917/comparative-usability-of-modern-anaesthesia-ventilators-a-human-factors-study
#18
J Spaeth, T Schweizer, A Schmutz, H Buerkle, S Schumann
Background: The anaesthesia ventilator represents the key equipment for intraoperative respiratory care. Improper operation of this device may threaten a patient's health. A self-explanatory interface facilitates handling and decreases the risk of operating errors. This study systematically evaluates the usability of user interfaces in four modern anaesthesia ventilators. Methods: Twenty naïve operators were asked to execute 20 tasks on each of four different anaesthesia ventilators (Avance CS2™, GE Healthcare; Flow-i™, Maquet; and Perseus™ and Primus™, Dräger) in a randomized order...
October 3, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028905/quality-of-biological-images-reconstructed-using-localization-microscopy-data
#19
Blazej Ruszczycki, Tytus Bernas
Motivation: Fluorescence localization microscopy is extensively used to study the details of spatial architecture of subcellular compartments. This modality relies on determination of spatial positions of fluorophores, labeling an extended biological structure, with precision exceeding the diffraction limit. Several established models describe influence of pixel size, signal-to-noise ratio and optical resolution on the localization precision. The labeling density has been also recognized as important factor affecting reconstruction fidelity of the imaged biological structure...
September 25, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028891/on-the-mechanisms-of-protein-interactions-predicting-their-affinity-from-unbound-tertiary-structures
#20
Manuel Alejandro Marín-López, Joan Planas-Iglesias, Joaquim Aguirre-Plans, Jaume Bonet, Javier Garcia-Garcia, Narcis Fernandez-Fuentes, Baldo Oliva
Motivation: The characterization of the protein-protein association mechanisms is crucial to understanding how biological processes occur. It has been previously shown that the early formation of non-specific encounters enhances the realization of the stereospecific (i.e. native) complex by reducing the dimensionality of the search process. The association rate for the formation of such complex plays a crucial role in the cell biology and depends on how the partners diffuse to be close to each other...
September 27, 2017: Bioinformatics
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