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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471542/specialized-pro-resolving-lipid-mediators-regulate-ozone-induced-pulmonary-and-systemic-inflammation
#1
Brita Kilburg-Basnyat, Sky W Reece, Miranda J Crouch, Bin Luo, Andria D Boone, Michael Yaeger, Myles Hodge, Christine Psaltis, Johanna L Hannan, Jonathan Manke, Michael L Armstrong, Nichole Reisdorph, Robert M Tighe, Saame Raza Shaikh, Kymberly M Gowdy
Exposure to ozone (O3) induces lung injury, pulmonary inflammation, and alters lipid metabolism. During tissue inflammation, specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) facilitate the resolution of inflammation. SPMs regulate the pulmonary immune response during infection and allergic asthma; however, the role of SPMs in O3-induced pulmonary injury and inflammation is unknown. We hypothesized that O3 exposure induces pulmonary inflammation by reducing SPMs. To evaluate this, male C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to filtered air (FA) or 1 ppm O3 for 3h and necropsied 24h after exposure...
February 19, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471466/changes-in-metabolites-present-in-lung-lining-fluid-following-exposure-of-humans-to-ozone
#2
WanYun Cheng, Kelly E Duncan, Andrew J Ghio, Cavin Ward-Caviness, Edward D Karoly, David Diaz-Sanchez, Rory B Conolly, Robert B Devlin
Controlled human exposure to the oxidant air pollutant ozone causes decrements in lung function and increased inflammation as evidenced by neutrophil influx into the lung and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the airways. Here we describe a targeted metabolomics evaluation of human bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) following controlled in vivo exposure to ozone to gain greater insight into its pulmonary effects. In a two-arm cross-over study, each healthy adult human volunteer was randomly exposed to filtered air (FA) and to 0...
February 19, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471368/human-factors-risk-analyses-of-a-doffing-protocol-for-ebola-level-personal-protective-equipment-mapping-errors-to-contamination
#3
Joel M Mumma, Francis T Durso, Ashley N Ferguson, Christina L Gipson, Lisa Casanova, Kimberly Erukunuakpor, Colleen S Kraft, Victoria L Walsh, Craig Zimring, Jennifer DuBose, Jesse T Jacob
Background: Doffing protocols for personal protective equipment (PPE) are critical for keeping healthcare workers (HCWs) safe during care of patients with Ebola virus disease. We assessed the relationship between errors and self-contamination during doffing. Methods: Eleven HCWs experienced with doffing Ebola-level PPE participated in simulations in which HCWs donned PPE marked with surrogate viruses (ɸ6 and MS2), completed a clinical task, and were assessed for contamination after doffing...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471241/influence-of-chelation-on-the-fenton-based-electrochemical-degradation-of-herbicide-tebuthiuron
#4
Fábio Gozzi, Ignasi Sirés, Silvio César de Oliveira, Amílcar Machulek, Enric Brillas
This study describes the performance of electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) processes to degrade the herbicide tebuthiuron (TBH) in 0.050 M Na2 SO4 at pH = 3.0. Experiments were performed in an undivided cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Pt anode and an air-diffusion cathode that produces H2 O2 . Physisorbed hydroxyl radicals (M(OH)) generated from water oxidation at the anode and/or free OH formed from Fenton's reaction acted as main oxidants. All processes became much more effective using a BDD anode because of the higher oxidation power of BDD(OH)...
February 12, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471240/a-multiregional-survey-of-nickel-in-outdoor-air-particulate-matter-in-china-implication-for-human-exposure
#5
Han Li, Yanjian Wan, Xiao Chen, Lu Cheng, Xueyu Yang, Wei Xia, Shunqing Xu, Hongling Zhang
Nickel is a widespread environmental contaminant, and it is toxic to humans in certain forms at high doses. Despite this, nationwide data on nickel in outdoor air particulate matter and human exposure to nickel through inhalation in China are limited. In the present study, 662 outdoor air samples from seven representative provinces such as Shanghai, Hubei, Hunan, Hebei, Guangdong, Yunnan, and Shanxi were collected between March 2013 and February 2014 and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
February 19, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471190/interdecadal-changes-of-summer-aerosol-pollution-in-the-yangtze-river-basin-of-china-the-relative-influence-of-meteorological-conditions-and-the-relation-to-climate-change
#6
Jizhi Wang, Xiaoye Zhang, Duo Li, Yuanqin Yang, Junting Zhong, Yaqiang Wang, Haochi Che, Huizheng Che, Yangmei Zhang
Winter is a season of much concern for aerosol pollution in China, but less concern for pollution in the summertime. There are even less concern and larger uncertainty about interdecadal changes in summer aerosol pollution, relative influence of meteorological conditions, and their links to climate change. Here we try to reveal the relation among interdecadal changes in summer's most important circulation system affecting China (East Asian Summer Monsoon-EASM), an index of meteorological conditions (called PLAM, Parameter Linking Air Quality and Meteorological Elements, which is almost linearly related with aerosol pollution), and aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (M-LYR) in central eastern China during summertime since the 1960's...
February 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471189/concentrations-of-trace-elements-and-pcdd-fs-around-a-municipal-solid-waste-incinerator-in-girona-catalonia-spain-human-health-risks-for-the-population-living-in-the-neighborhood
#7
Joaquim Rovira, Martí Nadal, Marta Schuhmacher, José L Domingo
Previously to the modernization of the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) of Campdorà (Girona, Catalonia, Spain) two sampling campaigns (2015 and 2016) were conducted. In each campaign, 8 soil and 4 air samples (PM10 and total particle phase and gas phase) were collected. The levels of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl and V, and PCDD/Fs were analysed at different distances and wind directions around the MSWI. Environmental levels of trace elements and PCDD/Fs were used to assess exposure and health risks (carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic) for the population living around the facility...
February 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471186/maternal-exposure-to-ambient-pm-10-during-pregnancy-increases-the-risk-of-congenital-heart-defects-evidence-from-machine-learning-models
#8
Zhoupeng Ren, Jun Zhu, Yanfang Gao, Qian Yin, Maogui Hu, Li Dai, Changfei Deng, Lin Yi, Kui Deng, Yanping Wang, Xiaohong Li, Jinfeng Wang
Previous research suggested an association between maternal exposure to ambient air pollutants and risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs), though the effects of particulate matter ≤10μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10 ) on CHDs are inconsistent. We used two machine learning models (i.e., random forest (RF) and gradient boosting (GB)) to investigate the non-linear effects of PM10 exposure during the critical time window, weeks 3-8 in pregnancy, on risk of CHDs. From 2009 through 2012, we carried out a population-based birth cohort study on 39,053 live-born infants in Beijing...
February 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471075/interspecific-variation-in-avian-thermoregulatory-patterns-and-heat-dissipation-behaviours-in-a-subtropical-desert
#9
Michelle Thompson, Susan Cunningham, Andrew E McKechnie
Deserts are physiologically challenging environments for birds, with scarce, unpredictable water resources combined with air temperatures (Tair ) regularly exceeding avian body temperature (Tb ). For arid-zone birds, mismatches between water supply and demand are a constant threat, yet interspecific variation in trade-offs between hyperthermia avoidance and dehydration avoidance remain poorly understood, particularly for free-ranging individuals. We examined behavioural and physiological responses to high Tair in nine species representing three orders that vary substantially in their heat dissipation thresholds, specifically pant50 , the Tair at which panting behaviour is present in 50% of observations...
February 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470706/reduced-proliferation-capacity-of-lung-cells-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
Babett Bartling, Hans-Stefan Hofmann
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung emphysema increases with age and both lung diseases are again risk factors for lung cancer. Since a reduced capacity of fibroblasts for proliferation is a good indicator of tissue aging, we studied the cell proliferation of lung fibroblasts from normal and tumor tissue of lung cancer patients depending on lung comorbidities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fibroblasts were isolated from tumor and normal lung tissue of 40 lung cancer patients...
February 22, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470659/impact-of-particulate-air-pollution-on-cardiovascular-health
#11
REVIEW
Zhen An, Yuefei Jin, Juan Li, Wen Li, Weidong Wu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Air pollution is established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Ambient particulate matter (PM), a principal component of air pollutant, has been considered as a main culprit of the adverse effects of air pollution on human health. RECENT FINDINGS: Extensive epidemiological and toxicological studies have demonstrated particulate air pollution is positively associated with the development of CVDs. Short-term PM exposure can trigger acute cardiovascular events while long-term exposure over years augments cardiovascular risk to an even greater extent and can reduce life expectancy by a few years...
February 22, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470452/who-environmental-noise-guidelines-for-the-european-region-a-systematic-review-on-environmental-noise-and-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-effects-a-summary
#12
REVIEW
Elise van Kempen, Maribel Casas, Göran Pershagen, Maria Foraster
To update the current state of evidence and assess its quality, we conducted a systematic review on the effects of environmental noise exposure on the cardio-metabolic systems as input for the new WHO environmental noise guidelines for the European Region. We identified 600 references relating to studies on effects of noise from road, rail and air traffic, and wind turbines on the cardio-metabolic system, published between January 2000 and August 2015. Only 61 studies, investigating different end points, included information enabling estimation of exposure response relationships...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470417/ultrarapid-multimode-microwave-synthesis-of-nano-submicron-%C3%AE-sic
#13
Min Zhao, Michael Johnson, Wenzhi He, Guangming Li, Chen Zhao, Luling Yu, Juwen Huang, Haochen Zhu
This paper presents the design, development and realization of a fast and novel process for the synthesis of 3C silicon carbide (β-SiC) nanorods and submicron powder. Using SiO₂ (or Si) and activated carbon (AC), this process allows β-SiC to be synthesized with almost 100% purity in timeframes of seconds or minutes using multimode microwave rotary tube reactors under open-air conditions. The synthesis temperature used was 1460 ± 50 °C for Si + AC and 1660 ± 50 °C for SiO₂ + AC. The shortest β-SiC synthesis time achieved was about 20 s for Si + AC and 100 s for SiO₂ + AC...
February 22, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470150/metrics-of-lung-tissue-heterogeneity-depend-on-bmi-but-not-age
#14
Karthik Subramaniam, Alys R Clark, Eric A Hoffman, Merryn H Tawhai
Altered parenchymal microstructure and complexity have been observed in older age. How to distinguish between healthy, expected changes and early signs of pathology remains poorly understood. An objective quantitative analysis of computed tomography (CT) imaging was conducted to compare mean lung density (MLD), tissue density distributions, and tissue heterogeneity in 16 subjects - 8 aged >60 years who were gender- and BMI-matched with 8 subjects aged <30 years. Subjects were never-smoking, with no prior respiratory disease, and no radiologically-identified abnormalities on CT...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470080/complex-air-pollution-mixtures-formed-by-irradiation-of-hydrocarbons-elicit-an-array-of-toxicological-responses
#15
M Ian Gilmour, Jonathan D Krug, Stephen H Gavett, Mehdi Hazari, David M DeMarini, Daniel L Costa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469858/high-performance-color-sequence-particle-streak-velocimetry-for-3d-airflow-measurement
#16
Huan Wang, Guijin Wang, Xianting Li
In this paper, a high-performance color sequence particle streak velocimetry (CSPSV) technique is proposed to measure the air velocity in a large three-dimensional (3D) space. Based on the basic principle of CSPSV, a new color sequence illumination pattern is designed to mark seeding bubbles for better imaging performance. Synchronized with the illumination system, cameras record the targets' paths at the start, middle, and end points with different color information more clearly. Thus, a rectification-based stereo corresponding algorithm is presented to reconstruct the 3D trajectory of the bubbles...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469852/air-wedge-with-variable-refractive-index-for-precise-laser-beam-steering-in-a-small-range
#17
Olga Iwasińska-Kowalska
This paper provides the results of work on a new method for metrological laser beam steering for the purpose of angular stabilization. Frequency stabilized metrological lasers are used for interference measurements of length and angle. Angular deviation of the beam may cause cosine errors when measuring displacements. This paper presents a method for metrological laser beam deflection with an air wedge of variable refractive index. The change in the index is achieved by changing the air pressure in the wedge volume...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469827/investigations-on-surface-morphology-and-bandgap-engineering-of-single-crystal-boron-doped-silicon-irradiated-by-a-nanosecond-laser
#18
Maryam Sardar, Chen Jun, Zaka Ullah, Aasma Tabassum, Mohsan Jelani, Ju Cheng, Yuxiang Sun, Xueming Lv, Lu Jian
We irradiate the single crystal boron-doped silicon (Si) at various laser fluences with 100 laser shots in ambient air at room temperature using an Nd:YAG laser and investigate its surface morphology and optical properties. The optical microscopy gives evidence of the formation of a crater and reveals that the heat-affected zone and melted area are increased with increase in laser fluence from 1.1 to 15.4  J/cm2 . The micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show that the micro- and nano-structures such as microcracks, bubbles, nucleation sites, clusters, redeposited layered material, nanoparticles, and alike water droplet structures are formed on a laser-exposed Si surface...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469825/performance-analysis-of-an-optical-self-interference-cancellation-system-with-a-directly-modulated-laser-based-demonstration
#19
Yinghong Yu, Yunhao Zhang, Lin Huang, Shilin Xiao
In this paper, two main performance indices of the optical self-interference cancellation (OSIC) system are theoretically analyzed: cancellation bandwidth and depth. Delay deviation is investigated to be the determining factor of cancellation bandwidth, based on which the bandwidth advantage of the OSIC system over electrical schemes is also proven theoretically. Cancellation depth in the narrowband is mostly influenced by attenuation and delay-adjusting deviation, while in the broadband case, the performance is mostly limited by frequency-dependent amplitude and phase mismatch...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469752/cutaneous-infection-with-mycobacterium-fortuitum-after-subcutaneous-injection-of-human-chorionic-gonadotropin
#20
Brett C Neill, Nathan C Bahr, Zachary Bryan, Daniel J Aires
Weight loss clinics are common in the United States.  Unfortunately, some offer dubious weight loss methods such as self-administered human chorionic gonadotropic (HCG) injections. HCG products are unregulated, yet, widely available. Infection is among the risks potentially associated with this treatment.  We report a case of skin infection caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum after HCG injection.
August 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
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