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Deliberate practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935432/to-bend-or-not-to-bend-rule-adherence-among-staff-at-an-eating-disorder-unit
#1
Trine Wiig Hage, Øyvind Rø, Anne Moen
On inpatient eating disorder units, resolving under-nutrition and reestablishing normal eating behavior are key treatment aims. Consequently, the provision of support at mealtimes is a core work task for patients with severe eating disorders. The purpose of this study was to explore staff deliberations and actions, as observed during staff-patient interactions at mealtimes on an inpatient eating disorder unit (EDU). We specifically aimed to characterize how and why staff members intervene during staff-patient interactions in which a refeeding script is activated...
December 9, 2016: Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923322/international-medallists-and-non-medallists-developmental-sport-activities-a-matched-pairs-analysis
#2
Arne Güllich
The study examined developmental participation patterns of international top athletes. Pairs of 83 international medallists (including 38 Olympic/World Champions) and 83 non-medallists were matched by sport, age and gender. A questionnaire recorded their volume of organised (coach-led) practice/training in their respective main sport and in other sports through childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and also involvement in non-organised (peer-led) sport activity. Analyses revealed that the medallists started practice/training in their main sport at an older age than non-medallists and accumulated slightly, but significantly less main-sport practice/training through childhood/adolescence...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913914/tragedy-in-moral-case-deliberation
#3
Benita Spronk, Margreet Stolper, Guy Widdershoven
In healthcare practice, care providers are confronted with tragic situations, in which they are expected to make choices and decisions that can have far-reaching consequences. This article investigates the role of moral case deliberation (MCD) in dealing with tragic situations. It focuses on experiences of care givers involved in the treatment of a pregnant woman with a brain tumour, and their evaluation of a series of MCD meetings in which the dilemmas around care were discussed. The study was qualitative, focusing on the views and experiences of the participants...
December 2, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909360/learning-curves-observed-in-establishing-targeted-rate-of-force-application-in-pressure-pain-algometry
#4
Alicia J Emerson Kavchak, Josiah D Sault, Ann Vendrely
Purpose: To determine whether learning curves can be observed with deliberate practice when the goal is to apply a consistent rate of force at 5 N/second during pressure pain threshold (PPT) testing in healthy volunteers. Methods: In this prospective study, 17 clinician participants completed PPT targeted rate-of-application testing with healthy volunteers using three different feedback paradigms. The resultant performances of ramp rate during 36 trials were plotted on a graph and examined to determine whether learning curves were observed...
2016: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896873/identifying-fallacious-arguments-in-a-qualitative-study-of-antipsychotic-prescribing-in-dementia
#5
Parastou Donyai
BACKGROUND: Dementia can result in cognitive, noncognitive and behavioural symptoms which are difficult to manage. Formal guidelines for the care and management of dementia in the UK state that antipsychotics should only be prescribed where fully justified. This is because inappropriate use, particularly problematic in care-home settings, can produce severe side effects including death. The aim of this study was to explore the use of fallacious arguments in professionals' deliberations about antipsychotic prescribing in dementia in care-home settings...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895903/deliberate-exposure-of-humans-to-chlorine-the-aftermath-of-ebola-in-west-africa
#6
Shaheen Mehtar, Andre N H Bulabula, Haurace Nyandemoh, Steve Jambawai
BACKGROUND: During the recent Ebola outbreak, spraying of the environment and humans, including healthcare workers, with chlorine was wide spread in affected African countries; adverse clinical effects are reported here. METHODS: A cross sectional survey by interview of 1550 volunteers consisting of 500 healthcare workers (HCW), 550 Ebola survivors (EVD) and 500 quarantined asymptomatic Ebola contacts (NEVD) was conducted. Demographics, frequency of exposure to chlorine, clinical condition after chlorine exposure particularly eye, respiratory and skin conditions were noted...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878859/paying-patient-and-caregiver-research-participants-putting-theory-into-practice
#7
Meg Polacsek, Gayelene Boardman, Terence V McCann
AIM: To review and discuss the ethical and practical considerations about paying patient and caregiver participants in nursing research and, based on this review, to develop a set of guiding principles about payment of participants. BACKGROUND: To increase recruitment and retention, it is becoming increasingly common in nursing research to provide some form of payment to participants. The risk is that the promise of a payment may influence a patient or caregiver's decision to participate in research...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860101/on-a-learning-curve-for-shared-decision-making-interviews-with-clinicians-using-the-knee-osteoarthritis-option-grid
#8
Glyn Elwyn, Julie Rasmussen, Katharine Kinsey, Jill Firth, Katy Marrin, Adrian Edwards, Fiona Wood
RATIONAL: Tools used in clinical encounters to illustrate to patients the risks and benefits of treatment options have been shown to increase shared decision making. However, we do not have good information about how these tools are viewed by clinicians and how clinicians think patients would react to their use. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine clinicians' views about the possible and actual use of tools designed to support patients and clinicians to collaborate and deliberate about treatment options, namely, Option Grid decision aids...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832780/public-responses-to-the-sharing-and-linkage-of-health-data-for-research-purposes-a-systematic-review-and-thematic-synthesis-of-qualitative-studies
#9
Mhairi Aitken, Jenna de St Jorre, Claudia Pagliari, Ruth Jepson, Sarah Cunningham-Burley
BACKGROUND: The past 10 years have witnessed a significant growth in sharing of health data for secondary uses. Alongside this there has been growing interest in the public acceptability of data sharing and data linkage practices. Public acceptance is recognised as crucial for ensuring the legitimacy of current practices and systems of governance. Given the growing international interest in this area this systematic review and thematic synthesis represents a timely review of current evidence...
November 10, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820788/interprofessional-interactions-and-competencies-on-clinical-rotations-preceptors-perspectives-of-student-experiences
#10
Nicholas M Hudak, Betsy Melcher
PURPOSE: This study describes (1) preceptors' perceptions of interprofessional encounters that PA students had at clinical sites and (2) ways that the preceptors report evaluating the PA students' interprofessional practice skills. METHODS: This study disseminated a single electronic survey of clinical preceptors who were affiliated with an accredited PA program. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: Of 195 preceptors, 66 completed the survey...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Physician Assistant Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818422/selecting-adapting-and-implementing-evidence-based-interventions-in-rural-settings-an-analysis-of-70-community-examples
#11
Tina Anderson Smith, Tanisa Foxworth Adimu, Amanda Phillips Martinez, Karen Minyard
OBJECTIVE: This paper explores how communities translate evidence-based and promising health practices to rural contexts. METHODS: A descriptive, qualitative analysis was conducted using data from 70 grantees funded by the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy to implement evidence-based health practices in rural settings. Findings were organized using The Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation. RESULTS: Grantees broadly interpreted evidence-based and promising practices, resulting in the implementation of a patchwork of health-related interventions that fell along a spectrum of evidentiary rigor...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816566/medication-review-in-german-community-pharmacies-post-hoc-analysis-of-documented-drug-related-problems-and-subsequent-interventions-in-the-athina-project
#12
Hanna Marita Seidling, Alexander Francesco Josef Send, Janina Bittmann, Katja Renner, Bernd Dewald, Dörte Lange, Thomas Bruckner, Walter Emil Haefeli
BACKGROUND: Any medication can cause drug-related problems (DRPs), which can often be detected by medication reviews. So far, only limited information is available on the practicability of systematic medication reviews in community pharmacies in daily routine and their value in Germany. Since 2012, the community pharmacy-centered medication review project "ATHINA - Arzneimitteltherapiesicherheit in Apotheken [medication safety in community pharmacies]" is endorsed by four Chambers of Pharmacists in Germany...
October 24, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789779/what-works-for-wellbeing-in-culture-and-sport-report-of-a-delphi-process-to-support-coproduction-and-establish-principles-and-parameters-of-an-evidence-review
#13
REVIEW
Norma Daykin, Louise Mansfield, Annette Payne, Tess Kay, Catherine Meads, Giorgia D'Innocenzo, Adele Burnett, Paul Dolan, Guy Julier, Louise Longworth, Alan Tomlinson, Stefano Testoni, Christina Victor
AIMS: There is a growing recognition of the ways in which culture and sport can contribute to wellbeing. A strong evidence base is needed to support innovative service development and a 3-year research programme is being undertaken to capture best evidence of wellbeing impacts and outcomes of cultural and sporting activities in order to inform UK policy and practice. This article provides an overview of methods and findings from an initial coproduction process with key stakeholders that sought to explore and agree principles and parameters of the evidence review for culture, sport and wellbeing (CSW)...
October 27, 2016: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785628/self-entrustment-how-trainees-self-regulated-learning-supports-participation-in-the-workplace
#14
Margaretha H Sagasser, Anneke W M Kramer, Cornelia R M G Fluit, Chris van Weel, Cees P M van der Vleuten
Clinical workplaces offer postgraduate trainees a wealth of opportunities to learn from experience. To promote deliberate and meaningful learning self-regulated learning skills are foundational. We explored trainees' learning activities related to patient encounters to better understand what aspects of self-regulated learning contribute to trainees' development, and to explore supervisor's role herein. We conducted a qualitative non-participant observational study in seven general practices. During two days we observed trainee's patient encounters, daily debriefing sessions and educational meetings between trainee and supervisor and interviewed them separately afterwards...
October 26, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777642/risk-and-safety-requirements-for-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-procedures-in-allergology-world-allergy-organization-statement
#15
Marek L Kowalski, Ignacio Ansotegui, Werner Aberer, Mona Al-Ahmad, Mubeccel Akdis, Barbara K Ballmer-Weber, Kirsten Beyer, Miguel Blanca, Simon Brown, Chaweewan Bunnag, Arnaldo Capriles Hulett, Mariana Castells, Hiok Hee Chng, Frederic De Blay, Motohiro Ebisawa, Stanley Fineman, David B K Golden, Tari Haahtela, Michael Kaliner, Connie Katelaris, Bee Wah Lee, Joanna Makowska, Ulrich Muller, Joaquim Mullol, John Oppenheimer, Hae-Sim Park, James Parkerson, Giovanni Passalacqua, Ruby Pawankar, Harald Renz, Franziska Rueff, Mario Sanchez-Borges, Joaquin Sastre, Glenis Scadding, Scott Sicherer, Pongsakorn Tantilipikorn, James Tracy, Vera van Kempen, Barbara Bohle, G Walter Canonica, Luis Caraballo, Maximiliano Gomez, Komei Ito, Erika Jensen-Jarolim, Mark Larche, Giovanni Melioli, Lars K Poulsen, Rudolf Valenta, Torsten Zuberbier
One of the major concerns in the practice of allergy is related to the safety of procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. Management (diagnosis and treatment) of hypersensitivity disorders involves often intentional exposure to potentially allergenic substances (during skin testing), deliberate induction in the office of allergic symptoms to offending compounds (provocation tests) or intentional application of potentially dangerous substances (allergy vaccine) to sensitized patients. These situations may be associated with a significant risk of unwanted, excessive or even dangerous reactions, which in many instances cannot be completely avoided...
2016: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777542/gender-differences-and-access-to-a-sports-dietitian-influence-dietary-habits-of-collegiate-athletes
#16
Michael V Hull, Andrew R Jagim, Jonathan M Oliver, Mike Greenwood, Deanna R Busteed, Margaret T Jones
BACKGROUND: Limited research exists on the effect of a sports dietitian (SD) on athletes' dietary habits and nutrient periodization, which is the deliberate manipulation of macronutrient intake to match training goals. Further, the difference in dietary habits between men and women collegiate athletes has been understudied. A survey questionnaire examining dietary habits and practices was administered to athletes at two universities that employed a full time SD. Not all athletes used the SD as their primary source for nutritional guidance...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771418/how-unlicensed-drug-vendors-in-rural-uganda-perceive-their-role-in-the-management-of-childhood-malaria
#17
Eric Liow, Rosemin Kassam, Richard Sekiwunga
BACKGROUND: A large number of caregivers in Uganda rely on the private drug delivery sector to manage childhood illnesses such as malaria. In rural settings where the formal private sector is scarce, unlicensed retail drug outlets are an important initial source of care for households. Despite their abundance, little is known about them. This study explores unlicensed retail drug outlet vendors' perceptions of their practice and social environment in one rural district of Uganda. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative design using semi-structured interviews was conducted with vendors from unlicensed retail drug outlets across all 10 sub-counties of Butaleja District...
October 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771011/the-contribution-of-evaluations-to-the-discourse-quality-of-newspaper-content
#18
Caroline Schlaufer
This research shows how the use of evaluations in newspaper articles contributes to the quality of public media discourse prior to direct-democratic votes. Data from Swiss direct-democratic campaigns on school policy between 2000 and 2012 are used to compare newspaper articles that contain evaluations with those that do not refer to evaluations. Results show that those newspaper articles containing evaluations exhibit higher levels of justification, reciprocity and respect, tend to argue in terms of the common good, and contain less storytelling than newspaper articles that do not refer to evaluations...
October 1, 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764825/the-bethesda-system-for-reporting-thyroid-cytopathology-proposed-modifications-and-updates-for-the-second-edition-from-an-international-panel
#19
Marc Pusztaszeri, Esther Diana Rossi, Manon Auger, Zubair Baloch, Justin Bishop, Massimo Bongiovanni, Ashish Chandra, Beatrix Cochand-Priollet, Guido Fadda, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, SoonWon Hong, Kennichi Kakudo, Jeffrey F Krane, Ritu Nayar, Sareh Parangi, Fernando Schmitt, William C Faquin
The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytology (TBSRTC) was proposed in 2007 at the National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration State of the Art and Science Conference held in Bethesda, Maryland. The aim was to address the inconsistent and sometimes confusing reporting terminologies used for thyroid FNA throughout the world. The TBSRTC consists of 6 diagnostic categories, each associated with an implied risk of malignancy that translates directly into a clinical management algorithm. Since the publication of the TBSRTC cytology Atlas in January 2010, considerable experience has been gained regarding its application in cytology practice, clinical impact, and limitations...
2016: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762575/using-wise-interventions-to-motivate-deliberate-practice
#20
Lauren Eskreis-Winkler, Elizabeth P Shulman, Victoria Young, Eli Tsukayama, Steven M Brunwasser, Angela L Duckworth
Deliberate practice leads to world-class excellence across domains. In the current investigation, we examined whether psychologically "wise" interventions targeting expectancies and values-stock antecedents of ordinary effortful behaviors-could motivate nonexperts to engage in deliberate practice and improve their achievement. As a preliminary, we developed and validated a novel task measure of deliberate practice and confirmed its association with (a) expectancy-value beliefs, and (b) achievement in the nonexpert setting (Study 1)...
November 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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