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Condense matter

Pilkwang Kim, Ji Hoon Ryoo, Cheol-Hwan Park
The low-energy quasiparticles of Weyl semimetals are a condensed-matter realization of the Weyl fermions introduced in relativistic field theory. Chiral anomaly, the nonconservation of the chiral charge under parallel electric and magnetic fields, is arguably the most important phenomenon of Weyl semimetals and has been explained as an imbalance between the occupancies of the gapless, zeroth Landau levels with opposite chiralities. This widely accepted picture has served as the basis for subsequent studies...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Yasuhiro Shimizu, Takuya Takahashi, Syunpei Yamada, Ayako Shimokata, Takaaki Jin-No, Masayuki Itoh
Spin-state crossover beyond a conventional ligand-field theory has been a fundamental issue in condensed matter physics. Here, we report microscopic observations of spin states and low-energy dynamics through orbital-resolved NMR spectroscopy in the prototype compound LaCoO_{3}. The ^{59}Co NMR spectrum shows the preserved crystal symmetry across the crossover, inconsistent with d orbital ordering due to the Jahn-Teller distortion. The orbital degeneracy results in a pseudospin (J[over ˜]=1) excited state with an orbital moment observed as ^{59}Co hyperfine coupling tensors...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Fei-Fan Chang, Lei Zhang, Pei-Chen Zhao, Wei Huang
Three 46-membered [2 + 2] pendant-armed Schiff-base macrocyclic dinuclear CdII and CuII complexes (2a, 2b, and 3b) and one 23-membered [1 + 1] CuII macrocycle 4a were prepared from the template-directed condensation reactions between 1,2-bis(2-aminoethoxy)-ethane and extended Cl-dialdehyde in the presence of CdX2 and CuX2 (X = Cl and Br), in which halide effects play important roles in the organization of final macrocyclic complexes in addition to the dominant influence of metal cations. Transmetalation was intensively studied among these CdII and CuII complexes with large and flexible macrocyclic ligands, including two previously synthesized dinuclear ZnII macrocycles (1a and 1b)...
January 11, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Hiroko Tokoro, Asuka Namai, Marie Yoshikiyo, Rei Fujiwara, Kouji Chiba, Shin-Ichi Ohkoshi
Phase transition materials are attractive from the viewpoints of basic science as well as practical applications. For example, optical phase transition materials are used for optical recording media. If a phase transition in condensed matter could be predicted or designed prior to synthesizing, the development of phase transition materials will be accelerated. Herein we show a logical strategy for designing a phase transition accompanying a thermal hysteresis loop. Combining first-principles phonon mode calculations and statistical thermodynamic calculations considering cooperative interaction predicts a charge-transfer phase transition between the A-B and A+-B- phases...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shengxuan Huang, Xiang Wu, Shan Qin
Oxygen is thought to be an important light element in Earth's core but the amount of oxygen in Earth's core remains elusive. In addition, iron-rich iron oxides are of great interest and significance in the field of geoscience and condensed matter physics. Here, static calculations based on density functional theory demonstrate that I4/mmm-Fe2O is dynamically and mechanically stable and becomes energetically favorable with respect to the assemblage of hcp-Fe and [Formula: see text]-FeO above 270 GPa, which indicates that I4/mmm-Fe2O can be a strong candidate phase for stable iron-rich iron oxides at high pressure, perhaps even at high temperature...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
S L Johnson, M Savoini, P Beaud, G Ingold, U Staub, F Carbone, L Castiglioni, M Hengsberger, J Osterwalder
We present a non-comprehensive review of some representative experimental studies in crystalline condensed matter systems where the effects of intense ultrashort light pulses are probed using x-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy. On an ultrafast (sub-picosecond) time scale, conventional concepts derived from the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium must often be modified in order to adequately describe the time-dependent changes in material properties. There are several commonly adopted approaches to this modification, appropriate in different experimental circumstances...
November 2017: Structural Dynamics (Melville, N.Y.)
K Gerlach, M Pries, E Tholen, A J Schmithausen, W Büscher, K-H Südekum
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplemented condensed tannins (CT) from the bark of the Black Wattle tree (Acacia mearnsii) on production variables and N use efficiency in high yielding dairy cows. A feeding trial with 96 lactating German Holstein cows was conducted for a total of 169 days, divided into four periods. The animals were allotted to two groups (control (CON) and experimental (EXP) group) according to milk yield in previous lactation, days in milk (98), number of lactations and BW...
January 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Ivan De Martino, Tom Broadhurst, S-H Henry Tye, Tzihong Chiueh, Hsi-Yu Schive, Ruth Lazkoz
Light axionic dark matter, motivated by string theory, is increasingly favored for the "no weakly interacting massive particle era". Galaxy formation is suppressed below a Jeans scale of ≃10^{8}  M_{⊙} by setting the axion mass to m_{B}∼10^{-22}  eV, and the large dark cores of dwarf galaxies are explained as solitons on the de Broglie scale. This is persuasive, but detection of the inherent scalar field oscillation at the Compton frequency ω_{B}=(2.5  months)^{-1}(m_{B}/10^{-22}  eV) would be definitive...
December 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
J Carlson, S Gandolfi, U van Kolck, S A Vitiello
The properties of cold Bose gases at unitarity have been extensively investigated in the last few years both theoretically and experimentally. In this Letter we use a family of interactions tuned to two-body unitarity and very weak three-body binding to demonstrate the universal properties of both clusters and matter. We determine the universal properties of finite clusters up to 60 particles and, for the first time, explicitly demonstrate the saturation of energy and density with particle number and compare with bulk properties...
December 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
S Peter Bierwirth, Roland Böhmer, Catalin Gainaru
Four decades ago a seminal review by Jonscher [Nature (London) 267, 673 (1977)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/267673a0] revealed that the dielectric response of conducting materials is characterized by a "remarkable universality". Demonstrating that the same response pattern is exhibited also by shear rheological spectra of nonpolymeric viscous liquids, the present contribution connects two branches of condensed matter physics: Concepts developed for charge transport can be employed for the description of mass flow and vice versa...
December 15, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Mirko M Möller, George A Sawatzky, Marcel Franz, Mona Berciu
There is major interest, in condensed matter physics, in understanding the role of topology: remarkable progress has been made in classifying topological properties of non-interacting electrons, and on understanding the interplay between topology and electron-electron interactions. We extend such studies to interactions with the lattice, and predict non-trivial topological effects in infinitely long-lived polaron bands. Specifically, for a two-dimensional many-band model with realistic electron-phonon coupling, we verify that sharp level crossings are possible for polaron eigenstates, and prove that they are responsible for a novel type of sharp transition in the ground state of the polaron that can occur at a fixed momentum...
December 22, 2017: Nature Communications
Rikke Bramming Jørgensen, Ida Teresia Kero
Airborne particulate matter in the silicon carbide (SiC) industry is a known health hazard. The aims of this study were to elucidate whether the particulate matter generated inside the Acheson furnace during active operation is representative of the overall particulate matter in the furnace hall, and whether the Acheson furnaces are the main sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in primary SiC production. The number concentration of ultrafine particles was evaluated using an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPITM, Dekati Ltd...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Andrew Lucas, Kin Chung Fong
Generic interacting many-body quantum systems are believed to behave as classical fluids on long time and length scales. Due to rapid progress in growing exceptionally pure crystals, we are now able to experimentally observe this collective motion of electrons in solid-state systems, including graphene. We present a review of recent progress in understanding the hydrodynamic limit of electronic motion in graphene, written for physicists from diverse communities. We begin by discussing the ``phase diagram" of graphene, and the inevitable presence of impurities and phonons in experimental systems...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Bing Cheng, T Ohtsuki, Dipanjan Chaudhuri, S Nakatsuji, Mikk Lippmaa, N P Armitage
Dirac and Weyl semimetals with linearly crossing bands are the focus of much recent interest in condensed matter physics. Although they host fascinating phenomena, their physics can be understood in terms of weakly interacting electrons. In contrast, more than 40 years ago, Abrikosov pointed out that quadratic band touchings are generically strongly interacting. We have performed terahertz spectroscopy on the films of the conducting pyrochlore Pr2Ir2O7, which has been shown to host a quadratic band touching...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
Cortnie S Vogelsberg, Fernando J Uribe-Romo, Andrew S Lipton, Song Yang, K N Houk, Stuart Brown, Miguel A Garcia-Garibay
Amphidynamic crystals are an emergent class of condensed phase matter designed with a combination of lattice-forming elements linked to components that display engineered dynamics in the solid state. Here, we address the design of a crystalline array of molecular rotors with inertial diffusional rotation at the nanoscale, characterized by the absence of steric or electronic barriers. We solved this challenge with 1,4-bicyclo[2.2.2]octane dicarboxylic acid (BODCA)-MOF, a metal-organic framework (MOF) built with a high-symmetry bicyclo[2...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mattia Walschaers, Claude Fabre, Valentina Parigi, Nicolas Treps
Non-Gaussian operations are essential to exploit the quantum advantages in optical continuous variable quantum information protocols. We focus on mode-selective photon addition and subtraction as experimentally promising processes to create multimode non-Gaussian states. Our approach is based on correlation functions, as is common in quantum statistical mechanics and condensed matter physics, mixed with quantum optics tools. We formulate an analytical expression of the Wigner function after the subtraction or addition of a single photon, for arbitrarily many modes...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Michael Sinhuber, Nicholas T Ouellette
Animal aggregations are visually striking, and as such are popular examples of collective behavior in the natural world. Quantitatively demonstrating the collective nature of such groups, however, remains surprisingly difficult. Inspired by thermodynamics, we applied topological data analysis to laboratory insect swarms and found evidence for emergent, material-like states. We show that the swarms consist of a core "condensed" phase surrounded by a dilute "vapor" phase. These two phases coexist in equilibrium, and maintain their distinct macroscopic properties even though individual insects pass freely between them...
October 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
S Nandy, Girish Sharma, A Taraphder, Sumanta Tewari
In condensed matter physics, the term "chiral anomaly" implies the violation of the separate number conservation laws of Weyl fermions of different chiralities in the presence of parallel electric and magnetic fields. One effect of the chiral anomaly in the recently discovered Dirac and Weyl semimetals is a positive longitudinal magnetoconductance. Here we show that chiral anomaly and nontrivial Berry curvature effects engender another striking effect in Weyl semimetals, the planar Hall effect (PHE). Remarkably, the PHE manifests itself when the applied current, magnetic field, and the induced transverse "Hall" voltage all lie in the same plane, precisely in a configuration in which the conventional Hall effect vanishes...
October 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Pedro Nevado, Samuel Fernández-Lorenzo, Diego Porras
Topological insulating phases are primarily associated with condensed-matter systems, which typically feature short-range interactions. Nevertheless, many realizations of quantum matter can exhibit long-range interactions, and it is still largely unknown the effect that these latter may exert upon the topological phases. In this Letter, we investigate the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger topological insulator in the presence of long-range interactions. We show that this model can be readily realized in quantum simulators with trapped ions by means of a periodic driving...
November 24, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Guoqing Chang, Su-Yang Xu, Benjamin J Wieder, Daniel S Sanchez, Shin-Ming Huang, Ilya Belopolski, Tay-Rong Chang, Songtian Zhang, Arun Bansil, Hsin Lin, M Zahid Hasan
The theoretical proposal of chiral fermions in topological semimetals has led to a significant effort towards their experimental realization. In particular, the Fermi surfaces of chiral semimetals carry quantized Chern numbers, making them an attractive platform for the observation of exotic transport and optical phenomena. While the simplest example of a chiral fermion in condensed matter is a conventional |C|=1 Weyl fermion, recent theoretical works have proposed a number of unconventional chiral fermions beyond the standard model which are protected by unique combinations of topology and crystalline symmetries...
November 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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