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Condense matter

Elijah E Gordon, Jürgen Köhler, Myung-Hwan Whangbo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shanlin Wang, Wenwen Zhang, Xinquan Yu, Caihua Liang, Youfa Zhang
Spontaneous movement of condensed matter provides a new insight to efficiently improve condensation heat transfer on superhydrophobic surface. However, very few reports have shown the jumping behaviors on the sprayable superhydrophobic coatings. Here, we developed a sprayable silica nano-porous coating assembled by fluorinated nano-chains to survey the condensates' dynamics. The dewdrops were continuously removed by self- and/or trigger-propelling motion due to abundant nano-pores from random multilayer stacking of nano-chains...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
B Liu, H Bromberger, A Cartella, T Gebert, M Först, A Cavalleri
We report on the generation of high-energy (1.9 μJ) far-infrared pulses tunable between 4 and 18 THz frequency. Emphasis is placed on tunability and on minimizing the bandwidth of these pulses to less than 1 THz, as achieved by difference-frequency mixing of two linearly chirped near-infrared pulses in the organic nonlinear crystal DSTMS. As the two near-infrared pulses are derived from amplification of the same white light continuum, their carrier envelope phase fluctuations are mutually correlated, and hence the difference-frequency THz field exhibits absolute phase stability...
January 1, 2017: Optics Letters
M M Knowles, M L Pabón, H D Hess, J E Carulla
We evaluated the effects of tannins from Flemingia macrophylla (CIAT 17403) and Calliandra calothyrsus (San Ramón CIAT 22310 and Patulul CIAT 22316) on in vitro ruminal and post-ruminal dry matter and apparent protein degradation. For each tannin source (legumes), different dosages of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (8000 Da) in McDougall buffer were added to achieve ratios of 0:3, 1:3, 2:3 and 3:3 PEG:condensed tannin (CT). Ruminal fluid mixed with McDougall buffer (1:4) was added to tubes containing only legume foliage (control) or PEG-treated legume foliage...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Jibiao Wang, Yanming Che, Leifeng Zhang, Qijin Chen
Ultracold two-component Fermi gases with a tunable population imbalance have provided an excellent opportunity for studying the exotic Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) states, which have been of great interest in condensed matter physics. However, the FFLO states have not been observed experimentally in Fermi gases in three dimensions (3D), possibly due to their small phase space volume and extremely low temperature required for an equal-mass Fermi gas. Here we explore possible effects of mass imbalance, mainly in a (6)Li-(40)K mixture, on the one-plane-wave FFLO phases for a 3D homogeneous case at the mean-field level...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
M Dingfelder, R McLawhorn, E Maertz, J Shinpaugh
PURPOSE: Provide quality interaction cross sections for charged particle Monte Carlo (MC) track structure codes and evaluate low energy electron transport in condensed media. METHODS: MC methods and codes are often used to model or simulate charged particle radiation transport in matter. Detailed (or event-by-event) track structure simulations are of special interest for the modeling of the physical and chemical stages of radiation action with matter and the initial radiation damage to biological systems...
June 2016: Medical Physics
T K Hakala, H T Rekola, A I Väkeväinen, J-P Martikainen, M Nečada, A J Moilanen, P Törmä
Lasing at the nanometre scale promises strong light-matter interactions and ultrafast operation. Plasmonic resonances supported by metallic nanoparticles have extremely small mode volumes and high field enhancements, making them an ideal platform for studying nanoscale lasing. At visible frequencies, however, the applicability of plasmon resonances is limited due to strong ohmic and radiative losses. Intriguingly, plasmonic nanoparticle arrays support non-radiative dark modes that offer longer life-times but are inaccessible to far-field radiation...
January 3, 2017: Nature Communications
Ingo Heimbach, Florian Rhiem, Fabian Beule, David Knodt, Josef Heinen, Robert O Jones
pyMolDyn is an interactive viewer of atomic systems defined in a unit cell and is particularly useful for crystalline and amorphous materials. It identifies and visualizes cavities (vacancies, voids) in simulation cells corresponding to all seven 3D Bravais lattices, makes no assumptions about cavity shapes, allows for atoms of different size, and locates the cavity centers (the centers of the largest spheres not including an atom center). We define three types of cavity and develop a method based on the split and merge algorithm to calculate all three...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Eric J Meier, Fangzhao Alex An, Bryce Gadway
The Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model, which captures the most striking transport properties of the conductive organic polymer trans-polyacetylene, provides perhaps the most basic model system supporting topological excitations. The alternating bond pattern of polyacetylene chains is captured by the bipartite sublattice structure of the SSH model, emblematic of one-dimensional chiral symmetric topological insulators. This structure supports two distinct nontrivial topological phases, which, when interfaced with one another or with a topologically trivial phase, give rise to topologically protected, dispersionless boundary states...
December 23, 2016: Nature Communications
David Veysset, Alexei A Мaznev, Thomas Pezeril, Steven Kooi, Keith A Nelson
Shock waves in condensed matter are of great importance for many areas of science and technology ranging from inertially confined fusion to planetary science and medicine. In laboratory studies of shock waves, there is a need in developing diagnostic techniques capable of measuring parameters of materials under shock with high spatial resolution. Here, time-resolved interferometric imaging is used to study laser-driven focusing shock waves in a thin liquid layer in an all-optical experiment. Shock waves are generated in a 10 µm-thick layer of water by focusing intense picosecond laser pulses into a ring of 95 µm radius...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
T Moreno, X Querol, V Martins, M C Minguillón, C Reche, L H Ku, H R Eun, K H Ahn, M Capdevila, E de Miguel
Most particles in the rail subway environment are sub-micron sized ferruginous flakes and splinters generated mechanically by frictional wear of brake pads, wheels and rails. To better understand the mechanisms of formation and the alteration processes affecting inhalable particles in subways, PM samples (1-2.5 μm and 2.5-10 μm) were collected in the Barcelona Metro and then studied under a scanning electron microscope. Most particles in these samples are hematitic (up to 88%), with relatively minor amounts of mineral matter (up to 9%) and sulphates (up to 5%)...
December 21, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
S Kolkowitz, S L Bromley, T Bothwell, M L Wall, G E Marti, A P Koller, X Zhang, A M Rey, J Ye
Engineered spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in cold-atom systems can enable the study of new synthetic materials and complex condensed matter phenomena. However, spontaneous emission in alkali-atom spin-orbit-coupled systems is hindered by heating, limiting the observation of many-body effects and motivating research into potential alternatives. Here we demonstrate that spin-orbit-coupled fermions can be engineered to occur naturally in a one-dimensional optical lattice clock. In contrast to previous SOC experiments, here the SOC is both generated and probed using a direct ultra-narrow optical clock transition between two electronic orbital states in (87)Sr atoms...
December 21, 2016: Nature
Louis Kang, Tom C Lubensky
Lipid rafts are hypothesized to facilitate protein interaction, tension regulation, and trafficking in biological membranes, but the mechanisms responsible for their formation and maintenance are not clear. Insights into many other condensed matter phenomena have come from colloidal systems, whose micron-scale particles mimic basic properties of atoms and molecules but permit dynamic visualization with single-particle resolution. Recently, experiments showed that bidisperse mixtures of filamentous viruses can self-assemble into colloidal monolayers with thermodynamically stable rafts exhibiting chiral structure and repulsive interactions...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jingyi Wang, Husong Zheng, Guanchen Xu, Lifei Sun, Dake Hu, Zhixing Lu, Lina Liu, Jingying Zheng, Chenggang Tao, Liying Jiao
Two-dimensional (2D) metallic transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), such as 1T-TiSe2, are ideal systems for exploring the fundamentals in condensed matter physics. However, controlled synthesis of these ultrathin materials has not been achieved. Here, we explored the synthesis of charge density wave (CDW)-bearing 2D TiSe2 with chemical vapor transport (CVT) by extending this bulk crystal growth approach to the surface growth of TiSe2 by introducing suitable growth substrates and dramatically slowing down the growth rate...
December 21, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Paul J Ackerman, Ivan I Smalyukh
Three-dimensional (3D) topological solitons are continuous but topologically nontrivial field configurations localized in 3D space and embedded in a uniform far-field background, that behave like particles and cannot be transformed to a uniform state through smooth deformations. Many topologically nontrivial 3D solitonic fields have been proposed. Yet, according to the Hobart-Derrick theorem, physical systems cannot host them, except for nonlinear theories with higher-order derivatives such as the Skyrme-Faddeev model...
December 19, 2016: Nature Materials
Mironel Enescu, Kathryn L Nagy, Alain Manceau
Metal sulfide minerals are assumed to form naturally at ambient conditions via reaction of a metallic element with (poly)sulfide ions, usually produced by microbes in oxygen-depleted environments. Recently, the formation of mercury sulfide (β-HgS) directly from linear Hg(II)-thiolate complexes (Hg(SR)2) in natural organic matter and in cysteine solutions was demonstrated under aerated conditions. Here, a detailed description of this non-sulfidic reaction is provided by computations at a high level of molecular-orbital theory...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Gilbert Lonzarich, David Pines, Yi-Feng Yang
Understanding the emergence and subsequent behavior of heavy electrons in Kondo lattice materials is one of the grand challenges in condensed matter physics. From this perspective we review the progress that has been made during the past decade and suggest some directions for future research. Our focus will be on developing a new microscopic framework that incorporates the basic concepts that emerge from a phenomenological description of the key experimental findings.
December 19, 2016: Reports on Progress in Physics
A P A Monteiro, J K Bernard, J-R Guo, X-S Weng, S Emanuele, R Davis, G E Dahl, S Tao
Betaine is a natural compound found in sugar beets that serves as a methyl donor and organic osmolyte when fed to animals. The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding betaine-containing molasses on performance of transition dairy cows during late summer in 2 trials. In early September, cows were randomly assigned to betaine (BET) or control (CON) groups either shortly after dry off (trial 1; n = 10 per treatment) or 24 d before calving (trial 2; n = 8 per treatment) based on parity and previous mature equivalent milk yield...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Zhijun Wang, M G Vergniory, S Kushwaha, Max Hirschberger, E V Chulkov, A Ernst, N P Ong, Robert J Cava, B Andrei Bernevig
Weyl fermions have recently been observed in several time-reversal-invariant semimetals and photonics materials with broken inversion symmetry. These systems are expected to have exotic transport properties such as the chiral anomaly. However, most discovered Weyl materials possess a substantial number of Weyl nodes close to the Fermi level that give rise to complicated transport properties. Here we predict, for the first time, a new family of Weyl systems defined by broken time-reversal symmetry, namely, Co-based magnetic Heusler materials XCo_{2}Z (X=IVB or VB; Z=IVA or IIIA)...
December 2, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Cheng Lu, Jingjing Wang, Ping Wang, Xinxin Xia, Yuanyuan Jin, Peifang Li, Gang Bao
Understanding the structural evolution of materials is a challenging problem of condensed matter physics. Solving this problem would open new ways for understanding the behaviors of materials. In this context, we here report unbiased structure searches for a prototypical perovskite oxide, PbTiO3, based on the CALYPSO (Crystal structure AnaLYsis by Particle Swarm Optimization) method in conjunction with first-principles calculations. For the first time, we decipher the structure evolution of PbTiO3 from a zero dimensional (0D) cluster to a two dimensional (2D) layered structure and in the end to a three dimensional (3D) bulk solid...
January 4, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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