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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822344/on-the-behavior-of-certain-ink-aging-curves
#1
Antonio A Cantú
This work treats writing inks, particularly ballpoint pen inks. It reviews those ink aging methods that are based on the analysis (measurement) of ink solvents (e.g., 2-phenoxyethanol, which is the most common among ballpoint pen inks). Each method involves measurements that are components of an ink aging parameter associated with the method. Only mass independent parameters are considered. An ink solvent from an ink that is on an air-exposed substrate will evaporate at a decreasing rate and is never constant as the ink ages...
July 19, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822338/in-vitro-bioaccessibility-and-health-risk-assessment-of-heavy-metals-in-atmospheric-particulate-matters-from-three-different-functional-areas-of-shanghai-china
#2
Huang Huang, Ying Jiang, Xiaoyun Xu, Xinde Cao
The bioaccessibility and human health risks of heavy metals in PM2.5 and PM10 samples from three functional areas of Shanghai, China including a commercial area (CA), a residential area (RA), and an industrial area (IA), were investigated. Gamble's solution and physiologically based extraction test were employed to simulate human respiratory and digestive system, respectively. Both PM2.5 and PM10 concentration in the three areas exceeded the guideline of WHO, and followed the order of IA>CA≈RA. Zinc and Pb were the most abundant metals with a concentration range of 0...
August 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822309/nature-based-solutions-to-promote-human-resilience-and-wellbeing-in-cities-during-increasingly-hot-summers
#3
Angelo Panno, Giuseppe Carrus, Raffaele Lafortezza, Luigi Mariani, Giovanni Sanesi
Air temperatures are increasing because of global climate change. A warming phenomenon strongly related to global climate change is the urban heat island. It has been shown that the hotter temperatures occurring in cities during the summer negatively affect human wellbeing, but little is known about the potential mechanisms underlying the relationships between hotter temperatures, cognitive psychological resources and wellbeing. The aim of the present research is to understand whether, and how, spending time in urban green spaces, which can be considered as a specific kind of Nature-Based Solution (NBS), helps the recovery of cognitive resources and wellbeing...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822259/ambient-air-pollution-temperature-and-kawasaki-disease-in-shanghai-china
#4
Zhijing Lin, Xia Meng, Renjie Chen, Guoying Huang, Xiaojing Ma, Jingjing Chen, Min Huang, Meirong Huang, Yonghao Gui, Chen Chu, Fang Liu, Haidong Kan
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a kind of pediatric vasculitis of unknown etiology which mainly affects the development of coronary artery aneurysms. Few studies have explored the potential environmental risk factors on KD incidence. We performed a time-series analysis to investigate the associations between air pollution and temperature and KD in Shanghai, China. We collected daily-hospitalized KD patients that were admitted in major pediatric specialty hospitals located in the urban areas of Shanghai from 2001 to 2010...
August 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822258/photochemical-oxidation-of-dimethylsulphide-to-dimethylsulphoxide-in-estuarine-and-coastal-waters
#5
Günther Uher, J Julian Pillans, Angela D Hatton, Robert C Upstill-Goddard
Dimethylsulphide (DMS) photo-oxidation and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) photoproduction were estimated in 26 laboratory irradiations of coastal samples from NE England (Tyne estuary) and W Scotland (Loch Linnhe and River Nant at Taynuilt). Pseudo-first order rate constants of DMS photo-oxidation (0.038 h(-1) to 0.345 h(-1)) and DMSO photo-production (0.017 h(-1) to 0.283 h(-1)) varied by one order of magnitude and were lowest in the coastal North Sea. Estuarine samples (salinity S < 30) had a mean DMSO yield of 96 ± 16% (n = 14), consistent with 1:1 M conversion via photosensitised oxidation by singlet oxygen...
August 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822225/altered-thymocyte-and-t-cell-development-in-neonatal-mice-with-hyperoxia-induced-lung-injury
#6
Sowmya Angusamy, Tamer Mansour, Mohammed Abdulmageed, Rachel Han, Brian C Schutte, John LaPres, Jack R Harkema, Said A Omar
BACKGROUND: The adaptive immune system of neonates is relatively underdeveloped. The thymus is an essential organ for adaptive T cell development and might be affected during the natural course of oxygen induced lung injury. The effect of prolonged hyperoxia on the thymus, thymocyte and T cell development, and its proliferation has not been studied extensively. METHODS: Neonatal mice were exposed to 85% oxygen (hyperoxia) or room air (normoxia) up to 28 days. Flow cytometry using surface markers were used to assay for thymocyte development and proliferation...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822040/the-effect-of-sources-and-air-mass-transport-on-the-variability-of-trace-element-deposition-in-central-poland-a-cluster-based-approach
#7
Patrycja Siudek, Marcin Frankowski
Measurements of trace element (As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn) deposition fluxes were conducted simultaneously in two contrasted environments, i.e., urban and forest, between April 2013 and October 2014. This was the first such project in central Poland, aimed at long-term observations of trace elements in the atmosphere and their distribution, transport, and deposition pattern. The receptor sites were different in terms of local meteorological conditions, emission potential, and distance to major anthropogenic sources...
August 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821928/is-lead-shielding-of-patients-necessary-during-fluoroscopic-procedures-a-study-based-on-kyphoplasty
#8
Joshua R Smith, Rebecca M Marsh, Michael S Silosky
OBJECTIVE: To determine the benefits, risks, and limitations associated with wrapping a patient with lead shielding during fluoroscopy-guided kyphoplasty procedures as a way to reduce operator radiation exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An anthropomorphic phantom was used to mimic a patient undergoing a kyphoplasty procedure under fluoroscopic guidance. Radiation measurements of the air kerma rate (AKR) were made at several locations and under various experimental conditions...
August 18, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821866/detection-of-magnetized-quark-nuggets-a-candidate-for-dark-matter
#9
J Pace VanDevender, Aaron P VanDevender, T Sloan, Criss Swaim, Peter Wilson, Robert G Schmitt, Rinat Zakirov, Josh Blum, James L Cross, Niall McGinley
Quark nuggets are theoretical objects composed of approximately equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks and are also called strangelets and nuclearites. They have been proposed as a candidate for dark matter, which constitutes ~85% of the universe's mass and which has been a mystery for decades. Previous efforts to detect quark nuggets assumed that the nuclear-density core interacts directly with the surrounding matter so the stopping power is minimal. Tatsumi found that quark nuggets could well exist as a ferromagnetic liquid with a ~10(12)-T magnetic field...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821825/giant-modulation-of-the-electronic-band-gap-of-carbon-nanotubes-by-dielectric-screening
#10
Lee Aspitarte, Daniel R McCulley, Andrea Bertoni, Joshua O Island, Marvin Ostermann, Massimo Rontani, Gary A Steele, Ethan D Minot
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a promising material for high-performance electronics beyond silicon. But unlike silicon, the nature of the transport band gap in CNTs is not fully understood. The transport gap in CNTs is predicted to be strongly driven by electron-electron (e-e) interactions and correlations, even at room temperature. Here, we use dielectric liquids to screen e-e interactions in individual suspended ultra-clean CNTs. Using multiple techniques, the transport gap is measured as dielectric screening is increased...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821490/serca-directs-cell-migration-and-branching-across-species-and-germ-layers
#11
Danielle V Bower, Nick Lansdale, Sonia Navarro, Thai V Truong, Dan J Bower, Neil C Featherstone, Marilyn G Connell, Denise Al-Alam, Mark R Frey, Le A Trinh, G Esteban Fernandez, David Warburton, Scott E Fraser, Daimark Bennett, Edwin C Jesudason
Branching morphogenesis underlies organogenesis in vertebrates and invertebrates, yet is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) reuptake pump (SERCA) directs budding across germ layers and species. Clonal knockdown demonstrated a cell-autonomous role for SERCA in Drosophila air sac budding. Live imaging of Drosophila tracheogenesis revealed elevated Ca(2+) levels in migratory tip cells as they form branches. SERCA blockade abolished this Ca(2+) differential, aborting both cell migration and new branching...
August 17, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820995/influence-of-monitoring-data-selection-for-optimization-of-a-steady-state-multimedia-model-on-the-magnitude-and-nature-of-the-model-prediction-bias
#12
Hee Seok Kim, Dong Soo Lee
SimpleBox is an important multimedia model used to estimate the predicted environmental concentration for screening-level exposure assessment. The main objectives were (i) to quantitatively assess how the magnitude and nature of prediction bias of SimpleBox vary with the selection of observed concentration data set for optimization and (ii) to present the prediction performance of the optimized SimpleBox. The optimization was conducted using a total of 9604 observed multimedia data for 42 chemicals of four groups (i...
August 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820935/accelerating-palladium-nanowire-h2-sensors-using-engineered-nanofiltration
#13
Won-Tae Koo, Shaopeng Qiao, Alana F Ogata, Gaurav Jha, Ji-Soo Jang, Vivian T Chen, Il-Doo Kim, Reginald M Penner
The oxygen, O2, in air interferes with the detection of H2 by palladium (Pd)-based H2 sensors, including Pd nanowires (NWs), depressing the sensitivity and retarding the response/recovery speed in air - relative to N2 or Ar. Here, we describe the preparation of H2 sensors in which a nanofiltration layer consisting of a Zn metal-organic-framework (MOF) is assembled onto Pd NWs. Polyhedron particles of Zn based zeolite imidazole framework (ZIF-8) were synthesized on lithographically patterned Pd NWs, leading to the creation of ZIF-8/Pd NWs bi-layered H2 sensors...
August 18, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820933/surface-chemistry-of-la0-99sr0-01nbo4-d-and-its-implication-for-proton-conduction
#14
Cheng Li, Stevin S Pramana, Na Ni, John A Kilner, Stephen J Skinner
Acceptor doped LaNbO4 is a promising electrolyte material for proton conducting fuel cell (PCFC) applications. As charge transfer processes govern device performance, the outermost surface of acceptor doped LaNbO4 will play an important role in determining the overall cell performance. However, the surface composition is poorly characterized, and the understanding of its impact on the proton exchange process is rudimentary. In this work, the surface chemistry of 1 at% Sr doped LaNbO4 (La0.99Sr0.01NbO4-d, denoted as LSNO) proton conductor is characterized using LEIS and SIMS...
August 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820906/exposure-to-fine-particulate-matter-in-the-air-alters-placental-structure-and-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#15
Sônia de Fátima Soto, Juliana Oliveira de Melo, Guilherme D'Aprile Marchesi, Karen Lucasechi Lopes, Mariana Matera Veras, Ivone Braga de Oliveira, Regiane Machado de Souza, Isac de Castro, Luzia Naôko Shinohara Furukawa, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Joel C Heimann
METHODS: Female Wistar rats were exposed to filtered air (F) or to concentrated fine particulate matter (P) for 15 days. After mating, the rats were divided into four groups and again exposed to F or P (FF, FP, PF, PP) beginning on day 6 of pregnancy. At embryonic day 19, the placenta was collected. The placental structure, the protein and gene expression of TGFβ1, VEGF-A, and its receptor Flk-1 and RAS were evaluated by indirect ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: Exposure to P decreased the placental mass, size, and surface area as well as the TGFβ1, VEGF-A and Flk-1 content...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820602/intricate-resonant-raman-response-in-anisotropic-res2
#16
Amber McCreary, Jeffrey R Simpson, Yuanxi Wang, Daniel Rhodes, Kazunori Fujisawa, Luis Balicas, Madan Dubey, Vincent H Crespi, Mauricio Terrones, Angela R Hight Walker
The strong in-plane anisotropy of rhenium disulfide (ReS2) offers an additional physical parameter that can be tuned for advanced applications such as logic circuits, thin-film polarizers, and polarization-sensitive photodetectors. ReS2 also presents advantages for optoelectronics, as it is both a direct-gap semiconductor for few-layer thicknesses (unlike MoS2 or WS2) and stable in air (unlike black phosphorus). Raman spectroscopy is one of the most powerful characterization techniques to non-destructively and sensitively probe the fundamental photo-physics of a 2D material...
August 18, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820486/urinary-levels-of-4-nonylphenol-and-4-t-octylphenol-in-a-representative-sample-of-the-korean-adult-population
#17
Hyejin Park, Kisok Kim
4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) and 4-t-octylphenol (4-t-OP) are xenoestrogen compounds to which humans are exposed via contaminated food, water, and air. This study assessed the body burden of 4-NP and 4-t-OP in Koreans aged 18-69 years using data from the Korean National Human Biomonitoring Survey conducted in 2009. Based on data from 1865 representative Koreans, 83.2% and 91.8% had urinary 4-NP and 4-t-OP concentrations >0.05 ng/mL (limit of detection). Of the Korean adult population, the geometric mean urinary concentrations of 4-NP and 4-t-OP were 3...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820448/vitamin-d-status-of-residents-in-taiyuan-china-and-influencing-factors
#18
Xiaoning Yan, Jasmine S Thomson, Ruibao Zhao, Ruifang Zhu, Zhaolin Wang, Na Zhang, Jane Coad
High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been reported worldwide. Residents of Taiyuan, China, were predicted to be at high risk of vitamin D deficiency due to its high latitude, heavy air pollution, and cultural sun avoidance. This study investigated the vitamin D status of office workers, and explored the potential determinants of capillary 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration as well as the relationship between 25(OH)D and metabolic syndrome. Two hundred participants, aged 20 to 80 years, were recruited...
August 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820233/regioselective-synthesis-of-eight-armed-cyclosiloxane-amphiphile-for-functional-2d-and-3d-assembly-motifs
#19
Huie Zhu, Buket Akkus, Yu Gao, Yida Liu, Shunsuke Yamamoto, Jun Matsui, Tokuji Miyashita, Masaya Mitsuishi
A crystalline tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMCS)-derived amphiphile was regioselectively synthesized with eight peripheral hydrophilic amide groups and hydrophobic dodecyl chains by Pt(0)-catalyzed hydrosilylation and amidation reactions. The as-synthesized materials showed ordered lamellar structure formation in the powder form. It also exhibits superior two-dimensional (2D) monolayer formation properties at the air-water interface with unexpectedly high collapse surface pressure and elastic modulus. The monolayers act as two-dimensional building blocks with finely controllable thickness on a several nanometer scale irrespective of the substrate type and properties...
August 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820217/hysteretic-spin-crossover-driven-by-anion-conformational-change
#20
Natnaree Phukkaphan, Dyanne L Cruickshank, Keith S Murray, Wasinee Phonsri, Phimphaka Harding, David J Harding
A new air stable Fe(III) spin crossover (SCO) complex has been synthesized. The compound undergoes abrupt SCO near room temperature with T1/2 (↓) = 244 K and T1/2 (↑) = 278 K. Structural studies of the complex in the high spin and low spin state show that the strong cooperativity and thus the wide hysteresis is driven by an unprecedented anionic conformational change.
August 18, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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