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Condense matter

Shuang Zhou, Sergij V Shiyanovskii, Heung-Shik Park, Oleg D Lavrentovich
The detailed structure of singularities of ordered field represents a fundamental problem in diverse areas of physics. At the defect cores, the deformations are so strong that the system explores states with symmetry different from that of an undistorted material. These regions are difficult to explore experimentally as their spatial extension is very small, a few molecular lengths in the condensed matter. Here we explore the cores of disclinations in the so-called chromonic nematics that extend over macroscopic length scales accessible for optical characterization...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
E M García, N Cherry, B D Lambert, J P Muir, M A Nazareno, J I Arroquy
BACKGROUND: Tropical tree or shrub leaves are an important source of nutrients for ruminants and a potential source of biologically active compounds that may affect ruminal metabolism of nutrients. Therefore, eight woody species from the native flora of Argentinean Dry Chaco - rich in secondary compounds such as condensed tannins (CT), were assessed for their nutritional value, CT fractions, and in vitro true digestibility of dry matter as well as biological activity (BA). RESULTS: Differences among species were found in contents of total phenol, protein-precipitating phenols (PPP), bound proteins to PPP (BP) and BP/PPP (P<0...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Weiwei Jin, Yang Jiao, Lufeng Liu, Ye Yuan, Shuixiang Li
An ellipsoid, the simplest nonspherical shape, has been extensively used as a model for elongated building blocks for a wide spectrum of molecular, colloidal, and granular systems. Yet the densest packing of congruent hard ellipsoids, which is intimately related to the high-density phase of many condensed matter systems, is still an open problem. We discover an unusual family of dense crystalline packings of self-dual ellipsoids (ratios of the semiaxes α:sqrt[α]:1), containing 24 particles with a quasi-square-triangular (SQ-TR) tiling arrangement in the fundamental cell...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
Zhiwei Fan, Yuhan Shi, Yan Liu, Wei Pang, Yongyao Li, Boris A Malomed
We consider a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in an array of two-well systems with an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles relative to the system's axis. The system can be built as a chain of local traps sliced into two parallel lattices by a repelling laser sheet. It is modeled by a pair of coupled discrete Gross-Pitaevskii equations, with dipole-dipole self-interactions and cross interactions. When the dipoles are not polarized perpendicular or parallel to the lattice, the cross interaction is asymmetric, replacing the familiar symmetric two-component discrete solitons by two new species of cross-symmetric ones, viz...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
Andrea Cavagna, Irene Giardina, Asja Jelic, Stefania Melillo, Leonardo Parisi, Edmondo Silvestri, Massimiliano Viale
Many systems in nature, from ferromagnets to flocks of birds, exhibit ordering phenomena on the large scale. In condensed matter systems, order is statistically robust for large enough dimensions, with relative fluctuations due to noise vanishing with system size. Several biological systems, however, are less stable and spontaneously change their global state on relatively short time scales. Here we show that there are two crucial ingredients in these systems that enhance the effect of noise, leading to collective changes of state on finite time scales and off-equilibrium behavior: the nonsymmetric nature of interactions between individuals, and the presence of local heterogeneities in the topology of the network...
March 31, 2017: Physical Review Letters
A Prain, S Vezzoli, N Westerberg, T Roger, D Faccio
Quantum field theory predicts that a spatially homogeneous but temporally varying medium will excite photon pairs out of the vacuum state. However, this important theoretical prediction lacks experimental verification due to the difficulty in attaining the required nonadiabatic and large amplitude changes in the medium. Recent work has shown that in epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) materials it is possible to optically induce changes of the refractive index of the order of unity, in femtosecond time scales. By studying the quantum field theory of a spatially homogeneous, time-varying ENZ medium, we theoretically predict photon-pair production that is up to several orders of magnitude larger than in non-ENZ time-varying materials...
March 31, 2017: Physical Review Letters
M M Desjardins, J J Viennot, M C Dartiailh, L E Bruhat, M R Delbecq, M Lee, M-S Choi, A Cottet, T Kontos
The ability to control electronic states at the nanoscale has contributed to our modern understanding of condensed matter. In particular, quantum dot circuits represent model systems for the study of strong electronic correlations, epitomized by the Kondo effect. We use circuit quantum electrodynamics architectures to study the internal degrees of freedom of this many-body phenomenon. Specifically, we couple a quantum dot to a high-quality-factor microwave cavity to measure with exceptional sensitivity the dot's electronic compressibility, that is, its ability to accommodate charges...
April 12, 2017: Nature
Pablo Damasceno, Sharon Glotzer, Michael Engel
Quasicrystals are frequently encountered in condensed matter. They are important candidates for equilibrium phases from the atomic scale to the nanoscale. Here, we investigate the computational self-assembly of four quasicrystals in a single model system of identical particles interacting with a tunable isotropic pair potential. We reproduce a known icosahedral quasicrystal and report a decagonal quasicrystal, a dodecagonal quasicrystal, and an octagonal quasicrystal. The quasicrystals have low coordination number or occur in systems with mesoscale density variations...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
L Roiban, S Li, M Aouine, A Tuel, D Farrusseng, T Epicier
Electron tomography in transmission electron microscopy provides valuable three-dimensional structural, morphological and chemical information of condensed matter at nanoscale. Current image acquisitions require at least tens of minutes, which prohibits the analysis of nano-objects evolving rapidly such as under dynamic environmental conditions. Reducing the acquisition duration to tens of seconds or less permits to follow in 3D the same object during its evolution under varying temperatures and pressures. We report Operando Electron nanotomography using image series acquired in less than 230 seconds instead of typically 15 min in the best cases so far...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
Sudesh, Pawan Kumar, Prakriti Neha, Tanmoy Das, Satyabrata Patnaik
The discovery of Weyl semimetals (WSM) has brought forth the condensed matter realization of Weyl fermions, which were previously theorized as low energy excitations in high energy particle physics. Recently, transition metal mono-pnictides are under intense investigation for understanding properties of inversion-symmetry broken Weyl semimetals. Non-trivial Berry phase and chirality are important markers for characterizing topological aspects of Weyl semimetals. Most recently, theoretical calculations predict strong influence of the position of Weyl nodes with respect to Fermi surface and weak disorder that can drive WSMs into chirally symmetric Dirac semimetals...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Patrick Varilly, Adam P Willard, Julius B Kirkegaard, Tuomas P J Knowles, David Chandler
Aggregation of amphiphiles through the action of hydrophobic interactions is a common feature in soft condensed matter systems and is of particular importance in the context of biophysics as it underlies both the generation of functional biological machinery as well as the formation of pathological misassembled states of proteins. Here we explore the aggregation behaviour of amphiphilic polymers using lattice Monte Carlo calculations and show that the distribution of hydrophobic residues within the polymer sequence determines the facility with which dry/wet interfaces can be created and that such interfaces drive the aggregation process...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Xintong Qi, Yongtao Zou, Xuebing Wang, Ting Chen, David O Welch, Jianzhong Jiang, Baosheng Li
Pressure-induced polyamorphism in Ce-based metallic glass has attracted significant interest in condensed matter physics. In this paper, we discover that in association with the polyamorphism of La32Ce32Al16Ni5Cu15 bulk metallic glass, the acoustic velocities, measured up to 12.3 GPa using ultrasonic interferometry, exhibit velocity minima at 1.8 GPa for P wave and 3.2 GPa for S wave. The low and high density amorphous states are distinguished by their distinct pressure derivatives of the bulk and shear moduli...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
V K de Souza, J D Stevenson, S P Niblett, J D Farrell, D J Wales
The emergence of observable properties from the organisation of the underlying potential energy landscape is analysed, spanning a full range of complexity from self-organising to glassy and jammed systems. The examples include atomic and molecular clusters, a β-barrel protein, the GNNQQNY peptide dimer, and models of condensed matter that exhibit structural glass formation and jamming. We have considered measures based on several different properties, namely, the Shannon entropy, an equilibrium thermodynamic measure that uses a sample of local minima, and indices that require additional information about the connections between local minima in the form of transition states...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Ilya Belopolski, Su-Yang Xu, Nikesh Koirala, Chang Liu, Guang Bian, Vladimir N Strocov, Guoqing Chang, Madhab Neupane, Nasser Alidoust, Daniel Sanchez, Hao Zheng, Matthew Brahlek, Victor Rogalev, Timur Kim, Nicholas C Plumb, Chaoyu Chen, François Bertran, Patrick Le Fèvre, Amina Taleb-Ibrahimi, Maria-Carmen Asensio, Ming Shi, Hsin Lin, Moritz Hoesch, Seongshik Oh, M Zahid Hasan
Engineered lattices in condensed matter physics, such as cold-atom optical lattices or photonic crystals, can have properties that are fundamentally different from those of naturally occurring electronic crystals. We report a novel type of artificial quantum matter lattice. Our lattice is a multilayer heterostructure built from alternating thin films of topological and trivial insulators. Each interface within the heterostructure hosts a set of topologically protected interface states, and by making the layers sufficiently thin, we demonstrate for the first time a hybridization of interface states across layers...
March 2017: Science Advances
M Kociak, A Gloter, O Stéphan
The new generation of spectromicroscopes opens up new fields of nanophysics. Beyond the impressive spatial and spectral resolutions delivered by these new instruments - an obvious example being the Hermes machine conceived, designed and built by O. L. Krivanek, who is honoured in this journal issue - here we wish to address the motivations and conditions required to get the best out of them. We first coarsely sketch the panorama of physical excitations worth motivating the use of ultra-high resolution spectroscopy techniques in STEMs...
March 29, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
J Dufouleur, L Veyrat, B Dassonneville, E Xypakis, J H Bardarson, C Nowka, S Hampel, J Schumann, B Eichler, O G Schmidt, B Büchner, R Giraud
Disorder remains a key limitation in the search for robust signatures of topological superconductivity in condensed matter. Whereas clean semiconducting quantum wires gave promising results discussed in terms of Majorana bound states, disorder makes the interpretation more complex. Quantum wires of 3D topological insulators offer a serious alternative due to their perfectly-transmitted mode. An important aspect to consider is the mixing of quasi-1D surface modes due to the strong degree of disorder typical for such materials...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
N Hiraoka, T Nomura
The relationship between electron momentum densities (EMDs) and a band gap is clarified in momentum space. The interference between wavefunctions via reciprocal lattice vectors, making a band gap in momentum space, causes the scattering of electrons from the first Brillouin zone to the other zones, so-called Umklapp scattering. This leads to the broadening of EMDs. A sharp drop of the EMD in the limit of a zero gap becomes broadened as the gap opens. The broadening is given by a simple quantity, E g /v F , where E g is the gap magnitude and v F the Fermi velocity...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Donghua Xu, Yifan Xu
Vacuum injection casting (VIC) is important for research and development (R&D) of materials that are prone to oxidation at high temperatures, particularly metals and metallic alloys (e.g., metallic glasses and high entropy alloys). VIC in R&D laboratories often involves initial melting/alloying in a prior step, transporting the sample to a dedicated vacuum chamber, re-melting the sample in a quartz tube, and finally injecting the melt with an inert gas to a dedicated mold. Here we present a new approach to laboratory VIC that requires no sample transfer (for a variety of materials), no dedicated vacuum chamber/space nor dedicated mold, and hence provides more versatility and higher efficiency and yet lowers the capital equipment cost...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Zichao Wen, Zhenya Yan
We report new matter-wave solutions of the one-dimensional spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate system by combining global spin-rotation states and similarity transformation. Dynamical behaviors of non-stationary global spin-rotation states derived from the SU(2) spin-rotation symmetry are discussed, which exhibit temporal periodicity. We derive generalized bright-dark mixed solitons and new rogue wave solutions and reveal the relations between Euler angles in spin-rotation symmetry and parameters in ferromagnetic and polar solitons...
March 2017: Chaos
M Autore, P Di Pietro, A Di Gaspare, F D'Apuzzo, F Giorgianni, Matthew Brahlek, Nikesh Koirala, Seangshik Oh, S Lupi
After the discovery of Dirac electrons in condensed matter physics, more specifically in graphene and its derivatives, their potentialities in the fields of plasmonics and photonics have been readily recognized, leading to a plethora of applications in active and tunable optical devices. Massless Dirac carriers have been further found in three-dimensional topological insulators. These exotic quantum systems have an insulating gap in the bulk and intrinsic Dirac metallic states at any surface, sustaining not only single-particle excitations but also plasmonic collective modes...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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