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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549130/in-vivo-imaging-of-retinal-neurodegeneration-at-the-single-cell-level-in-humans
#1
Jochen Herms, Christian Schön
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549034/mantle-cell-lymphoma-with-hodgkin-and-reed-sternberg-cells-review-with-illustrative-case
#2
Steven Kramer, Guldeep Uppal, Zi-Xuan Wang, Jerald Z Gong
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma may occasionally contain large transformed cells resembling Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells (HRS cells). We report a 63-year-old man with HRS cells in a recurrent mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). The patient initially presented with orbital MCL and recurred after 8 years with widespread involvement. The HRS cells were present in the recurrent disease but not in the initial orbital lesions, suggesting a transformed event after a prolonged disease course. Morphologically, the HRS cells were single cells and small clusters among the MCL cells and were frequently accompanied by histiocytes but without eosinophils or other inflammatory cells...
May 25, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548388/epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity-how-have-quantitative-mathematical-models-helped-improve-our-understanding
#3
REVIEW
Mohit Kumar Jolly, Satyendra C Tripathi, Jason A Somarelli, Samir M Hanash, Herbert Levine
Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of cells to reversibly alter their phenotypes in response to signals, presents a significant clinical challenge to treating solid tumors. Tumor cells utilize phenotypic plasticity to evade therapies, metastasize, and colonize distant organs. As a result, phenotypic plasticity can accelerate tumor progression. A well-studied example of phenotypic plasticity is the bidirectional conversions among epithelial, mesenchymal, and hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype(s). These conversions can alter a repertoire of cellular traits associated with multiple hallmarks of cancer, such as metabolism, immune-evasion, invasion and metastasis...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548214/the-performance-of-malbac-and-mda-methods-in-the-identification-of-concurrent-mutations-and-aneuploidy-screening-to-diagnose-beta-thalassaemia-disorders-at-the-single-and-multiple-cell-levels
#4
WeiQiang Liu, HuiMin Zhang, Dan Hu, SiJia Lu, XiaoFang Sun
AIM: To select an optimal whole-genome amplification (WGA) method to improve the efficiency of the preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening (PGD/PGS) of beta-thalassaemia disorders. METHODS: Fifty-seven fibroblast samples with defined beta-thalassaemia variations and forty-eight single-blastomere samples were amplified from single-, two-, and five-cell samples by multiple annealing and looping-based amplification cycles (MALBAC) and the multiple displacement amplification (MDA) method...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548029/digital-assays-part-ii-digital-protein-and-cell-assays
#5
Amar S Basu
A digital assay is one in which the sample is partitioned into many containers such that each partition contains a discrete number of biological entities (0, 1, 2, 3, . . .). A powerful technique in the biologist's toolkit, digital assays bring a new level of precision in quantifying nucleic acids, measuring proteins and their enzymatic activity, and probing single-cell genotype and phenotype. Where part I of this review focused on the fundamentals of partitioning and digital PCR, part II turns its attention to digital protein and cell assays...
May 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547771/translation-of-wnt-developmental-programs-into-stem-cell-replacement-strategies-for-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Enrique M Toledo, Daniel Gyllborg, Ernest Arenas
Wnt signalling is a highly conserved pathway across species that is critical for normal development and is deregulated in multiple diseases including cancer and neurodegeneration. Wnt signalling is critically required for midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neuron development and maintenance. Understanding the molecular processes controlled by Wnt signalling may thus hold the key to understand the physiopathology and to develop novel therapies aimed at preventing the loss of mDA neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD)...
May 26, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546824/high-spatio-temporal-resolution-detection-of-chlorophyll-fluorescence-dynamics-from-a-single-chloroplast-with-confocal-imaging-fluorometer
#7
Yi-Chin Tseng, Shi-Wei Chu
BACKGROUND: Chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) is a key indicator to study plant physiology or photosynthesis efficiency. Conventionally, CF is characterized by fluorometers, which only allows ensemble measurement through wide-field detection. For imaging fluorometers, the typical spatial and temporal resolutions are on the order of millimeter and second, far from enough to study cellular/sub-cellular CF dynamics. In addition, due to the lack of optical sectioning capability, conventional imaging fluorometers cannot identify CF from a single cell or even a single chloroplast...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546427/spermidine-promotes-bacillus-subtilis-biofilm-formation-by-activating-expression-of-the-matrix-regulator-slrr
#8
Laura Hobley, Bin Li, Jennifer L Wood, Sok-Ho Kim, Jacinth Naidoo, Ana Sofia Ferreira, Maxim Khomutov, Alexey Khomutov, Nicola R Stanley-Wall, Anthony J Michael
Ubiquitous polyamine spermidine is not required for normal planktonic growth of Bacillus subtilis but is essential for robust biofilm formation. However, the structural features of spermidine required for B. subtilis biofilm formation are unknown and so are the molecular mechanisms of spermidine-stimulated biofilm development. We report here that in a spermidine-deficient B. subtilis mutant, the structural analogue norspermidine, but not homospermidine, restored biofilm formation. Intracellular biosynthesis of another spermidine analogue, aminopropylcadaverine, from exogenously supplied homoagmatine also restored biofilm formation...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546418/single-cell-dna-sequencing-reveals-a-late-dissemination-model-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#9
Marco L Leung, Alexander Davis, Ruli Gao, Anna Casasent, Yong Wang, Emi Sei, Eduardo Sanchez, Dipen Maru, Scott Kopetz, Nicholas E Navin
Metastasis is a complex biological process that has been difficult to delineate in human colorectal (CRC) cancer patients. A major obstacle in understanding metastatic lineages is the extensive intratumor heterogeneity at the primary and metastatic tumor sites. To address this problem, we developed a highly-multiplexed single cell DNA sequencing approach to trace the metastatic lineages of two CRC patients with matched liver metastases. Single cell copy number or mutational profiling was performed, in addition to bulk exome and targeted deep-sequencing...
May 25, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545866/isolation-of-single-cells-for-protein-therapeutics-using-microwell-selection-and-surface-plasmon-resonance-imaging
#10
F Abali, M Stevens, A Tibbe, L W M M Terstappen, P N van de Velden, R B M Schasfoort
Here the feasibility is demonstrated that by combining Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging (SPRi) and self-sorting microwell technology product secretion of individual cells can be monitored. Additionally isolation of the selected cells can be performed by punching the cells from the microwells using coordinates of the positions of microwells obtained with SPRi. Cells of interest can be retrieved sterile from the microwell array for further cultivation.
May 22, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544731/taking-control-over-microbial-populations-current-approaches-for-exploiting-biological-noise-in-bioprocesses
#11
REVIEW
Frank Delvigne, Jonathan Baert, Hosni Sassi, Patrick Fickers, Alexander Grünberger, Christian Dusny
Phenotypic plasticity of microbial cells has attracted much attention and several research efforts have been dedicated to the description of methods aiming at characterizing phenotypic heterogeneity and its impact on microbial populations. However, different approaches have also been suggested in order to take benefit from noise in a bioprocess perspective, e.g. by increasing the robustness or productivity of a microbial population. This review is dedicated to outline these controlling methods. A common issue, that has still to be addressed, is the experimental identification and the mathematical expression of noise...
May 24, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544679/sima-a-simplified-migration-assay-for-analyzing-neutrophil-migration
#12
Markus Weckmann, Tim Becker, Gyde Nissen, Martin Pech, Matthias V Kopp
In lung inflammation, neutrophils are the first leukocytes migrating to an inflammatory site, eliminating pathogens by multiple mechanisms. The term "migration" describes several stages of neutrophil movement to reach the site of inflammation, of which the passage of the interstitium and basal membrane of the airway are necessary to reach the site of bronchial inflammation. Currently, several methods exist (e.g., Boyden Chamber, under-agarose assay, or microfluidic systems) to assess neutrophil mobility. However, these methods do not allow for parameterization on single cell level, that is, the individual neutrophil pathway analysis is still considered challenging...
May 19, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544428/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-the-anti-cancer-activity-of-2-amino-aryl-7-aryl-benzoxazole-compounds
#13
Patcharaporn Khajondetchairit, Oraphan Phuangsawai, Praphasri Suphakun, Siriruk Rattanabunyong, Kiattawee Choowongkomon, M Paul Gleeson
A series of 2-aminoaryl-7-arylbenzoxazole derivatives have been designed, synthesized and evaluated as anti-cancer agents. Fourteen of the compounds exhibited cytotoxic effects towards Human A549 lung cancer cells. We found 12l was the most potent with an EC50 of 0.4 μM, equivalent to the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin, but had low selectivity following cross screening in monkey kidney Vero cells. Eight of the most potent or most selective compounds were further profiled in additional cell lines (MCF7, NCI-H187 and KB) to better understand their cytotoxic activity...
May 23, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544415/inertial-microfluidic-cell-stretcher-imcs-fully-automated-high-throughput-and-near-real-time-cell-mechanotyping
#14
Yanxiang Deng, Steven P Davis, Fan Yang, Kevin S Paulsen, Maneesh Kumar, Rebecca Sinnott DeVaux, Xianhui Wang, Douglas S Conklin, Assad Oberai, Jason I Herschkowitz, Aram J Chung
Mechanical biomarkers associated with cytoskeletal structures have been reported as powerful label-free cell state identifiers. In order to measure cell mechanical properties, traditional biophysical (e.g., atomic force microscopy, micropipette aspiration, optical stretchers) and microfluidic approaches were mainly employed; however, they critically suffer from low-throughput, low-sensitivity, and/or time-consuming and labor-intensive processes, not allowing techniques to be practically used for cell biology research applications...
May 23, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543636/loss-of-retinoblastoma-in-pleomorphic-fibroma-an-immunohistochemical-and-genomic-analysis
#15
Brian Hinds, Alfredo Agulló, Philip E LeBoit, Timothy H McCalmont, Jeffrey P North
BACKGROUND: Pleomorphic fibroma is a curious neoplasm that exhibits striking cytologic atypia, yet behaves in benign fashion. The cytologic features including single cells with pleomorphic nuclei and scattered giant cells resemble the neoplastic cells of pleomorphic lipoma, a tumor with known retinoblastoma (Rb) loss. METHODS: We assessed the demographic and histopathologic features of a cohort of 26 pleomorphic fibromas, including assessment with immunostaining for Rb, p16, and Ki-67...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543190/effects-of-shrna-mediated-silencing-of-pkm2-gene-on-aerobic-glycolysis-cell-migration-cell-invasion-and-apoptosis-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#16
Xiao-Ling Yan, Xue-Bin Zhang, Ran Ao, Lin Guan
This study aims to explore the effects of shRNA-mediated silencing on Pyruvate kinase type M2 (PKM2) gene during aerobic glycolysis in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. CRC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from 136 patients diagnosed with qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed to detect mRNA and protein expressions of PKM2. CRC cells were divided into a blank, vector and PKM2-shRNA groups. Hexokinase (HK) and PKM2 activity were both determined by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) coupled colorimetric assay and enzyme coupling rate method...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542535/a-trichostatin-a-expression-signature-identified-by-tempo-seq-targeted-whole-transcriptome-profiling
#17
Joanne M Yeakley, Peter J Shepard, Diana E Goyena, Harper C VanSteenhouse, Joel D McComb, Bruce E Seligmann
The use of gene expression signatures to classify compounds, identify efficacy or toxicity, and differentiate close analogs relies on the sensitivity of the method to identify modulated genes. We used a novel ligation-based targeted whole transcriptome expression profiling assay, TempO-Seq®, to determine whether previously unreported compound-responsive genes could be identified and incorporated into a broad but specific compound signature. TempO-Seq exhibits 99.6% specificity, single cell sensitivity, and excellent correlation with fold differences measured by RNA-Seq (R2 = 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542339/bioenergetic-profile-of-human-coronary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-and-effect-of-metabolic-intervention
#18
Mingming Yang, Amy E Chadwick, Caroline Dart, Tomoko Kamishima, John M Quayle
Bioenergetics of artery smooth muscle cells is critical in cardiovascular health and disease. An acute rise in metabolic demand causes vasodilation in systemic circulation while a chronic shift in bioenergetic profile may lead to vascular diseases. A decrease in intracellular ATP level may trigger physiological responses while dedifferentiation of contractile smooth muscle cells to a proliferative and migratory phenotype is often observed during pathological processes. Although it is now possible to dissect multiple building blocks of bioenergetic components quantitatively, detailed cellular bioenergetics of artery smooth muscle cells is still largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542205/rots-an-r-package-for-reproducibility-optimized-statistical-testing
#19
Tomi Suomi, Fatemeh Seyednasrollah, Maria K Jaakkola, Thomas Faux, Laura L Elo
Differential expression analysis is one of the most common types of analyses performed on various biological data (e.g. RNA-seq or mass spectrometry proteomics). It is the process that detects features, such as genes or proteins, showing statistically significant differences between the sample groups under comparison. A major challenge in the analysis is the choice of an appropriate test statistic, as different statistics have been shown to perform well in different datasets. To this end, the reproducibility-optimized test statistic (ROTS) adjusts a modified t-statistic according to the inherent properties of the data and provides a ranking of the features based on their statistical evidence for differential expression between two groups...
May 25, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541711/a-critical-review-on-ultrasensitive-spectroscopic-based-methods-for-high-throughput-monitoring-of-bacteria-during-infection-treatment
#20
Nicoleta Elena Dina, Alia Colniță, Tiberiu Szöke-Nagy, Alin Sebastian Porav
The world is in the midst of a pre-emptive public health emergency, one that is just as dramatic as the global aggressive viruses-related crises (Ebola, Zika, or SARS), but not as visible. The "superbugs" and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) don't cause much public alarm or awareness, but provoke financial losses of $100 trillion annually [1] . This status quo review offers an overview of ultrasensitive methods for high-throughput monitoring of bacteria during infection treatment, the effects of antibiotics on bacteria at single-cell level and the challenges we will need to face in their detection due to the extraordinary capability of these "superbugs" to gain and constantly improve multiresistance to antibiotics...
May 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
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