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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897181/quantum-enhanced-feedback-cooling-of-a-mechanical-oscillator-using-nonclassical-light
#1
Clemens Schäfermeier, Hugo Kerdoncuff, Ulrich B Hoff, Hao Fu, Alexander Huck, Jan Bilek, Glen I Harris, Warwick P Bowen, Tobias Gehring, Ulrik L Andersen
Laser cooling is a fundamental technique used in primary atomic frequency standards, quantum computers, quantum condensed matter physics and tests of fundamental physics, among other areas. It has been known since the early 1990s that laser cooling can, in principle, be improved by using squeezed light as an electromagnetic reservoir; while quantum feedback control using a squeezed light probe is also predicted to allow improved cooling. Here we show the implementation of quantum feedback control of a micro-mechanical oscillator using squeezed probe light...
November 29, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896860/preference-of-goats-capra-hircus-l-for-tanniniferous-browse-species-available-in-semi-arid-areas-in-ethiopia
#2
G Mengistu, M Bezabih, W H Hendriks, W F Pellikaan
The objectives were to determine browse species preference of goats using dry matter intake (DMI) as a proxy, to compare preference when offered in combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and to establish relationships between browse species intake and chemical compositional data. Air-dried leaves of Acacia etbaica, Cadaba farinosa, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, Dodonaea angustifolia, Euclea racemosa, Maerua angolensis, Maytenus senegalensis, Rhus natalensis and Senna singueana were used. Two cafeteria trials, each lasting 10 days, were conducted using four local mature male goats of 2-2...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894124/extensive-degeneracy-coulomb-phase-and-magnetic-monopoles-in-artificial-square-ice
#3
Yann Perrin, Benjamin Canals, Nicolas Rougemaille
Artificial spin-ice systems are lithographically patterned arrangements of interacting magnetic nanostructures that were introduced as way of investigating the effects of geometric frustration in a controlled manner. This approach has enabled unconventional states of matter to be visualized directly in real space, and has triggered research at the frontier between nanomagnetism, statistical thermodynamics and condensed matter physics. Despite efforts to create an artificial realization of the square-ice model-a two-dimensional geometrically frustrated spin-ice system defined on a square lattice-no simple geometry based on arrays of nanomagnets has successfully captured the macroscopically degenerate ground-state manifold of the model...
November 28, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886222/visualising-berry-phase-and-diabolical-points-in-a-quantum-exciton-polariton-billiard
#4
E Estrecho, T Gao, S Brodbeck, M Kamp, C Schneider, S Höfling, A G Truscott, E A Ostrovskaya
Diabolical points (spectral degeneracies) can naturally occur in spectra of two-dimensional quantum systems and classical wave resonators due to simple symmetries. Geometric Berry phase is associated with these spectral degeneracies. Here, we demonstrate a diabolical point and the corresponding Berry phase in the spectrum of hybrid light-matter quasiparticles-exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. It is well known that sufficiently strong optical pumping can drive exciton-polaritons to quantum degeneracy, whereby they form a macroscopically populated quantum coherent state similar to a Bose-Einstein condensate...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882972/emergent-phenomena-induced-by-spin-orbit-coupling-at-surfaces-and-interfaces
#5
Anjan Soumyanarayanan, Nicolas Reyren, Albert Fert, Christos Panagopoulos
Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) describes the relativistic interaction between the spin and momentum degrees of freedom of electrons, and is central to the rich phenomena observed in condensed matter systems. In recent years, new phases of matter have emerged from the interplay between SOC and low dimensionality, such as chiral spin textures and spin-polarized surface and interface states. These low-dimensional SOC-based realizations are typically robust and can be exploited at room temperature. Here we discuss SOC as a means of producing such fundamentally new physical phenomena in thin films and heterostructures...
November 23, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875325/phase-diagram-of-interacting-spinless-fermions-on-the-honeycomb-lattice
#6
Sylvain Capponi
Fermions hopping on a hexagonal lattice represent one of the most active research fields in condensed matter since the discovery of graphene in 2004 and its numerous applications. Another exciting aspect of the interplay between geometry and quantum mechanical effects is given by the Haldane model (Haldane 1988 Phys. Rev. Lett. 61 2015), where spinless fermions experiencing a certain flux pattern on the honeycomb lattice leads to the stabilization of a topological phase of matter, distinct from a Mott insulator and nowadays dubbed Chern insulator...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874040/role-of-valence-changes-and-nanoscale-atomic-displacements-in-bis2-based-superconductors
#7
Jie Cheng, Huifei Zhai, Yu Wang, Wei Xu, Shengli Liu, Guanghan Cao
Superconductivity within layered crystal structures has attracted sustained interest among condensed matter community, primarily due to their exotic superconducting properties. EuBiS2F is a newly discovered member in the BiS2-based superconducting family, which shows superconductivity at 0.3 K without extrinsic doping. With 50 at.% Ce substitution for Eu, superconductivity is enhanced with Tc increased up to 2.2 K. However, the mechanisms for the Tc enhancement have not yet been elucidated. In this study, the Ce-doping effect on the self-electron-doped superconductor EuBiS2F was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS)...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870287/potential-of-tannin-rich-plants-leucaena-leucocephala-glyricidia-sepium-and-manihot-esculenta-to-reduce-enteric-methane-emissions-in-sheep
#8
H Archimède, M Rira, D J Barde, F Labirin, C Marie-Magdeleine, B Calif, F Periacarpin, J Fleury, Y Rochette, D P Morgavi, M Doreau
An in vivo trial was conducted in sheep to investigate the effect of three tropical tannin-rich plants (TRP) on methane emission, intake and digestibility. The TRP used were leaves of Glyricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Manihot esculenta that contained, respectively, 39, 75 and 92 g condensed tannins/kg DM. Methane was determined with the sulphur hexafluoride tracer technique. Eight rumen-cannulated sheep of two breeds (four Texel, four Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Four experimental diets were tested...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859814/black-rhinoceros-diceros-bicornis-and-domestic-horse-equus-caballus-hindgut-microflora-demonstrate-similar-fermentation-responses-to-grape-seed-extract-supplementation-in%C3%A2-vitro
#9
N F Huntley, H D Naumann, A L Kenny, M S Kerley
The domestic horse is used as a nutritional model for rhinoceros maintained under human care. The validity of this model for browsing rhinoceros has been questioned due to high prevalence of iron overload disorder (IOD) in captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Iron chelators, such as tannins, are under investigation as dietary supplements to ameliorate or prevent IOD in prone species. Polyphenolic compounds variably affect microbial fermentation, so the first objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE; a concentrated source of condensed tannins; CT) on black rhinoceros hindgut fermentation...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858435/pairing-phase-transitions-of-matter-under-rotation
#10
Yin Jiang, Jinfeng Liao
The phases and properties of matter under global rotation have attracted much interest recently. In this Letter we investigate the pairing phenomena in a system of fermions under the presence of rotation. We find that there is a generic suppression effect on pairing states with zero angular momentum. We demonstrate this effect with the chiral condensation and the color superconductivity in hot dense QCD matter as explicit examples. In the case of chiral condensation, a new phase diagram in the temperature-rotation parameter space is found, with a nontrivial critical point...
November 4, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847230/fate-of-emerging-and-priority-micropollutants-during-the-sewage-sludge-treatment-case-study-of-paris-conurbation-part-1-contamination-of-the-different-types-of-sewage-sludge
#11
R Mailler, J Gasperi, D Patureau, E Vulliet, N Delgenes, A Danel, S Deshayes, V Eudes, S Guerin, R Moilleron, G Chebbo, V Rocher
This article provides data on the contamination of different kinds of sludge (raw, centrifuged, digested, thermally dried sludge and sludge cake) from Paris conurbation by 71 various pollutants including pharmaceutical products (PHPs), hormones, perfluorinated acids (PFAs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), alkylphenols (APs), phthalates (PAEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). Very high contents of LAS (0.1-10g/kg dry matter - DM) compared to other compounds were found in all types of sludge followed by DEHP (10-100mg/kg DM) and fluoroquinolones (1-100mg/kg DM)...
November 12, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846498/ultrafast-many-body-interferometry-of-impurities-coupled-to-a-fermi-sea
#12
Marko Cetina, Michael Jag, Rianne S Lous, Isabella Fritsche, Jook T M Walraven, Rudolf Grimm, Jesper Levinsen, Meera M Parish, Richard Schmidt, Michael Knap, Eugene Demler
The fastest possible collective response of a quantum many-body system is related to its excitations at the highest possible energy. In condensed matter systems, the time scale for such "ultrafast" processes is typically set by the Fermi energy. Taking advantage of fast and precise control of interactions between ultracold atoms, we observed nonequilibrium dynamics of impurities coupled to an atomic Fermi sea. Our interferometric measurements track the nonperturbative quantum evolution of a fermionic many-body system, revealing in real time the formation dynamics of quasi-particles and the quantum interference between attractive and repulsive states throughout the full depth of the Fermi sea...
October 7, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834375/experimental-demonstration-of-anomalous-floquet-topological-insulator-for-sound
#13
Yu-Gui Peng, Cheng-Zhi Qin, De-Gang Zhao, Ya-Xi Shen, Xiang-Yuan Xu, Ming Bao, Han Jia, Xue-Feng Zhu
Time-reversal invariant topological insulator is widely recognized as one of the fundamental discoveries in condensed matter physics, for which the most fascinating hallmark is perhaps a spin-based topological protection, the absence of scattering of conduction electrons with certain spins on matter surface. Recently, it has created a paradigm shift for topological insulators, from electronics to photonics, phononics and mechanics as well, bringing about not only involved new physics but also potential applications in robust wave transport...
November 11, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833125/photo-electrons-unveil-topological-transitions-in-graphene-like-systems
#14
Lucila Peralta Gavensky, Gonzalo Usaj, C A Balseiro
The topological structure of the wavefunctions of particles in periodic potentials is characterized by the Berry curvature Ωkn whose integral on the Brillouin zone is a topological invariant known as the Chern number. The bulk-boundary correspondence states that these numbers define the number of edge or surface topologically protected states. It is then of primary interest to find experimental techniques able to measure the Berry curvature. However, up to now, there are no spectroscopic experiments that proved to be capable to obtain information on Ωkn to distinguish different topological structures of the bulk wavefunctions of semiconducting materials...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830665/new-subject-sections-for-journal-of-physics-condensed-matter-and-50-years-of-the-journal-of-physics-series
#15
Jason S Gardner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825233/real-space-pseudopotential-method-for-computing-the-vibrational-stark-effect
#16
Benjamin F Garrett, Ido Azuri, Leeor Kronik, James R Chelikowsky
The vibrational Stark shift is an important effect in determining the electrostatic environment for molecular or condensed matter systems. However, accurate ab initio calculations of the vibrational Stark effect are a technically demanding challenge. We make use of density functional theory constructed on a real-space grid to expedite the computation of this effect. Our format is especially advantageous for the investigation of small molecules in finite fields as cluster boundary conditions eliminate spurious supercell interactions and allow for charged systems, while convergence is controlled by a single parameter, the grid spacing...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825224/perspective-machine-learning-potentials-for-atomistic-simulations
#17
Jörg Behler
Nowadays, computer simulations have become a standard tool in essentially all fields of chemistry, condensed matter physics, and materials science. In order to keep up with state-of-the-art experiments and the ever growing complexity of the investigated problems, there is a constantly increasing need for simulations of more realistic, i.e., larger, model systems with improved accuracy. In many cases, the availability of sufficiently efficient interatomic potentials providing reliable energies and forces has become a serious bottleneck for performing these simulations...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823990/theory-of-scanning-tunneling-spectroscopy-from-kondo-impurities-to-heavy-fermion-materials
#18
Dirk K Morr
Kondo systems ranging from the single Kondo impurity to heavy fermion materials present us with a plethora of unconventional properties whose theoretical understanding is still one of the major open problems in condensed matter physics. Over the last few years, groundbreaking scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) experiments have provided unprecedented new insight into the electronic structure of Kondo systems. Interpreting the results of these experiments-the differential conductance and the quasi-particle interference spectrum-however, has been complicated by the fact that electrons tunneling from the STS tip into the system can tunnel either into the heavy magnetic moment or the light conduction band states...
November 8, 2016: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821725/supercritical-entanglement-in-local-systems-counterexample-to-the-area-law-for-quantum-matter
#19
Ramis Movassagh, Peter W Shor
Quantum entanglement is the most surprising feature of quantum mechanics. Entanglement is simultaneously responsible for the difficulty of simulating quantum matter on a classical computer and the exponential speedups afforded by quantum computers. Ground states of quantum many-body systems typically satisfy an "area law": The amount of entanglement between a subsystem and the rest of the system is proportional to the area of the boundary. A system that obeys an area law has less entanglement and can be simulated more efficiently than a generic quantum state whose entanglement could be proportional to the total system's size...
November 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811387/nanoscale-electrodynamics-of-strongly-correlated-quantum-materials
#20
Mengkun Liu, Aaron J Sternbach, D N Basov
Electronic, magnetic, and structural phase inhomogeneities are ubiquitous in strongly correlated quantum materials. The characteristic length scales of the phase inhomogeneities can range from atomic to mesoscopic, depending on their microscopic origins as well as various sample dependent factors. Therefore, progress with the understanding of correlated phenomena critically depends on the experimental techniques suitable to provide appropriate spatial resolution. This requirement is difficult to meet for some of the most informative methods in condensed matter physics, including infrared and optical spectroscopy...
November 3, 2016: Reports on Progress in Physics
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