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Muscular hypertrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447936/inducing-hypertrophic-effects-of-type-i-skeletal-muscle-fibers-a-hypothetical-role-of-time-under-load-in-resistance-training-aimed-at-muscular-hypertrophy
#1
Jozo Grgic, Jan Homolak, Pavle Mikulic, Javier Botella, Brad J Schoenfeld
An emerging body of evidence is starting to suggest that the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibers might be load specific. In other words, it may be that resistance training with high loads (i.e., ≥60% of 1 repetition maximum [RM]) emphasizes a greater growth of type II muscle fibers, while resistance training with low loads (i.e., <60% of 1RM) might primarily augment hypertrophy of type I muscle fibers. Type I and type II muscle fibers possess certain distinct characteristics, with type II muscle fibers having faster calcium kinetics, faster shortening velocities, and ability to generate more power than type I muscle fibers...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429571/ndufb8-mutations-cause-mitochondrial-complex-i-deficiency-in-individuals-with-leigh-like-encephalomyopathy
#2
Dorota Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Zahra Assouline, Lavinija Mataković, René G Feichtinger, Eliška Koňařiková, Elżbieta Jurkiewicz, Piotr Stawiński, Mirjana Gusic, Andreas Koller, Agnieszka Pollak, Piotr Gasperowicz, Joanna Trubicka, Elżbieta Ciara, Katarzyna Iwanicka-Pronicka, Dariusz Rokicki, Sylvain Hanein, Saskia B Wortmann, Wolfgang Sperl, Agnès Rötig, Holger Prokisch, Ewa Pronicka, Rafał Płoski, Giulia Barcia, Johannes A Mayr
Respiratory chain complex I deficiency is the most frequently identified biochemical defect in childhood mitochondrial diseases. Clinical symptoms range from fatal infantile lactic acidosis to Leigh syndrome and other encephalomyopathies or cardiomyopathies. To date, disease-causing variants in genes coding for 27 complex I subunits, including 7 mitochondrial DNA genes, and in 11 genes encoding complex I assembly factors have been reported. Here, we describe rare biallelic variants in NDUFB8 encoding a complex I accessory subunit revealed by whole-exome sequencing in two individuals from two families...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417026/duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-case-report-and-review
#3
Rupam Sinha, Soumyabrata Sarkar, Tanya Khaitan, Soumyajit Dutta
Muscular dystrophies are a clinically and heterogeneous group of disorders that all share clinical characteristics of progressive muscular weakness. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common X-linked disorder muscular dystrophy in children, presenting in early childhood and characterized by proximal muscle weakness and calf hypertrophy in affected boys. There is usually delay in motor development and eventually wheelchair confinement followed by premature death from cardiac or respiratory complications...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405193/-the-forensic-medical-characteristic-of-sudden-death-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome
#4
Yu I Pigolkin, Zh V Dorosheva, N S Oganesyan, D V Gornostaev
The detection of grade II-III central obesity on a corpse in conjunction with the identification of two additional criteria (such as arterial hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance) provides, if combined with the autopsy data (including the visual reduction of muscular mass, the increased total amount of the adipose tissue, gynecomastia in men together with hypertrophied abdominal adipose tissue accumulation, decreased face and body pilosis), a basis for diagnostics of metabolic syndrome (MS). The objective parameters for this purpose are waist circumference measurements, corpse weight and height, the degree of visceral obesity, narrowing of the renal arteries as a result of their compression by the surrounding adipose tissue, and accumulation of epicardial fat confirmed by the results of the biochemical analysis...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394360/the-roles-of-muscle-stem-cells-in-muscle-injury-atrophy-and-hypertrophy
#5
So-Ichiro Fukada
Skeletal muscle is composed of multinuclear cells called myofibers. Muscular dystrophy (a genetic muscle disorder) induces instability in the cell membrane of myofibers and eventually causes myofiber damage. Non-genetic muscle disorders, including sarcopenia, diabetes, bedridden immobility, and cancer cachexia, lead to atrophy of myofibers. In contrast, resistance training induces myofiber hypertrophy. Thus, myofibers exhibit a plasticity that is strongly affected by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. There is no doubt that muscle stem cells (MuSCs, also known as muscle satellite cells) are indispensable for muscle repair/regeneration, but their contributions to atrophy and hypertrophy are still controversial...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389836/strength-training-effects-on-muscular-regeneration-after-acl-reconstruction
#6
Birgit Friedmann-Bette, Francesca Profit, Thomas Gwechenberger, Nadine Weiberg, Mario Parstorfer, Marc-Andre Weber, Nikolaus Streich, Alexander Barié
PURPOSE: Protracted quadriceps muscle atrophy is observed after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R). The aim of this study was to assess if quadriceps strength training with eccentric overload (CON/ECC) is more efficient to induce muscle regeneration after ACL-R than conventional concentric/eccentric (CON/ECC) strength training. METHODS: Biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained from 37 recreational athletes after 12 weeks of regular rehabilitation following ACL-R and again after 12 weeks with twice a week either conventional CON/ECC (n = 16) or CON/ECC (n = 21) one-legged supervised leg-press training...
January 31, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385004/different-patterns-in-muscular-strength-and-hypertrophy-adaptations-in-untrained-individuals-undergoing-non-periodized-and-periodized-strength-regimens
#7
Eduardo Oliveira De Souza, Valmor Tricoli, Acob Rauch, Michael Rene Alvarez, Gilberto Laurentino, André Yui Aihara, Fabiano Nassar Cardoso, Hamilton Roschel, Carlos Ugrinowitsch
This study investigated the effects of non-periodized (NP), traditional periodization (TP) and daily undulating (UP) regimens on muscle strength and hypertrophy in untrained individuals. Thirty-three recreationally active males were randomly divided into four groups: NP: n = 8; TP: n = 9; UP: n = 8 and control group (C): n = 8. Experimental groups underwent a 12-week strength-training program consisting of two sessions per week. Muscle strength and quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA) were assessed at baseline, 6-wk (i...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377691/identification-of-a-novel-hybridization-from-isosorbide-5-mononitrate-and-bardoxolone-methyl-with-dual-activities-of-pulmonary-vasodilation-and-vascular-remodeling-inhibition-on-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-rats
#8
Yusheng Cheng, Yan Gong, Shuai Qian, Yi Mou, Hanrui Li, Xijing Chen, Hui Kong, Weiping Xie, Hong Wang, Yihua Zhang, Zhangjian Huang
Given that the clinical therapeutic efficacy of oral-dosed bardoxolone methyl (1) and the selective vasodilatory effect caused by inhalation of nitric oxide (NO) on pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients, a new hybrid (CDDO-NO, 2) from 1 and NO donor isosorbide 5-mononitrate (3) was designed and synthesized. This hybrid could liberate 1 and NO in the lungs of rats after trachea injection. Significantly, 2 lowered mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), decreased right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), as well as attenuated pulmonary artery medial thickness (PAMT) and vascular muscularization in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rats...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375905/double-chambered-right-ventricle-in-a-16-year-old-patient-with-williams-syndrome
#9
Wojciech Mądry, Maciej A Karolczak, Ewa Zacharska-Kokot
We present a case of double-chambered right ventricle diagnosed during preparation for colonoscopy due to gastrointestinal bleeding in a 16-year-old, mentally disabled boy with Williams syndrome. The patient was previously diagnosed with ventricular septal defect and mild pulmonary stenosis. Echocardiography performed under general anesthesia revealed hypertrophied muscular bundles in the right ventricle with the maximum gradient of 100 mmHg, causing severe outflow obstruction. This type of defect is extremely rare in patients with Williams syndrome, with only one case, which was diagnosed during invasive angiocardiography, described in world literature...
December 2017: Journal of Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371083/spontaneously-occurring-intramural-coronary-arteriosclerosis-in-regularly-slaughtered-veal-calves-and-beef-cattle-a%C3%A2-screening-study-about-prevalence-and-histopathological-features
#10
Ilaria Biasato, Elena Biasibetti, Davide Biagini, Guido Bruatto, Giovanna Cenacchi, Franco Guarda, Maria Teresa Capucchio
OBJECTIVES: Intramural coronary arteriosclerosis has been reported in several species, but no systematic studies are currently available in bovine. The present study aimed to describe the arteriosclerotic changes in regularly slaughtered veal calves and beef cattle. ANIMALS: Twenty-five veal calves (6-9 months old) and 17 beef cattle (10-24 months old) housed in intensive livestock farming and regularly slaughtered were included in the present study. METHODS: Selected heart samples were submitted for histopathological and ultrastructural examination and the following parameters were evaluated: intimal hyperplasia, degenerative changes of the tunica media, medial hypertrophy/hyperplasia, myocardial fibrosis, and myocarditis...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370674/effects-of-acute-voluntary-loaded-wheel-running-on-bdnf-expression-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#11
Minchul Lee, Hideaki Soya
PURPOSE: Voluntary loaded wheel running involves the use of a load during a voluntary running activity. A muscle-strength or power-type activity performed at a relatively high intensity and a short duration may cause fewer apparent metabolic adaptations but may still elicit muscle fiber hypertrophy. This study aimed to determine the effects of acute voluntary wheel running with an additional load on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the rat hippocampus. METHODS: Ten-week old male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to a (1) sedentary (Control) group; (2) voluntary exercise with no load (No-load) group; or (3) voluntary exercise with an additional load (Load) group for 1-week (acute period)...
December 31, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324062/four-day-pulse-of-sodium-cromoglycate-modulates-pulmonary-vessel-wall-remodeling-during-21-day-hypoxia-in-rats
#12
Tomáš Novotný, Jiří Uhlík, Luděk Vajner
AIM OF THE STUDY: Remodeling of pulmonary resistance arteries in rats due to 4-day hypoxia could be successfully suppressed by sodium cromoglycate. In this study, we tested the difference in the suppression between two distinct time patterns of cromoglycate administration during 21-day hypoxia. In the experiment, we focused on some details in both smooth muscle cells and extracellular matrix of pulmonary arterial walls. METHODS: During 21-day hypoxia, rats were treated with sodium cromoglycate either in the first four days or in the last four days...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300851/magnetic-resonance-imaging-predicts-histopathologic-composition-of-ileal-crohn-s-disease
#13
Mathilde Wagner, Huaibin Mabel Ko, Manjil Chatterji, Cecilia Besa, Joana Torres, Xiaofei Zhang, Hinaben Panchal, Stefanie Hectors, Judy Cho, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Noam Harpaz, Bachir Taouli
Background and aims: Recently, smooth muscle hypertrophy has been suggested to be a contributor in small bowel lesions secondary to Crohn's disease (CD), in addition to inflammation and fibrosis. Here, we assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the characterization of histopathologic tissue composition of small bowel CD, including inflammation, fibrosis and smooth muscle hypertrophy. Methods: 35 consecutive patients (M/F 17/18, mean age 33y) with ileal CD who underwent small bowel resection (for stricture in 27 patients) and a preoperative contrast-enhanced MRI exam within one month before surgery were retrospectively included...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298295/synchrotron-microtomography-of-a-nothosaurus-marchicus-skull-informs-on-nothosaurian-physiology-and-neurosensory-adaptations-in-early-sauropterygia
#14
Dennis F A E Voeten, Tobias Reich, Ricardo Araújo, Torsten M Scheyer
Nothosaurs form a subclade of the secondarily marine Sauropterygia that was well represented in late Early to early Late Triassic marine ecosystems. Here we present and discuss the internal skull anatomy of the small piscivorous nothosaur Nothosaurus marchicus from coastal to shallow marine Lower Muschelkalk deposits (Anisian) of Winterswijk, The Netherlands, which represents the oldest sauropterygian endocast visualized to date. The cranial endocast is only partially encapsulated by ossified braincase elements...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240948/early-cyclical-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-improves-strength-and-trophism-by-akt-pathway-signaling-in-partially-paralyzed-biceps-muscle-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#15
Gabriel R de Freitas, Caroline C do Espírito Santo, Nicolas A M M de Machado-Pereira, Franciane Bobinski, Adair R S Dos Santos, Jocemar Ilha
Background: Electrical stimulation is often used to treat weakness in people with spinal cord injury (SCI), however its efficacy to increase strength and trophism are weak and the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic benefits are unknown. Objective: The purpose of the study was to analyze the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on muscle function, trophism and the Akt pathway signaling involved in muscular plasticity after incomplete-SCI in rats...
December 12, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228710/irisin-treatment-improves-healing-of-dystrophic-skeletal-muscle
#16
Musarrat Maisha Reza, Chu Ming Sim, Nathiya Subramaniyam, Xiaojia Ge, Mridula Sharma, Ravi Kambadur, Craig McFarlane
Background: Irisin is an exercise induced myokine that is shown to promote browning of adipose tissue and hence, increase energy expenditure. Furthermore, our unpublished results indicate that Irisin improves myogenic differentiation and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Since exercise induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy improves muscle strength, we wanted to investigate if ectopic injection of Irisin peptide improves skeletal muscle function in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214923/creatine-supplementation-elicits-greater-muscle-hypertrophy-in-upper-than-lower-limbs-and-trunk-in-resistance-trained-men
#17
João Pedro Nunes, Alex S Ribeiro, Brad J Schoenfeld, Crisieli M Tomeleri, Ademar Avelar, Michele Cc Trindade, Hellen Cg Nabuco, Edilaine F Cavalcante, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Rodrigo R Fernandes, Ferdinando O Carvalho, Edilson S Cyrino
BACKGROUND: Creatine (Cr) supplementation associated with resistance training produces greater muscular strength improvements in the upper compared with the lower body; however, no study has investigated if such region-specific results are seen with gains in muscle mass. AIM: We aimed to evaluate the effect of Cr supplementation in combination with resistance training on lean soft tissue changes in the upper and lower limbs and trunk in resistance-trained young adult men...
December 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212800/extracellular-retention-of-pdgf-b-directs-vascular-remodeling-in-mouse-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#18
Philip Tannenberg, Ya-Ting Chang, Lars Muhl, Bàrbara Laviña, Hanna Gladh, Guillem Genové, Christer Betsholtz, Erika Folestad, Karin Tran-Lundmark
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a lethal condition and current vasodilator therapy has limited effect. Anti-proliferative strategies targeting platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors, such as imatinib, have generated promising results in animal studies. Imatinib is however a non-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor and has in clinical studies caused unacceptable adverse events. Further studies are needed on the role of PDGF signaling in PH. Here, mice expressing a variant of PDGF-B with no retention motif (Pdgfbret/ret), resulting in defective binding to extracellular matrix, were studied...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204323/ability-to-predict-repetitions-to-momentary-failure-is-not-perfectly-accurate-though-improves-with-resistance-training-experience
#19
James Steele, Andreas Endres, James Fisher, Paulo Gentil, Jürgen Giessing
'Repetitions in Reserve' (RIR) scales in resistance training (RT) are used to control effort but assume people accurately predict performance a priori (i.e. the number of possible repetitions to momentary failure (MF)). This study examined the ability of trainees with different experience levels to predict number of repetitions to MF. One hundred and forty-one participants underwent a full body RT session involving single sets to MF and were asked to predict the number of repetitions they could complete before reaching MF on each exercise...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152501/myocardial-bridging-with-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-presenting-as-wellens-pattern
#20
Ahmad Abuarqoub, Maria Naranjo, Fayez Shamoon
The course of epicardial coronary arteries into a muscular tunnel under a bridge of myocardium is known as myocardial bridging (MB). This could be a benign anomaly, nevertheless, it could have a great impact on the quality of life in the setting of severe anginal symptoms. The clinical presentation and diagnosis could be challenging in those patients. The treatment options start from simple medical therapy to surgical intervention in refractory cases, the role of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is limited in MB...
October 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
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