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Condense matter

Audrey Cottet, Matthieu C Dartiailh, Matthieu M Desjardins, Tino Cubaynes, Lauriane C Contamin, Matthieu Delbecq, Jérémie J Viennot, Laure E Bruhat, Benoit Douçot, Takis Kontos
Circuit QED techniques have been instrumental in manipulating and probing with exquisite sensitivity the quantum state of superconducting quantum bits coupled to microwave cavities. Recently, it has become possible to fabricate new devices in which the superconducting quantum bits are replaced by hybrid mesoscopic circuits combining nanoconductors and metallic reservoirs. This mesoscopic QED provides a new experimental playground to study the light-matter interaction in electronic circuits. Here, we present the experimental state of the art of mesoscopic QED and its theoretical description...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Abhinav Kandala, Antonio Mezzacapo, Kristan Temme, Maika Takita, Markus Brink, Jerry M Chow, Jay M Gambetta
Quantum computers can be used to address electronic-structure problems and problems in materials science and condensed matter physics that can be formulated as interacting fermionic problems, problems which stretch the limits of existing high-performance computers. Finding exact solutions to such problems numerically has a computational cost that scales exponentially with the size of the system, and Monte Carlo methods are unsuitable owing to the fermionic sign problem. These limitations of classical computational methods have made solving even few-atom electronic-structure problems interesting for implementation using medium-sized quantum computers...
September 13, 2017: Nature
G G Paschos, N Somaschi, S I Tsintzos, D Coles, J L Bricks, Z Hatzopoulos, D G Lidzey, P G Lagoudakis, P G Savvidis
Organic materials exhibit exceptional room temperature light emitting characteristics and enormous exciton oscillator strength, however, their low charge carrier mobility prevent their use in high-performance applications such as electrically pumped lasers. In this context, ultralow threshold polariton lasers, whose operation relies on Bose-Einstein condensation of polaritons - part-light part-matter quasiparticles, are highly advantageous since the requirement for high carrier injection no longer holds. Polariton lasers have been successfully implemented using inorganic materials owing to their excellent electrical properties, however, in most cases their relatively small exciton binding energies limit their operation temperature...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Galan Moody, Steven T Cundiff
Multi-dimensional coherent spectroscopy (MDCS) has become an extremely versatile and sensitive technique for elucidating the structure, composition, and dynamics of condensed matter, atomic, and molecular systems. The appeal of MDCS lies in its ability to resolve both individual-emitter and ensemble-averaged dynamics of optically created excitations in disordered systems. When applied to semiconductors, MDCS enables unambiguous separation of homogeneous and inhomogeneous contributions to the optical linewidth, pinpoints the nature of coupling between resonances, and reveals signatures of many-body interactions...
2017: Adv Phys X
Lin Yang, Chengyu Hou, Xiaoliang Ma, Lin Ye, Li Chang, Liping Shi, Xiaodong He
Molecular dynamics (MD) is appearing in increasing applications in materials science, nanotechnologies, condensed matter physics, computational physics, biochemistry, and biophysics. Finding mechanically static equilibrium configurations of molecular systems is one of the most practical tasks in MD. Most existing potential energy optimization algorithms do not permit searching equilibrium configurations through longer MD trajectories. We introduce a simple method of utilizing a microcanonical (NVE) ensemble to obtain static equilibriums of molecular systems, that is significantly faster than the standard implementations of quick-min (QM) and fast inertial relaxation engine (FIRE) optimization algorithms...
September 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
James D Gaynor, Munira Khalil
Two-Dimensional Electronic-Vibrational (2D EV) spectroscopy and Two-Dimensional Vibrational-Electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy are new coherent four-wave mixing spectroscopies that utilize both electronically resonant and vibrationally resonant field-matter interactions to elucidate couplings between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. A system Hamiltonian is developed here to lay a foundation for interpreting the 2D EV and 2D VE signals that arise from a vibronically coupled molecular system in the condensed phase...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Krzysztof Sacha, Jakub Zakrzewski
Time crystals are time-periodic self-organized structures postulated by Frank Wilczek in 2012. While the original concept was strongly criticized, it stimulated at the same time an intensive research leading to propositions and experimental verifications of discrete (or Floquet) time crystals -- the structures that appear in the time domain due to spontaneous breaking of discrete time translation symmetry. The struggle to observe discrete time crystals is reviewed here together with propositions that generalize this concept introducing condensed matter like physics in the time domain...
September 8, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
David DeMille, John M Doyle, Alexander O Sushkov
The field of particle physics is in a peculiar state. The standard model of particle theory successfully describes every fundamental particle and force observed in laboratories, yet fails to explain properties of the universe such as the existence of dark matter, the amount of dark energy, and the preponderance of matter over antimatter. Huge experiments, of increasing scale and cost, continue to search for new particles and forces that might explain these phenomena. However, these frontiers also are explored in certain smaller, laboratory-scale "tabletop" experiments...
September 8, 2017: Science
Milena S J Horvath, Ryan Thomas, Eite Tiesinga, Amita B Deb, Niels Kjærgaard
Ultracold atomic gases have realized numerous paradigms of condensed matter physics, where control over interactions has crucially been afforded by tunable Feshbach resonances. So far, the characterization of these Feshbach resonances has almost exclusively relied on experiments in the threshold regime near zero energy. Here, we use a laser-based collider to probe a narrow magnetic Feshbach resonance of rubidium above threshold. By measuring the overall atomic loss from colliding clouds as a function of magnetic field, we track the energy-dependent resonance position...
September 6, 2017: Nature Communications
C Chong, Mason A Porter, P G Kevrekidis, C Daraio
The study of granular crystals, which are nonlinear metamaterials that consist of closely packed arrays of particles that interact elastically, is a vibrant area of research that combines ideas from disciplines such as materials science, nonlinear dynamics, and condensed-matter physics. Granular crystals exploit geometrical nonlinearities in their constitutive microstructure to produce properties (such as tunability and energy localization) that are not conventional to engineering materials and linear devices...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
A Erba, J Baima, I Bush, R Orlando, R Dovesi
Nowadays, the efficient exploitation of high-performance computing resources is crucial to extend the applicability of first-principles theoretical methods to the description of large, progressively more realistic molecular and condensed matter systems. This can be achieved only by devising effective parallelization strategies for the most time-consuming steps of a calculation, which requires some effort given the usual complexity of quantum-mechanical algorithms, particularly so if parallelization is to be extended to all properties and not just to the basic functionalities of the code...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Zhenwei Yao
Understanding geometric frustration of ordered phases in two-dimensional condensed matter on curved surfaces is closely related to a host of scientific problems in condensed matter physics and materials science. Here, we show how two-dimensional Lennard-Jones crystal clusters confined on a sphere resolve geometric frustration and form pentagonal vacancy structures. These vacancies, originating from the combination of curvature and physical interaction, are found to be topological defects and they can be further classified into dislocational and disclinational types...
September 4, 2017: Soft Matter
Anja Grosse Brinkhaus, Giuseppe Bee, Angela Schwarm, Michael Kreuzer, Frigga Dohme-Meier, Johanna O Zeitz
BACKGROUND: A limited availability of microbial protein can impair productivity in ruminants. Ruminal nitrogen efficiency might be optimised by combining high-quality forage legumes such as red clover (RC), which have unfavourable great ruminal protein degradability, with tanniferous legumes like sainfoin (SF) and birdsfoot trefoil (BT). Silages from SF and from BT cultivars [Bull (BB) and Polom (BP)] were incubated singly or in combination with RC using the rumen simulation technique (n=6)...
August 29, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Yu Li, Ziwei Li, Cheng Chi, Hangyong Shan, Liheng Zheng, Zheyu Fang
Plasmonics has developed for decades in the field of condensed matter physics and optics. Based on the classical Maxwell theory, collective excitations exhibit profound light-matter interaction properties beyond classical physics in lots of material systems. With the development of nanofabrication and characterization technology, ultra-thin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials attract tremendous interest and show exceptional plasmonic properties. Here, we elaborate the advanced optical properties of 2D materials especially graphene and monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), review the plasmonic properties of graphene, and discuss the coupling effect in hybrid 2D nanomaterials...
August 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Matthew Griffiths, Samuel P Niblett, David J Wales
Finding the optimal alignment between two structures is important for identifying the minimum root-mean-square distance (RMSD) between them and as a starting point for calculating pathways. Most current algorithms for aligning structures are stochastic, scale exponentially with the size of structure, and the performance can be unreliable. We present two complementary methods for aligning structures corresponding to isolated clusters of atoms and to condensed matter described by a periodic cubic supercell. The first method (Go-PERMDIST), a branch and bound algorithm, locates the global minimum RMSD deterministically in polynomial time...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Tetsuaki Itou, Eri Watanabe, Satoru Maegawa, Akiko Tajima, Naoya Tajima, Kazuya Kubo, Reizo Kato, Kazushi Kanoda
The Mott transition-a metal-insulator transition caused by repulsive Coulomb interactions between electrons-is a central issue in condensed matter physics because it is the mother earth of various attractive phenomena. Outstanding examples are high-Tc (critical temperature) cuprates and manganites exhibiting colossal magnetoresistance. Furthermore, spin liquid states, which are quantum-fluctuation-driven disordered ground states in antiferromagnets, have recently been found in magnetic systems very near the Mott transition...
August 2017: Science Advances
Jie Sun, Hua Sheng Wang
In this work, we propose the concept to use the hydrophilic or neutral surface for condensation heat transfer and to use the superhydrophobic surface for enhancement by self-shedding and sweeping of condensate. Molecular dynamics simulation results show that no matter the vapor condenses on the solid surface in dropwise or filmwise mode, the grown-up condensate self-sheds and falls off the superhydrophobic surface, sweeping the growing condensate on the condensing surface downstream. We characterize the dynamics of condensate that the continuous self-shedding and sweeping effectively remove the droplets from the solid surface in dropwise mode or thin the condensate film on the solid surface in filmwise mode, which significantly enhances the condensation heat transfer...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Astrid Müller, Yuzo Miyazaki, Eri Tachibana, Kimitaka Kawamura, Tsutom Hiura
Biogenic organic aerosols can affect cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties, and subsequently impact climate change. Large uncertainties exist in how the difference in the types of terrestrial biogenic sources and the abundance of organics relative to sulfate affect CCN properties. For the submicron water-soluble aerosols collected for two years in a cool-temperate forest in northern Japan, we show that the hygroscopicity parameter κCCN (0.44 ± 0.07) exhibited a distinct seasonal trend with a minimum in autumn (κCCN = 0...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Morteza Salehi, S A Jafari
We suggest that spin-singlet pseudo-scalar s-wave superconducting pairing creates a two dimensional sea of Majorana fermions on the surface of three dimensional Dirac superconductors (3DDS). This pseudo-scalar superconducting order parameter Δ5, in competition with scalar Dirac mass m, leads to a topological phase transition due to band inversion. We find that a perfect Andreev-Klein reflection is guaranteed by presence of anomalous Andreev reflection along with the conventional one. This effect manifests itself in a resonant peak of the differential conductance...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mingzhe Yan, Huaqing Huang, Kenan Zhang, Eryin Wang, Wei Yao, Ke Deng, Guoliang Wan, Hongyun Zhang, Masashi Arita, Haitao Yang, Zhe Sun, Hong Yao, Yang Wu, Shoushan Fan, Wenhui Duan, Shuyun Zhou
Topological semimetals have recently attracted extensive research interests as host materials to condensed matter physics counterparts of Dirac and Weyl fermions originally proposed in high energy physics. Although Lorentz invariance is required in high energy physics, it is not necessarily obeyed in condensed matter physics, and thus Lorentz-violating type-II Weyl/Dirac fermions could be realized in topological semimetals. The recent realization of type-II Weyl fermions raises the question whether their spin-degenerate counterpart-type-II Dirac fermions-can be experimentally realized too...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
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