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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626435/reproducibility-in-psychological-science-when-do-psychological-phenomena-exist
#1
Seppo E Iso-Ahola
Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1) scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative); (2) non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical) and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3) statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4) psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604286/growth-functional-capacities-and-motivation-for-achievement-and-competitiveness-in-youth-basketball-an-interdisciplinary-approach
#2
Humberto Moreira Carvalho, Carlos E Gonçalves, Dave Collins, Roberto R Paes
The interaction of multiple influences on the path to sport success is not yet fully understood by sport scientists. In this study, we examined variation in body size, functional capacities and motivation for achievement, competitiveness and deliberate practice of youth basketball players associated with differences in biological maturity status, chronological age and years of training experience. Reflecting the importance of interactive effects, we examined the relationships between the psychological variables and functional capacities...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603445/a-modest-art-securing-privacy-in-technologically-mediated-homecare
#3
Ike Kamphof
This article addresses the art of living in a technological culture as the active engagement with technomoral change. It argues that this engagement does not just take the form of overt deliberation. It shows in more modest ways as reflection-in-action, an experimental process in which new technology is fitted into existing practices. In this process challenged values are re-articulated in pragmatic solutions to the problem of working with new technology. This art of working with technology is also modest in the sense that it is not oriented to shaping one's own subjectivity in relation to technology...
2017: Foundations of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602484/red-blood-cell-transfusion-and-outcome-in-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Nayyer Iqbal, Kamal Haider, Vinita Sundaram, Julia Radosevic, Thierry Burnouf, Jerard Seghatchian, Hadi Goubran
Oncology services utilize about 15% of the blood transfusion resources in the USA. Red blood cell transfusion is performed immediately before, during or after major surgery to compensate for blood loss and hemodilution. However, a lack of evidence-based guidelines leads to variable transfusion practices among clinicians. The benefits of transfusing blood products are obvious in life-threatening low blood cell counts or bleeding, but it is becoming apparent that deliberate blood transfusion in some cancer patients can trigger negative clinical impacts...
May 26, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600658/clinical-ethics-support-for-healthcare-personnel-an-integrative-literature-review
#5
Dara Rasoal, Kirsti Skovdahl, Mervyn Gifford, Annica Kihlgren
This study describes which clinical ethics approaches are available to support healthcare personnel in clinical practice in terms of their construction, functions and goals. Healthcare personnel frequently face ethically difficult situations in the course of their work and these issues cover a wide range of areas from prenatal care to end-of-life care. Although various forms of clinical ethics support have been developed, to our knowledge there is a lack of review studies describing which ethics support approaches are available, how they are constructed and their goals in supporting healthcare personnel in clinical practice...
June 9, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599118/sensory-metrics-of-neuromechanical-trust
#6
William Softky, Criscillia Benford
Today digital sources supply a historically unprecedented component of human sensorimotor data, the consumption of which is correlated with poorly understood maladies such as Internet addiction disorder and Internet gaming disorder. Because both natural and digital sensorimotor data share common mathematical descriptions, one can quantify our informational sensorimotor needs using the signal processing metrics of entropy, noise, dimensionality, continuity, latency, and bandwidth. Such metrics describe in neutral terms the informational diet human brains require to self-calibrate, allowing individuals to maintain trusting relationships...
June 9, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594814/-deliberations-on-lumbar-sympathectomy-years-and-practice-on-the-occasion-of-the-90th-anniversary-of-using-the-method-in-russia
#7
E P Kokhan, O V Pinchuk
The article deals with the literature data on history of and modern attitude to lumbar sympathectomy in treatment for occlusive lesions of lower-limb peripheral arteries. This is followed by analysing the experience of 1,764 operations both independent and those combined with vascular reconstructions over more than a 45-year period. A conclusion is drawn that lumbar sympathectomy remains an operation associated with minimal traumaticity and a low complication rate, thus for long years improving the quality of life and destiny of patients...
2017: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584872/a-multi-centre-student-survey-on-weighing-disciplines-in-medical-curricula-a-pilot-study
#8
Hormos Salimi Dafsari, Stefan Herzig, Jan Matthes
Aim: Initiated by students, this pilot study examines how obtaining medical students' perspectives via a structured online survey may prove useful for curriculum deliberation. Methods: In 2012, 747 students of 32 medical faculties in Germany assessed disciplines specified in the Medical Licensure Act (AÄpprO) thereby concerning the allocation of teaching time, perceived usefulness regarding preparation for state examination and medical practice, their interest and motivation for studying as well as consideration for future work...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579682/the-intersection-of-palliative-care-and-interventional-radiology-enhancing-understanding-and-collaboration
#9
REVIEW
Mary K Buss
In the treatment of cancer patients, many interventional radiologic procedures are palliative in nature. The goal for these therapies is often something other than cure, such as prolonged survival or improved quality of life. The goals of therapy should be matched with the patient's wishes, and must include open communication between the health care provider and the patient. Hospice and palliative medicine is its own specialty, and a multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer patients should include discussions with these health care specialists...
June 2017: Seminars in Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562397/simulation-research-in-gastrointestinal-and-urologic-care-challenges-and-opportunities-summary-of-a-national-institute-of-diabetes-and-digestive-and-kidney-diseases-and-national-institute-of-biomedical-imaging-and-bioengineering-workshop
#10
Rajesh Aggarwal, Kimberly M Brown, Piet C de Groen, Anthony G Gallagher, Kerm Henriksen, Louis R Kavoussi, Grace C Y Peng, E Matthew Ritter, Elliott Silverman, Kenneth K Wang, Dana K Andersen
: A workshop on "Simulation Research in Gastrointestinal and Urologic Care: Challenges and Opportunities" was held at the National Institutes of Health in June 2016. The purpose of the workshop was to examine the extent to which simulation approaches have been used by skilled proceduralists (not trainees) caring for patients with gastrointestinal and urologic diseases. The current status of research findings in the use and effectiveness of simulation applications was reviewed, and numerous knowledge gaps and research needs were identified by the faculty and the attendees...
May 31, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554678/the-role-of-imaging-deliberate-practice-structure-and-improvisation-in-approaching-surgical-perfection
#11
EDITORIAL
Joseph A Dearani, Michael Gold, Bradley C Leibovich, K Anders Ericsson, Kamal R Khabbaz, Thomas A Foley, Paul R Julsrud, Jane M Matsumoto, Richard C Daly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552971/qualitative-analysis-of-how-patients-decide-that-they-want-risk-reducing-mastectomy-and-the-implications-for-surgeons-in-responding-to-emotionally-motivated-patient-requests
#12
Stephen L Brown, Demian Whiting, Hannah G Fielden, Pooja Saini, Helen Beesley, Christopher Holcombe, Susan Holcombe, Lyn Greenhalgh, Louise Fairburn, Peter Salmon
OBJECTIVE: Contemporary approaches to medical decision-making advise that clinicians should respect patients' decisions. However, patients' decisions are often shaped by heuristics, such as being guided by emotion, rather than by objective risk and benefit. Risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) decisions focus this dilemma sharply. RRM reduces breast cancer (BC) risk, but is invasive and can have iatrogenic consequences. Previous evidence suggests that emotion guides patients' decision-making about RRM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551339/acr-radpeer-committee-white-paper-with-2016-updates-revised-scoring-system-new-classifications-self-review-and-subspecialized-reports
#13
Shlomit Goldberg-Stein, L Alexandre Frigini, Scott Long, Zeyad Metwalli, Xuan V Nguyen, Mark Parker, Hani Abujudeh
The ACR's RADPEER program is currently the leading method for peer review in the United States. To date, more than 18,000 radiologists and more than 1,100 groups participate in the program. The ABR accepted RADPEER as a practice quality improvement in 2009, which can be applied toward maintenance of certification; there are currently over 2,200 practice quality improvement participants. There have been ongoing deliberations regarding the utility of RADPEER, its goals, and its scoring system since the preceding 2009 white paper...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545927/stem-cells-to-restore-insulin-production-and-cure-diabetes
#14
V Sordi, S Pellegrini, M Krampera, P Marchetti, A Pessina, G Ciardelli, G Fadini, C Pintus, G Pantè, L Piemonti
BACKGROUND: The advancement of knowledge in the field of regenerative medicine is increasing the therapeutic expectations of patients and clinicians on cell therapy approaches. Within these, stem cell therapies are often evoked as a possible therapeutic option for diabetes, already ongoing or possible in the near future. AIM: The purpose of this document is to make a point of the situation on existing knowledge and therapies with stem cells to treat patients with diabetes by focusing on some of the aspects that most frequently raise curiosity and discussion in clinical practice and in the interaction with the patient...
February 21, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543652/what-s-the-use-disparate-purposes-of-u-s-federal-bioethics-commissions
#15
Jenny Dyck Brian, Robert Cook-Deegan
In the forty-year history of U.S. bioethics commissions, these government-sanctioned forums have often demonstrated their power to address pressing problems and to enable policy change. For example, the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, established in 1974, left a legacy of reports that were translated into regulations and had an enormous practical impact. And the 1982 report Splicing Life, by the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, became the basis for the National Institutes of Health's Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee as well as for the Food and Drug Administration's developing "Points to Consider" when contemplating the introduction of recombinant DNA into human beings...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540142/rapid-cycle-deliberate-practice-in-medical-education-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Jillian Taras, Tobias Everett
Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice (RCDP) is a novel simulation-based education model that is currently attracting interest, implementation, exploration and research in medical education. In RCDP, learners rapidly cycle between deliberate practice and directed feedback within the simulation scenario until mastery is achieved. The objective of this systematic review is to examine the literature and summarize the existing knowledge on RCDP in simulation-based medical education. Fifteen resources met inclusion criteria; they were diverse and heterogeneous, such that we did not perform a quantitative synthesis or meta-analysis but rather a narrative review on RCDP...
April 19, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523743/applying-lessons-from-social-psychology-to-transform-the-culture-of-error-disclosure
#17
Jason Han, Denise LaMarra, Neha Vapiwala
CONTEXT: The ability to carry out prompt and effective error disclosure has been described in the literature as an essential skill among physicians that can lead to improved patient satisfaction, staff well-being and hospital outcomes. However, few studies have addressed the social psychology principles that may influence physician behaviour. METHODS: The authors provide an overview of recent administrative measures designed to encourage physicians to disclose error, but note that deliberate practice, buttressed with lessons from social psychology, is needed to implement further productive behavioural changes...
May 18, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515799/implementing-mindfulness-in-the-mainstream-making-the-path-by-walking-it
#18
Rebecca S Crane
There is expanding interest in mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) within the mainstream. While there are research gaps, there is empirical evidence for these developments. Implementing new evidence into practice is always complex and difficult. Particular complexities and tensions arise when implementing MBPs in the mainstream. MBPs are emerging out of the confluence of different epistemologies-contemplative teaching and practice, and contemporary Western empiricism and culture. In the process of navigating implementation and integrity, and developing a professional practice context for this emerging field, the diverse influences within this confluence need careful attention and thought...
2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511085/development-implementation-and-effects-of-an-integrated-web-based-teaching-model-in-a-nursing-ethics-course
#19
S-Y Chao, Y-C Chang, S C Yang, M J Clark
BACKGROUND: Ethical competence, which is reflected in the ability to detect ethical challenges in clinical situations and engage in deliberate thinking on ethical actions, is one of the core competencies of nursing practice. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop and implement an interactive situational e-learning system, integrating nursing ethical decisions into a nursing ethics course, and to evaluate the effects of this course on student nurses' ethical decision-making competence...
April 19, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503947/recommendations-for-data-monitoring-committees-from-the-clinical-trials-transformation-initiative
#20
Karim A Calis, Patrick Archdeacon, Raymond Bain, David DeMets, Miriam Donohue, M Khair Elzarrad, Annemarie Forrest, John McEachern, Michael J Pencina, Jane Perlmutter, Roger J Lewis
Background/aims Use of data monitoring committees to oversee clinical trials was first proposed nearly 50 years ago. Since then, data monitoring committee use in clinical trials has increased and evolved. Nonetheless, there are no well-defined criteria for determining the need for a data monitoring committee, and considerable variability exists in data monitoring committee composition and conduct. To understand and describe the role and function of data monitoring committees, and establish best practices for data monitoring committee trial oversight, the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative-a public-private partnership to improve clinical trials-launched a multi-stakeholder project...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
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