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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735455/examining-the-role-of-income-inequality-and-neighborhood-walkability-on-obesity-and-physical-activity-among-low-income-hispanic-adults
#1
Samuel D Towne, Michael L Lopez, Yajuan Li, Matthew Lee Smith, Judith L Warren, Alexandra E Evans, Marcia G Ory
Obesity is a major public health issue affecting rising medical costs and contributing to morbidity and premature mortality. We aimed to identify factors that may play a role in obesity and physical activity at the individual and environmental/neighborhood levels. We analyzed data from an adult sample who were parents of students enrolled in a school-based health and wellness program. The sample was restricted to those who were Hispanic and whose children were on free/reduced lunch (nā€‰=ā€‰377). Dependent variables: body mass index (BMI); neighborhood walkability...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734682/how-have-systematic-priority-setting-approaches-influenced-policy-making-a-synthesis-of-the-current-literature
#2
REVIEW
Lydia Kapiriri, Donya Razavi
BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of literature on systematic approaches to healthcare priority setting from various countries and different levels of decision making. This paper synthesizes the current literature in order to assess the extent to which program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA), burden of disease & cost-effectiveness analysis (BOD/CEA), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), and accountability for reasonableness (A4R), are reported to have been institutionalized and influenced policy making and practice...
July 12, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733859/the-past-and-future-in-understanding-the-health-risks-of-and-responses-to-climate-variability-and-change
#3
Kristie L Ebi, Jeremy J Hess
Climate change and health was established as a formal field of endeavor in the early 1990s, with the number of publications increasing since the mid-2000s. The key findings in assessment reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 1995, 2001, 2007, and 2014 indicate the progress in understanding the magnitude and pattern of the health risks of a changing climate. The assessments maintained a similar structure, focusing on assessing the state of knowledge of individual climate-sensitive health outcomes, with confidence in the key findings tending to increase over time with greater understanding...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733768/estimates-of-health-utility-scores-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
Nigar Sekercioglu, Bryan Curtis, Sean Murphy, Gord Blackhouse, Brendan Barrett
INTRODUCTION: Coverage decisions in publicly funded healthcare systems require a formal, systematic and transparent assessment process for policies related to distribution of resources. The process is complex and employs multiple types of information, such as clinical effectiveness, costs and health utility scores which are used to produce quality-adjusted life years. The purpose of this study was to create health utility scores for CKD patients within the Canadian population. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of CKD patients...
July 21, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733068/effects-of-eu-harmonization-policies-on-national-public-supervision-of-clinical-trials-a-dynamic-cycle-of-institutional-change-and-institutional-work
#5
Jacqueline C F van Oijen, Kor J Grit, Hester M van de Bovenkamp, Roland A Bal
BACKGROUND: The EU Clinical Trials Directive (EUCTD) and the EU Clinical Trials Regulation aim to harmonize good clinical practice (GCP) of clinical trials across Member States. Using the Netherlands as a case study, this paper analyzes how endeavours to implement the EUCTD set in motion a dynamic process of institutional change and institutional work. This process lead to substantial differences between policy and actual practice; therefore, it is important to learn more about the implementation of harmonization policies...
June 30, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732323/evaluation-of-an-online-training-for-improving-self-reported-evidence-based-decision-making-skills-in-cancer-control-among-public-health-professionals
#6
A B Morshed, P Ballew, M B Elliott, D Haire-Joshu, M W Kreuter, R C Brownson
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the effect of the online evidence-based cancer control (EBCC) training on improving the self-reported evidence-based decision-making (EBDM) skills in cancer control among Nebraska public health professionals. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional group comparison. METHODS: Previously developed EBDM measures were administered via online surveys to 201 public health professionals at baseline (comparison group) and 123 professionals who took part in the training...
July 18, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731036/stroke-in-women-from-evidence-to-inequalities
#7
REVIEW
Charlotte Cordonnier, Nikola Sprigg, Else Charlotte Sandset, Aleksandra Pavlovic, Katharina S Sunnerhagen, Valeria Caso, Hanne Christensen
Stroke is the second largest cause of disability-adjusted life-years lost worldwide. The prevalence of stroke in women is predicted to rise rapidly, owing to the increasing average age of the global female population. Vascular risk factors differ between women and men in terms of prevalence, and evidence increasingly supports the clinical importance of sex differences in stroke. The influence of some risk factors for stroke - including diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation - are stronger in women, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy also affect the risk of stroke decades after pregnancy...
July 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730874/abortion-politics-in-cambodia-social-history-local-forms-and-transnational-issues
#8
Pascale Hancart Petitet
Cambodia's current abortion rate and ratio could be among the highest in Southeast Asia. In 1997, the Cambodian parliament passed the first law regulating abortions. This law was adopted to contribute to reduce the high maternal mortality ratio, as a significant number of maternal deaths were believed to be related to complications of unsafe abortion. A decade later, the Ministry of Health had not yet established medical protocols for safe abortion access and women often continued to induce their own terminations or seek unsafe services...
July 21, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730383/consensus-modeling-to-develop-the-farmers-market-readiness-assessment-and-decision-instrument
#9
Eunlye Lee, Jarrod Dalton, David Ngendahimana, Pat Bebo, Ashley Davis, Daniel Remley, Carol Smathers, Darcy A Freedman
Nutrition-related policy, system, and environmental (PSE) interventions such as farmers' markets have been recommended as effective strategies for promoting healthy diet for chronic disease prevention. Tools are needed to assess community readiness and capacity factors influencing successful farmers' market implementation among diverse practitioners in different community contexts. We describe a multiphase consensus modeling approach used to develop a diagnostic tool for assessing readiness and capacity to implement farmers' market interventions among public health and community nutrition practitioners working with low-income populations in diverse contexts...
July 20, 2017: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729312/protocol-a-grounded-theory-of-recovery-perspectives-of-adolescent-users-of-mental-health-services
#10
Lucianne Palmquist, Sue Patterson, Analise O'Donovan, Graham Bradley
INTRODUCTION: Policies internationally endorse the recovery paradigm as the appropriate foundation for youth mental health services. However, given that this paradigm is grounded in the views of adults with severe mental illness, applicability to youth services and relevance to young people is uncertain, particularly as little is known about young people's views. A comprehensive understanding of the experiences and expectations of young people is critical to developing youth mental health services that are acceptable, accessible, effective and relevant...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729309/the-role-of-a-decision-support-smartphone-application-in-enhancing-community-health-volunteers-effectiveness-to-improve-maternal-and-newborn-outcomes-in-nairobi-kenya-quasi-experimental-research-protocol
#11
Pauline Bakibinga, Eva Kamande, Milka Omuya, Abdhalah K Ziraba, Catherine Kyobutungi
INTRODUCTION: Improving maternal and newborn survival remains major aspirations for many countries in the Global South. Slum settlements, a result of rapid urbanisation in many developing countries including Kenya, exhibit high levels of maternal and neonatal mortality. There are limited referral mechanisms for sick neonates and their mothers from the community to healthcare facilities with ability to provide adequate care. In this study, we specifically plan to develop and assess the added value of having community health volunteers (CHVs) use smartphones to identify and track mothers and children in a bid to reduce pregnancy-related complications and newborn deaths in the urban slums of Kamukunji subcounty in Nairobi, Kenya...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728596/implementation-of-longevity-promoting-supplements-and-medications-in-public-health-practice-achievements-challenges-and-future-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Alexander Vaiserman, Oleh Lushchak
BACKGROUND: Most modern societies undergo rapid population aging. The rise in life expectancy, nevertheless, is not accompanied, to date, by the same increment of healthspan. Efforts to increase healthspan by means of supplements and pharmaceuticals targeting aging-related pathologies are presently in spotlight of a new branch in geriatric medicine, geroscience, postulating that aging could be manipulated in such a way that will in parallel allow delay the onset of all age-associated chronic disorders...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728574/creation-of-a-core-outcome-set-for-clinical-trials-of-people-with-shoulder-pain-a-study-protocol
#13
Joel J Gagnier, Matthew J Page, Hsiaomin Huang, Arianne P Verhagen, Rachelle Buchbinder
BACKGROUND: The selection of appropriate outcomes or domains is crucial when designing clinical trials, to appreciate the effects of different interventions, pool results, and make valid comparisons between trials. If the findings are to influence policy and practice, then the chosen outcomes need to be relevant and important to key stakeholders, including patients and the public, healthcare professionals and others making decisions about health care. There is a growing recognition that insufficient attention has been paid to the outcomes measured in clinical trials...
July 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728346/suggestions-for-promoting-evidence-based-public-health-in-korea
#14
Jong-Myon Bae
The Public Health (EBPH) is defined as a decision-making in the domain of public health using current best evidences. Debates about the latent tuberculosis infection control program suggested by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2017 bring the need for promoting EBPH. To do this, three strategies were suggested as following: drawing some necessary evidences by evaluating policy-evidence gaps, delivering good quality and relevant evidences timely by conducting systematic reviews and adapting public health guidelines, and making the value-driven decisions by training and educating public health policy makers...
July 19, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728236/-epidemiological-investigation-of-allergic-rhinitis-in-ningxia
#15
X L Shen, D Zhao, X H Yan, P Yang, N Y Feng, W L Wen, H Y Ha, Z C Yang, L L Di, H Q Guo, H T Liu, R X Ma
Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of allergic rhinitis (AR) in Ningxia and to analyze its related factors. Methods: From March to September of 2013, a multi-stage and cluster sampling method was used to investigate the diagnosis and treatment of AR in Ningxia Area (3 years and above). Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis (2009, Wuyishan) was used as the basis for the diagnosis of adult AR, while Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of pediatric allergic rhinitis (2010, Chongqing) was used as the basis for children...
July 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727659/patient-release-criteria-following-radioactive-iodine-131-treatment-in-the-light-of-international-practice-where-does-south-africa-fit-in
#16
Modisenyane S Mongane, William I D Rae
The release from hospital of patients treated with radioactive iodine-131 (I) remains a controversial issue as a result of the range of guidelines implemented by national regulatory bodies responsible for radiation protection in various countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to review and analyse the literature on patient release criteria (PRC) applied internationally in an attempt to achieve a justifiable approach to setting equivalent criteria in South Africa. In 2016, the South African Department of Health, Directorate: Radiation Control added conditions (numbers 50 and 90), to licences to use radioactive nuclides...
July 19, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727528/racial-ethnic-and-socioeconomic-disparities-in-hydration-status-among-us-adults-and-the-role-of-tap-water-and-other-beverage-intake
#17
Carolyn J Brooks, Steven L Gortmaker, Michael W Long, Angie L Cradock, Erica L Kenney
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether differences in tap water and other beverage intake explain differences in inadequate hydration among US adults by race/ethnicity and income. METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of inadequate hydration (urine osmolality ā‰„ā€‰800 mOsm/kg) by race/ethnicity and income of 8258 participants aged 20 to 74 years in the 2009 to 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multivariable regression models, we estimated associations between demographic variables, tap water intake, and inadequate hydration...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726467/the-importance-of-the-neighborhood-in-the-2014-ebola-outbreak-in-the-united-states-distress-worry-and-functioning
#18
Rupa Jose, E Alison Holman, Roxane Cohen Silver
OBJECTIVE: Ebola media coverage directed public attention to potential disease carriers: residents or travelers from West Africa. We investigated the role of neighborhood population factors (i.e., the concentration of West African foreigners, non-West African foreigners, non-Hispanic Blacks) on individual responses to the Ebola outbreak in the United States. The role of these community-level factors in emotional responses to this public health crisis is poorly understood. METHOD: Demographic factors, mental health, and stressful event history, collected as part of an ongoing longitudinal study of residents from 2 metropolitan communities (New York City and Boston, total N = 1,346), were combined with neighborhood data from the U...
July 20, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726455/a-developmental-perspective-on-the-link-between-parents-employment-and-children-s-obesity
#19
Robert Crosnoe, Rachel Dunifon
Despite public concerns about the negative implications of the increased labor force participation of mothers for child development, decades of research have revealed few risks and some benefits. One potential risk-a consistently observed association between maternal employment and childhood obesity-offers a window into how some dimensions of family health may be undermined by work in an economic and policy context that is not family friendly. The purpose of this article is to identify ways that a developmental perspective can enrich the literature on how children's weight may be related to the work experiences of both mothers and fathers across diverse populations, a literature that heretofore has been dominated by economic and demographic perspectives, focused almost solely on women, and largely ignored racial/ethnic variation...
July 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724531/the-tobacco-free-village-program-helping-rural-areas-implement-and-achieve-goals-of-tobacco-control-policies-in-india
#20
Nilesh Chatterjee, Deepak Patil, Rajashree Kadam, Genevie Fernandes
India has 274 million tobacco users and a tobacco use prevalence of 38% in rural areas. Tobacco consumption causes 1 million deaths and costs the health system nearly US$23 billion annually. Tobacco control policies exist but lack proper implementation. In this article, we review the Tobacco-free Village (TfV) program conducted in Maharashtra state in India and describe its process to help villages in rural India achieve "tobacco-free" status (i.e., the sale and use of tobacco are prohibited by law). We reviewed program documents and conducted 22 qualitative interviews with program staff and village-level stakeholders...
July 19, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
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