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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333295/drug-resistance-in-antiretroviral-naive-children-newly-diagnosed-with-hiv-1-in-manaus-amazonas
#1
Solange Dourado de Andrade, Meritxell Sabidó, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Adele Schwartz Benzaken, Amilcar Tanuri
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of drug resistance mutations (DRM), the prevalence of drug susceptibility [transmitted drug resistance (TDR)] and the prevalence of HIV-1 variants among treatment-naive HIV-infected children in Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil. Methods: Children born to HIV-infected mothers and diagnosed with HIV in an HIV reference service centre and with available pol sequence between 2010 and 2015 prior to antiretroviral initiation were included...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320347/facilitators-and-barriers-to-uptake-and-adherence-to-lifelong-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-uganda-a-qualitative-study
#2
Esther Buregyeya, Rose Naigino, Aggrey Mukose, Fred Makumbi, Godfrey Esiru, Jim Arinaitwe, Joshua Musinguzi, Rhoda K Wanyenze
BACKGROUND: In 2012, Uganda started implementing lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) in line with the WHO 2012 guidelines. This study explored experiences of HIV infected pregnant and breastfeeding women regarding barriers and facilitators to uptake and adherence to lifelong ART. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional qualitative study conducted in three districts (Masaka, Mityana and Luwero) in Uganda, between February and May 2014...
March 21, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301421/persistence-of-hiv-drug-resistance-among-south-african-children-given-nevirapine-to-prevent-mother-to-child-transmission
#3
Ruth Kanthula, Theresa Rossouw, Ute D Feucht, Gisela Van Dyk, Ingrid A Beck, Rachel Silverman, Scott Olson, Christen Salyer, Sharon Cassol, Lisa M Frenkel
OBJECTIVES: We set out to examine the prevalence and persistence of mutations conferring high-level nonnucleoside-reverse-transcriptase (NNRTI)-resistance in a cohort of HIV-infected children who had failed prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT). DESIGN: A prospective observational cohort study at the Pediatric HIV Clinic at Kalafong Provincial Tertiary Hospital in Pretoria, South Africa. METHODS: Children referred for initiation of ART were enrolled from July 2010 through February 2013...
March 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299155/maternal-health-service-disparities-across-incomes-and-implications-on-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-service-coverage-current-context-in-sub-saharan-africa
#4
Nibretie Gobezie Workneh, Sebastian Kevany
About 69% of people living with HIV globally and over 90% of the children who acquired HIV infection are in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite this, promising results have been observed, especially over the last decade - for example, a 25% decline in new HIV infections as compared to 2001 and a 38% decline in the number of children newly infected by HIV in 2012 as compared to 2009. However, the Global Plan and the Global Fast-Track Commitments of eliminating new HIV infections among children require addressing impediments to service expansion...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296240/hiv-positive-malawian-women-with-young-children-prefer-overweight-body-sizes-and-link-underweight-body-size-with-inability-to-exclusively-breastfeed
#5
Samantha E Croffut, Gloria Hamela, Innocent Mofolo, Suzanne Maman, Mina C Hosseinipour, Irving F Hoffman, Margaret E Bentley, Valerie L Flax
Before the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program was widely implemented in Malawi, HIV-positive women associated exclusive breastfeeding with accelerated disease progression and felt that an HIV-positive woman could more successfully breastfeed if she had a larger body size. The relationship between breastfeeding practices and body image perceptions has not been explored in the context of the Option B+ PMTCT program, which offers lifelong antiretroviral therapy. We conducted in-depth interviews with 64 HIV-positive women in Lilongwe District, Malawi to investigate body size perceptions, how perceptions of HIV and body size influence infant feeding practices, and differences in perceptions among women in PMTCT and those lost to follow-up...
March 10, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275446/evolution-of-the-health-sector-response-to-hiv-in-myanmar-progress-challenges-and-the-way-forward
#6
EDITORIAL
Htun Nyunt Oo, San Hone, Masami Fujita, Amaya Maw-Naing, Krittayawan Boonto, Marjolein Jacobs, Sabe Phyu, Phavady Bollen, Jacquie Cheung, Htin Aung, May Thu Aung Sang, Aye Myat Soe, Razia Pendse, Eamonn Murphy
Critical building blocks for the response to HIV were made until 2012 despite a series of political, social and financial challenges. A rapid increase of HIV service coverage was observed from 2012 to 2015 through collaborative efforts of government and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Government facilities, in particular, demonstrated their capacity to expand services for antiretroviral therapy (ART), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, tuberculosis and HIV co-infection and methadone-maintenance therapy (MMT)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264668/implementing-and-sustaining-a-mobile-medical-clinic-for-prenatal-care-and-sexually-transmitted-infection-prevention-in-rural-mysore-india
#7
Noah Kojima, Karl Krupp, Kavitha Ravi, Savitha Gowda, Poornima Jaykrishna, Caitlyn Leonardson-Placek, Anand Siddhaiah, Claire C Bristow, Anjali Arun, Jeffrey D Klausner, Purnima Madhivanan
BACKGROUND: In rural India, mobile medical clinics are useful models for delivering health promotion, education, and care. Mobile medical clinics use fewer providers for larger catchment areas compared to traditional clinic models in resource limited settings, which is especially useful in areas with shortages of healthcare providers and a wide geographical distribution of patients. METHODS: From 2008 to 2011, we built infrastructure to implement a mobile clinic system to educate rural communities about maternal child health, train community health workers in common safe birthing procedures, and provide comprehensive antenatal care, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and testing for specific infections in a large rural catchment area of pregnant women in rural Mysore...
March 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255302/urinary-tract-infections-among-hiv-positive-pregnant-women-in-mwanza-city-tanzania-are-high-and-predicted-by-low-cd4-count
#8
Tito Chaula, Jeremiah Seni, Nhandi Ng'walida, Alphaxaid Kajura, Mariam M Mirambo, Rebekah DeVinney, Stephen E Mshana
Introduction. Urinary tract infection (UTI) among pregnant women can lead to adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. UTI has been widely studied in the general obstetric population in Tanzania; the present study evaluated the magnitude, antimicrobial resistance, and predictors of UTI among HIV-positive pregnant women. Methods. Between March and May 2016 midstream urine samples from 234 women attending prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) clinics were analyzed using standard methods. Data was analyzed by STATA version 11...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242151/-viral-failure-in-infants-perinatally-infected-with-hiv-a-double-punishment
#9
N Trocmé, M-F Courcoux, M-D Tabone, F Hervé, E Bui, P Faucher, L Selleret, M-G Lebrette, G Leverger, C Dollfus
BACKGROUND: Considering the remarkable efficacy of the strategies for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection (PMTCT), failures are rare in high-resource countries and deserve further investigation. Moreover, infants have been found to be at increased risk of viral failure. We analyzed the factors related to the children's environment, including maternal psychological factors that may be associated with viral failure in children diagnosed before the age of 1 year. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of all HIV-infected infants, born in France between July 2003 and July 2013, diagnosed before the age of 1 year, cared for in a single reference center, comparing the group of children in viral success to the group of children presenting at least one episode of viral failure, using data available in their medical, psychological and social files...
February 24, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225335/integrating-tuberculosis-screening-in-kenyan-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-programs
#10
L M Cranmer, A Langat, K Ronen, C J McGrath, S LaCourse, J Pintye, B Odeny, B Singa, A Katana, L Nganga, J Kinuthia, G John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) screening in Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) programs is important to improve TB detection, prevention and treatment. METHODS: As part of a national PMTCT program evaluation, mother-infant pairs attending 6-week and 9-month immunization visits were enrolled at 141 maternal and child health clinics throughout Kenya. Clinics were selected using population-proportion-to-size sampling with oversampling in a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence region...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199373/prevalence-of-maternal-hiv-infection-and-knowledge-on-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-and-its-prevention-among-antenatal-care-attendees-in-a-rural-area-in-northwest-cameroon
#11
Carlson-Babila Sama, Vitalis F Feteh, Maxime Tindong, John T Tanyi, Nestor Mbinkar Bihle, Fru F Angwafo
BACKGROUND: In 2010, an estimated 141 new HIV infections occurred per day in Cameroon and reports suggest an upsurge of these rates by 2020 if current trends continue. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV is a major public health challenge, and maternal knowledge on HIV transmission during pregnancy and its prevention is important in curtailing paediatric HIV acquisition. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at establishing the prevalence of maternal HIV infection as well as assessing knowledge on HIV, MTCT and prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) of HIV among pregnant women in a rural area of Cameroon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198788/high-rates-of-baseline-drug-resistance-and-virologic-failure-among-art-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-children-in-mali
#12
Claudia S Crowell, Almoustapha I Maiga, Mariam Sylla, Babafemi Taiwo, Niaboula Kone, Assaf P Oron, Robert L Murphy, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Ban Traore, Djeneba B Fofana, Gilles Peytavin, Ellen G Chadwick
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on drug resistance and antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes in HIV-1 infected children in West Africa. We determined the prevalence of baseline resistance and correlates of virologic failure (VF) in a cohort of ART naïve HIV-1 infected children <10 years of age initiating ART in Mali. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase and protease genes were sequenced at baseline (before ART) and at 6 months. Resistance was defined according to the Stanford HIV Genotypic Resistance database...
February 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197845/correlation-of-adherence-by-pill-count-self-report-mems-and-plasma-drug-levels-to-treatment-response-among-women-receiving-arv-therapy-for-pmtct-in-kenya
#13
Victor Mudhune, Roman Gvetadze, Sonali Girde, Richard Ndivo, Frank Angira, Clement Zeh, Timothy Thomas, Shirley Lee Lecher
Success of antiretroviral therapy depends on adherence to effective treatment. We evaluated four adherence methods and their correlation with immunological and virologic response among women receiving PMTCT. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to assess how adherence by pill count (n = 463), self-report (n = 463), MEMS (n = 129) and plasma drug level (n = 89) was associated with viral load suppression within a 6 months period. Longitudinal analysis was performed to determine the correlation of CD4 cell count with each measure of adherence...
February 14, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181860/factors-associated-with-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-despite-overall-low-transmission-rates-in-hiv-exposed-infants-in-rural-kenya
#14
Nicollate A Okoko, Kevin O Owuor, Jayne L Kulzer, George O Owino, Irene A Ogolla, Ronald W Wandera, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Lisa L Abuogi
Despite the availability of efficacious prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions and improved access to preventive services in many developing countries, vertical HIV transmission persists. A matched case-control study of HIV-exposed infants between January and June 2012 was conducted at 20 clinics in Kenya. Cases were HIV-infected infants and controls were exposed, uninfected infants. Conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine characteristics associated with HIV infection...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173741/elimination-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-lessons-learned-from-success-in-thailand
#15
Usa Thisyakorn
In 1988, the generalised HIV/AIDS epidemic in Thailand began and in the same year the first HIV-exposed infant in Thailand was born at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok. From the early to mid-1990s, an epidemic wave of HIV-infected women and infants occurred. Heterosexual HIV transmission, as described in the Asian Epidemic Model, was the major mode of spread in Thailand, causing an increasing number of HIV-infected pregnant women. The early and concerted multi-sectoral response of Thai society reduced the prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women from 2% in the mid-1990s to 0...
February 8, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155303/female-perspectives-of-male-partners-inclusion-in-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-programme-in-kwazulu-natal
#16
Mondli Miya, Tennyson Mgutshini
BACKGROUND: The South African government intervened by implementing the prevention of mother-to-child transmission programme (PMTCT) to curb the HIV transmission from mother to child during and after pregnancy. The PMTCT programme has been at the forefront of global prevention efforts since 1998. Without treatment, the risk of transmission ranges from one in five to one in two newborns; however, the risk of mother-to-child transmission can be reduced to as low as 2%-5% with evidenced interventions...
December 7, 2016: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107227/structural-level-differences-in-the-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-rate-in-south-africa-a-multilevel-assessment-of-individual-health-facility-and-provincial-level-predictors-of-infant-hiv-transmission
#17
S Woldesenbet, D J Jackson, C J Lombard, T H Dinh, V Ramokolo, T Doherty, G G Sherman, Y Pillay, A E Goga
OBJECTIVES: In 2010, South Africa reported an early mother to child transmission (MTCT) rate of 3.5% at 4-8 weeks postpartum. Provincial early MTCT rates ranged from 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-3.4%) to 5.9% (95% CI: 3.8-8.0%). We sought to determine reasons for these geographic differences in MTCT rates. METHODS: This study employed multilevel modelling using 2010 South African PMTCT evaluation (SAPMTCTE) data from 530 facilities. Interview data and infant blood samples were collected from 3085 mother-infant pairs at 4-8 weeks postpartum...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068675/nutrition-habits-and-health-outcomes-of-breastfeeding-hiv-positive-mothers-in-the-dschang-health-district-west-region-cameroon
#18
Martin Sanou Sobze, Tsi Kien-Atsu, Bruna Djeunang Dongho, Jimmy Roger Fotso, Armand TiotsiaTsapi, Yannick Azeufack Ngueko, Sali Ben Bechir, Augusto Pana, Lucia Ercoli, Vittorio Colizzi, Gianluca Russo
BACKGROUND: Amongst the different at-risk periods for mother-to-child HIV transmission that is, during pregnancy, labor and delivery and breastfeeding, much care and attention needs to be given, not only to the child as concerns its feeding options, but also to the mother. The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional habits and health outcomes of HIV-positive breastfeeding mothers in the Dschang Health District, in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) activities...
September 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063074/prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-and-paediatric-hiv-care-and-treatment-monitoring-from-measuring-process-to-impact-and-elimination-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv
#19
Priscilla Idele, Chika Hayashi, Tyler Porth, Awandha Mamahit, Mary Mahy
Progress towards achievement of global targets for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and paediatric HIV care and treatment is an integral part of global and national HIV and AIDS responses. This paper documents the development of the global and national monitoring and reporting systems for PMTCT and paediatric HIV care and treatment programmes, achievements and remaining challenges. A review of the development of the monitoring and reporting process since 2002-2016 was conducted using existing published literature and taking into account changes in WHO HIV treatment guidelines, global HIV goals and targets, programmatic and methodological developments, and increased need for interagency partnerships, coordination and harmonization of global monitoring and reporting mechanisms...
January 6, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049451/feasibility-study-of-hiv-sentinel-surveillance-using-pmtct-data-in-cameroon-from-scientific-success-to-programmatic-failure
#20
Serge C Billong, Jacob Dee, Joseph Fokam, Georges Nguefack-Tsague, Gabriel L Ekali, Raoul Fodjo, Edith S Temgoua, Edson-Joan Billong, Samuel M Sosso, Jembia J Mosoko, Francisca Monebenimp, Alexis Ndjolo, Anne-Cecile Z-K Bissek, Omotayo Bolu, Jean-Bosco N Elat
BACKGROUND: In low-income countries (LICs), HIV sentinel surveillance surveys (HIV-SSS) are recommended in between two demographic and health surveys, due to low-cost than the latter. Using the classical unlinked anonymous testing (UAT), HIV-SSS among pregnant women raised certain ethical and financial challenges. We therefore aimed at evaluating how to use prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) routine data as an alternative approach for HIV-SSS in LICs. METHODS: A survey conducted through 2012 among first antenatal-care attendees (ANC1) in the ten regions of Cameroon...
January 3, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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