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Muscular hypertrophy

Y M Zheng, W Z Li, Z X Wang, W Zhang, H Lv, J X Xiao, Y Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To report thigh muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests of four Chinese patients with dystrophinopathy with edema changes in adductor longus muscles that mimics adductor enthesopathy. METHODS: Four boys, who were from four unrelated families and aged from 5 to 11 years, were investigated because of the clinical manifestations including myalgia or muscle weakness or the incidental findings of elevated serum creatine kinase levels, and were diagnosed with dystrophinopathy by gene test of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Alex S Ribeiro, Brad J Schoenfeld, Steven J Fleck, Fábio L C Pina, Matheus A Nascimento, Edilson S Cyrino
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT) performed in a pyramid (PR) versus a traditional (TD) system on muscular strength, muscle mass, and hormonal responses in older women. Twenty-five older women (67.6 ± 5.1 years, 65.9 ± 11.1 kg, 154.7 ± 5.8 cm, and 27.5 ± 4.5 kg m) performed both a TD and PR system RT program in a balanced crossover design. The TD program consisted of 3 sets of 8-12 RM with a constant load for the 3 sets, whereas the PR system consisted of 3 sets of 12/10/8 RM with incrementally higher loads for each set...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ying Li, Bo Shi, Liping Huang, Xin Wang, Xiaona Yu, Baosheng Guo, Weidong Ren
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the potential clinical value of HIF-1α as a therapeutic target in the treatment of PH has not yet been evaluated. In this study, an animal model of hypoxia-induced PH was established by exposing adult rats to 10% O2 for 3 weeks, and the effects of the lentivirus-mediated delivery of HIF-1α short hairpin RNA (shRNA) by intratracheal instillation prior to exposure to hypoxia on the manifestations of hypoxia-induced PH were assessed...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Chris McGlory, Michaela C Devries, Stuart M Phillips
Exercise results in the rapid remodelling of skeletal muscle imparting a positive impact on human health. This process is underpinned by acute and chronic changes in both gene and protein synthesis. In this short review we provide a brief summary of our current understanding regarding how exercise influences these processes as well as the subsequent impact on muscle protein turnover and resultant shift in muscle phenotype. We explore concepts of ribosomal biogenesis and the potential role of increased translational capacity versus translational efficiency in contributing to muscular hypertrophy...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Hyun Ho Shin, Young Hoon Jeon, Seung Won Jang, Sae Young Kim
Muscular hypertrophy is caused mainly due to myopathic disorder. But, it is also rarely produced by neurogenic disorder. A 74-year-old woman complained of right calf pain with hypertrophy for several years. Recent lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed central and lateral canal narrowing at the L4-L5 intervertebral space. Lower extremity MRI revealed fatty change of right medial head of the gastrocnemius and soleus, causing right calf hypertrophy. Electrodiagnostic examinations including electromyography and nerve conduction velocity testing demonstrated 5(th) lumbar and 1(st) sacral polyradiculopathy...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Pain
Yong Wang, Ting-Ting Ma, Na-Na Gao, Xiao-Ling Zhou, Jiang Hong, Rui Guo, Li-Na Jia, Hong Chang, Ying Gao, Zhi-Min Gao, Lei Pan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tongxinluo (TXL),which is a Chinese medicine rooted from traditional used herbs, has been used in clinic to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, it remains unknown whether TXL alleviates low pressure hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. AIM OF THE STUDY: Here, we aimed to observe the influence of TXL on pulmonary hypertension in a rat model that exposed to high altitude environment characterized by low pressure hypoxia...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Cláudia Maria de Felício, Franciele Voltarelli da Silva Dias, Gislaine Aparecida Folha, Leila Azevedo de Almeida, Jaqueline Freitas de Souza, Wilma Terezinha Anselmo-Lima, Luciana Vitaliano Voi Trawitzki, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira Valera
OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were (1) to identify possible differences in muscular and orofacial functions between children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and with primary snoring (PS); (2) to examine the standardized difference between normal values of myofunctional scores and those of subjects with OSA or PS; and (3) to identify the features associated with OSA. METHODS: Participants were 39 children (mean age 8 ± 1.2 years) of which, 27 had a diagnosis of OSA and 12 had PS...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Katerina Hirschfeldova, Martina Florianova, Vera Kebrdlova, Marketa Urbanova, Jitka Stekrova
Heterozygous aberrations of SHOX gene have been reported to be responsible for Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and small portion of idiopathic short stature. The study was established to assess effectiveness of using phenotype 'scoring form' in patients indicated for SHOX gene defect analysis. The submitted study is based on a retrospective group of 352 unrelated patients enrolled as a part of the routine diagnostic practice and analyzed for aberrations affecting the SHOX gene. All participants were scanned for deletion/duplication within the main pseudoautosomal region (PAR1) using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
Paulo Gentil, James Fisher, James Steele
Resistance exercises can be considered to be multi-joint (MJ) or single-joint (SJ) in nature. Many strength coaches, trainers, and trainees believe that adding SJ exercises to a resistance training (RT) program may be required to optimize muscular size and strength. However, given that lack of time is a frequently cited barrier to exercise adoption, the time commitment resulting from these recommendations may not be convenient for many people. Therefore, it is important to find strategies that reduce the time commitment without negatively affecting results...
September 27, 2016: Sports Medicine
Xueying Su, Ruizhu Lin, Yonglan Huang, Huiying Sheng, Xiaofei Li, Tzer Hwu Ting, Li Liu, Xiuzhen Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and molecular features of three Chinese patients with various typical manifestations of congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL). METHODS: Clinical symptoms, results of laboratory analyses, and data on previous treatments in three Chinese patients were collected by retrospective review of medical records. All coding regions and adjacent exon-intron junction regions of AGPAT2 and BSCL2 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Ahmed A Rahman, Ainsley M Robinson, Simon J H Brookes, Rajaraman Eri, Kulmira Nurgali
Rectal prolapse is associated with diminished anal sensitivity and rectal motor activity. Both sensory and motor functions are controlled by the extrinsic and intrinsic (enteric nervous system) innervation of the gastrointestinal tract. Studies of changes in intestinal innervation in humans and in animal models with rectal prolapse are extremely scarce. The Winnie mouse model of spontaneous chronic colitis closely represents human inflammatory bowel disease and is prone to develop rectal prolapse. We have investigated changes in the myenteric and inhibitory motor neurons and evaluated changes in the density of sensory afferent, sympathetic, and parasympathetic fibers in the rectal colon of Winnie mice with and without rectal prolapse...
August 1, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
R Brian Sommerville, Margherita Guzzi Vincenti, Kathleen Winborn, Anne Casey, Nathan O Stitziel, Anne M Connolly, Douglas L Mann
Genetic disorders that disrupt the structure and function of the cardiovascular system and the peripheral nervous system are common enough to be encountered in routine cardiovascular practice. Although often these patients are diagnosed in childhood and come to the cardiologist fully characterized, some patients with hereditary neuromuscular disease may not manifest until adulthood and will present initially to the adult cardiologist for an evaluation of an abnormal ECG, unexplained syncope, LV hypertrophy, and or a dilated cardiomyopathy of unknown cause...
June 14, 2016: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Matija Zutelija Fattorini, Alenka Gagro, Tomislav Dapic, Goran Krakar, Josip Marjanovic
Muscular hypertrophy secondary to denervation is very rare, but well-documented phenomena in adults. This is the first report of a child with neurogenic unilateral hypertrophy due to S1 radiculopathy. A 12-year-old girl presented with left calf hypertrophy and negative history of low back pain or trauma. The serum creatinine kinase level and inflammatory markers were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed muscle hypertrophy of the left gastrocnemius and revealed a protruded lumbar disc at the L5-S1 level...
July 20, 2016: Brain & Development
Mirna Saker, Larissa Lipskaia, Elisabeth Marcos, Shariq Abid, Aurelien Parpaleix, Amal Houssaini, Pierre Validire, Philippe Girard, Hiba Noureddine, Laurent Boyer, Nora Vienney, Valerie Amsellem, Laurent Marguerit, Bernard Maitre, Geneviève Derumeaux, Jean-Luc Dubois-Rande, Claude Jourdan-Lesaux, Marion Delcroix, Rozenn Quarck, Serge Adnot
OBJECTIVE: Senescent pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension by producing secreted factors. The aim of this study was to explore the role in pulmonary hypertension of extracellular matrix proteins released by senescent PA-SMCs. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Polymerase chain reaction array analysis of human PA-SMCs undergoing replicative senescence revealed osteopontin upregulation, which mediated the stimulatory effect of senescent PA-SMC media and matrix on PA-SMC growth and migration...
September 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Evaldas Girdauskas, Tamer Owais, Beatrix Fey, Florian Kuntze, Bernward Lauer, Michael A Borger, Lenard Conradi, Hermann Reichenspurner, Thomas Kuntze
OBJECTIVES: Perforation of the subannular left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) represents an uncommon but almost invariably fatal transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)-associated complication. The risk factors to predict the occurrence of this devastating complication, particularly in relation to specific LVOT anatomy, have not yet been systematically analysed. We aimed to evaluate the pathophysiological background and possible risk factors for the occurrence of subannular LVOT perforation...
July 13, 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
T A Willis, C L Wood, J Hudson, T Polvikoski, R Barresi, H Lochmüller, K Bushby, V Straub
Four and a half LIM protein 1 (FHL1/SLIM1) has recently been identified as the causative gene mutated in four distinct diseases affecting skeletal muscle that have overlapping features, including reducing body myopathy, X-linked myopathy, X-linked dominant scapuloperoneal myopathy and Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. FHL1 localises to the sarcomere and the sarcolemma and is believed to participate in muscle growth and differentiation as well as in sarcomere assembly. We describe in this case report a boy with a deletion of the entire FHL1 gene who is now 15 years of age and presented with muscle hypertrophy, reduced subcutaneous fat, rigid spine and short stature...
August 2016: Clinical Genetics
Nilgün Eroğlu, Erol Erduran, Mustafa İmamoğlu, Zeynep Sağnak, Ayşegül Cansu
Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder (ADMG) is characterized by proliferation of the mucosal epithelium and hypertrophy of the muscularis. ADMG is predominantly diagnosed by using ultrasonography. Although ADMG is benign in nature, lithiasis, and chronic inflammation secondary to it may lead to dysplastic changes and cancer. Mucosal invagination through the hypertrophied muscularis results in large intramural diverticula or sinus tracts which are visible at radiology, known as Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses. Histologically, ADMG manifests with hyperplasia of the muscular layer and proliferation of mucosal glandular tissues...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Adriana Simionescu-Bankston, Ashok Kumar
Skeletal muscle is composed of multinucleated myofibers that arise from the fusion of myoblasts during development. Skeletal muscle is essential for various body functions such as maintaining posture, locomotion, breathing, and metabolism. Skeletal muscle undergoes remarkable adaptations in response to environmental stimuli leading to atrophy or hypertrophy. Moreover, degeneration of skeletal muscle is a common feature in a number of muscular disorders including muscular dystrophy. Emerging evidence suggests that noncoding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), are critical for skeletal muscle physiology...
August 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Tsukasa Sugo, Michiko Terada, Tatsuo Oikawa, Kenichi Miyata, Satoshi Nishimura, Eriya Kenjo, Mari Ogasawara-Shimizu, Yukimasa Makita, Sachiko Imaichi, Shumpei Murata, Kentaro Otake, Kuniko Kikuchi, Mika Teratani, Yasushi Masuda, Takayuki Kamei, Shuichi Takagahara, Shota Ikeda, Tetsuya Ohtaki, Hirokazu Matsumoto
Despite considerable efforts to develop efficient carriers, the major target organ of short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) remains limited to the liver. Expanding the application outside the liver is required to increase the value of siRNAs. Here we report on a novel platform targeted to muscular organs by conjugation of siRNAs with anti-CD71 Fab' fragment. This conjugate showed durable gene-silencing in the heart and skeletal muscle for one month after intravenous administration in normal mice. In particular, 1μg siRNA conjugate showed significant gene-silencing in the gastrocnemius when injected intramuscularly...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Wenqian Chen, Cathy Lu, Christina Hirota, Marietta Iacucci, Subrata Ghosh, Xianyong Gui
BACKGROUND: The simplistically and ambiguously termed "fibrostenosis" of bowel is a hallmark of severe Crohn's disease (CD) and a major contributor to medical treatment failure. Noninvasive imaging assessment and novel medical therapy targeting this condition are under investigation, which particularly requires a better understanding of the underlying histologic basis. METHODS: We analyzed 48 patients with stricturing Crohn's ileitis or/and colitis that required surgical resection...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
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