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Bradley V Watts, Linda Williams, Peter D Mills, Douglas E Paull, Jeffrey A Cully, Stuart C Gilman, Robin R Hemphill
OBJECTIVES: Developing a workforce skilled in improving the safety of medical care has often been cited as an important means to achieve safer care. Although some educational programs geared toward patient safety have been developed, few advanced training programs have been described in the literature. We describe the development of a patient safety fellowship program. METHODS: We describe the development and curriculum of an Interprofessional Fellowship in Patient Safety...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Izabela C Leahy, Meghan Lavoie, David Zurakowski, Amanda W Baier, Robert M Brustowicz
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to: a) characterize the frequency, type, and outcome of anesthetic medication errors spanning an 8.5-year period, b) describe the targeted error reduction strategies and c) measure the effects, if any, of a focused, continuous, multifaceted Medication Safety Program. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: All anesthetizing locations (57). PATIENTS: All anesthesia patients at all Boston Children's Hospital anesthetizing locations from January 2008 to June 2016 were included...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Quentin Jacquinot, Sophie Paget-Bailly, Pierre Fumoleau, Gilles Romieu, Jean Yves Pierga, Marc Espié, Alain Lortholary, Jean Marc Nabholtz, Celine Faure Mercier, Iris Pauporté, Julie Henriques, Xavier Pivot
BACKGROUND: Cardiac toxicity with a decrease of the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is the main side effect induced by trastuzumab. This study reports the fluctuation of LVEF over the 12 months of adjuvant trastuzumab in PHARE trial (NCT00381901). METHODS: LVEF assessment was performed every 3 months while patients received trastuzumab and after completion of treatment over the first 2 years and then every 6 months afterwards. The fluctuations of LVEF over time were described and a logistic regression model was performed investigating associated factors to LVEF perfect recovery at baseline value...
June 15, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Magdalena Kukla-Bartoszek, Ewelina Pośpiech, Magdalena Spólnicka, Joanna Karłowska-Pik, Dominik Strapagiel, Elżbieta Żądzińska, Iwona Rosset, Marta Sobalska-Kwapis, Marcin Słomka, Susan Walsh, Manfred Kayser, Aneta Sitek, Wojciech Branicki
Predictive DNA analysis of externally visible characteristics exerts an increasing influence on contemporary forensic and anthropological investigations, with pigmentation traits currently being the most advanced for predictive modelling. Since pigmentation prediction error in some cases may be due to the result of age-related hair colour darkening, and sex influence in eye colour, this study aims to investigate these less explored phenomena on a group of juvenile individuals. Pigmentation phenotypes of children between the age of 6-13 years old were evaluated, in addition to data about their hair colour during early childhood from a select number of these individuals...
June 6, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Gregory V Barnett, Gurusamy Balakrishnan, Naresh Chennamsetty, Brent Meengs, Jeffery Meyer, Jacob Bongers, Richard Ludwig, Li Tao, Tapan K Das, Anthony Leone, Sambit R Kar
Protein higher order structure (HOS) is an essential quality attribute to ensure protein stability and its proper biological function. Protein HOS characterization is performed during comparability assessments for product consistency as well as during forced degradation studies for structural alteration upon stress. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a widely used technique for measuring protein HOS, but it remains difficult to assess HOS with a high degree of accuracy and precision. Moreover, once spectral changes are detected, interpreting the differences in terms of specific structural attributes is challenging...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Sunali Goyal, Paul H Phillips, Mallikarjuna Rettiganti, Jeffrey M Gossett, R Scott Lowery
PURPOSE: To study the effect of cycloplegia on astigmatism measurements in pediatric patients with amblyopia. METHODS: This was a prospective comparative clinical study. Participants 4 to 17 years old were recruited from the patient population at the Arkansas Children's Hospital eye clinic after informed consent was obtained. Autorefractor measurements were used to obtain values of refractive error in amblyopic and non-amblyopic patients before and after cycloplegia...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Chanapai Chaiyakulsil, Marut Chantra, Poomiporn Katanyuwong, Anant Khositseth, Nattachai Anantasit
INTRODUCTION: Hemodynamic parameters measurements were widely conducted using pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) with thermodilution as a reference standard. Due to its technical difficulties in children, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) has been widely employed instead. Nonetheless, TTE requires expertise and is time-consuming. Noninvasive cardiac output monitoring such as ultrasonic cardiac output monitor (USCOM) and electrical velocimetry (EV) can be performed rapidly with less expertise requirement...
2018: PloS One
Stanislav Mazurenko, Sarka Bidmanova, Marketa Kotlanova, Jiri Damborsky, Zbynek Prokop
Analytical devices that combine sensitive biological component with a physicochemical detector hold a great potential for various applications, e.g., environmental monitoring, food analysis or medical diagnostics. Continuous efforts to develop inexpensive sensitive biodevices for detecting target substances typically focus on the design of biorecognition elements and their physical implementation, while the methods for processing signals generated by such devices have received far less attention. Here, we present fundamental considerations related to signal processing in biosensor design and investigate how undemanding signal treatment facilitates calibration and operation of enzyme-based biodevices...
2018: PloS One
Caiwen Huang, Horace Cheng, Yves Bureau, Hanif M Ladak, Sumit K Agrawal
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were: 1) to develop and implement a set of automated performance metrics into the Western myringotomy simulator, and 2) to establish construct validity. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective simulator-based assessment study. SETTING: The Auditory Biophysics Laboratory at Western University, London, Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven participants were recruited from the Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery at Western University: four senior otolaryngology consultants and seven junior otolaryngology residents...
June 15, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Orlando da Costa Ferreira-Júnior, Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães, Giseli Nogueira Damacena, Wanessa da Silva de Almeida, Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza-Júnior, Célia Landmann Szwarcwald
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSW) bear a high burden of sexually transmitted infections (STI). In this paper, we estimate the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HBV = hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV = hepatitis C virus (HCV), syphilis and co-infections in the second Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Survey among FSW in Brazil. METHOD: The survey was conducted in 12 Brazilian cities from July to November 2016. We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 350 FSW in each city...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, G M E E Geeske Peeters, Robert J Brychta, Kong Y Chen, Wendy J Brown
Accurate estimation of energy expenditure (EE) from accelerometer outputs remains a challenge in older adults. The aim of this study was to validate different ActiGraph (AG) equations for predicting EE in older adults. Forty older adults (age = 77.4 ± 8.1 yrs) completed a set of household/gardening activities in their residence, while wearing an AG at the hip (GT3X+) and a portable calorimeter (MetaMax 3B - criterion). Predicted EEs from AG were calculated using five equations (Freedson, refined Crouter, Sasaki and Santos-Lozano (vertical-axis, vectormagnitude))...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Leonardo Pellicciari, Daniele Piscitelli, Serena Caselli, Fabio La Porta
PURPOSE: The Conley Scale (CS) is a widely used tool for assessing the risk of falling for inpatients. The purpose of this study was to assess its unidimensionality, internal construct validity, targeting and reliability using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis (RA). METHODS: The CS was administrated to a sample of 58,370 subjects admitted to a general hospital. RESULTS: The CFA supported the unidimensionality of the CS (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0...
June 18, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Bianca M van Kemenade, B Ezgi Arikan, Kornelius Podranski, Olaf Steinsträter, Tilo Kircher, Benjamin Straube
Action-feedback monitoring is essential to ensure meaningful interactions with the external world. This process involves generating efference copy-based sensory predictions and comparing these with the actual action-feedback. As neural correlates of comparator processes, previous fMRI studies have provided heterogeneous results, including the cerebellum, angular and middle temporal gyrus. However, these studies usually comprised only self-generated actions. Therefore, they might have induced not only action-based prediction errors, but also general sensory mismatch errors...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Dana Wyman, Ali Mortazavi
Motivation: Long-read, single-molecule sequencing platforms hold great potential for isoform discovery and characterization of multi-exon transcripts. However, their high error rates are an obstacle to distinguishing novel transcripts isoforms from sequencing artifacts. Therefore, we developed the package TranscriptClean to correct mismatches, microindels, and noncanonical splice junctions in mapped transcripts using the reference genome while preserving known variants. Results: Our method corrects nearly all mismatches and indels present in a publically available human PacBio Iso-seq dataset, and rescues 39% of noncanonical splice junctions...
June 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
Dilip A Durai, Marcel H Schulz
Motivation: De Bruijn graphs are a common assembly data structure for sequencing datasets. But with the advances in sequencing technologies, assembling high coverage datasets has become a computational challenge. Read normalization, which removes redundancy in datasets, is widely applied to reduce resource requirements. Current normalization algorithms, though efficient, provide no guarantee to preserve important k-mers that form connections between regions in the graph. Results: Here, normalization is phrased as a set multi-cover problem on reads and a heuristic algorithm, ORNA, is proposed...
April 18, 2018: Bioinformatics
Leena Choi, Robert J Carroll, Cole Beck, Jonathan D Mosley, Dan M Roden, Joshua C Denny, Sara L Van Driest
Motivation: Phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) have been used to discover many genotype-phenotype relationships and have the potential to identify therapeutic and adverse drug outcomes using longitudinal data within electronic health records (EHRs). However, the statistical methods for PheWAS applied to longitudinal EHR medication data have not been established. Results: In this study, we developed methods to address two challenges faced with reuse of EHR for this purpose: confounding by indication, and low exposure and event rates...
April 18, 2018: Bioinformatics
Catherine A Sumida, Thao T Vo, Emily J Van Etten, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe
Objective: Difficulties managing medications, particularly among older adults experiencing cognitive deficits, is an important contributing factor to medication nonadherence that may have significant negative financial and health outcomes. The current study examined the performance of healthy older adults' (HOA) and individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) on the medication management abilities assessment's (MMAA, a performance-based measure of medication management) original scoring criteria and derived error process measures, assessing medication overtaking and undertaking magnitude...
April 18, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Ruth Rosales, Loreto Rojas, Francisco Zamora, Giannina Izquierdo, Claudia Benavides, Claudio González
Polymyxins have been available since the 1960s, however, because of their adverse effects, their use has been reserved for the treatment of infections caused by multiresistant bacteria. The increase in the clinical experience acquired in recent years and the published medical literature have raised doubts about the information provided by the product, indicating the need to update dosage recommendations, pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic information (PK/PD). In addition, differences in concentration and dose between the different products of colistin may lead to errors of indication/administration and pose a risk to patients...
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Hao Liang, Meng Zhang, Chao Gao, Yandong Zhao
This article presents a non-destructive methodology to determine the modulus of elasticity (MOE) in static bending of wood through the use of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Wood specimens were obtained from Quercus mongolica growing in Northeast of China. The NIR spectra of specimens were acquired by using a one-chip NIR fiber optic spectrometer whose spectral range was 900~1900 nm. The raw spectra of specimens were pretreated by multiplication scatter correlation and Savitzky-Golay smoothing and differentiation filter...
June 18, 2018: Sensors
Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke, James G Mouser, Samuel L Buckner, Brittany R Counts, Scott J Dankel, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, Wagner Iared, Lucas D Tavares, Emerson L Teixeira, Valmor Tricoli
Laurentino, GC, Loenneke, JP, Mouser, JG, Buckner, SL, Counts, BR, Dankel, SJ, Jessee, MB, Mattocks, KT, Iared, W, Tavares, LD, Teixeira, EL, and Tricoli, V. Validity of the handheld Doppler to determine lower-limb blood flow restriction pressure for exercise protocols. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Handheld (HH) Doppler is frequently used for determining the arterial occlusion pressure during blood flow restriction exercises; however, it is unknown whether the blood flow is occluded when the auscultatory signal is no longer present...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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