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Condense matter

Akishi Matsugatani, Yuri Ishiguro, Ken Shiozaki, Haruki Watanabe
Understanding the interplay between the topological nature and the symmetry property of interacting systems has been a central matter of condensed matter physics in recent years. In this Letter, we establish nonperturbative constraints on the quantized Hall conductance of many-body systems with arbitrary interactions. Our results allow one to readily determine the many-body Chern number modulo a certain integer without performing any integrations, solely based on the rotation eigenvalues and the average particle density of the many-body ground state...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Shenglong Xu, Congjun Wu
Crystal structures and the Bloch theorem play a fundamental role in condensed matter physics. We extend the static crystal to the dynamic "space-time" crystal characterized by the general intertwined space-time periodicities in D+1 dimensions, which include both the static crystal and the Floquet crystal as special cases. A new group structure dubbed a "space-time" group is constructed to describe the discrete symmetries of a space-time crystal. Compared to space and magnetic groups, the space-time group is augmented by "time-screw" rotations and "time-glide" reflections involving fractional translations along the time direction...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Hongbo Xie, Hucheng Pan, Yuping Ren, Liqing Wang, Yufeng He, Xixi Qi, Gaowu Qin
All of the AB_{2} Laves phases discovered so far satisfy the general crystalline structure characteristic of translational symmetry; however, we report here a new structured Laves phase directly precipitated in an aged Mg-In-Ca alloy by using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. The nanoprecipitate is determined to be a (Mg,In)_{2}Ca phase, which has a C14 Laves structure (hcp, space group: P6_{3}/mmc, a=6.25  Å, c=10.31  Å) but without any translational symmetry on the (0001)_{p} basal plane...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Mark G Alford, Kamal Pangeni, Andreas Windisch
It is generally believed that when Cooper pairing occurs between two different species of fermions, their Fermi surfaces become locked together so that the resultant state remains "neutral," with equal number densities of the two species, even when subjected to a chemical potential that couples to the difference in number densities. This belief is based on mean-field calculations in models with a zero-range interaction, where the anomalous self-energy is independent of energy and momentum. Following up on an early report of a deviation from neutrality in a Dyson-Schwinger calculation of color-flavor-locked quark matter, we investigate the neutrality of a two-species condensate using a Yukawa model which has a finite-range interaction...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Jyun-Hong Chen, Yuan-Liang Zhong, Lain-Jong Li, Chii-Dong Chen
Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is crucial in condensed matter physics and is present on the surface of liquid helium and at the interface of semiconductors. Monolayer MoS2 of 2D materials also contains 2DEG in an atomic layer as field effect transistor (FET) ultrathin channel. In this study, we synthesized double triangular MoS<sub>2</sub> through a chemical vapor deposition method to obtain grain boundaries for forming a ripple structure in FET channel. When the temperature was higher than approximately 175 K, the temperature dependence of the electron mobility μ was consistent with those in previous experiments and theoretical predictions...
March 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
Ivan Junier, Paul Frémont, Olivier Rivoire
In condensed matter physics, simplified descriptions are obtained by coarse-graining the features of a system at a certain characteristic length, defined as the typical length beyond which some properties are no longer correlated. From a physics standpoint, in vitro DNA has thus a characteristic length of 300 base pairs (bp), the Kuhn length of the molecule beyond which correlations in its orientations are typically lost. From a biology standpoint, in vivo DNA has a characteristic length of 1000 bp, the typical length of genes...
March 7, 2018: Physical Biology
Jana Rousová, Manikyala R Chintapalli, Anastasia Lindahl, Jana Casey, Alena Kubátová
Carboxylic acids and aldehydes are present in ambient air particulate matter (PM) originating from both primary emission and secondary production in air and may, due to their polarity have, an impact on formation of cloud condensation nuclei. Their simultaneous determination may provide improved understanding of atmospheric processes. We developed a new analytical method allowing for a single step determination of majority of carboxylic acids and aldehydes (+95 compounds). This sample preparation employed O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA·HCl) in methanol to yield oximes (for aldehydes) and methyl esters (for majority of acids); with the limits of detection of 0...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Maxim A Gorlach, Xiang Ni, Daria A Smirnova, Dmitry Korobkin, Dmitry Zhirihin, Alexey P Slobozhanyuk, Pavel A Belov, Andrea Alù, Alexander B Khanikaev
Topological phase transitions in condensed matter systems give rise to exotic states of matter such as topological insulators, superconductors, and superfluids. Photonic topological systems open a whole new realm of research and technological opportunities, exhibiting a number of important distinctions from their condensed matter counterparts. Photonic modes can leak into free space, which makes it possible to probe topological photonic phases by spectroscopic means via Fano resonances. Based on this idea, we develop a technique to retrieve the topological properties of all-dielectric metasurfaces from the measured far-field scattering characteristics...
March 2, 2018: Nature Communications
Takumi Nishimura, Kenichi Yamashita, Shun Takahashi, Takeshi Yamao, Shu Hotta, Hisao Yanagi, Masaaki Nakayama
Investigation of physics on light-matter interaction and strong coupling formation in organic microcavities is important to characterize the device structure enabling efficient room-temperature polariton condensation. In this study, we evaluate quantitatively the light-matter interaction parameters for three types of organic single-crystal microcavities and discuss the effects of microcavity structures on the strong coupling formation. We found that improvement in cavity quality factor causes a reduction in the photon damping constant, which results in an increase in the Rabi splitting energy...
March 1, 2018: Optics Letters
D Belobo Belobo, T Meier
By means of the F-expansion method and intensive numerical simulations, the existence of three families of nonlinear matter waves including Jacobi elliptic functions, solitons, and triangular periodic functions, is demonstrated for spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates with a linear potential. In addition, several complexes are obtained by taking two distinct solutions of each family or two distinct families. These solutions sustain different types of two-body interactions in the condensate that can be repulsive, attractive, or attractive and repulsive...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Junpeng Hou, Haiping Hu, Kuei Sun, Chuanwei Zhang
A quasicrystal is a class of ordered structures defying conventional classification of solid crystals and may carry classically forbidden (e.g., fivefold) rotational symmetries. In view of long-sought supersolids, a natural question is whether a superfluid can spontaneously form quasicrystalline order that is not possessed by the underlying Hamiltonian, forming "superfluid-quasicrystals." Here we show that a superfluid-quasicrystal stripe state with the minimal fivefold rotational symmetry can be realized as the ground state of a Bose-Einstein condensate within a practical experimental scheme...
February 9, 2018: Physical Review Letters
T M Bersano, V Gokhroo, M A Khamehchi, J D'Ambroise, D J Frantzeskakis, P Engels, P G Kevrekidis
Dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensates are an exceptionally versatile test bed for the investigation of novel solitonic structures. While matter-wave solitons in one- and two-component systems have been the focus of intense research efforts, an extension to three components has never been attempted in experiments. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the existence of robust dark-bright-bright (DBB) and dark-dark-bright solitons in a multicomponent F=1 condensate. We observe lifetimes on the order of hundreds of milliseconds for these structures...
February 9, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Robert O Jones
Bonding concepts originating in chemistry are surveyed from a condensed matter perspective, beginning around 1850 with ``valence'' and the word ``bond'' itself. The analysis of chemical data in the 19th century resulted in astonishing progress in understanding the connectivity and stereochemistry of molecules, almost without input from physicists until the development of quantum mechanics in 1925 and afterwards. The valence bond method popularized by Pauling and the molecular orbital methods of Hund, Mulliken, Bloch, and H\"uckel play major roles in the subsequent development, as does the central part played by the kinetic energy in covalent bonding (Ruedenberg and others)...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Yong Fan, Hui-Min Meng, Guang-Rong Hu, Fu-Li Li
Nervonic acid (NA) is a major very long-chain monounsaturated fatty acid found in the white matter of mammalian brains, which plays a critical role in the treatment of psychotic disorders and neurological development. In the nature, NA has been synthesized by a handful plants, fungi, and microalgae. Although the metabolism of fatty acid has been studied for decades, the biosynthesis of NA has yet to be illustrated. Generally, the biosynthesis of NA is considered starting from oleic acid through fatty acid elongation, in which malonyl-CoA and long-chain acyl-CoA are firstly condensed by a rate-limiting enzyme 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS)...
February 24, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Bhuvanesh Sundar, Bryce Gadway, Kaden R A Hazzard
Synthetic dimensions alter one of the most fundamental properties in nature, the dimension of space. They allow, for example, a real three-dimensional system to act as effectively four-dimensional. Driven by such possibilities, synthetic dimensions have been engineered in ongoing experiments with ultracold matter. We show that rotational states of ultracold molecules can be used as synthetic dimensions extending to many - potentially hundreds of - synthetic lattice sites. Microwaves coupling rotational states drive fully controllable synthetic inter-site tunnelings, enabling, for example, topological band structures...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
A von Hoegen, R Mankowsky, M Fechner, M Först, A Cavalleri
Nonlinear optical techniques at visible frequencies have long been applied to condensed matter spectroscopy. However, because many important excitations of solids are found at low energies, much can be gained from the extension of nonlinear optics to mid-infrared and terahertz frequencies. For example, the nonlinear excitation of lattice vibrations has enabled the dynamic control of material functions. So far it has only been possible to exploit second-order phonon nonlinearities at terahertz field strengths near one million volts per centimetre...
February 21, 2018: Nature
Marcos Devanir Costa, Vinícius Lopes Braga, Kaan Yagmurlu, Ricardo Silva Centeno, Sérgio Cavalheiro, Feres Chaddad
AIM: White fibers dissection is important in identifying detailed neuroanatomical relationships, with tractrography is possible to transport and apply this knowledge in a practical way to treat many diseases involving white matter. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was used the Klingler method, subsequently disseminated by Ture with slight modifications. RESULTS: We review some historical aspects of white fibers and provide a guide for dissection of the internal capsule...
January 24, 2018: Turkish Neurosurgery
Zhen-Tao Zhang
Majorana Fermion is a fascinating and yet not confirmed quasiparticle in condensed matter physics. Here we propose using microwave spectrum to distinguish Majorana bound state(MBS) with topological trivial Andreev bound state(ABS). By numerically calculating the transmission and Zeeman field dependence of many-body excitation spectrum of a 1D Josephson junction, we find that the two kinds of bound states have distinct responsibilities to the variations of the related parameters. Furthermore, the singular behaviours of the MBS spectrum could be attributed to the robust fractional Josephson coupling and nonlocality of MBS...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Huaqing Huang, Kyung-Hwan Jin, Shunhong Zhang, Feng Liu
Two-dimensional (2D) electrides are layered ionic crystals in which anionic electrons are confined in the interlayer space. Here we report a discovery of nontrivial Z2 topology in the electronic structures of 2D electride Y2 C. Based on first-principles calculations, we found a topological Z2 invariant of (1;111) for the bulk band and topologically protected surface states in the surfaces of Y2 C, signifying its nontrivial electronic topology. We suggest a spin-resolved angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurement to detect the unique helical spin texture of the spin-polarized topological surface state, which will provide characteristic evidence for the nontrivial electronic topology of Y2 C...
February 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Zeyu Zhang, Lu You, Juan Du, Junling Wang, Zuanming Jin, Guohong Ma, Yuxin Leng
The interplay among ferroelectric, magnetic and elastic degrees of freedom in multiferroics is the key issues in condensed matters, which has been widely investigated by various methods. Here, using ultrafast two-color pump-probe spectroscopy, the picosecond electron-phonon and spin-lattice coupling process in Dysprosium doped-BiFeO3 (BDFO) films on SrTiO3 (STO) substrate have been investigated systematically. The Dy-doping induced structural transition and magnetic enhancement in BDFO is observed by ultrafast electron-phonon and spin-lattice interaction, respectively...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
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