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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932958/the-shark-alar-hypothalamus-molecular-characterization-of-prosomeric-subdivisions-and-evolutionary-trends
#1
Gabriel N Santos-Durán, Susana Ferreiro-Galve, Arnaud Menuet, Idoia Quintana-Urzainqui, Sylvie Mazan, Isabel Rodríguez-Moldes, Eva Candal
The hypothalamus is an important physiologic center of the vertebrate brain involved in the elaboration of individual and species survival responses. To better understand the ancestral organization of the alar hypothalamus we revisit previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScTbr1, ScNkx2.1 expression and Pax6 immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScNeurog2, ScLhx9, ScLhx5, and ScNkx2.8 expression, in addition to immunoreactivity to serotonin (5-HT) and doublecortin (DCX) in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, a key species for this purpose since cartilaginous fishes are basal representatives of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919838/a-cgh-array-procedure-to-detect-pax6-gene-structural-defects
#2
Alessandra Franzoni, Patrizia Dello Russo, Federica Baldan, Angela Valentina D'Elia, Cinzia Puppin, Silvana Penco, Giuseppe Damante
Aniridia is a rare congenital disease characterized by eye development defects, in which the more evident clinical manifestation is iris absence or malformation. In most of the patients, aniridia is associated to PAX6 gene point mutations or deletions. When these deletions are large and involve other genes, a more complex disease, named WAGR syndrome, arises. In order to develop a new tool to analyze aniridia and WAGR subjects, a CGH array (CGHa) of the PAX6 genomic region was set up. We generated a custom microarray kit using an oligonucleotide-based platform that allows high resolution molecular profiling of genomic aberrations in 20 Mb of the 11p13 chromosomal region, centered on the PAX6 gene...
December 2, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918583/the-gene-regulatory-network-of-lens-induction-is-wired-through-meis-dependent-shadow-enhancers-of-pax6
#3
Barbora Antosova, Jana Smolikova, Lucie Klimova, Jitka Lachova, Michaela Bendova, Iryna Kozmikova, Ondrej Machon, Zbynek Kozmik
Lens induction is a classical developmental model allowing investigation of cell specification, spatiotemporal control of gene expression, as well as how transcription factors are integrated into highly complex gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Pax6 represents a key node in the gene regulatory network governing mammalian lens induction. Meis1 and Meis2 homeoproteins are considered as essential upstream regulators of Pax6 during lens morphogenesis based on their interaction with the ectoderm enhancer (EE) located upstream of Pax6 transcription start site...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905023/distinct-cortical-and-sub-cortical-neurogenic-domains-for-gabaergic-interneuron-precursor-transcription-factors-nkx2-1-olig2-and-coup-tfii-in-early-fetal-human-telencephalon
#4
Ayman Alzu'bi, Susan Lindsay, Janet Kerwin, Shi Jie Looi, Fareha Khalil, Gavin J Clowry
The extent of similarities and differences between cortical GABAergic interneuron generation in rodent and primate telencephalon remains contentious. We examined expression of three interneuron precursor transcription factors, alongside other markers, using immunohistochemistry on 8-12 post-conceptional weeks (PCW) human telencephalon sections. NKX2.1, OLIG2, and COUP-TFII expression occupied distinct (although overlapping) neurogenic domains which extended into the cortex and revealed three CGE compartments: lateral, medial, and ventral...
November 30, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895556/neurosensory-differentiation-and-innervation-patterning-in-the-human-fetal-vestibular-end-organs-between-the-gestational-weeks-8-12
#5
Lejo Johnson Chacko, Elisabeth J Pechriggl, Helga Fritsch, Helge Rask-Andersen, Michael J F Blumer, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer, Rudolf Glueckert
Balance orientation depends on the precise operation of the vestibular end organs and the vestibular ganglion neurons. Previous research on the assemblage of the neuronal network in the developing fetal vestibular organ has been limited to data from animal models. Insights into the molecular expression profiles and signaling moieties involved in embryological development of the human fetal inner ear have been limited. We present an investigation of the cells of the vestibular end organs with specific focus on the hair cell differentiation and innervation pattern using an uninterrupted series of unique specimens from gestational weeks 8-12...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887593/expression-of-barhl2-and-its-relationship-with-pax6-expression-in-the-forebrain-of-the-mouse-embryo
#6
Elisa V Parish, John O Mason, David J Price
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor Barhl2 is an antiproneural transcription factor with roles in neuronal differentiation. The functions of its homologue in Drosophila development are better understood than its functions in mammalian brain development. Existing evidence suggests that its expression in the embryonic forebrain of the mouse is regional and may complement that of another transcription factor that is important for forebrain development, Pax6. The aim of this study is to provide a more detailed description of the Barhl2 expression pattern in the embryonic forebrain than is currently available, to relate its expression domains to those of Pax6 and to examine the effects of Pax6 loss on Barhl2 expression...
November 25, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879339/mct8-deficiency-in-purkinje-cells-disrupts-embryonic-chicken-cerebellar-development
#7
Joke Delbaere, Pieter Vancamp, Stijn L J Van Herck, Nele M A Bourgeois, Mary J Green, Richard J T Wingate, Veerle M Darras
Inactivating mutations in the human SLC16A2 gene encoding the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) result in the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome accompanied by severe locomotor deficits. The underlying mechanisms of the associated cerebellar maldevelopment were studied using the chicken as a model. Electroporation of an MCT8-RNAi vector into the cerebellar anlage of a 3-day-old embryo allowed knockdown of MCT8 in Purkinje cell precursors. This resulted in downregulation of the thyroid hormone responsive gene RORα and the Purkinje cell specific differentiation marker LHX1/5 at day 6...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871855/histone-deacetylase-1-hdac1-regulates-retinal-development-through-a-pax6-dependent-pathway
#8
Chul-Hong Kim, Mi-Jin An, Dae-Hyun Kim, Jung-Woong Kim
Cell fate determination is tightly controlled by the expression of transcription factors and gene regulatory networks. PAX6 is a transcription factor containing a DNA-binding paired-box domain and homeobox domain that plays a key role in the development of the eye, brain, and pancreas. Here, we showed that histone deacetyltransferase 1 (HDAC1) is a novel binding partner of PAX6 in newborn mouse retinas. We also showed that HDAC1 specifically binds to the paired and transactivation domains of PAX6, and these physical interactions were required for effective repression of PAX6 transcriptional activity during retinal development...
November 18, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863272/genome-wide-analysis-of-aberrant-gene-expression-and-methylation-profiles-reveals-susceptibility-genes-and-underlying-mechanism-of-cervical-cancer
#9
Hongmei Lin, Yifei Ma, Yongqing Wei, Hui Shang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of cervical cancer (CC) by integrated bioinformatic analyses of gene expression and methylation profiles. METHODS: The gene expression and methylation microarrays in CC samples and normal controls were respectively downloaded from the GEO database. After screening the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with Limma package and the CC-related methylation sites with CpGassoc package in R language, DEGs with CC-related methylation sites were identified from the intersection of the above two groups of results with 50kb upstream and downstream of a gene as the gene region...
October 26, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863244/epigenetic-activation-of-wnt5a-drives-glioblastoma-stem-cell-differentiation-and-invasive-growth
#10
Baoli Hu, Qianghu Wang, Y Alan Wang, Sujun Hua, Charles-Etienne Gabriel Sauvé, Derrick Ong, Zheng D Lan, Qing Chang, Yan Wing Ho, Marta Moreno Monasterio, Xin Lu, Yi Zhong, Jianhua Zhang, Pingna Deng, Zhi Tan, Guocan Wang, Wen-Ting Liao, Lynda J Corley, Haiyan Yan, Junxia Zhang, Yongping You, Ning Liu, Linbo Cai, Gaetano Finocchiaro, Joanna J Phillips, Mitchel S Berger, Denise J Spring, Jian Hu, Erik P Sulman, Gregory N Fuller, Lynda Chin, Roeland G W Verhaak, Ronald A DePinho
Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are implicated in tumor neovascularization, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. To illuminate mechanisms governing these hallmark features, we developed a de novo glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) model derived from immortalized human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSCs) to enable precise system-level comparisons of pre-malignant and oncogene-induced malignant states of NSCs. Integrated transcriptomic and epigenomic analyses uncovered a PAX6/DLX5 transcriptional program driving WNT5A-mediated GSC differentiation into endothelial-like cells (GdECs)...
November 17, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861587/cellular-basis-of-pineal-gland-development-emerging-role-of-microglia-as-phenotype-regulator
#11
María P Ibañez Rodriguez, Stephen C Noctor, Estela M Muñoz
The adult pineal gland is composed of pinealocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and other interstitial cells that have been described in detail. However, factors that contribute to pineal development have not been fully elucidated, nor have pineal cell lineages been well characterized. We applied systematic double, triple and quadruple labeling of cell-specific markers on prenatal, postnatal and mature rat pineal gland tissue combined with confocal microscopy to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular dynamics and cell lineages that contribute to pineal gland development...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856246/reprogramming-of-retinoblastoma-cancer-cells-into-cancer-stem-cells
#12
Fengming Yue, Kanji Hirashima, Daihachiro Tomotsune, Sakiko Takizawa-Shirasawa, Tadayuki Yokoyama, Katsunori Sasaki
Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in pediatric patients. It develops rapidly in the retina and can be fatal if not treated promptly. It has been proposed that a small population of cancer cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), initiate tumorigenesis from immature tissue stem cells or progenitor cells. Reprogramming technology, which can convert mature cells into pluripotent stem cells (iPS), provides the possibility of transducing malignant cancer cells back to CSCs, a type of early stage of cancer...
November 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855195/paternal-aging-affects-behavior-in-pax6-mutant-mice-a-gene-environment-interaction-in-understanding-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#13
Kaichi Yoshizaki, Tamio Furuse, Ryuichi Kimura, Valter Tucci, Hideki Kaneda, Shigeharu Wakana, Noriko Osumi
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have increased over the last few decades. These neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by a complex etiology, which involves multiple genes and gene-environmental interactions. Various genes that control specific properties of neural development exert pivotal roles in the occurrence and severity of phenotypes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Moreover, paternal aging has been reported as one of the factors that contribute to the risk of ASD and ADHD...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818314/pax6-regulates-human-corneal-epithelium-cell-identity
#14
Koji Kitazawa, Takafusa Hikichi, Takahiro Nakamura, Chie Sotozono, Shigeru Kinoshita, Shinji Masui
PAX6, a paired box transcription factor, is necessary for eye development. However, how it regulates the cell identity of human corneal epithelial cells (CECs) is not well understood. We aimed to clarify the function of PAX6 in human CECs using gene knockout via the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) system. We designed guide RNAs for different targets in PAX6. PAX6-depleted CECs maintained the epithelial morphology, but became larger. Global analyses using microarray revealed that down-regulated genes were primarily CEC-specific and included keratin 12, keratin 3, clusterin (CLU), aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family member A1 (ALDH3A1), angiopoietin-like 7 (ANGPTL7) and transketolase (TKT), while up-regulated genes were primarily epidermis-related and included keratin 10, keratin 1, involucrin (IVL), filaggrin (FLG)...
November 3, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791298/glucocorticoid-effects-on-cerebellar-development-in-a-chicken-embryo-model-exploring-changes-in-pax6-and-mmp-9-after-exposure-to-dexamethasone
#15
Lars Peter Engeset Austdal, Sigrid Bjørnstad, Gro H Mathisen, Petra K Aden, Ingvild Mikkola, Ragnhild E Paulsen, Kirsten E Rakkestad
The developing cerebellum is vulnerable to effects of glucocorticoids and cerebellar dysfunction is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, e.g. autism. Transcription factor PAX6 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are critical for normal cerebellar development and are highly expressed in migrating neurons. Alterations in MMP-9 and PAX6 are associated with altered cerebellar development. In the present paper we have characterized growth rate and development of the cortical layers, and further investigated how the levels of PAX6 and MMP-9 as well as glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) change in the cerebellum during the fetal period (E12-21) in chicken, which corresponds to the human perinatal period...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771509/a-mouse-model-of-aniridia-reveals-the-in-vivo-downstream-targets-of-pax6-driving-iris-and-ciliary-body-development-in-the-eye
#16
Xia Wang, Xianghong Shan, Cheryl Y Gregory-Evans
The Pax6 transcription factor is essential for development of the brain, eye, olfactory and endocrine systems. Haploinsufficiency of PAX6 in humans and mice causes the congenital condition aniridia, with defects in each of these organs and systems. Identification of the PAX6 transcription networks driving normal development is therefore critical in understanding the pathophysiology observed with loss-of-function defects. Here we have focused on identification of the downstream targets for Pax6 in the developing iris and ciliary body, where we used laser capture microdissection in mouse eyes from E12...
October 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754603/scaling-up-a-chemically-defined-aggregate-based-suspension-culture-system-for-neural-commitment-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#17
Cláudia C Miranda, Tiago G Fernandes, M Margarida Diogo, Joaquim M S Cabral
The demand of high cell numbers for applications in cellular therapies and drug screening requires the development of scalable platforms capable to generating highly pure populations of tissue-specific cells from human pluripotent stem cells. In this work, we describe the scaling-up of an aggregate-based culture system for neural induction of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) under chemically-defined conditions. A combination of non-enzymatic dissociation and rotary agitation was successfully used to produce homogeneous populations of hiPSC aggregates with an optimal (140 μm) and narrow distribution of diameters (coefficient of variation of 21...
October 18, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751815/comparative-analysis-of-the-neurula-transcriptomes-of-two-species-of-flatfishes-platichthys-stellatus-and-paralichthys-olivaceus
#18
Fen Wei, Jie Chen, Xinye Chen, Baolong Bao
Flatfish with left-right eye asymmetry are the most significant among vertebrates. However, the genetic basis for the control of this characteristic is still unclear. We propose that the gene(s) for eye asymmetry initially control minor differences in cell number in the tissues around the eyes during development. This minor difference is then amplified, causing eye migration during metamorphosis. Therefore, comparing the neurula transcriptomes between flatfish species with different eye-reversal mutants may provide very useful information to screen for genes involved in eye asymmetry...
October 14, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734996/stem-progenitor-cells-in-the-developing-human-cerebellum-an-immunohistochemical-study
#19
V Pibiri, A Ravarino, C Gerosa, M C Pintus, V Fanos, G Faa
The aim of this study was to analyze, by immunohistochemistry, the occurrence of stem/progenitor cells localized in the different niches of the developing human cerebellum. To this end, cerebellar samples were obtained from 3 fetuses and 3 newborns ranging, respectively, from 11 to 24 and from 30 to 38 weeks of gestation. Specimens were 10% formalin-fixed, routinely processed and paraffin-embedded; 3 μm-tick sections were immunostained with anti-SOX2 and PAX6 antibodies. Our study evidenced SOX2 and PAX6 immunoreactivity in precursors cells in all six developing human cerebella...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721656/role-of-mirna-9-in-brain-development
#20
Balachandar Radhakrishnan, A Alwin Prem Anand
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory RNAs involved in gene regulation. The regulation is effected by either translational inhibition or transcriptional silencing. In vertebrates, the importance of miRNA in development was discovered from mice and zebrafish dicer knockouts. The miRNA-9 (miR-9) is one of the most highly expressed miRNAs in the early and adult vertebrate brain. It has diverse functions within the developing vertebrate brain. In this article, the role of miR-9 in the developing forebrain (telencephalon and diencephalon), midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord of vertebrate species is highlighted...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
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