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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218554/the-scandcleft-randomised-trials-of-primary-surgery-for-unilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate-11-what-next
#1
William Shaw, Gunvor Semb
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Longstanding uncertainty surrounds the selection of surgical protocols for unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), and randomised trials have only occasionally been performed. The Scandcleft Project consists of three trials initiated in 1997. The results at age 5 have been published in the series of reports that precede this manuscript, which aims to distill some of the issues that future trialists may need to address. METHOD: The shared experience of this group of trials is reviewed with reference to the current literature on trial management and, more specifically, trials of surgical technique and timing...
February 2017: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211048/the-assessment-of-knowledge-and-learning-in-competence-spaces-the-gain-loss-model-for-dependent-skills
#2
Pasquale Anselmi, Luca Stefanutti, Debora de Chiusole, Egidio Robusto
The gain-loss model (GaLoM) is a formal model for assessing knowledge and learning. In its original formulation, the GaLoM assumes independence among the skills. Such an assumption is not reasonable in several domains, in which some preliminary knowledge is the foundation for other knowledge. This paper presents an extension of the GaLoM to the case in which the skills are not independent, and the dependence relation among them is described by a well-graded competence space. The probability of mastering skill s at the pretest is conditional on the presence of all skills on which s depends...
February 17, 2017: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205108/water-assisted-colonoscopy
#3
REVIEW
Sergio Cadoni, Felix W Leung
The current review will attempt to describe the important lessons learned from published randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing water immersion (WI) or water exchange (WE) techniques with gas insufflation colonoscopy. Air insufflation (AI) to distend the colon to permit visualization and passage through the lumen was developed for diagnostic colonoscopy. When screening colonoscopy was adopted, the same AI method was used. Interval cancers, diagnosed within 3 to 5 years after an index screening colonoscopy, appeared to be linked to low adenoma detection rate (ADR)...
February 15, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199052/the-flipped-classroom-approach-stimulating-positive-learning-attitudes-and-improving-mastery-of-histology-among-medical-students
#4
Xin Cheng, Kenneth Ka Ho Lee, Eric Y Chang, Xuesong Yang
Traditional medical education methodologies have been dramatically impacted by the introduction of new teaching approaches over the past few decades. In particular, the "flipped classroom" format has drawn a great deal of attention. However, evidence regarding the effectiveness of the flipped model remains limited due to a lack of outcome-based studies. In the present study, a pilot histology curriculum of the organ systems was implemented among 24 Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) students in a flipped classroom format at Jinan University...
November 4, 2016: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190914/neuroanatomy-of-handwriting-and-related-reading-and-writing-skills-in-adults-and-children-with-and-without-learning-disabilities-french-american-connections
#5
Marieke Longcamp, Todd L Richards, Jean-Luc Velay, Virginia W Berninger
In this article, we present recent neuroimaging studies performed to identify the neural network involved in handwriting. These studies, carried out in adults and in children, suggest that the mastery of handwriting is based on the involvement of a network of brain structures whose involvement and inter-connection are specific to writing alphabet characters. This network is built upon the joint learning of writing and reading and depends on the level of expertise of the writer. In addition, a part of this graphomotor network is also brought into play during the identification letters during visual reading...
December 2016: Pratiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190709/training-in-minimally-invasive-pancreatic-resections-a-paradigm-shift-away-from-see-one-do-one-teach-one
#6
Melissa E Hogg, Marc G Besselink, Pierre-Alain Clavien, Abe Fingerhut, D Rohan Jeyarajah, David A Kooby, A James Moser, Henry A Pitt, Oliver A Varban, Charles M Vollmer, Herbert J Zeh, Paul Hansen
BACKGROUND: Increased incorporation of minimally invasive pancreatic resections (MIPR) has emerged into hepato-pancreato-biliary practice, however, no standardization exists for its safe adoption. Novel strategies are presented for dissemination of safe MIPR. METHODS: An international State-of-the-Art conference evaluating multiple aspects of MIPR was conducted by a panel of pancreas experts in Sao Paulo, Brazil on April 20, 2016. Training and education issues were discussed regarding the introduction of novel strategies for safe dissemination of MIPR...
February 9, 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185812/assessment-of-nutrition-competency-of-graduating-agriculture-students-in-ethiopia-a%C3%A2-cross-sectional-study
#7
Mesfin G Abebe, Mebit K Tariku, Tadele B Yitaferu, Ephrem D Shiferaw, Firew A Desta, Endris M Yimer, Kefyalew M Akassa, Elizabeth C Thompson
OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of nutrition-sensitive agriculture competencies of graduating midlevel animal and plant sciences students in Ethiopia and identify factors associated with the attainment of competencies. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design using structured skills observation checklists, objective written questions, and structured questionnaires was employed. SETTING: Two agriculture technical vocational education and training colleges in the 2 regions of Ethiopia...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183417/simulation-mastery-learning-and-healthcare
#8
William Dunn, Yue Dong, Benjamin Zendejas, Raaj Ruparel, David Farley
Healthcare organizations, becoming increasingly complex, need to use simulation techniques as a tool to provide consistently safe care. Mastery learning techniques minimize variation in learner outcome, thus improving the consistency and cost-effectiveness of care. Today׳s organizations (and their teams of decision makers) exist within varying states of transformation. These transformational times afford opportunities to use mastery learning concepts at an organizational level and to affect necessary change(s)...
February 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180130/empowering-education-a-new-model-for-in-service-training-of-nursing-staff
#9
Mahmud Chaghari, Mohsen Saffari, Abbas Ebadi, Ahmad Ameryoun
INTRODUCTION: In-service training of nurses plays an indispensable role in improving the quality of inpatient care. Need to enhance the effectiveness of in-service training of nurses is an inevitable requirement. This study attempted to design a new optimal model for in-service training of nurses. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in two stages during 2015-2016. In the first stage, the Grounded Theory was adopted to explore the process of training 35 participating nurses...
January 2017: Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179175/-to-operate-versus-not-to-operate-in-low-resource-settings-an-example-of-aneurysm-surgery-in-rural-iran-and-the-impact-of-mastery-of-neurosurgical-anatomy
#10
Dylan Griswold, Arnau Benet, Halima Tabani, Michael T Lawton, Ali Tayebi Meybodi
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has a global incidence of 9/100,000. In low-resource settings, where neurosurgical capacity is diminished through fewer human and technological resources, neurosurgeons may not be prepared to operate on aneurysmal SAH. Through a case illustration of an Iranian neurosurgeon faced with a decision to operate on a patient presenting with aneurysmal SAH in a low-resource setting, we highlight the importance of mastery of neurosurgical anatomy, which was critical in achieving a favorable patient outcome...
February 4, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178641/does-team-based-learning-improve-performance-in-an-infectious-diseases-course-in-a-preclinical-curriculum
#11
Kathryn C Behling, Rose Kim, Matthew Gentile, Osvaldo Lopez
Objectives: To examine whether introduction of Team-based Learning (TBL) improves student learning resulting in improved performance on final examination questions and decreased failures in an infectious diseases course. Methods: To improve mastery of course content, we designed an intervention, which provided weekly TBL exercises in study years 2 and 3 to review concepts presented during didactic lectures and laboratory exercises.  The remaining course structure and content was essentially unchanged...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118085/the-role-of-simulation-in-surgical-education
#12
Ben Schwab, Eric Hungness, Katherine Ann Barsness, William Craig McGaghie
The current healthcare environment demands optimization of patient outcomes in addition to maximal cost efficiency. Restrictions on resident work hours have placed limitations on the amount of time that trainee physicians can spend on patient care. For the surgery resident, the consequence is less time spent in the operating room under the supervision of a senior surgeon, the cornerstone of Halsted's approach to resident surgeon education. The use of simulation in graduate medical education has gained significant traction as a way to provide trainees with exposure to various techniques and procedures before use on the general patient population...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101272/isolation-and-characterization-of-agrobacterium-strains-from-soil-a-laboratory-capstone-experience
#13
Kim R Finer, Lee Fox, John J Finer
In this investigation, the students' goal was to isolate and characterize Agrobacterium strains from soil. Following selection and enrichment on 1A-t medium, putative Agrobacterium isolates were characterized by Gram stain reaction and biochemical tests. Isolates were further evaluated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with different primer sets designed to amplify specific regions of bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Primer sets included AGRH to identify isolates that were members of the Rhizobiaceae, BIOVAR1 primers to identify members of Agrobacterium biovar group I, and a third set, VIRG, to determine presence of virG (only present in pathogenic Agrobacterium strains)...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091694/-evidence-based-tep-technique
#14
F Köckerling
The guidelines of all international hernia societies recommend as procedures of choice the laparoendoscopic techniques total extraperitoneal patch plasty (TEP) and transabdominal preperitoneal patch plasty (TAPP) as well as the open Lichtenstein operation for elective inguinal hernia repair. The learning curve associated with the laparoendoscopic techniques, in particular TEP, is longer than that for the open Lichtenstein technique due to the complexity of the procedures. Accordingly, for laparoendoscopic techniques it is particularly important that the operations are conducted in a standardized manner in compliance with the evidence-based recommendations given for the technical details...
January 13, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065689/virtual-teach-to-goal%C3%A2-adaptive-learning-of-inhaler-technique-for-inpatients-with-asthma-or-copd
#15
Valerie G Press, Colleen A Kelly, John J Kim, Steven R White, David O Meltzer, Vineet M Arora
BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) result in more than 1 million hospitalizations annually. Most hospitalized patients misuse respiratory inhalers. This misuse can be corrected with in-person education; however, this strategy is resource intensive and skills wane quickly after discharge. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and pilot a virtual teach-to-goal™ (V-TTG™) inhaler skill training module, using innovative adaptive learning technology...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063865/evaluation-of-a-mastery-learning-intervention-on-hospitalists-code-status-discussion-skills
#16
Rashmi K Sharma, Eytan Szmuilowicz, Adeboye Ogunseitan, Sasha F Jones, Jessica A Montalvo, Kevin J O'Leary, Diane B Wayne
CONTEXT: Although code status discussions (CSD) occur frequently in the hospital setting, discussions often lack content necessary for informed decision making. Simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) has been used to improve clinical skills among resident physicians and may provide a novel way to improve hospitalists' CSD skills. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to develop and evaluate a CSD SBML intervention for hospitalists...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059603/retention-of-basic-life-support-in-laypeople-mastery-learning-vs-time-based-education
#17
Sylvain Boet, M Dylan Bould, Ashlee-Ann Pigford, Bernhard Rössler, Pratheeban Nambyiah, Qi Li, Alexandra Bunting, Karl Schebesta
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of a mastery learning (ML) versus a time-based (TB) BLS course for the acquisition and retention of BLS knowledge and skills in laypeople. METHODS: After ethics approval, laypeople were randomized to a ML or TB BLS course based on the American Heart Association (AHA) Heartsaver course. In the ML group, subjects practiced and received feedback at six BLS stations until they reached a pre-determined level of performance. The TB group received a standard AHA six-station BLS course...
January 6, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011260/cost-comparison-of-fundamentals-of-laparoscopic-surgery-training-completed-with-standard-fundamentals-of-laparoscopic-surgery-equipment-versus-low-cost-equipment
#18
Brenton R Franklin, Sarah B Placek, Mercy D Wagner, Sarah M Haviland, Mary T O'Donnell, E Matthew Ritter
OBJECTIVE: Training for the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) skills test can be expensive. Previous work demonstrated that training on an ergonomically different, low-cost platform does not affect FLS skills test outcomes. This study compares the average training cost with standard FLS equipment and medical-grade consumables versus training on a lower cost platform with non-medical-grade consumables. DESIGN: Subjects were prospectively randomized to either the standard FLS training platform (n = 19) with medical-grade consumables (S-FLS), or the low-cost platform (n = 20) with training-grade products (LC-FLS)...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959914/learning-new-sensorimotor-contingencies-effects-of-long-term-use-of-sensory-augmentation-on-the-brain-and-conscious-perception
#19
Sabine U König, Frank Schumann, Johannes Keyser, Caspar Goeke, Carina Krause, Susan Wache, Aleksey Lytochkin, Manuel Ebert, Vincent Brunsch, Basil Wahn, Kai Kaspar, Saskia K Nagel, Tobias Meilinger, Heinrich Bülthoff, Thomas Wolbers, Christian Büchel, Peter König
Theories of embodied cognition propose that perception is shaped by sensory stimuli and by the actions of the organism. Following sensorimotor contingency theory, the mastery of lawful relations between own behavior and resulting changes in sensory signals, called sensorimotor contingencies, is constitutive of conscious perception. Sensorimotor contingency theory predicts that, after training, knowledge relating to new sensorimotor contingencies develops, leading to changes in the activation of sensorimotor systems, and concomitant changes in perception...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920965/an-evaluation-of-the-impact-of-supervision-intensity-supervisor-qualifications-and-caseload-on-outcomes-in-the-treatment-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Dennis R Dixon, Erik Linstead, Doreen Granpeesheh, Marlena N Novack, Ryan French, Elizabeth Stevens, Laura Stevens, Alva Powell
Ample research has shown the benefits of intensive applied behavior analysis (ABA) treatment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); research that investigates the role of treatment supervision, however, is limited. The present study examined the relationship between mastery of learning objectives and supervision hours, supervisor credentials, years of experience, and caseload in a large sample of children with ASD (N = 638). These data were retrieved from a large archival database of children with ASD receiving community-based ABA services...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
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