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Jane L Ralphe, Robin B Dail
BACKGROUND: Approximately half of the 55,000 very low birth-weight infants (<1500 g) born in the United States each year develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Many etiologies have been associated with the development of BPD, including aberrant temperature/humidity levels of artificial ventilation. PURPOSE: The purpose of this literature review is to explore what is known regarding inspired air temperature/humidity levels from artificial ventilation in very premature infants, focusing on what levels these infants actually receive, and what factors impact these levels...
June 21, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Lubana K Afreen, Ayesha S Bryant, Tetsuzo Nakayama, Timothy J Ness, Keith A Jones, Charity J Morgan, Charles M Wilcox, Mark C Phillips
BACKGROUND: Known complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) include pancreatitis, bleeding, duodenal perforation, and venous air embolism (VAE). The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of VAE during ERCP and be able to differentiate high-risk versus low-risk ERCP procedures. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study consisting of patients who underwent ERCP and were monitored with a precordial Doppler ultrasound (PDU) for VAE...
June 20, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Luciana Moisés Camilo, Gabriel Casulari Motta-Ribeiro, Mariana Barcellos de Ávila, Luis Felipe Santos Cruz Paula, Mariana Boechat de Abreu, Alysson Roncally Carvalho, Walter Araujo Zin
BACKGROUND: Recruitment maneuver and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can be used to counteract intraoperative anesthesia-induced atelectasis. Variable ventilation can stabilize lung mechanics by avoiding the monotonic tidal volume and protect lung parenchyma as tidal recruitment is encompassed within the tidal volume variability. METHODS: Forty-nine (7 per group) male Wistar rats were anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. A recruitment maneuver followed by stepwise decremental PEEP titration was performed while continuously estimating respiratory system mechanics using recursive least squares...
June 20, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Yang Bai, Lidia Casas, Hans Scheers, Bram G Janssen, Benoit Nemery, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are sensitive to air pollutants due to their lack of repair capacity. Changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) or content is a proxy of mitochondrial damage and has been associated with recent exposure to traffic-derived air pollutants, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and black carbon (BC). Inhaled BC can be phagocytosed by airway macrophages (AMs), and its amount in AM reflects personal exposure to traffic-related air pollution. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the relation between the internal marker AM BC and ambient NO2 concentration and examined the associations of mtDNAcn with NO2 and AM BC...
June 19, 2018: Environment International
Mary E Air, Julian R Harrison, Joseph T Nguyen, Bryan T Kelly, Eric A Bogner, Peter J Moley
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have compared radiographic and computed tomography (CT) imaging for evaluation of pre-arthritic hip pain. However, the inter-modality, inter-rater, and intra-rater consistencies of those parameters have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To determine if radiographs with an anteroposterior pelvis view and 45°-Dunn lateral view reliably correlate with CT in the context of lateral center edge (LCE), Tonnis, alpha, and beta angle measurements for femoroacetabular impingement or hip dysplasia diagnosis...
June 19, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Arjan Boonman, Pazit Zadicario, Yael Mazon, Chen Rabi, David Eilam
A barn owl swooping down generated a quieter, almost silent, noise (acoustic impulses) compared to a louder noise generated by the owl when taking off. These acoustic impulses are at low frequencies which are below the auditory threshold to most rodents. Therefore, rodents are less likely to hear these noises of owl flight. A previous study revealed that rodents exhibit frantic response to an owl taking off (as opposed to their typical freezing response during owl attack). The frantic response could be the result of tactile reception of the air-puffs generated by the owl's wingbeats and may reduce the success in subsequent attacks...
June 19, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Philipp Kanzow, Annette Wiegand, Nairn H F Wilson, Christopher D Lynch, Igor R Blum
OBJECTIVES: To identify potential changes in various aspects of teaching and to ascertain whether previously found inconsistencies in the teaching of criteria, indications and operative techniques for the repair of defective composite restorations at German dental schools have been resolved. METHODS: A validated questionnaire was used to gain the information sought. It was sent to all dental schools in Germany (n = 30). Whenever possible, data were compared to previous studies conducted in 2000 and 2009...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Aron H Blaesi, Nannaji Saka
Recently, we have introduced fibrous dosage forms prepared by 3D-micro-patterning of drug-laden viscous melts. Such dosage forms enable predictable microstructures and increased drug release rates, and they can be manufactured continuously. However, melt processing is not applicable if the melting temperature of the formulation is greater than the degradation temperature of the drug or of the excipient. In this work, therefore, a continuous wet micro-patterning process that operates at ambient temperature is presented...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Shintaro Yokoyama, Tomoyuki Murakami, Hiroyuki Tao, Hideko Onoda, Akio Hara, Ryohei Miyazaki, Masashi Furukawa, Masataro Hayashi, Hidetoshi Inokawa, Kazunori Okabe, Yoshito Akagi
BACKGROUND: Tumor spread through air spaces (STAS) has recently been reported as a novel form of lung adenocarcinoma invasion that can negatively impact survival; however, its role in pleomorphic carcinoma remains unclear. This study aimed to characterize tumor STAS in pleomorphic carcinoma, including its association with clinicopathological features and prognosis. METHODS: Tumor specimens obtained from 35 consecutive patients with pleomorphic carcinoma who underwent surgical resection between 2009 and 2015 were reviewed...
June 19, 2018: Chest
Pablo Martin Lopez, Luciana Beatriz Abrahan, Martin Roland Ralph, Verónica Sandra Valentinuzzi
Insects express diverse behavioral rhythms synchronized to environmental cycles. While circadian entrainment to light-dark cycles is ubiquitous in living organisms, synchronization to non-photic cycles may be critical for hematophagous bugs that depend on rhythmic hosts. The purpose was to determine whether Triatoma infestans are capable of synchronizing to the circadian rhythms of potential hosts with temporally distinct activity patterns; and, if so, if this synchronization occurs through masking or entrainment...
June 22, 2018: Chronobiology International
Mohammad Amin Shahrbaf, Mohammad Parsa Mahjoob, Isa Khaheshi, Mohammad Ali Akbarzadeh, Elham Barkhordari, Mohammadreza Naderian, Farbod Zahed Tajrishi
ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is one of the potential causes of death worldwide. In spite of substantial advances in its diagnosis and treatment, STEMI is still considered as a major public health dilemma in developed and particularly developing countries. One of the triggering factors of STEMI is supposed to be air pollutants like gaseous pollutants including, sulfur dioxide, nitric dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone and particulate matters (PM) including, PM under 2.5 µm (PM2.5 ) and PM under 10 µm (PM10 )...
June 22, 2018: Future Cardiology
M Wöhrwag, C Semprebon, A Mazloomi Moqaddam, I Karlin, H Kusumaatmaja
A thermodynamically consistent free energy model for fluid flows comprised of one gas and two liquid components is presented and implemented using the entropic lattice Boltzmann scheme. The model allows a high density ratio, up to the order of O(10^{3}), between the liquid and gas phases, and a broad range of surface tension ratios, covering partial wetting states where Neumann triangles are formed, and full wetting states where complete encapsulation of one of the fluid components is observed. We further demonstrate that we can capture the bouncing, adhesive, and insertive regimes for the binary collisions between immiscible droplets suspended in air...
June 8, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Jing Wu, Haisu Zeng, Jessica Cheng, Shengping Zheng, James A Golen, David R Manke, Guoqi Zhang
Highly effective hydroboration precatalyst is developed based on a cobalt(II)-terpyridine coordination polymer (CP). The hydroboration of ketones, aldehydes and imines with pinacolborane (HBpin) has been achieved using the recyclable CP catalyst in the presence of an air-stable activator. A wide range of substrates containing polar C=O or C=N bonds have been hydroborated in excellent yields under ambient conditions. Highly chemoselective hydroboration of aldehydes over ketones is also observed.
June 22, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Georg Ramer, Francesco Simone Ruggeri, Aviad Levin, Tuomas P J Knowles, Andrea Centrone
The folding and acquisition of native structure of proteins is central to all biological processes of life. By contrast, protein misfolding can lead to toxic amyloid aggregates formation, linked to the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. To shed light on the molecular basis of protein function and malfunction, it is crucial to access structural information of single protein assemblies and aggregates under native conditions. Yet, current conformation-sensitive spectroscopic methods lack the spatial resolution and sensitivity necessary for characterizing heterogeneous protein aggregates in solution...
June 22, 2018: ACS Nano
Efstratios Mitridis, Thomas M Schutzius, Alba Sicher, Claudio U Hail, Hadi Eghlidi, Dimos Poulikakos
Inhibiting ice accumulation on surfaces is an energy-intensive task and is of significant importance in nature and technology where it has found applications in windshields, automobiles, aviation, renewable energy generation, and infrastructure. Existing methods rely on on-site electrical heat generation, chemicals, or mechanical removal, with drawbacks ranging from financial costs to disruptive technical interventions and environmental incompatibility. Here we focus on applications where surface transparency is desirable and propose metasurfaces with embedded plasmonically enhanced light absorption heating, using ultra-thin hybrid metal-dielectric coatings, as a passive, viable approach for de-icing and anti-icing, in which the sole heat source is renewable solar energy...
June 22, 2018: ACS Nano
Yao Kang, Fengmei Su, Qingkai Zhang, Feng Liang, Keegan R Adair, Kunfeng Chen, Dongfeng Xue, Katsuro Hayashi, Shan Cecilia Cao, Hossein Yadegari, Xueliang Sun
Low cost, high energy density and highly efficient devices for energy storage have long been desired in our society. Herein, a novel high energy density hybrid sodium-air cell was fabricated successfully based on acidic catholytes. Such a hybrid sodium-air cell possess a high theoretical voltage of 3.94 V, capacity of 1121 mAh g-1, and energy density of 4418 Wh kg-1. Firstly, the buffering effect of an acidic solution was demonstrated, which provides relatively long and stable cell discharge behaviours. Secondly, the catholyte of hybrid sodium-air cells were optimized systematically from the solutions of 0...
June 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Osman Ocal, Mustafa Yilmaz, Bora Peynircioglu, Burcak Bilginer, Ahmet Peker, Anil Arat
Aneurysms of the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) in pediatric patients are rare and mostly treated surgically. The authors present the case of a child with a giant extracranial ICA aneurysm presenting with gradual airway compression. A plan was made to explore the aneurysm surgically and straighten the associated carotid artery kinks during the operation to enable further endovascular treatment if primary reconstruction of the carotid artery proved not to be possible. Finally, the aneurysm was successfully treated with staged hybrid intervention, which consisted of surgical correction of parent artery kinks followed by endovascular implantation of stent grafts...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Yong Koy Bong, Shiwei Song, Jovana Nazor, Michael Vogel, Magnus Widegren, Derek Smith, Steven J Collier, Rob Wilson, S M Palanivel, Karthik Narayanaswamy, Ben Mijts, Michael D Clay, Ryan Fong, Jeff Colbeck, Amritha Appaswami, Sheela Muley, Jun Zhu, Xiyun Zhang, Jack Liang, David Entwistle
A wild-type Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase was engineered to overcome numerous liabilities in order to mediate a commercial oxidation of pyrmetazole to esomeprazole, using air as the terminal oxidant in an almost exclusively aqueous reaction matrix. The developed enzyme and process compares favorably to the incumbent Kagan inspired chemocatalytic oxidation, as esomeprazole was isolated in 87% yield, in >99% purity, with an enantiomeric excess of >99%.
June 22, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Zhenyu Sun, Yuqin Zhang, Hao Yu, Chao Yan, Yongchao Liu, Song Hong, Hengcong Tao, Alex W Robertson, Zhuo Wang, Agílio A H Pádua
Discovering highly efficient, environmentally friendly, and low-cost exfoliating media that can both disperse and protect black phosphorus (BP) remains a challenge. Herein, we demonstrate such a new molecule, N,N'-dimethylpropyleneurea (DMPU), for effective exfoliation and dispersion of two-dimensional BP nanosheets. A very high exfoliation efficiency of up to 16% was achieved in DMPU, significantly surpassing other good solvents. Exfoliated flakes are free from structural disorder or oxidation. Nanosheets retain high stability in DMPU even after addition of 25 vol% of common solvents...
June 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Philippe Vuka Tsalu, Geun Wan Kim, Jong Wook Hong, Ji Won Ha
The most polarizable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) longitudinal mode of anisotropic metallic nanoparticles, such as gold bipyramids (AuBPs), is of high prominence. This optical response has tremendous applications from spectroscopy to photonics and energy devices to sensing. In conventional LSPR-based sensing, broadening and asymmetry in peaks due to chemical and instrument noise hinder obtaining a precise insight on shift positions, accordingly limiting the effectiveness and impact of LSPR sensors...
June 22, 2018: Nanoscale
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