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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149231/field-strain-and-light-induced-superconductivity-in-organic-strongly-correlated-electron-systems
#1
Masayuki Suda, Hiroshi M Yamamoto
Stimulated by the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in 1986, band-filling control of strongly correlated electron systems has been a persistent challenge over the past three decades in condensed matter science. In particular, recent efforts have been focused on electrostatic carrier doping of these materials, utilising field-effect transistor (FET) structures to find novel superconductivity. Our group found the first field-induced superconductivity in an organic-based material in 2013 and has been developing various types of superconducting organic FETs...
November 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147027/trapping-pinning-of-colloidal-microspheres-over-glass-substrate-using-surface-features
#2
Praneet Prakash, Manoj Varma
Suspensions of micro/nano particles made of Polystyrene, Poly(methyl methacrylate), Silicon dioxide etc. have been a standard model system to understand colloidal physics. These systems have proved useful insights into phenomena such as self-assembly. Colloidal model systems are also extensively used to simulate many condensed matter phenomena such as dynamics in a quenched disordered system and glass transition. A precise control of particles using optical or holographic tweezers is essential for such studies...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147016/observation-of-dielectric-universalities-in-albumin-cytochrome-c-and-shewanella-oneidensis-mr-1-extracellular-matrix
#3
K A Motovilov, M Savinov, E S Zhukova, A A Pronin, Z V Gagkaeva, V Grinenko, K V Sidoruk, T A Voeikova, P Yu Barzilovich, A K Grebenko, S V Lisovskii, V I Torgashev, P Bednyakov, J Pokorný, M Dressel, B P Gorshunov
The electrodynamics of metals is well understood within the Drude conductivity model; properties of insulators and semiconductors are governed by a gap in the electronic states. But there is a great variety of disordered materials that do not fall in these categories and still respond to external field in an amazingly uniform manner. At radiofrequencies delocalized charges yield a frequency-independent conductivity σ 1(ν) whose magnitude exponentially decreases while cooling. With increasing frequency, dispersionless conductivity starts to reveal a power-law dependence σ 1(ν)∝ν (s) with s < 1 caused by hopping charge carriers...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146904/backward-cherenkov-radiation-emitted-by-polariton-solitons-in-a-microcavity-wire
#4
D V Skryabin, Y V Kartashov, O A Egorov, M Sich, J K Chana, L E Tapia Rodriguez, P M Walker, E Clarke, B Royall, M S Skolnick, D N Krizhanovskii
Exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities form a highly nonlinear platform to study a variety of effects interfacing optical, condensed matter, quantum and statistical physics. We show that the complex polariton patterns generated by picosecond pulses in microcavity wire waveguides can be understood as the Cherenkov radiation emitted by bright polariton solitons, which is enabled by the unique microcavity polariton dispersion, which has momentum intervals with positive and negative group velocities...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142262/observation-of-replica-symmetry-breaking-in-disordered-nonlinear-wave-propagation
#5
Davide Pierangeli, Andrea Tavani, Fabrizio Di Mei, Aharon J Agranat, Claudio Conti, Eugenio DelRe
A landmark of statistical mechanics, spin-glass theory describes critical phenomena in disordered systems that range from condensed matter to biophysics and social dynamics. The most fascinating concept is the breaking of replica symmetry: identical copies of the randomly interacting system that manifest completely different dynamics. Replica symmetry breaking has been predicted in nonlinear wave propagation, including Bose-Einstein condensates and optics, but it has never been observed. Here, we report the experimental evidence of replica symmetry breaking in optical wave propagation, a phenomenon that emerges from the interplay of disorder and nonlinearity...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133425/matter-wave-speckle-observed-in-an-out-of-equilibrium-quantum-fluid
#6
Pedro E S Tavares, Amilson R Fritsch, Gustavo D Telles, Mahir S Hussein, François Impens, Robin Kaiser, Vanderlei S Bagnato
We report the results of the direct comparison of a freely expanding turbulent Bose-Einstein condensate and a propagating optical speckle pattern. We found remarkably similar statistical properties underlying the spatial propagation of both phenomena. The calculated second-order correlation together with the typical correlation length of each system is used to compare and substantiate our observations. We believe that the close analogy existing between an expanding turbulent quantum gas and a traveling optical speckle might burgeon into an exciting research field investigating disordered quantum matter...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127634/changes-of-chromium-speciation-and-organic-matter-during-low-temperature-pyrolysis-of-tannery-sludge
#7
Jianjun Zhou, Hongrui Ma, Mao Gao, Wenyue Sun, Chao Zhu, Xiangping Chen
The application or disposal of char derived from tannery sludge is directly influenced by the mobility and bioavailability of Cr during pyrolysis process. This study focused on the changes of Cr speciation and organic matter in tannery sludge during low-temperature pyrolysis (100-400 °C) to evaluate the toxicity of char in terms of the leaching possibility of Cr. The results showed that (1) lower char yield and more porous structure were observed after pyrolysis. (2) Higher pyrolysis temperature increased Cr content in the char; however, Cr in this case was converted into the residual fraction which minimized its bioavailability therefore lowers its potential risk to the environment...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116095/magnetic-actuation-and-feedback-cooling-of-a-cavity-optomechanical-torque-sensor
#8
P H Kim, B D Hauer, T J Clark, F Fani Sani, M R Freeman, J P Davis
Cavity optomechanics has demonstrated remarkable capabilities, such as measurement and control of mechanical motion at the quantum level. Yet many compelling applications of optomechanics-such as microwave-to-telecom wavelength conversion, quantum memories, materials studies, and sensing applications-require hybrid devices, where the optomechanical system is coupled to a separate, typically condensed matter, system. Here, we demonstrate such a hybrid optomechanical system, in which a mesoscopic ferromagnetic needle is integrated with an optomechanical torsional resonator...
November 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116091/strong-laser-field-control-of-fragment-spatial-distributions-from-a-photodissociation-reaction
#9
María E Corrales, Rebeca de Nalda, Luis Bañares
The notion that strong laser light can intervene and modify the dynamical processes of matter has been demonstrated and exploited both in gas and condensed phases. The central objective of laser control schemes has been the modification of branching ratios in chemical processes, under the philosophy that conveniently tailored light can steer the dynamics of a chemical mechanism towards desired targets. Less explored is the role that strong laser control can play on chemical stereodynamics, i.e. the angular distribution of the products of a chemical reaction in space...
November 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107941/collective-emission-of-matter-wave-jets-from-driven-bose-einstein-condensates
#10
Logan W Clark, Anita Gaj, Lei Feng, Cheng Chin
Scattering is used to probe matter and its interactions in all areas of physics. In ultracold atomic gases, control over pairwise interactions enables us to investigate scattering in quantum many-body systems. Previous experiments on colliding Bose-Einstein condensates have revealed matter-wave interference, haloes of scattered atoms, four-wave mixing and correlations between counter-propagating pairs. However, a regime with strong stimulation of spontaneous collisions analogous to superradiance has proved elusive...
November 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103289/effect-of-condensed-tannins-from-leucaena-leucocephala-on-rumen-fermentation-methane-production-and-population-of-rumen-protozoa-in-heifers-fed-low-quality-forage
#11
Angel Trinidad Piñeiro-Vázquez, Jorge Rodolfo Canul-Solis, Guillermo Jiménez-Ferrer, José Armando Alayón-Gamboa, Alfonso Juventino Chay-Canul, Armin Javier Ayala-Burgos, Carlos Fernando Aguilar-Pérez, Juan Carlos Ku-Vera
Objective: The aim of the experiment was to assess the effect of increasing amounts of Leucaena leucocephala forage on dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI), enteric methane production, rumen fermentation pattern and protozoa population in cattle fed Pennisetum purpureum and housed in respiration chambers. Methods: Five crossbred heifers (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) (BW: 295±6 kg) were fed chopped P. purpureum grass and increasing levels of L. leucocephala (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of DM) in a 5 × 5 Latin square design...
November 3, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099393/filamentous-phages-as-building-blocks-for-reconfigurable-and-hierarchical-self-assembly
#12
Thomas Gibaud
Filamentous bacteriophages such as fd-like viruses are monodisperse rod-like colloids that have well defined properties: diameter, length, rigidity, charge and chirality. Engineering those viruses leads to a library of colloidal rods which can be used as building blocks for reconfigurable and hierarchical self-assembly. Their condensation in aqueous solution with additive polymers which act as depletants to induce attraction between the rods leads to a myriad of fluid-like micronic structures ranging from isotropic/nematic droplets, colloid membranes, achiral membrane seeds, twisted ribbons, $\pi$-wall, pores, colloidal skyrmions, Möbius anchors, scallop membranes to membrane rafts...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098476/influence-of-air-pollution-on-airway-inflammation-and-disease-activity-in-childhood-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#13
Andressa Guariento Ferreira Alves, Maria Fernanda de Azevedo Giacomin, Alfésio Luis Ferreira Braga, Adriana Maluf Elias Sallum, Luiz Alberto Amador Pereira, Luis Carlos Farhat, Fernando Louzada Strufaldi, Ana Julia de Faria Coimbra Lichtenfels, Tômas de Santana Carvalho, Naomi Kondo Nakagawa, Clovis Artur Silva, Sylvia Costa Lima Farhat
Exposure to fine particles may trigger pulmonary inflammation/systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between daily individual exposure to air pollutants and airway inflammation and disease activity in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) patients. A longitudinal panel study was carried out in 108 consecutive appointments with cSLE patients without respiratory diseases. Over four consecutive weeks, daily individual measures of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095840/effects-of-long-term-fertilization-on-soil-humic-acid-composition-and-structure-in-black-soil
#14
Jiuming Zhang, Jingkuan Wang, Tingting An, Dan Wei, Fengqin Chi, Baoku Zhou
The composition and structure of humic acid (HA) can be affected by fertilization, but the short-term effects are difficult to detect using traditional analysis methods. Using a 35-year long-term experiment in Black Soil, the molecular structure of HA was analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and fluorescence spectroscopy. Variation in HA was analyzed after long-term fertilization, including fertilization with manure (M), inorganic N, P and K fertilizer (NPK), manure combined with inorganic N, P, and K fertilizer (MNPK), and a no-fertilizer control (CK)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078379/controlling-orientational-order-in-block-copolymers-using-low-intensity-magnetic-fields
#15
Manesh Gopinadhan, Youngwoo Choo, Kohsuke Kawabata, Gilad Kaufman, Xunda Feng, Xiaojun Di, Yekaterina Rokhlenko, Lalit H Mahajan, Dennis Ndaya, Rajeswari M Kasi, Chinedum O Osuji
The interaction of fields with condensed matter during phase transitions produces a rich variety of physical phenomena. Self-assembly of liquid crystalline block copolymers (LC BCPs) in the presence of a magnetic field, for example, can result in highly oriented microstructures due to the LC BCP's anisotropic magnetic susceptibility. We show that such oriented mesophases can be produced using low-intensity fields (<0.5 T) that are accessible using permanent magnets, in contrast to the high fields (>4 T) and superconducting magnets required to date...
October 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078318/conductivity-and-dissociation-in-liquid-metallic-hydrogen-and-implications-for-planetary-interiors
#16
Mohamed Zaghoo, Isaac F Silvera
Liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH) is the most abundant form of condensed matter in our solar planetary structure. The electronic and thermal transport properties of this metallic fluid are of fundamental interest to understanding hydrogen's mechanism of conduction, atomic or pairing structure, as well as the key input for the magnetic dynamo action and thermal models of gas giants. Here, we report spectrally resolved measurements of the optical reflectance of LMH in the pressure region of 1.4-1.7 Mbar. We analyze the data, as well as previously reported measurements, using the free-electron model...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077431/observation-of-two-dimensional-localized-jones-roberts-solitons-in-bose-einstein-condensates
#17
Nadine Meyer, Harry Proud, Marisa Perea-Ortiz, Charlotte O'Neale, Mathis Baumert, Michael Holynski, Jochen Kronjäger, Giovanni Barontini, Kai Bongs
Jones-Roberts solitons are the only known class of stable dark solitonic solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation in two and three dimensions. They feature a distinctive elongated elliptical shape that allows them to travel without change of form. By imprinting a triangular phase pattern, we experimentally generate two-dimensional Jones-Roberts solitons in a three-dimensional atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. We monitor their dynamics, observing that this kind of soliton is indeed not affected by dynamic (snaking) or thermodynamic instabilities, that instead make other classes of dark solitons unstable in dimensions higher than one...
October 13, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074965/breakdown-of-magnons-in-a-strongly-spin-orbital-coupled-magnet
#18
Stephen M Winter, Kira Riedl, Pavel A Maksimov, Alexander L Chernyshev, Andreas Honecker, Roser Valentí
The description of quantized collective excitations stands as a landmark in the quantum theory of condensed matter. A prominent example occurs in conventional magnets, which support bosonic magnons-quantized harmonic fluctuations of the ordered spins. In striking contrast is the recent discovery that strongly spin-orbital-coupled magnets, such as α-RuCl3, may display a broad excitation continuum inconsistent with conventional magnons. Due to incomplete knowledge of the underlying interactions unraveling the nature of this continuum remains challenging...
October 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070089/feed-resource-selection-of-criollo-goats-artificially-infected-with-haemonchus-contortus-nutritional-wisdom-and-prophylactic-self-medication
#19
J Ventura-Cordero, P G González-Pech, P R Jaimez-Rodriguez, G I Ortiz-Ocampo, C A Sandoval-Castro, J F J Torres-Acosta
Previous cafeteria studies suggested that a moderate natural gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection did not modify the resource selection of adult Criollo goats towards tannin-rich plants compared with worm-free goats. A higher infection with Haemonchus contortus could trigger a change in the resource selection behaviour towards tannin-rich foliage. Alternatively, goats might select plant species solely to meet their nutritional requirements. A cafeteria study investigated the effect of a high artificial infection with H...
October 26, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066825/topological-states-of-condensed-matter
#20
Jing Wang, Shou-Cheng Zhang
Topological states of quantum matter have been investigated intensively in recent years in materials science and condensed matter physics. The field developed explosively largely because of the precise theoretical predictions, well-controlled materials processing, and novel characterization techniques. In this Perspective, we review recent progress in topological insulators, the quantum anomalous Hall effect, chiral topological superconductors, helical topological superconductors and Weyl semimetals.
November 2017: Nature Materials
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