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Yuepeng Pan, Shili Tian, Dongwei Liu, Yunting Fang, Xiaying Zhu, Meng Gao, Jian Gao, Greg Michalski, Yuesi Wang
The sources of aerosol ammonium (NH4 + ) are of interest because of the potential of NH4 + to impact the Earth's radiative balance, as well as human health and biological diversity. Isotopic source apportionment of aerosol NH4 + is challenging in the urban atmosphere, which has excess ammonia (NH3 ) and where nitrogen isotopic fractionation commonly occurs. Based on year-round isotopic measurements in urban Beijing, we show the source dependence of the isotopic abundance of aerosol NH4 + , with isotopically light (-33...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Patrick Campbell, Yang Zhang, Fang Yan, Zifeng Lu, David Streets
In Part II of this work we present the results of the downscaled offline Weather Research and Forecasting/Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF/CMAQ) model, included in the "Technology Driver Model" (TDM) approach to future U.S. air quality projections (2046-2050) compared to a current-year period (2001-2005), and the interplay between future emission and climate changes. By 2046-2050, there are widespread decreases in future concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx  = NO + NO2 ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3 ), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Haiyan Li, Youshu Wang, Fei Liu, Linlin Tong, Kun Li, Hua Yang, Liang Zhang
Stormwater samples were collected from six different land use sites with three time-intervals during a precipitation event on August 12, 2016, from a community of Beijing, China. A total of 46 species volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in these stormwater samples, including methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated aromatics, Halogenated alkanes, and alkenes. The total VOC concentrations varied in the six sites following order: highway junction > city road > gas station > park > campus > residential area, except for MTBE, which was much higher at gas station compared to other land use sites...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Michal Pardo, Yael Kuperman, Liron Levin, Assaf Rudich, Yulia Haim, James J Schauer, Alon Chen, Yinon Rudich
Obesity and exposure to particular matter (PM) have become two leading global threats to public health. However, the exact mechanisms and tissue-specificity of their health effects are largely unknown. Here we investigate whether a metabolic challenge (early nutritional obesity) synergistically interacts with an environmental challenge (PM exposure) to alter genes representing key response pathways, in a tissue-specific manner. Mice subjected to 7 weeks obesogenic nutrition were exposed every other day during the final week and a half to aqueous extracts of PM collected in the city of London (UK)...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Christof Lanzerstorfer
The concentration of heavy metals in urban road-deposited sediments (RDS) can be used as an indicator for environmental pollution. Thus, their occurrence has been studied in whole road dust samples as well as in size fractions obtained by sieving. Because of the limitations of size separation by sieving little information is available about heavy metal concentrations in the road dust size fractions <20 μm. In this study air classification was applied for separation of dust size fractions smaller than 20 μm from RDS collected at different times during the year...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Kiyoung Jeong, Hyeonbin O, So Yeon Shin, Young-Soon Kim
This study evaluated the influence of different factors on pork hams cooked by sous-vide method. The quality and structural and microbiological properties of the treated samples were compared with those of controls. Samples were subjected to treatment at different combinations of temperature (61 °C or 71 °C), time (45 or 90 min), and vacuum degree (98.81% or 96.58%). The control sample was air packaged and boiled for 45 min in boiling water. Temperature and vacuum degree affected quality properties, while the effect of time was limited...
April 10, 2018: Meat Science
D Rittel, K Shemtov-Yona, R Lapovok
Severe plastic deformation (SPD) has long been known to confer superior mechanical properties for many metals and alloys. In the general field of biomedical devices, and dental implants in particular, the superior strength of SPD-processed commercially pure (CP) titanium, that may surpass that of the stronger Ti6Al4V alloy, has been associated with a superior fatigue resistance. Such a property would make those materials both biocompatible and strong alternatives to the currently used titanium alloy. However, the fatigue characterization reported so far in the literature relies on a very small sample size, thereby precluding any meaningful statistical analysis...
April 14, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Johanna Lepeule, Augusto A Litonjua, Antonio Gasparrini, Petros Koutrakis, David Sparrow, Pantel S Vokonas, Joel Schwartz
While the effects of weather variability on cardio-respiratory mortality are well described, research examining the effects on morbidity, especially for vulnerable populations, is warranted. We investigated the associations between lung function and outdoor temperature (T in Celsius degrees (°C)) and relative humidity (RH), in a cohort of elderly men, the Normative Aging Study. Our study included 1103 participants whose forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ), and weather exposures were assessed one to five times during the period 1995-2011 (i...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Research
Laetitia Nivelle, Virginie Aires, Damien Rioult, Laurent Martiny, Michel Tarpin, Dominique Delmas
Very recently, we have produced new resveratrol derived compounds, especially labruscol by culture of elicited grapevine cell suspensions (Vitis labrusca L.). This new polyphenolic oligomer could function as cancer chemopreventive agent in similar manner of resveratrol. In this study, we have determined the efficiency of resveratrol, ε-viniferin and the labruscol on human melanoma cell with or without metastatic phenotype. Our results show a differential activity of the three compounds where the resveratrol remains the polyphenolic compound with the most effective action compared to other oligomers...
April 20, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Adarsh M Thaker, V Raman Muthusamy, Alireza Sedarat, Rabindra R Watson, Michael L Kochman, Andrew S Ross, Stephen Kim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: After recent outbreaks of duodenoscope-related infections from multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO), the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended implementing one or more of four enhanced reprocessing measures in addition to updated manual cleaning methods and high-level disinfection (HLD). The implementation of these techniques in endoscopy facilities and provider opinions regarding reprocessing priorities remain unknown. METHODS: Physicians, nurse managers, nurses, and infection control staff at endoscopy units performing ERCP in the United States were surveyed to assess current institutional practices and individual opinions regarding future reprocessing solutions...
April 20, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Kai Wang, Congcong Wu, Dong Yang, Yuanyuan Jiang, Shashank Priya
The robust material stability of the quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) metal halide perovskite has opened the possibility for their usage instead of three-dimensional (3D) perovskite. Further, devices based on large area single crystal membrane have shown increasing promise for photoelectronic applications. However, growing inch-scale quasi-2D perovskite single crystal membrane (quasi-2D PSCM) has been fundamentally challenging. Here we report a fast-synthetic method for synthesizing inch-scale quasi-2D PSCM, namely (C4 H9 NH3 )n (CH3 NH3 )n-1 Pbn I3n+1 (index n=1, 2, 3, 4, and ∞), and demonstrate their applications in single-crystal photodetector...
April 23, 2018: ACS Nano
K You, R Bendl, C Taut, R Sullivan, M Gachabayov, R Bergamaschi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this RCT was to determine whether elective resection following successful non-operative management of a first episode of acute sigmoid diverticulitis complicated by extraluminal air with or without abscess is superior to observation in terms of recurrence rates. METHODS: This was a single-centre, sequential design RCT. Patients were randomized to elective surgery or observation following non-operative management and colonoscopy. Non-operative management included nil by mouth, intravenous fluids, intravenous antibiotics, CT with intravenous contrast on arrival at hospital, and repeat CT with intravenous and rectal contrast on day 3 in hospital...
April 23, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Brett C Singer, William W Delp
The ability to inexpensively monitor PM2.5 to identify sources and enable controls would advance residential indoor air quality (IAQ) management. Consumer IAQ monitors incorporating low-cost optical particle sensors and connections with smart home platforms could provide this service if they reliably detect PM2.5 in homes. In this study, particles from typical residential sources were generated in a 120 m3 laboratory and time-concentration profiles were measured with seven consumer monitors (2-3 units each), two research monitors (Thermo pDR-1500, MetOne BT-645), a Grimm Mini Wide-Range Aerosol Spectrometer (GRM), and a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance with Filter Dynamic Measurement System (FDMS), a federal equivalent method (FEM) for PM2...
April 23, 2018: Indoor Air
Li Luo, Jing Ren, Fengyi Zhang, Wei Zhang, Chunyang Li, Zhixin Qiu, Debin Huang
Length of hospital stay (LOS) of asthma can be a reflection of the disease burden faced by patients, and it is also sensitive to air pollution. This study aims at estimating and validating the effects of air pollution and readmission on the LOS for those who have asthma, considering their readmission history, minimum temperature, and threshold effects of air pollutants. In addition, sex, age, and season were also constructed for stratification to achieve more precise and specific results. The results show that no significant effects of PM2...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Simon Provençal, Pavel Kishcha, Arlindo M da Silva, Emily Elhacham, Pinhas Alpert
NASA recently extended the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) with an atmospheric aerosol reanalysis which includes five particulate species: sulfate, organic matter, black carbon, mineral dust and sea salt. The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) is an innovative tool to study air quality issues around the world for its global and constant coverage and its distinction of aerosol speciation expressed in the form of aerosol optical depth (AOD). The purpose of this manuscript is to apply MERRAero to the study of urban air pollution at the global scale by analyzing the AOD over a period of 13 years (2003-2015) and over a selection of 200 of the world's most populated cities in order to assess the impacts of urbanization, industrialization, air quality regulations and regional transport which affect urban aerosol load...
June 2017: Urban Clim
Jeong Woo Park, Young Jun Tak, Jae Won Na, Heesoo Lee, Won-Gi Kim, Hyun Jae Kim
We suggest thermal treatment with static magnetic fields (SMFs) or rotating magnetic fields (RMFs) as a new technique for the activation of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs). Magnetic interactions between metal atoms in a-IGZO films and oxygen atoms in air by SMFs or RMFs can be expected to enhance metal-oxide (M-O) bonds, even at low temperature (150°C), through attraction of metal and oxygen atoms having their magnetic moments aligned in the same direction. Compared with a-IGZO TFTs with only thermal treatment at 300°C, a-IGZO TFTs under an RMF (1,150 rpm) at 150°C show superior or comparable characteristics: field effect mobility of 12...
April 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Peng Tan, Bin Chen, Haoran Xu, Weizi Cai, Wei He, Meilin Liu, Zongping Shao, Meng Ni
The rapid development of electric vehicles and modern personal electronic devices is severely hindered by the limited energy and power density of the existing power sources. Here a novel hybrid Zn battery is reported which is composed of a nanostructured transition metal oxide-based positive electrode (i.e., Co3 O4 nanosheets grown on carbon cloth) and a Zn foil negative electrode in an aqueous alkaline electrolyte. The hybrid battery configuration successfully combines the unique advantages of a Zn-Co3 O4 battery and a Zn-air battery, achieving a high voltage of 1...
April 22, 2018: Small
Shu-Fen Su, Hsiao-Chi Nieh
BACKGROUND: Perioperatively, unexpected hypothermia may cause adverse surgical outcomes. However, few studies have explored the efficacy of forced-air warming in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. AIM/OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of forced-air warming for preventing perioperative hypothermia and complications in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: A total of 127 participants undergoing laparoscopic thoracic or abdominal surgery were recruited between January and November 2015...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Practice
Noam Zion, Ariel Friedman, Naomi Levy, Lior Elbaz
One of the most important chemical reactions for renewable energy technologies such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries today is oxygen reduction. Due to the relatively sluggish reaction kinetics, catalysts are necessary to generate high power output. The most common catalyst for this reaction is platinum, but its scarcity and derived high price have raised the search for abundant nonprecious metal catalysts. Inspired from enzymatic processes which are known to catalyze oxygen reduction reaction efficiently, employing transition metal complexes as their catalytic centers, many are working on the development of bioinspired and biomimetic catalysts of this class...
April 23, 2018: Advanced Materials
Marcus Quinkler, Bertil Ekman, Pinggao Zhang, Andrea M Isidori, Robert D Murray
OBJECTIVE: Mortality from primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI; PAI and SAI, respectively) is 2-3-fold higher than in the general population. Mortality relates to cardiovascular disease, acute adrenal crisis (AC), cancer and infections; however, there has been little further characterization of patients who have died. DESIGN/METHODS: We analysed real-world data from 2034 patients (801 PAI, 1233 SAI) in the European Adrenal Insufficiency Registry (EU-AIR; NCT01661387)...
April 22, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
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