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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055239/computed-tomography-detection-of-stapled-interlobar-fissure-facilitates-diagnosing-postoperative-lobar-torsion-a-case-report
#1
Takahiro Yanagihara, Hideo Ichimura, Keisuke Kobayashi, Yukio Sato
INTRODUCTION: Atelectasis of the right middle lobe following right upper lobectomy may result from lobar torsion, bronchial kink, or impacted mucus plug. Although clinical consequence of lobar torsion could be serious, differentiating it from bronchial kink is occasionally challenging. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 39-year old man with non-small cell lung cancer of cT1aN0M0 stage IA underwent right upper lobectomy. On postoperative day 1, we identified middle lobe atelectasis on the chest X-ray and performed bronchoscopy, which showed an obstruction of the right middle lobe bronchus without mucoid impaction...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055058/the-neural-oscillations-of-speech-processing-and-language-comprehension-state-of-the-art-and-emerging-mechanisms
#2
Lars Meyer
Neural oscillations subserve a broad range of functions in speech processing and language comprehension. On the one hand, speech contains-somewhat-repetitive trains of air pressure bursts that occur at three dominant amplitude modulation frequencies, physically marking the linguistically meaningful progressions of phonemes, syllables, and intonational phrase boundaries. To these acoustic events, neural oscillations of isomorphous operating frequencies are thought to synchronize, presumably resulting in an implicit temporal alignment of periods of neural excitability to linguistically meaningful spectral information on the three low-level linguistic description levels...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054765/characterization-of-germline-mutations-in-familial-lung-cancer-from-the-chinese-population
#3
Madiha Kanwal, Xiao-Jie Ding, Zhans-Han Ma, Lian-Wei Li, Ping Wang, Ying Chen, Yun-Chao Huang, Yi Cao
Compared with numerous studies of somatic mutations using sporadic lung cancer, the research into germline mutations using familial lung cancer (FLC) is limited. In the present study, we used FLC samples obtained from the Chinese population in highly air-polluted regions to screen for novel germline mutations in lung cancer. Through a whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis of the nine subjects (four lung cancer patients and five normal family members of FLC), we obtained a whole genome dataset of DNA alterations in FLC samples...
October 17, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054643/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-the-urban-atmosphere-of-nepal-distribution-sources-seasonal-trends-and-cancer-risk
#4
Balram Pokhrel, Ping Gong, Xiaoping Wang, Chuanfei Wang, Shaoping Gao
Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban areas have always been a global concern, as these areas are considered to be the source region. Despite studies on the concentrations of PAHs in water, soils and sediments, knowledge of the distribution patterns, seasonality and sources of PAHs in urban areas of Nepal remains limited. In this study, polyurethane foam passive air samplers were used to measure gas-phase PAH concentrations over different land types in three major cities of Nepal-namely, Kathmandu (the capital) and Pokhara (both densely populated cities), and Hetauda (an agricultural city)...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054636/water-chemistry-of-tundra-lakes-in-the-periglacial-zone-of-the-bellsund-fiord-svalbard-in-the-summer-of-2013
#5
Danuta Szumińska, Małgorzata Szopińska, Sara Lehmann-Konera, Łukasz Franczak, Waldemar Kociuba, Stanisław Chmiel, Paweł Kalinowski, Żaneta Polkowska
Climate changes observed in the Arctic (e.g. permafrost degradation, glacier retreat) may have significant influence on sensitive polar wetlands. The main objectives of this paper are defining chemical features of water within six small arctic lakes located in Bellsund (Svalbard) in the area of continuous permafrost occurrence. The unique environmental conditions of the study area offer an opportunity to observe phenomena influencing water chemistry, such as: chemical weathering, permafrost thawing, marine aerosols, atmospheric deposition and biological inputs...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054635/emissions-of-volatile-organic-compounds-vocs-from-cooking-and-their-speciation-a-case-study-for-shanghai-with-implications-for-china
#6
Hongli Wang, Zhiyuan Xiang, Lina Wang, Shengao Jing, Shengrong Lou, Shikang Tao, Jing Liu, Mingzhou Yu, Li Li, Li Lin, Ying Chen, Alfred Wiedensohler, Changhong Chen
Cooking emission is one of sources for ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which is deleterious to air quality, climate and human health. These emissions are especially of great interest in large cities of East and Southeast Asia. We conducted a case study in which VOC emissions from kitchen extraction stacks have been sampled in total 57 times in the Megacity Shanghai. To obtain representative data, we sampled VOC emissions from kitchens, including restaurants of seven common cuisine types, canteens, and family kitchens...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054558/serum-lipid-lipoprotein-and-apolipoprotein-profiles-in-workers-exposed-to-low-arsenic-levels-lipid-profiles-and-occupational-arsenic-exposure
#7
Caterina Ledda, Ivo Iavicoli, Massimo Bracci, Roberto Avola, Paola Senia, Lory Santarelli, Cristoforo Pomara, Venerando Rapisarda
Epidemiologic studies have reported that exposure to arsenic (As) is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease (i.e., coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial heart disease) and mortality. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare serum lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein profiles in workers exposed to As. The subjects of this study included 57 workers exposed to As and 57 controls. Demographic characteristics and occupational information were collected through questionnaires. Exposure to As was assessed in indoor air of a workplace and determined using the creatinine values in the urine...
October 17, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054499/coupled-in-silico-platform-computational-fluid-dynamics-cfd-and-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-pbpk-modelling
#8
Aleksandra Vulovic, Tijana Sustersic, Sandra Cvijic, Svetlana Ibric, Nenad Filipovic
One of the critical components of the respiratory drug delivery is the manner in which the inhaled aerosol is deposited in respiratory tract compartments. Depending on formulation properties, device characteristics and breathing pattern, only a certain fraction of the dose will reach the target site in the lungs, while the rest of the drug will deposit in the inhalation device or in the mouth-throat region. The aim of this study was to link the Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling in order to predict aerolisolization of different dry powder formulations, and estimate concomitant in vivo deposition and absorption of amiloride hydrochloride...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054325/use-of-ideal-alveolar-air-equations-and-corrected-end-tidal-pco2-to-estimate-arterial-pco2-and-physiological-dead-space-during-exercise-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#9
Erik H Van Iterson, Thomas P Olson
BACKGROUND: Arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) and physiological dead space (VD) are not routinely measured during clinical cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Abnormal changes in PaCO2 accompanied by increased VD directly contribute to impaired exercise ventilatory function in heart failure (HF). Because arterial catheterization is not standard practice during CPET, this study tested the construct validity of PaCO2 and VD prediction models using 'ideal' alveolar air equations and basic ventilation and gas-exchangegas exchange measurements during CPET in HF...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054302/monitoring-the-biomechanical-and-physiological-effects-of-postural-changes-during-leisure-chair-sitting
#10
Peter R Worsley, Dan Rebolledo, Sally Webb, Silvia Caggiari, Dan L Bader
BACKGROUND: Individuals with limited mobility can spend prolonged periods in leisure chairs, increasing their risk of developing a seated acquired pressure ulcer. The present study aims to use objective measures of posture and tissue viability to identify the associated risks of leisure chair related pressure ulcers. METHODS: Healthy participants (n = 13) were recruited to sit on a leisure chair with either a viscoelastic foam or air cushion. Participants were asked to adopt four different postures for a period of 10 min followed by a 10 min refractory period...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Viability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054261/development-and-validation-of-various-phenotyping-algorithms-for-diabetes-mellitus-using-data-from-electronic-health-records
#11
Santiago Esteban, Manuel Rodríguez Tablado, Francisco E Peper, Yamila S Mahumud, Ricardo I Ricci, Karin S Kopitowski, Sergio A Terrasa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Recent progression towards precision medicine has encouraged the use of electronic health records (EHRs) as a source for large amounts of data, which is required for studying the effect of treatments or risk factors in more specific subpopulations. Phenotyping algorithms allow to automatically classify patients according to their particular electronic phenotype thus facilitating the setup of retrospective cohorts. Our objective is to compare the performance of different classification strategies (only using standardized problems, rule-based algorithms, statistical learning algorithms (six learners) and stacked generalization (five versions)), for the categorization of patients according to their diabetic status (diabetics, not diabetics and inconclusive; Diabetes of any type) using information extracted from EHRs...
December 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054162/a-chronological-framework-connecting-the-early-upper-palaeolithic-across-the-central-asian-piedmont
#12
Kathryn E Fitzsimmons, Radu Iovita, Tobias Sprafke, Michelle Glantz, Sahra Talamo, Katharine Horton, Tyler Beeton, Saya Alipova, Galymzhan Bekseitov, Yerbolat Ospanov, Jean-Marc Deom, Renato Sala, Zhaken Taimagambetov
Central Asia has delivered significant paleoanthropological discoveries in the past few years. New genetic data indicate that at least two archaic human species met and interbred with anatomically modern humans as they arrived into northern Central Asia. However, data are limited: known archaeological sites with lithic assemblages generally lack human fossils, and consequently identifying the archaeological signatures of different human groups, and the timing of their occupation, remains elusive. Reliable chronologic data from sites in the region, crucial to our understanding of the timing and duration of interactions between different human species, are rare...
December 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054128/combination-varenicline-bupropion-treatment-benefits-highly-dependent-smokers-in-an-adaptive-smoking-cessation-paradigm
#13
Jed E Rose, Frédérique M Behm
Introduction: This study replicated and extended results of a previous trial, which found that combination varenicline/bupropion treatment increased smoking abstinence in smokers who were male, highly dependent, and who did not respond to prequit nicotine patch treatment with a >50% reduction in expired-air carbon monoxide in the first week. Methods: One hundred and twenty-two male nicotine patch nonresponders and 52 responders were identified. Smokers in each group were randomized to receive 12 weeks of varenicline plus bupropion treatment versus varenicline plus placebo...
August 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054119/pollinator-independent-orchid-attracts-biotic-pollinators-due-the-production-of-lipoidal-substances
#14
E R Pansarin, P J Bergamo, M J Ferreira-Caliman
● Flowering plants often depend on the attraction of biotic pollinators for sexual reproduction. Consequently, the emergence and maintenance of selected floral attributes related to pollinator attraction and rewarding are driven by pollinators pressures. ● In this paper we explore the effect of pollinators, rainfall, and temperature and air humidity on the reproduction of a Brazilian terrestrial orchid, Cranichis candida based on data of phenology, flower resources, olfactory and visual attraction cues, pollinators and breeding system...
October 20, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054086/are-greenhouse-gas-emissions-and-cognitive-skills-related-cross-country-evidence
#15
Bekhzod Omanbayev, Raufhon Salahodjaev, Richard Lynn
Are greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and cognitive skills (CS) related? We attempt to answer this question by exploring this relationship, using cross-country data for 150 countries, for the period 1997-2012. After controlling for the level of economic development, quality of political regimes, population size and a number of other controls, we document that CS robustly predict GHG. In particular, when CS at a national level increase by one standard deviation, the average annual rate of air pollution changes by nearly 1...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053946/measurement-of-area-and-personal-breathing-zone-concentrations-of-diesel-particulate-matter-dpm-during-oil-and-gas-extraction-operations-including-hydraulic-fracturing
#16
Eric J Esswein, Marissa Alexander-Scott, John Snawder, Michael Breitenstein
Diesel engines serve many purposes in modern oil and gas extraction activities. Diesel particulate matter (DPM) emitted from diesel engines is a complex aerosol that may cause adverse health effects depending on exposure dose and duration. This study reports on personal breathing zone (PBZ) and area measurements for DPM (expressed as elemental carbon) during oil and gas extraction operations including drilling, completions (which includes hydraulic fracturing) and servicing work. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collected 104 full-shift air samples (49 PBZ and 55 area) in Colorado, North Dakota, Texas, and New Mexico during a four year period from 2008-2012 The arithmetic mean (AM) of the full shift TWA PBZ samples was 10 µg/m(3); measurements ranged from 0...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053936/evaluation-of-an-improved-prototype-mini-baghouse-to-control-the-release-of-respirable-crystalline-silica-from-sand-movers
#17
Barbara M Alexander, Eric J Esswein, Michael G Gressel, Jerry L Kratzer, H Amy Feng, Arthur L Miller, Emanuele Cauda, Graeham Heil
The OSHA final rule on respirable crystalline silica (RCS) will require hydraulic fracturing companies to implement engineering controls to limit workers' exposure to RCS. RCS is generated by pneumatic transfer of quartz-containing sand during hydraulic fracturing operations. Chronic inhalation of RCS can lead to serious disease, including silicosis and lung cancer. NIOSH research identified at least seven sources where RCS aerosols were generated at hydraulic fracturing sites. NIOSH researchers developed an engineering control to address one of the largest sources of RCS aerosol generation, RCS escaping from thief hatches on the top of sand movers...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053886/a-historical-perspective-and-evolution-of-the-treatment-of-male-urinary-incontinence
#18
Julio T Chong, Vannita Simma-Chiang
AIMS: To describe the historical changes from antiquity until present in the presentation and treatment of male urinary incontinence. METHODS: A literature review of PubMed articles in English pertaining to male incontinence was performed. RESULTS: Male urinary incontinence was first mentioned in Egyptian manuscripts in 1500 B.C. In 1564, Ambroise Pare designed portable urinals for incontinent males. Wilhem Hildanus created the first condom catheter with pig bladder in the 1600s and was also credited with fashioning the first penile clamp...
October 20, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053840/evaluation-of-neutron-scattering-correction-using-the-semi-empirical-method-and-the-shadow-cone-method-for-the-neutron-field-of-the-korea-atomic-energy-research-institute
#19
Seung Kyu Lee, Sang I Kim, Jungil Lee, Insu Chang, Jang-Lyul Kim, Hyoungtaek Kim, Min Chae Kim, Bong-Hwan Kim
When neutron survey metres are calibrated in neutron fields, the results for room- and air-scattered neutrons vary according to the distance from the source and the size, shape and construction of the neutron calibration room. ISO 8529-2 recommends four approaches for correcting these effects: the shadow-cone method, semi-empirical method, generalised fit method and reduced-fitting method. In this study, neutron scattering effects are evaluated and compared using the shadow-cone and semi-empirical methods for the neutron field of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)...
October 19, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053839/laying-hens-behave-differently-in-artificially-and-naturally-sourced-ammoniated-environments
#20
B B Pokharel, V M Dos Santos, D Wood, B Van Heyst, A Harlander-Matauschek
Laying hens are chronically exposed to high levels of ammonia (NH3), one of the most abundant aerial pollutants in poultry houses. Tests for aversion to NH3 in laying hens have used artificially sourced NH3/air mixtures (i.e., from a gas cylinder) showing that birds prefer fresh air to NH3. However, artificially sourced NH3/air mixtures may not accurately reflect barn air conditions, where manure emits a variety of gases. Herein, we investigated whether laying hens differentiate between artificially and naturally sourced NH3/air mixtures and how exposure to NH3 affects foraging and aversive behavior...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
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