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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545927/stem-cells-to-restore-insulin-production-and-cure-diabetes
#1
V Sordi, S Pellegrini, M Krampera, P Marchetti, A Pessina, G Ciardelli, G Fadini, C Pintus, G Pantè, L Piemonti
BACKGROUND: The advancement of knowledge in the field of regenerative medicine is increasing the therapeutic expectations of patients and clinicians on cell therapy approaches. Within these, stem cell therapies are often evoked as a possible therapeutic option for diabetes, already ongoing or possible in the near future. AIM: The purpose of this document is to make a point of the situation on existing knowledge and therapies with stem cells to treat patients with diabetes by focusing on some of the aspects that most frequently raise curiosity and discussion in clinical practice and in the interaction with the patient...
February 21, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543652/what-s-the-use-disparate-purposes-of-u-s-federal-bioethics-commissions
#2
Jenny Dyck Brian, Robert Cook-Deegan
In the forty-year history of U.S. bioethics commissions, these government-sanctioned forums have often demonstrated their power to address pressing problems and to enable policy change. For example, the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, established in 1974, left a legacy of reports that were translated into regulations and had an enormous practical impact. And the 1982 report Splicing Life, by the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, became the basis for the National Institutes of Health's Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee as well as for the Food and Drug Administration's developing "Points to Consider" when contemplating the introduction of recombinant DNA into human beings...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540142/rapid-cycle-deliberate-practice-in-medical-education-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Jillian Taras, Tobias Everett
Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice (RCDP) is a novel simulation-based education model that is currently attracting interest, implementation, exploration and research in medical education. In RCDP, learners rapidly cycle between deliberate practice and directed feedback within the simulation scenario until mastery is achieved. The objective of this systematic review is to examine the literature and summarize the existing knowledge on RCDP in simulation-based medical education. Fifteen resources met inclusion criteria; they were diverse and heterogeneous, such that we did not perform a quantitative synthesis or meta-analysis but rather a narrative review on RCDP...
April 19, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523743/applying-lessons-from-social-psychology-to-transform-the-culture-of-error-disclosure
#4
Jason Han, Denise LaMarra, Neha Vapiwala
CONTEXT: The ability to carry out prompt and effective error disclosure has been described in the literature as an essential skill among physicians that can lead to improved patient satisfaction, staff well-being and hospital outcomes. However, few studies have addressed the social psychology principles that may influence physician behaviour. METHODS: The authors provide an overview of recent administrative measures designed to encourage physicians to disclose error, but note that deliberate practice, buttressed with lessons from social psychology, is needed to implement further productive behavioural changes...
May 18, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515799/implementing-mindfulness-in-the-mainstream-making-the-path-by-walking-it
#5
Rebecca S Crane
There is expanding interest in mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) within the mainstream. While there are research gaps, there is empirical evidence for these developments. Implementing new evidence into practice is always complex and difficult. Particular complexities and tensions arise when implementing MBPs in the mainstream. MBPs are emerging out of the confluence of different epistemologies-contemplative teaching and practice, and contemporary Western empiricism and culture. In the process of navigating implementation and integrity, and developing a professional practice context for this emerging field, the diverse influences within this confluence need careful attention and thought...
2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511085/development-implementation-and-effects-of-an-integrated-web-based-teaching-model-in-a-nursing-ethics-course
#6
S-Y Chao, Y-C Chang, S C Yang, M J Clark
BACKGROUND: Ethical competence, which is reflected in the ability to detect ethical challenges in clinical situations and engage in deliberate thinking on ethical actions, is one of the core competencies of nursing practice. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop and implement an interactive situational e-learning system, integrating nursing ethical decisions into a nursing ethics course, and to evaluate the effects of this course on student nurses' ethical decision-making competence...
April 19, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503947/recommendations-for-data-monitoring-committees-from-the-clinical-trials-transformation-initiative
#7
Karim A Calis, Patrick Archdeacon, Raymond Bain, David DeMets, Miriam Donohue, M Khair Elzarrad, Annemarie Forrest, John McEachern, Michael J Pencina, Jane Perlmutter, Roger J Lewis
Background/aims Use of data monitoring committees to oversee clinical trials was first proposed nearly 50 years ago. Since then, data monitoring committee use in clinical trials has increased and evolved. Nonetheless, there are no well-defined criteria for determining the need for a data monitoring committee, and considerable variability exists in data monitoring committee composition and conduct. To understand and describe the role and function of data monitoring committees, and establish best practices for data monitoring committee trial oversight, the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative-a public-private partnership to improve clinical trials-launched a multi-stakeholder project...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501114/evaluation-of-palliative-care-training-and-skills-retention-by-medical-students
#8
Priti P Parikh, Mary T White, Lynne Buckingham, Kathryn M Tchorz
BACKGROUND: Training in palliative and end-of-life care has been introduced in medical education; however, the impact of such training and the retention of skills and knowledge have not been studied in detail. This survey study examines long-term follow-up on end-of-life communication skills training, evaluation, and skills retention in medical students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the surgical clerkship, all third-year medical students received communication skills training in palliative care using simulated patients...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498063/preliminary-evaluation-of-a-novel-rigid-bronchoscopy-simulator
#9
Grace E Hsiung, Ben Schwab, Ellen K O'Brien, Colin D Gause, Ferdynand Hebal, Katherine A Barsness, Deborah M Rooney
PURPOSE: Emergent retrieval of airway foreign bodies (AFBs) in children remains a priority skill set for pediatric surgeons. In the setting of low procedural volume, simulation-based education with deliberate practice is essential to ensure trainees reach expected surgical competency. The purposes of this work were to (1) create a realistic rigid bronchoscopy for AFB retrieval simulation model and (2) to evaluate preliminary validity evidence of a novel simulator for the use of training and assessing pediatric surgical trainees' rigid bronchoscopy skills...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493429/trust-and-risk-a-model-for-medical-education
#10
Arvin Damodaran, Boaz Shulruf, Philip Jones
CONTEXT: Health care delivery, and therefore medical education, is an inherently risky business. Although control mechanisms, such as external audit and accreditation, are designed to manage risk in clinical settings, another approach is 'trust'. The use of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) represents a deliberate way in which this is operationalised as a workplace-based assessment. Once engaged with the concept, clinical teachers and medical educators may have further questions about trust...
May 10, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493064/evidence-based-prerequisites-and-precursors-of-athletic-talent-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Vladimir B Issurin
Extensive findings related to nature and nurture in determining athletic talent (AT) have been reviewed. Available data demonstrate the important contribution of hereditary factors as well as the crucial importance of environmental prerequisites for identifying and developing AT. Recent publications provide examples of contemporary approaches intended to solve the problem of how to discover and nurture AT. A number of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies highlighted possibilities of revealing a predisposition to certain sports among youthful prospects, but were unable to predict attainment of world-class status...
May 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490553/using-a-patient-decision-aid-for-insulin-initiation-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-qualitative-analysis-of-doctor-patient-conversations-in-primary-care-consultations-in-malaysia
#12
Ayeshah Syed, Zuraidah Mohd Don, Chirk Jenn Ng, Yew Kong Lee, Ee Ming Khoo, Ping Yein Lee, Khatijah Lim Abdullah, Azlin Zainal
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the use of apatient decision aid (PDA) for insulin initiation fulfils its purpose of facilitating patient-centred decision-making through identifying how doctors and patients interact when using the PDA during primary care consultations. DESIGN: Conversation analysis of seven single cases of audio-recorded/video-recorded consultations between doctors and patients with type 2 diabetes, using a PDA on starting insulin. SETTING: Primary care in three healthcare settings: (1) one private clinic; (2) two public community clinics and (3) one primary care clinic in a public university hospital, in Negeri Sembilan and the Klang Valley in Malaysia...
May 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488300/justice-and-care-decision-making-by-medical-school-student-promotions-committees
#13
Emily P Green, Philip A Gruppuso
CONTEXT: The function of medical school entities that determine student advancement or dismissal has gone largely unexplored. The decision making of 'academic progress' or student promotions committees is examined using a theoretical framework contrasting ethics of justice and care, with roots in the moral development work of theorists Kohlberg and Gilligan. OBJECTIVES: To ascertain promotions committee members' conceptualisation of the role of their committee, ethical orientations used in member decision making, and student characteristics most influential in that decision making...
June 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484632/relict-or-reintroduction-genetic-population-assignment-of-three-tasmanian-devils-sarcophilus-harrisii-recovered-on-mainland-australia
#14
Lauren C White, Jeremy J Austin
Today, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is found only on the island of Tasmania, despite once being widespread across mainland Australia. While the devil is thought to have become extinct on the mainland approximately 3000 years ago, three specimens were collected in Victoria (south-eastern Australia) between 1912 and 1991, raising the possibility that a relict mainland population survived in the area. Alternatively, these devils may have escaped captivity or were deliberately released after being transported from Tasmania, a practice that has been strictly controlled since the onset of devil facial tumour disease in the early 1990s...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483808/setting-boundaries-public-views-on-limiting-patient-and-physician-autonomy-in-health-care-decisions
#15
Maureen Maurer, Rikki Mangrum, Kristin L Carman, Marjorie Ginsburg, Marthe R Gold, Shoshanna Sofaer, Ela Pathak-Sen, Jennifer Richmond, Joanna Siegel
We obtained and qualitatively analyzed input from more than nine hundred citizens during seventy-six public deliberation sessions about patient and physician autonomy in decision making, setting health care boundaries, and the tensions among competing social values. Generally, participants resisted interference with the patient-physician relationship and believed strongly in the freedom of patient and physician to control individual medical decisions. However, during deliberation participants identified two situations where boundaries and regulations in health care were more acceptable: protecting people from harm and allocating limited resources...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482771/a-network-of-networks
#16
Rick Iedema, Raj Verma, Sonia Wutzke, Nigel Lyons, Brian McCaughan
Purpose To further our insight into the role of networks in health system reform, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how one agency, the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation (ACI), and the multiple networks and enabling resources that it encompasses, govern, manage and extend the potential of networks for healthcare practice improvement. Design/methodology/approach This is a case study investigation which took place over ten months through the first author's participation in network activities and discussions with the agency's staff about their main objectives, challenges and achievements, and with selected services around the state of New South Wales to understand the agency's implementation and large system transformation activities...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475497/a-perspective-on-the-effect-of-the-80-hour-work-week-has-it-changed-the-graduating-orthopaedic-resident
#17
Vincent D Pellegrini
Orthopaedic residency education has changed substantially in recent decades because of the imposition of the 80-hour work week, a decrease in quality and quantity of general surgical education, regulations mandating closer trainee supervision, and an expansion of orthopaedic subspecialty rotations. These factors pose a challenge in efforts to prepare competent, confident, cautious, caring, and communicative orthopaedic residents within the traditional 5-year program. Evidence suggests that contemporary graduates are more intelligent, better balanced in life and work, and more in touch with humanistic aspects of medicine than were earlier graduates...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464086/extension-education-symposium-getting-the-most-out-of-your-extension-appointment-and-still-having-a-life
#18
W Powers, N Cockett, G Lardy
Managing the demands of an academic appointment in extension can be a challenging task. Demands from constituent groups, expectations of supervisors, and rigors of promotion and tenure processes can create pressures that young faculty did not expect. Throw in spousal and family duties and you have created a situation that many will find hard to navigate. However, there are ways to cope and, even better news, there are ways to excel in meeting the demands of an academic appointment and enjoying life. Because many new extension faculty members do not have prior experience in extension, best practices in documenting programs and extension scholarship over the pretenure period are provided in this paper...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459358/oral-contraceptive-use-for-manipulation-of-menstruation-in-young-physically-active-women
#19
Mia A Schaumberg, Lynne M Emmerton, David G Jenkins, Nicola W Burton, Xanne Ak Janse de Jonge, Tina L Skinner
PURPOSE: Menstruation and menstrual symptoms are commonly-cited barriers to physical activity in women. The delay or avoidance of menstruation through extended oral contraceptive regimens may mitigate these barriers, yet information on menstrual manipulation practices in young physically-active women is sparse. The objective of this study was to investigate prevalence of, and reasons for, menstrual manipulation with oral contraceptives in recreationally- and competitively- active women...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449716/the-role-of-informal-dimensions-of-safety-in-high-volume-organisational-routines-an-ethnographic-study-of-test-results-handling-in-uk-general-practice
#20
Suzanne Grant, Katherine Checkland, Paul Bowie, Bruce Guthrie
BACKGROUND: The handling of laboratory, imaging and other test results in UK general practice is a high-volume organisational routine that is both complex and high risk. Previous research in this area has focused on errors and harm, but a complementary approach is to better understand how safety is achieved in everyday practice. This paper ethnographically examines the role of informal dimensions of test results handling routines in the achievement of safety in UK general practice and how these findings can best be developed for wider application by policymakers and practitioners...
April 27, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
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