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Condense matter

A K Pathak, Narayan Dutta, A K Pattanaik, V B Chaturvedi, K Sharma
Objective: The study was conducted to examine the effect of condensed tannins (CT) containing Ficus infectoria and Psidium guajava leaf meal mixture (LMM) supplementation on nutrient metabolism, methane emission and performance of lambs. Methods: Twenty four lambs of ~ 6 months age (average body weight 10.1±0.60 kg) were randomly divided into 4 dietary treatments (CT-0, CT-1, CT-1.5 and CT-2 containing 0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 percent CT through LMM, respectively) consisting of 6 lambs each in a completely randomized design...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Johannes Gooth, Anna C Niemann, Tobias Meng, Adolfo G Grushin, Karl Landsteiner, Bernd Gotsmann, Fabian Menges, Marcus Schmidt, Chandra Shekhar, Vicky Süß, Ruben Hühne, Bernd Rellinghaus, Claudia Felser, Binghai Yan, Kornelius Nielsch
The conservation laws, such as those of charge, energy and momentum, have a central role in physics. In some special cases, classical conservation laws are broken at the quantum level by quantum fluctuations, in which case the theory is said to have quantum anomalies. One of the most prominent examples is the chiral anomaly, which involves massless chiral fermions. These particles have their spin, or internal angular momentum, aligned either parallel or antiparallel with their linear momentum, labelled as left and right chirality, respectively...
July 19, 2017: Nature
Simon Yves, Romain Fleury, Thomas Berthelot, Mathias Fink, Fabrice Lemoult, Geoffroy Lerosey
The exciting discovery of topological condensed matter systems has lately triggered a search for their photonic analogues, motivated by the possibility of robust backscattering-immune light transport. However, topological photonic phases have so far only been observed in photonic crystals and waveguide arrays, which are inherently physically wavelength scaled, hindering their application in compact subwavelength systems. In this letter, we tackle this problem by patterning the deep subwavelength resonant elements of metamaterials onto specific lattices, and create crystalline metamaterials that can develop complex nonlocal properties due to multiple scattering, despite their very subwavelength spatial scale that usually implies to disregard their structure...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
Drew B Day, Jianbang Xiang, Jinhan Mo, Feng Li, Mingkei Chung, Jicheng Gong, Charles J Weschler, Pamela A Ohman-Strickland, Jan Sundell, Wenguo Weng, Yinping Zhang, Junfeng Jim Zhang
Importance: Exposure to ozone has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but the underlying biological mechanisms are not yet understood. Objective: To examine the association between ozone exposure and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic mechanisms. Design, Setting, and Participants: A longitudinal study involving 89 healthy adult participants living on a work campus in Changsha City, China, was conducted from December 1, 2014, to January 31, 2015...
July 17, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
Maria Teresa Cieschi, Marcos Caballero-Molada, Nieves Menéndez, Miguel Ángel Naranjo, Juan J Lucena
Novel, cheap and ecofriendly fertilizers that solve the usual iron deficiency problem in calcareous soil are needed. The aim of this work is to study the long term effect of an iron leonardite fertilizer on citrus nutrition taking into account a properly characterization, kinetic response with a ligand competition experiment, efficiency assessment using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and finally, in field conditions with citrus as test plants. Its efficiency was compared with the synthetic iron chelate FeEDDHA...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Arko Graf, Martin Held, Yuriy Zakharko, Laura Tropf, Malte C Gather, Jana Zaumseil
Exciton-polaritons are hybrid light-matter particles that form upon strong coupling of an excitonic transition to a cavity mode. As bosons, polaritons can form condensates with coherent laser-like emission. For organic materials, optically pumped condensation was achieved at room temperature but electrically pumped condensation remains elusive due to insufficient polariton densities. Here we combine the outstanding optical and electronic properties of purified, solution-processed semiconducting (6,5) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a microcavity-integrated light-emitting field-effect transistor to realize efficient electrical pumping of exciton-polaritons at room temperature with high current densities (>10 kA cm(-2)) and tunability in the near-infrared (1,060 nm to 1,530 nm)...
July 17, 2017: Nature Materials
Kazusa Beppu, Ziane Izri, Jun Gohya, Kanta Eto, Masatoshi Ichikawa, Yusuke T Maeda
Controlling the phases of matter is a challenge that spans from condensed materials to biological systems. Here, by imposing a geometric boundary condition, we study the controlled collective motion of Escherichia coli bacteria. A circular microwell isolates a rectified vortex from disordered vortices masked in the bulk. For a doublet of microwells, two vortices emerge but their spinning directions show transition from parallel to anti-parallel. A Vicsek-like model for confined self-propelled particles gives the point where the two spinning patterns occur in equal probability and one geometric quantity governs the transition as seen in experiments...
July 12, 2017: Soft Matter
Wei Sun, Ya-Xi Huang, Yuanming Pan, Jin-Xiao Mi
Herbertsmithite- and kapellasite-type compounds with triangular lattices (i.e. Kagomé) as the most promising candidates for realizing the exotic quantum spin liquid (QSL) state have recently attracted significant attention in condensed matter physics and materials science but are often adversely affected by dimensional imperfections arising from significant cation mixing. Also, interaction mechanisms between the Kagomé lattices and ionic impurities remain unclear. Herein we report on the synthesis, crystal structures and magnetic properties of a new class of kapellasite-type compounds LnCu3(OH)6Cl3 (Ln = Nd and Sm) with two overlapped triangular lattices...
July 12, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Erich Mueller
A central challenge in modern condensed matter physics is developing the tools for understanding nontrivial yet unordered states of matter. One important idea to emerge in this context is that of a ``pseudogap": the fact that under appropriate circumstances the normal state displays a suppression of the single particle spectral density near the Fermi level, reminiscent of the gaps seen in ordered states of matter. While these concepts arose in a solid state context, it is now being explored in cold gases. This article reviews the current experimental and theoretical understanding of the normal state of strongly interacting Fermi gases, with particular focus on the phenomonology which is traditionally associated with the pseudogap...
July 7, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
Xigui Yang, Mingguang Yao, Xiangying Wu, Shijie Liu, Shuanglong Chen, Ke Yang, Ran Liu, Tian Cui, Bertil Sundqvist, Bingbing Liu
Design and synthesis of new carbon allotropes have always been important topics in condensed matter physics and materials science. Here we report a new carbon allotrope, formed from cold-compressed C_{70} peapods, which most likely can be identified with a fully sp^{3}-bonded monoclinic structure, here named V carbon, predicted from our simulation. The simulated x-ray diffraction pattern, near K-edge spectroscopy, and phonon spectrum agree well with our experimental data. Theoretical calculations reveal that V carbon has a Vickers hardness of 90 GPa and a bulk modulus ∼400  GPa, which well explains the "ring crack" left on the diamond anvils by the transformed phase in our experiments...
June 16, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Li Zhang, Su You, Ming Zuo, Qing Yang
Uniform four-coordinate nonequilibrium MnS nanowires mainly in zincblende structure, other than the stable rock-salt phase, are reported for the first time. The MnS nanowires are grown via a solution-solid-solid model from the reaction of a Mn(II) source with dibenzyl disulfide in oleylamine at 180-200 °C catalyzed by Ag2S nanocrystals in a body-centered cubic (bcc) fast-ionic phase transformed from their low-temperature monoclinic form. Investigations show that most of the zincblende MnS nanowires are grown along the ⟨112⟩ zone axis but a small proportion grow along the ⟨111⟩ZB/⟨0001⟩Wur axis with zincblende/defect-section and/or wurtzite/defect-section superlattices connected with the stems along the ⟨112⟩ direction...
July 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Indika U Arachchige, Gerasimos S Armatas, Kanishka Biswas, Kota S Subrahmanyam, Susan Latturner, Christos D Malliakas, Manolis J Manos, Youngtak Oh, Kyriaki Polychronopoulou, Pierre F P Poudeu, Pantelis N Trikalitis, Qichun Zhang, Li-Dong Zhao, Sebastian C Peter
Over the last 3-4 decades, solid-state chemistry has emerged as the forefront of materials design and development. The field has revolutionized into a multidisciplinary subject and matured with a scope of new synthetic strategies, new challenges, and opportunities. Understanding the structure is very crucial in the design of appropriate materials for desired applications. Professor Mercouri G. Kanatzidis has encountered both challenges and opportunities during the course of the discovery of many novel materials...
July 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Zizhu Wang, Sukhwinder Singh, Miguel Navascués
We consider the problem of detecting entanglement and nonlocality in one-dimensional (1D) infinite, translation-invariant (TI) systems when just near-neighbor information is available. This issue is deeper than one might think a priori, since, as we show, there exist instances of local separable states (classical boxes) which admit only entangled (nonclassical) TI extensions. We provide a simple characterization of the set of local states of multiseparable TI spin chains and construct a family of linear witnesses which can detect entanglement in infinite TI states from the nearest-neighbor reduced density matrix...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Shinji Miwa, Motohiro Suzuki, Masahito Tsujikawa, Kensho Matsuda, Takayuki Nozaki, Kazuhito Tanaka, Takuya Tsukahara, Kohei Nawaoka, Minori Goto, Yoshinori Kotani, Tadakatsu Ohkubo, Frédéric Bonell, Eiiti Tamura, Kazuhiro Hono, Tetsuya Nakamura, Masafumi Shirai, Shinji Yuasa, Yoshishige Suzuki
Electric fields at interfaces exhibit useful phenomena, such as switching functions in transistors, through electron accumulations and/or electric dipole inductions. We find one potentially unique situation in a metal-dielectric interface in which the electric field is atomically inhomogeneous because of the strong electrostatic screening effect in metals. Such electric fields enable us to access electric quadrupoles of the electron shell. Here we show, by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electric field induction of magnetic dipole moments in a platinum monatomic layer placed on ferromagnetic iron...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
Graeme J Ackland, Mihindra Dunuwille, Miguel Martinez-Canales, Ingo Loa, Rong Zhang, Stanislav Sinogeikin, Weizhao Cai, Shanti Deemyad
The crystal structure of elements at zero pressure and temperature is the most fundamental information in condensed matter physics. For decades it has been believed that lithium, the simplest metallic element, has a complicated ground-state crystal structure. Using synchrotron x-ray diffraction in diamond anvil cells and multiscale simulations with density functional theory and molecular dynamics, we show that the previously accepted martensitic ground state is metastable. The actual ground state is face-centered cubic (fcc)...
June 23, 2017: Science
A Jeantet, Y Chassagneux, T Claude, P Roussignol, J S Lauret, J Reichel, C Voisin
Condensed-matter emitters offer enriched cavity quantum electrodynamical effects due to the coupling to external degrees of freedom. In the case of carbon nanotubes, a very peculiar coupling between localized excitons and the one-dimensional acoustic phonon modes can be achieved, which gives rise to pronounced phonon wings in the luminescence spectrum. By coupling an individual nanotube to a tunable optical microcavity, we show that this peculiar exciton-phonon coupling is a valuable resource to enlarge the tuning range of the single-photon source while keeping an excellent exciton-photon coupling efficiency and spectral purity...
June 29, 2017: Nano Letters
J G Murphy, P K Gregoire, A G Tevlin, G R Wentworth, R A Ellis, M Z Markovic, T C VandenBoer
In many parts of the world, the implementation of air quality regulations has led to significant decreases in SO2 emissions with minimal impact on NH3 emissions. In Canada and the United States, the molar ratio of NH3 : SO2 emissions has increased dramatically between 1990 and 2014. In many regions of North America, this will lead the molar ratio of NHx : SO4, where NHx is the sum of particle phase NH4(+) and gas phase NH3, and SO4 is the sum of particle phase HSO4(-) and SO4(2-), to exceed 2. A thermodynamic model (E-AIM model II) is used to investigate the sensitivity of particle pH, and the gas-particle partitioning of NHx and inorganic nitrate, to the atmospheric NHx : SO4 ratio...
June 22, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Su-Yang Xu, Nasser Alidoust, Guoqing Chang, Hong Lu, Bahadur Singh, Ilya Belopolski, Daniel S Sanchez, Xiao Zhang, Guang Bian, Hao Zheng, Marious-Adrian Husanu, Yi Bian, Shin-Ming Huang, Chuang-Han Hsu, Tay-Rong Chang, Horng-Tay Jeng, Arun Bansil, Titus Neupert, Vladimir N Strocov, Hsin Lin, Shuang Jia, M Zahid Hasan
In quantum field theory, Weyl fermions are relativistic particles that travel at the speed of light and strictly obey the celebrated Lorentz symmetry. Their low-energy condensed matter analogs are Weyl semimetals, which are conductors whose electronic excitations mimic the Weyl fermion equation of motion. Although the traditional (type I) emergent Weyl fermions observed in TaAs still approximately respect Lorentz symmetry, recently, the so-called type II Weyl semimetal has been proposed, where the emergent Weyl quasiparticles break the Lorentz symmetry so strongly that they cannot be smoothly connected to Lorentz symmetric Weyl particles...
June 2017: Science Advances
Elisabetta A Matsumoto, Randall D Kamien, Gareth P Alexander
Frustration is a powerful mechanism in condensed matter systems, driving both order and complexity. In smectics, the frustration between macroscopic chirality and equally spaced layers generates textures characterized by a proliferation of defects. In this article, we study several different ground states of the chiral Landau-de Gennes free energy for a smectic liquid crystal. The standard theory finds the twist grain boundary (TGB) phase to be the ground state for chiral type II smectics. However, for very highly chiral systems, the hierarchical helical nanofilament phase can form and is stable over the TGB...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
B Q Lv, Z-L Feng, Q-N Xu, X Gao, J-Z Ma, L-Y Kong, P Richard, Y-B Huang, V N Strocov, C Fang, H-M Weng, Y-G Shi, T Qian, H Ding
In quantum field theory, Lorentz invariance leads to three types of fermion-Dirac, Weyl and Majorana. Although the existence of Weyl and Majorana fermions as elementary particles in high-energy physics is debated, all three types of fermion have been proposed to exist as low-energy, long-wavelength quasiparticle excitations in condensed-matter systems. The existence of Dirac and Weyl fermions in condensed-matter systems has been confirmed experimentally, and that of Majorana fermions is supported by various experiments...
June 29, 2017: Nature
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