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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151086/analysis-of-the-cytomorphological-features-in-atypical-urine-specimens-following-application-of-the-paris-system-for-reporting-urinary-cytology
#1
Ryan Glass, Lisa Rosen, Karen Chau, Sylvat Sheikh-Fayyaz, Peter Farmer, Constantinos Coutsouvelis, Farah Slim, Ryan Brenkert, Kasturi Das, Stephen Raab, Rubina Cocker
BACKGROUND: This study investigates the use of The Paris System (TPS) for Reporting Urinary Cytopathology and examines the performance of individual and combined morphological features in atypical urine cytologies. METHODS: We reviewed 118 atypical cytologies with subsequent bladder biopsies for the presence of several morphological features and reclassified them into Paris System categories. The sensitivity and specificity of individual and combined features were calculated along with the risk of malignancy...
November 18, 2017: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150807/single-cell-versus-large-population-analysis-cell-variability-in-elemental-intracellular-concentration-and-distribution
#2
Emil Malucelli, Alessandra Procopio, Michela Fratini, Alessandra Gianoncelli, Andrea Notargiacomo, Lucia Merolle, Azzurra Sargenti, Sara Castiglioni, Concettina Cappadone, Giovanna Farruggia, Marco Lombardo, Stefano Lagomarsino, Jeanette A Maier, Stefano Iotti
The quantification of elemental concentration in cells is usually performed by analytical assays on large populations missing peculiar but important rare cells. The present article aims at comparing the elemental quantification in single cells and cell population in three different cell types using a new approach for single cells elemental analysis performed at sub-micrometer scale combining X-ray fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The attention is focused on the light element Mg, exploiting the opportunity to compare the single cell quantification to the cell population analysis carried out by a highly Mg-selective fluorescent chemosensor...
November 17, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150774/co-expression-of-exo-inulinase-and-endo-inulinase-genes-in-the-oleaginous-yeast-yarrowia-lipolytica-for-efficient-single-cell-oil-production-from-inulin
#3
Nianci Shi, Weian Mao, Xiaoxia He, Zhe Chi, Zhenming Chi, Guanglei Liu
Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising platform for the single cell oil (SCO) production. In this study, a transformant X+N8 in which exo- and endo-inulinase genes were co-expressed could produce an inulinase activity of 124.33 U/mL within 72 h. However, the inulinase activity of a transformant X2 carrying a single exo-inulinase gene was only 47.33 U/mL within 72 h. Moreover, the transformant X+N8 could accumulate 48.13% (w/w) SCO from inulin and the cell dry weight reached 13.63 g/L within 78 h, which were significantly higher than those of the transformant X2 (41...
November 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150615/balancing-a-genetic-toggle-switch-by-real-time-feedback-control-and-periodic-forcing
#4
Jean-Baptiste Lugagne, Sebastián Sosa Carrillo, Melanie Kirch, Agnes Köhler, Gregory Batt, Pascal Hersen
Cybergenetics is a novel field of research aiming at remotely pilot cellular processes in real-time with to leverage the biotechnological potential of synthetic biology. Yet, the control of only a small number of genetic circuits has been tested so far. Here we investigate the control of multistable gene regulatory networks, which are ubiquitously found in nature and play critical roles in cell differentiation and decision-making. Using an in silico feedback control loop, we demonstrate that a bistable genetic toggle switch can be dynamically maintained near its unstable equilibrium position for extended periods of time...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150609/atomic-resolution-snapshot-of-leishmania-ribosome-inhibition-by-the-aminoglycoside-paromomycin
#5
Moran Shalev-Benami, Yan Zhang, Haim Rozenberg, Yuko Nobe, Masato Taoka, Donna Matzov, Ella Zimmerman, Anat Bashan, Toshiaki Isobe, Charles L Jaffe, Ada Yonath, Georgios Skiniotis
Leishmania is a single-celled eukaryotic parasite afflicting millions of humans worldwide, with current therapies limited to a poor selection of drugs that mostly target elements in the parasite's cell envelope. Here we determined the atomic resolution electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the Leishmania ribosome in complex with paromomycin (PAR), a highly potent compound recently approved for treatment of the fatal visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The structure reveals the mechanism by which the drug induces its deleterious effects on the parasite...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150045/spectrum-of-benzo-a-pyrene-induced-mutations-in-the-pig-a-gene-of-l5178ytk-cells-identified-with-next-generation-sequencing
#6
Javier Revollo, Yiying Wang, Page McKinzie, Azra Dad, Mason Pearce, Robert H Heflich, Vasily N Dobrovolsky
We used Sanger sequencing and next generation sequencing (NGS) for analysis of mutations in the endogenous X-linked Pig-a gene of clonally expanded L5178YTk(+/-) cells. The clones developed from single cells that were sorted on a flow cytometer based upon the expression pattern of the GPI-anchored marker, CD90, on their surface. CD90-deficient and CD90-proficient cells were sorted from untreated cultures and CD90-deficient cells were sorted from cultures treated with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Pig-a mutations were identified in all clones developed from CD90-deficient cells; no Pig-a mutations were found in clones of CD90-proficient cells...
December 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149607/classifying-drosophila-olfactory-projection-neuron-subtypes-by-single-cell-rna-sequencing
#7
Hongjie Li, Felix Horns, Bing Wu, Qijing Xie, Jiefu Li, Tongchao Li, David J Luginbuhl, Stephen R Quake, Liqun Luo
The definition of neuronal type and how it relates to the transcriptome are open questions. Drosophila olfactory projection neurons (PNs) are among the best-characterized neuronal types: different PN classes target dendrites to distinct olfactory glomeruli, while PNs of the same class exhibit indistinguishable anatomical and physiological properties. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we comprehensively characterized the transcriptomes of most PN classes and unequivocally mapped transcriptomes to specific olfactory function for six classes...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149419/changes-in-chromatin-state-reveal-arnt2-at-a-node-of-a-tumorigenic-transcription-factor-signature-driving-glioblastoma-cell-aggressiveness
#8
Alexandra Bogeas, Ghislaine Morvan-Dubois, Elias A El-Habr, François-Xavier Lejeune, Matthieu Defrance, Ashwin Narayanan, Klaudia Kuranda, Fanny Burel-Vandenbos, Salwa Sayd, Virgile Delaunay, Luiz G Dubois, Hugues Parrinello, Stéphanie Rialle, Sylvie Fabrega, Ahmed Idbaih, Jacques Haiech, Ivan Bièche, Thierry Virolle, Michele Goodhardt, Hervé Chneiweiss, Marie-Pierre Junier
Although a growing body of evidence indicates that phenotypic plasticity exhibited by glioblastoma cells plays a central role in tumor development and post-therapy recurrence, the master drivers of their aggressiveness remain elusive. Here we mapped the changes in active (H3K4me3) and repressive (H3K27me3) histone modifications accompanying the repression of glioblastoma stem-like cells tumorigenicity. Genes with changing histone marks delineated a network of transcription factors related to cancerous behavior, stem state, and neural development, highlighting a previously unsuspected association between repression of ARNT2 and loss of cell tumorigenicity...
November 17, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148972/rapid-dna-replication-origin-licensing-protects-stem-cell-pluripotency
#9
Jacob Peter Matson, Raluca Dumitru, Philip Coryell, Ryan M Baxley, Weili Chen, Kirk Twaroski, Beau R Webber, Jakub Tolar, Anja-Katrin Bielinsky, Jeremy E Purvis, Jeanette Gowen Cook
Complete and robust human genome duplication requires loading MCM helicase complexes at many DNA replication origins, an essential process termed origin licensing. Licensing is restricted to G1 phase of the cell cycle, but G1 length varies widely among cell types. Using quantitative single cell analyses we found that pluripotent stem cells with naturally short G1 phases load MCM much faster than their isogenic differentiated counterparts with long G1 phases. During the earliest stages of differentiation towards all lineages, MCM loading slows concurrently with G1 lengthening, revealing developmental control of MCM loading...
November 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148540/single-cell-heterogeneity-in-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-of-breast
#10
Michael J Gerdes, Yesim Gökmen-Polar, Yunxia Sui, Alberto Santamaria Pang, Nicole LaPlante, Adrian L Harris, Puay-Hoon Tan, Fiona Ginty, Sunil S Badve
Heterogeneous patterns of mutations and RNA expression have been well documented in invasive cancers. However, technological challenges have limited the ability to study heterogeneity of protein expression. This is particularly true for pre-invasive lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Cell-level heterogeneity in ductal carcinoma in situ was analyzed in a single 5 μm tissue section using a multiplexed immunofluorescence analysis of 11 disease-related markers (EGFR, HER2, HER4, S6, pmTOR, CD44v6, SLC7A5 and CD10, CD4, CD8 and CD20, plus pan-cytokeratin, pan-cadherin, DAPI, and Na+K+ATPase for cell segmentation)...
November 17, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148257/multiscale-memory-and-bioelectric-error-correction-in-the-cytoplasm-cytoskeleton-membrane-system
#11
REVIEW
Chris Fields, Michael Levin
A fundamental aspect of life is the modification of anatomy, physiology, and behavior in the face of changing conditions. This is especially illustrated by the adaptive regulation of growth and form that underlies the ability of most organisms-from single cells to complex large metazoa-to develop, remodel, and regenerate to specific anatomical patterns. What is the relationship of the genome and other cellular components to the robust computations that underlie this remarkable pattern homeostasis? Here we examine the role of constraints defined at the cellular level, especially endogenous bioelectricity, in generating and propagating biological information...
November 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148098/absence-or-mislocalization-of-dnah5-is-a-characteristic-marker-for-motile-ciliary-abnormality-in-nasal-polyps
#12
Qianhui Qiu, Yang Peng, Zhenchao Zhu, Zhuo Chen, Chi Zhang, Hsiao Hui Ong, Kai Sen Tan, Haiyu Hong, Yan Yan, Haoqi Huang, Jing Liu, Xianqing Li, H N Nam, N T N Dung, Li Shi, Qintai Yang, Colin D Bingle, De-Yun Wang
OBJECTIVE: Motile cilia impairment is a common condition in patients with chronically inflamed airways, such as is seen in nasal polyps (NPs). The mechanism underlying this pathogenic condition is complex and not fully understood. METHODS: We investigated the presence and localization of dynein axonemal heavy chain 5 (DNAH5) in motile cilia using immunofluorescence staining in paraffin-embedded nasal biopsies from NPs (n = 120) and inferior turbinate mucosa (n = 35) of healthy controls...
November 17, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147852/enhanced-peptide-detection-toward-single-neuron-proteomics-by-reversed-phase-fractionation-capillary-electrophoresis-mass-spectrometry
#13
Sam B Choi, Camille Lombard-Banek, Pablo Muñoz-LLancao, M Chiara Manzini, Peter Nemes
The ability to detect peptides and proteins in single cells is vital for understanding cell heterogeneity in the nervous system. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI) provides high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with trace-level sensitivity, but compressed separation during CE challenges protein identification by tandem HRMS with limited MS/MS duty cycle. Here, we supplemented ultrasensitive CE-nanoESI-HRMS with reversed-phase (RP) fractionation to enhance identifications from protein digest amounts that approximate to a few mammalian neurons...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147508/chiral-nanoprobes-for-targeting-and-long-term-imaging-of-the-golgi-apparatus
#14
Rong Sheng Li, Peng Fei Gao, Hong Zhi Zhang, Lin Ling Zheng, Chun Mei Li, Jian Wang, Yuan Fang Li, Feng Liu, Na Li, Cheng Zhi Huang
The Golgi apparatus is an essential subcellular organelle. Targeting and monitoring the Golgi change at the single-cell level over a long time scale are critical but are challenges that have not yet been tackled. Inspired by the precise Golgi positioning ability of galactosyltransferase and protein kinase D, due to their cysteine residues, we developed a method for long-term Golgi imaging. Fluorescent molecules, carbon quantum dots (CQDs) and silica nanoparticles could target the Golgi when they are modified with l-cysteine...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147499/nano-microvehicles-for-efficient-delivery-and-bio-sensing-at-the-cellular-level
#15
S Campuzano, B Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, P Yáñez-Sedeño, J M Pingarrón, J Wang
A perspective review of recent strategies involving the use of nano/microvehicles to address the key challenges associated with delivery and (bio)sensing at the cellular level is presented. The main types and characteristics of the different nano/microvehicles used for these cellular applications are discussed, including fabrication pathways, propulsion (catalytic, magnetic, acoustic or biological) and navigation strategies, and relevant parameters affecting their propulsion performance and sensing and delivery capabilities...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146956/electrical-analysis-of-c-si-cgse-monolithic-tandem-solar-cells-by-using-a-cell-selective-light-absorption-scheme
#16
Ah Reum Jeong, Sung Bin Choi, Won Mok Kim, Jong-Keuk Park, Jihye Choi, Inho Kim, Jeung-Hyun Jeong
A monolithic tandem solar cell consisting of crystalline Si (c-Si)/indium tin oxide (ITO)/CuGaSe2 (CGSe) was demonstrated by stacking a CGSe solar cell on a c-Si/ITO solar cell to obtain a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of about 10%. Electrical analyses based on cell-selective light absorption were applied to individually characterize the photovoltaic performances of the top and bottom subcells. Illumination at a frequency that could be absorbed only by a targeted top or bottom subcell permitted measurement of the open-circuit voltage of the target subcell and the shunt resistance of the non-target subcell...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146676/epithelial-immunity-priming-defensive-responses-in-the-intestinal-mucosa
#17
Cristina Pardo-Camacho, Ana Maria González-Castro, Bruno Kotska Rodiño-Janeiro, Marc Pigrau, Maria Vicario
As the largest interface between the outside and internal milieu, the intestinal epithelium constitutes the first structural component facing potential luminal threats to homeostasis. This single-cell layer is the epicenter of a tightly-regulated communication network between external and internal factors which converge to prime defensive responses aimed at limiting antigen penetration and the maintenance of intestinal barrier function. The defensive role developed by intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) relies largely on the variety of receptors they express at both extracellular (apical and basolateral) and intracellular compartments, and the capacity of IEC to communicate with immune and nervous systems...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146598/structural-analyses-unravel-the-molecular-mechanism-of-cyclic-di-gmp-regulation-of-bacterial-chemotaxis-via-a-pilz-adaptor-protein
#18
Xin-Fu Yan, Lingyi Xin, Jackie Tan Yen, Yukai Zeng, Shengyang Jin, Qing Wei Cheang, Rachel Andrea Chea Yuen Fong, Keng-Hwee Chiam, Zhao-Xun Liang, Yong-Gui Gao
The bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) has emerged as a prominent mediator of bacterial physiology, motility and pathogenicity. Cdi-GMP often regulates the function of its protein targets through a unique mechanism that involves a discrete PilZ adaptor protein. However, the molecular mechanism in c-di-GMP-mediated protein regulation is unclear. Here, we present the structure of the PilZ adaptor protein MapZ co-crystallized in complex with c-di-GMP and its protein target CheR1, a chemotaxis-regulating methyltransferase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa This co-crystal structure, together with the structure of free CheR1, revealed that the binding of c-di-GMP induces dramatic structural changes in MapZ that are crucial for CheR1 binding...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145201/dietary-fructo-oligosaccharides-attenuate-early-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-which-produce-both-th1-and-th2-cytokines-in-the-intestinal-lymphoid-tissues-of-a-murine-food-allergy-model
#19
Masato Tsuda, Haruka Arakawa, Narumi Ishii, Chihiro Ubukata, Mana Michimori, Masanari Noda, Kyoko Takahashi, Shuichi Kaminogawa, Akira Hosono
BACKGROUND: Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are prebiotic agents with immunomodulatory effects involving improvement of the intestinal microbiota and metabolome. In this study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms through which FOS modulate intestinal antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in food allergy, using OVA23-3 mice. METHODS: OVA23-3 mice were fed an experimental diet containing either ovalbumin (OVA) or OVA and FOS for 1 week. Body weight and mucosal mast cell protease 1 in the serum were measured as the indicator of intestinal inflammation...
November 17, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144996/new-roles-and-controls-of-mast-cells
#20
REVIEW
Eric Espinosa, Salvatore Valitutti
Mast cells are innate immune cells implicated in immune surveillance and defense. They are filled with secretory granules where a vast array of molecules endowed with multiple biological activities are stored. The process of granule secretion, named degranulation, is a tightly controlled biological phenomenon that allows mast cells to rapidly and efficiently release bioactive mediators in response to extracellular stimuli. MC degranulation allows fighting pathogens, limiting envenomation and contributes to tissue homeostasis...
November 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
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