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Condense matter

Alexander Schnell, Roland Ketzmerick, André Eckardt
In an ideal Bose gas that is driven into a steady state far from thermal equilibrium, a generalized form of Bose condensation can occur. Namely, the single-particle states unambiguously separate into two groups: the group of Bose-selected states, whose occupations increase linearly with the total particle number, and the group of all other states whose occupations saturate [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. However, so far very little is known about how the number of Bose-selected states depends on the properties of the system and its coupling to the environment...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Alexander J Schmithausen, Inga Schiefler, Manfred Trimborn, Katrin Gerlach, Karl-Heinz Südekum, Martin Pries, Wolfgang Büscher
Extensive experimentation on individual animals in respiration chambers has already been carried out to evaluate the potential of dietary changes and opportunities to mitigate CH₄ emissions from ruminants. Although it is difficult to determine the air exchange rate of open barn spaces, measurements at the herd level should provide similarly reliable and robust results. The primary objective of this study was (1) to define a validity range (data classification criteria (DCC)) for the variables of wind velocity and wind direction during long-term measurements at barn level; and (2) to apply this validity range to a feeding trial in a naturally cross-flow ventilated dairy barn...
May 16, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Stephen W Michnick, Louis-Philippe Bergeron-Sandoval
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Javier Osca, Llorenç Serra
Background: Majorana states in condensed matter devices may be of a localized nature, such as in hybrid semiconductor/superconductor nanowires, or chirally propagating along the edges such as in hybrid 2D quantum-anomalous Hall/superconductor structures. Results: We calculate the circular dichroism due to chiral Majorana states in a hybrid structure made of a quantum-anomalous Hall insulator and a superconductor. The optical absorption of chiral Majorana states is characterized by equally spaced absorption peaks of both positive and negative dichroism...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Moo-Been Chang, Yen-Chen Hsu, Shu-Hao Chang
A continuous pilot-scale system (CPS) equipped with effective air pollution control devices (APCDs) is used for remediating the sediments contaminated with PCDD/Fs, PCP and Hg simultaneously. The removal efficiencies of these three pollutants in sediments collected from seawater pond and river, respectively, are evaluated via thermal treatment processes. PAHs and CBz formed during thermal oxidation and pyrolysis are also analyzed for better understanding the behaviors of chlorinated organic compounds. Experimental results indicate that low-molecular-weight PAHs are closely related to the formation of CBz, PCDD/Fs, and CPs, while low chlorinated PCDD/Fs and CBz are predominant in flue gas with thermal oxidation...
May 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Vitaly I Korepanov, Daria M Sedlovets
Asymmetric lineshapes are experimentally observed in the Raman spectra of different classes of condensed matter. Determination of the peak parameters, typically done with symmetric pseudo-Voigt functions, in such situations yields unreliable results. While a wide choice of asymmetric fitting functions is possible, for the function to be practically useful, it should satisfy several criteria: simple analytic form, minimum parameters, description of the symmetric shape as "zero case", estimation of the desired peak parameters in a straightforward way and, above all, adequate description of the experimental data...
May 15, 2018: Analyst
Mengjie Yu, Yoshitomo Okawachi, Austin G Griffith, Nathalie Picqué, Michal Lipson, Alexander L Gaeta
The development of a spectroscopy device on a chip that could realize real-time fingerprinting with label-free and high-throughput detection of trace molecules represents one of the big challenges in sensing. Dual-comb spectroscopy (DCS) in the mid-infrared is a powerful technique offering high acquisition rates and signal-to-noise ratios through use of only a single detector with no moving parts. Here, we present a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator platform designed for mid-infrared (mid-IR) DCS. A single continuous-wave low-power pump source generates two mutually coherent mode-locked frequency combs spanning from 2...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Gustav Nystrom, Mario Arcari, Jozef Adamcik, Ivan Usov, Raffaele Mezzenga
Understanding how nanostructure and nanomechanics influence physical material properties on the micro- and macroscale is an essential goal in soft condensed matter research. Mechanisms governing fragmentation and chirality inversion of filamentous colloids are of specific interest because of their critical role in load-bearing and self-organizing functionalities of soft nanomaterials. Here we provide a fundamental insight into the self-organization across several length scales of nanocellulose, an important bio-colloid system with wide-ranging applications as structural, insulating and functional material...
May 14, 2018: ACS Nano
Dieter Bauer, Kenneth K Hansen
High-harmonic generation in the two topological phases of a finite, one-dimensional, periodic structure is investigated using a self-consistent time-dependent density functional theory approach. For harmonic photon energies smaller than the band gap, the harmonic yield is found to differ by up to 14 orders of magnitude for the two topological phases. This giant topological effect is explained by the degree of destructive interference in the harmonic emission of all valence-band (and edge-state) electrons, which strongly depends on whether or not topological edge states are present...
April 27, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Howon Kim, Alexandra Palacio-Morales, Thore Posske, Levente Rózsa, Krisztián Palotás, László Szunyogh, Michael Thorwart, Roland Wiesendanger
Realizing Majorana bound states (MBS) in condensed matter systems is a key challenge on the way toward topological quantum computing. As a promising platform, one-dimensional magnetic chains on conventional superconductors were theoretically predicted to host MBS at the chain ends. We demonstrate a novel approach to design of model-type atomic-scale systems for studying MBS using single-atom manipulation techniques. Our artificially constructed atomic Fe chains on a Re surface exhibit spin spiral states and a remarkable enhancement of the local density of states at zero energy being strongly localized at the chain ends...
May 2018: Science Advances
Xiang Ni, David Purtseladze, Daria A Smirnova, Alexey Slobozhanyuk, Andrea Alù, Alexander B Khanikaev
Recent advances in condensed matter physics have shown that the spin degree of freedom of electrons can be efficiently exploited in the emergent field of spintronics, offering unique opportunities for efficient data transfer, computing, and storage ( 1 - 3 ). These concepts have been inspiring analogous approaches in photonics, where the manipulation of an artificially engineered pseudospin degree of freedom can be enabled by synthetic gauge fields acting on light ( 4 - 6 ). The ability to control these degrees of freedom significantly expands the landscape of available optical responses, which may revolutionize optical computing and the basic means of controlling light in photonic devices across the entire electromagnetic spectrum...
May 2018: Science Advances
Roman Vasilevich, Evgeny Lodygin, Vasily Beznosikov, Evgeny Abakumov
Humic substances (HSs) from the mire peat soils of the forest-tundra zone of the European northeast part of Russia have been characterized in terms of molecular composition. This was accomplished using solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (13 C NMR) techniques and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The composition depended on the intensity of cryogenic processes in the active layer, the quality of the humification precursors (the degree of peat material transformation), and the biochemical selection of aromatic fragments during humification...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xavier Bouju, Étienne Duguet, Fabienne Gauffre, Claude R Henry, Myrtil L Kahn, Patrice Mélinon, Serge Ravaine
Quantum strongly correlated systems that exhibit interesting features in condensed matter physics often need an unachievable temperature or pressure range in classical materials. One solution is to introduce a scaling factor, namely, the lattice parameter. Synthetic heterostructures named superlattices or supracrystals are synthesized by the assembling of colloidal atoms. These include semiconductors, metals, and insulators for the exploitation of their unique properties. Most of them are currently limited to dense packing...
May 8, 2018: Advanced Materials
Nan-Fu Chen, Chun-Sung Sung, Zhi-Hong Wen, Chun-Hong Chen, Chien-Wei Feng, Han-Chun Hung, San-Nan Yang, Kuan-Hao Tsui, Wu-Fu Chen
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is prepared by centrifuging fresh blood in an anticoagulant state, and harvesting the platelet-rich portion or condensing platelets. Studies have consistently demonstrated that PRP concentrates are an abundant source of growth factors, such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and epithelial growth factor (EGF). The complex mechanisms underlying spinal cord injury (SCI) diminish intrinsic repair and neuronal regeneration...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Kangwei Li, Linghong Chen, Stephen J White, Hai Yu, Xuecheng Wu, Xiang Gao, Merched Azzi, Kefa Cen
Ammonia (NH3 ) is a major contributor to secondary aerosol in the atmosphere and can alter the kinetics of their formation. However, systematic studies related to the role of NH3 in aerosol nucleation processes and further particle size growth under complex scenarios are lacking. In this study, we conducted 16 experiments in the CSIRO smog chamber under dry conditions using aromatic hydrocarbons (toluene, o-/m-/p-xylene) and different concentrations of NH3 . The presence of NH3 did not change the gas-phase chemistry or nucleation onset time, but slowed the nucleation rate (5%-94%) once it began...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hiroyuki Katsuki, Nobuyuki Takei, Christian Sommer, Kenji Ohmori
Coherent control is a technique to manipulate wave functions of matter with light. Coherent control of isolated atoms and molecules in the gas phase is well-understood and developed since the 1990s, whereas its application to condensed matter is more difficult because its coherence lifetime is shorter. We have recently applied this technique to condensed matter samples, one of which is solid para-hydrogen ( p-H2 ). Intramolecular vibrational excitation of solid p-H2 gives an excited vibrational wave function called a "vibron", which is delocalized over many hydrogen molecules in a manner similar to a Frenkel exciton...
May 7, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Álvaro Cuevas, Juan Camilo López Carreño, Blanca Silva, Milena De Giorgi, Daniel G Suárez-Forero, Carlos Sánchez Muñoz, Antonio Fieramosca, Filippo Cardano, Lorenzo Marrucci, Vittorianna Tasco, Giorgio Biasiol, Elena Del Valle, Lorenzo Dominici, Dario Ballarini, Giuseppe Gigli, Paolo Mataloni, Fabrice P Laussy, Fabio Sciarrino, Daniele Sanvitto
Polaritons are quasi-particles that originate from the coupling of light with matter and that demonstrate quantum phenomena at the many-particle mesoscopic level, such as Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity. A highly sought and long-time missing feature of polaritons is a genuine quantum manifestation of their dynamics at the single-particle level. Although they are conceptually perceived as entangled states and theoretical proposals abound for an explicit manifestation of their single-particle properties, so far their behavior has remained fully accounted for by classical and mean-field theories...
April 2018: Science Advances
Meng Zhang, Lin Liu
To unravel the true nature of glass transition, broader insights into glass forming have been gained by examining the stress-driven glassy systems, where strong shear thinning, i.e., a reduced viscosity under increasing shear rate, is encountered. It is argued that arbitrarily small stress-driven shear rates would "melt" the glass and erase any memory of its thermal history. In this work, we report a glass transition memorized by the enthalpy-entropy compensation in strongly shear-thinned supercooled metallic liquids, which coincides with the thermal glass transition in both the transition temperature and the activation Gibbs free energy...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Ling Zhang, Jake B Bailey, Rohit H Subramanian, F Akif Tezcan
The formation of condensed matter typically involves a trade-off between structural order and flexibility. As the extent and directionality of interactions between atomic or molecular components increase, materials generally become more ordered but less compliant, and vice versa. Nevertheless, high levels of structural order and flexibility are not necessarily mutually exclusive; there are many biological (such as microtubules1,2 , flagella 3 , viruses4,5 ) and synthetic assemblies (for example, dynamic molecular crystals6-9 and frameworks10-13 ) that can undergo considerable structural transformations without losing their crystalline order and that have remarkable mechanical properties8,14,15 that are useful in diverse applications, such as selective sorption 16 , separation 17 , sensing 18 and mechanoactuation 19 ...
May 2018: Nature
Eylon Persky, Beena Kalisky
The emergence of states of matter in low-dimensional systems is one of the most intriguing topics in condensed matter physics. Interfaces between nonmagnetic, insulating oxides are found to give rise to surprising behaviors, such as metallic conductivity, superconductivity, and magnetism. Sensitive, noninvasive local characterization tools are essential for understanding the electronic and magnetic behavior of these systems. Here, the scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) technique for local magnetic imaging is described and its contribution to the field of oxide interfaces is reviewed...
May 2, 2018: Advanced Materials
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