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Deliberate practice

Allen M Chen, Taeko Yoshizaki, Pin-Chieh Wang, Darlene Veruttipong, Phillip J Beron, Robert Chin, Argin G Mikaeilian, Minsong Cao
Purpose: The practice of deliberately sparing the ipsilateral parotid gland with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with node-positive head and neck cancer is controversial. We sought to compare the clinical outcomes among consecutive cohorts of patients with head and neck cancer who were treated with differing strategies to spare the parotid gland that is ipsilateral to the involved neck using IMRT. Methods and materials: A total of 305 patients were treated with IMRT for node-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck...
April 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Sara A Mehltretter Drury, Anne Gibson Bost, Laura M Wysocki, Amanda L Ingram
Deliberative pedagogy encourages productive science communication and learning through engagement and discussion of socio-scientific issues (SSI). This article examines a two-day deliberation module on gene editing that took place in an introductory nonmajors biology course, furthering research on integrating deliberative discussion into the biology classroom. The results demonstrate the benefits of a single, episodic deliberation in the classroom, which can positively encourage active discussion and critical awareness of connections between biology and real-world issues, thus contributing to the development of scientific citizenship...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Richard H Parrish, Lita Chew
The nation of Singapore highly values its health service as well as the component of healthcare delivery that includes clinical pharmacy and administration. The Ministry of Health (MOH) engaged the services of Dr. Richard Parrish to better understand the relationship between the Singaporean citizenry and its clinical pharmacists. Through a series of five lectures, structured from the national to local unit level, four roundtables, two hands-on sessions, and three workshops, clinical pharmacists and administrative leadership participated in “open-mic” style lectures, discussed the issues facing Singapore pharmacy in its current provision of healthcare services, and deliberated on the future resources required to meet projected healthcare needs...
June 12, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Nafisha Lalani, Kent A Griffith, Rochelle D Jones, Daniel E Spratt, Jennifer Croke, Reshma Jagsi
PURPOSE: Given concerns about attrition and career outcomes of academic radiation oncologists, we sought to gather empirical evidence regarding mentorship experiences. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We surveyed academic radiation oncologists in the United States and Canada who were within 5 years of board certification, using a pretested questionnaire that included 14 questions evaluating the following aspects of mentorship: relationship development, peer mentorship, satisfaction with mentorship, sponsorship, relationship nature, informal interactions, mentoring roles, presence of a primary mentor, and primary mentor characteristics...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
J Antunes, J Frias, P Sobral
Marine anthropogenic litter was analysed in eleven beaches along the Portuguese coast, over a two-year period (2011-2013). Of all collected items, 99% were plastic and 68% were microplastics (MP; 1-5 mm in diameter). Higher MP concentrations were found in winter/autumn, near industrial areas and/or port facilities and in beaches exposed to dominant winds. Resin pellets (79%) were the dominant category close to industrial areas and high concentrations of fragments and polymeric foams were found near fishing ports...
June 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Belinda J Lawford, Clare Delany, Kim L Bennell, Rana S Hinman
OBJECTIVES: To explore physiotherapists' perceptions before and after delivering exercise therapy via telephone for knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study (based on interpretivist methodology) embedded within a randomised controlled trial. All eight physiotherapists involved in the trial participated in semi-structured interviews before, and after, delivering exercise therapy to people with knee osteoarthritis via telephone. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analysed...
June 8, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Marit Helene Hem, Bert Molewijk, Elisabeth Gjerberg, Lillian Lillemoen, Reidar Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Professionals within the mental health services face many ethical dilemmas and challenging situations regarding the use of coercion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of participating in systematic ethics reflection groups focusing on ethical challenges related to coercion. METHODS: In 2013 and 2014, 20 focus group interviews with 127 participants were conducted. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The analysis is inspired by the concept of 'bricolage' which means our approach was inductive...
June 5, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Emily Diederich, Laura Thomas, Jonathan Mahnken, Matthew Lineberry
INTRODUCTION: Within simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) courses, there is inconsistent inclusion of learner pretesting, which requires considerable resources and is contrary to popular instructional frameworks. However, it may have several benefits, including its direct benefit as a form of deliberate practice and its facilitation of more learner-specific subsequent deliberate practice. We consider an unexplored potential benefit of pretesting: its ability to predict variable long-term learner performance...
June 2018: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
Teresa D Welch, Melondie Carter
The purpose of this article is to describe an educational process designed to accelerate skill acquisition for new nurse graduates through deliberate practice and situated learning experiences. The concept of deliberate practice provides the framework for authentic learning experiences based on real-life situations that incorporate targeted outcomes for success while pushing their limits beyond what was previously achieved. Through deliberate practice, new graduate nurses are given the opportunity to gain valuable practical experiences that otherwise would have taken years to accomplish in a clinical practice...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
Edward J Calabrese
This paper summarizes the historical and scientific foundations of the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) cancer risk assessment model. The story of cancer risk assessment is an extraordinary one as it was based on an initial incorrect gene mutation interpretation of Muller, the application of this incorrect assumption in the derivation of the LNT single-hit model, and a series of actions by leading radiation geneticists during the 1946-1956 period, including a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation (BEAR) I Genetics Panel (Anonymous, 1956), to sustain the LNT belief via a series of deliberate obfuscations, deceptions and misrepresentations that provided the basis of modern cancer risk assessment policy and practices...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Deborah E Tyndall, Kerri B Flinchbaugh, Nicole I Caswell, Elaine S Scott
Pedagogical practices for writing development in doctoral programs are often the by-product of completing dissertation research and may lack deliberate strategies to assist students with complex genres of writing. This article proposes a framework for doctoral education to assist students with mastery of threshold concepts in writing. Threshold concepts in writing are examined for their applicability to the evolution of writing in PhD nursing students as they begin to think and write like nurse scientists.
May 9, 2018: Nurse Educator
Seoghyun Lee, Minho Won, Ran Hee Hwang, Gang Min Hur, Hyunju Ro
Precise control of transgene expression is desirable in biological and clinical studies. However, because the binary feature of currently employed gene switches requires the transfer of two therapeutic expression units concurrently into a single cell, the practical application of the system for gene therapy is limited. To simplify the transgene expression system, we generated a gene switch designated as pEUI(+) encompassing a complete set of transgene expression modules in a single vector. Comprising of the GAL4 DNA-binding domain and modified EcR (GvEcR), a minimal VP16 activation domain fused with a GAL4 DNA-binding domain, as well as a modified Drosophila ecdysone receptor (EcR), the newly developed singular gene switch is highly responsive to the administration of a chemical inducer in a time- and dosage-dependent manner...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Stefan Kraus, Marc Rosenbauer, Lutz Schröder, Thomas Bürkle, Klaus-Peter Adlassnig, Dennis Toddenroth
OBJECTIVE: The Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Systems is a standard for encoding and sharing medical knowledge in the form of Medical Logic Modules. To improve accessibility for clinicians, the originators of the standard deliberately designed Arden Syntax expressions to resemble natural language, and parentheses around operands are not generally required. For certain patterns of nested expressions, however, the use of parentheses is mandatory, otherwise they are not accepted by an Arden Syntax environment...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Ehsan Samei, Hannu Jarvinen, Mika Kortesniemi, Georgios Simantirakis, Charles Goh, Anthony Wallace, Eliseo Vano, Adrian Bejan, M M Rehani, J Vassileva
As in any medical intervention, there is either a known or an anticipated benefit to the patient from undergoing a medical imaging procedure. This benefit is generally significant as demonstrated by the manner in which medical imaging has transformed clinical medicine. At the same time, when it comes to imaging that deploys ionizing radiation, there is a potential associated risk from radiation. Radiation risk has been recognized as a key liability in the practice of medical imaging, creating a motivation for radiation dose optimization...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Sophie Haesen, David Shaw
This article describes the Swiss law on advance directives that was passed at the beginning of 2013 and led to more certainty about the legally binding character of such directives. However, for various reasons the drafting of advance directives is not yet widespread in Switzerland, and many resources might be put to better use if this became a common practice. A recent proposal by members of a political party to make the discussion, although not the actual drafting, of advance directives mandatory was rejected by the Swiss Federal Parliament, and the proposal was written off after having been pending for 2 years...
May 16, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
Erin J Walker, Gregory M Peterson, James Grech, Evie Paragalli, Jackson Thomas
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a deadly parasitic disease that affects more than 3 billion people worldwide, in predominantly resource-poor countries. Despite malaria being preventable and treatable, a large number of adults and children, mostly in Africa, die from this disease each year. One contributor to needless morbidity and mortality is the production and distribution of poor-quality antimalarial medicines; indeed, it is estimated that over 122,000 deaths of children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan countries were caused by poor-quality antimalarial medicines, in 2013 alone...
May 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Jacqueline A Bowden, Nicole Sargent, Steve Wesselingh, Lincoln Size, Claire Donovan, Caroline L Miller
BACKGROUND: Measuring research impact is of critical interest to philanthropic and government funding agencies interested in ensuring that the research they fund is both scientifically excellent and has meaningful impact into health and other outcomes. The Beat Cancer Project (BCP) is a AUD $34 m cancer research funding scheme that commenced in 2011. It was initiated by an Australian charity (Cancer Council SA), and supported by the South Australian Government and the state's major universities...
May 9, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Georges Kosmadakis, Julie Albaret, Enrique Da Costa Correia, Frederic Somda, Didier Aguilera
In a period of turmoil concerning vaccination practices, there is a serious conflict between scientifically reasonable, evidence-based guidelines and the far-fetched rumors or misconceptions concerning the vaccination practices in the general population. When a significant portion of the medical and paramedical personnel may be deliberately unvaccinated against common biological agents, achieving effective vaccination rates in the dialysis population may be complicated. Vaccination rates are unacceptably low in dialysis patients and seroconversion rates are even lower; further, serological follow-up is generally poor...
May 9, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Gaby Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, new healthcare policies are transforming healthcare practices towards independent living and self-care of older people and people with a chronic disease or disability within the community. For professional caregivers in home care, such as nurses, this requires a shift from a caring attitude towards the promotion of patient autonomy. AIM: To explore how nurses in home care deal with the transformation towards fostering patient autonomy and self-care...
January 1, 2018: Nursing Ethics
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May 1, 2018: Psychological Science
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