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Cyntia B Manzano-Salgado, Maribel Casas, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Ferran Ballester, Carmen Iñiguez, David Martinez, Olga Costa, Loreto Santa-Marina, Eva Pereda-Pereda, Thomas Schettgen, Jordi Sunyer, Martine Vrijheid
BACKGROUND: Prenatal perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) exposure has been associated with reduced birth weight but maternal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may attenuate this association. Further, this association remains unclear for other perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA). We estimated associations between prenatal PFAS exposure and birth outcomes, and the influence of GFR, in a Spanish birth cohort...
September 13, 2017: Environment International
Chao Su, Shuai Song, Yonglong Lu, Shijie Liu, John P Giesy, Deliang Chen, Alan Jenkins, Andrew J Sweetman, Baninla Yvette
Climate change and emissions rates of contaminants are expected to affect distribution and fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the environment, however, studies on these combined factors are rare. In this study, Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) is used as an example to assess how those two factors synthetically affect fate and disposition of POPs in the Bohai Rim of China by using the Berkeley-Trent-Urban-Rural (BETR-Urban-Rural) model. We set up three climate change scenarios and four emission scenarios to conduct the simulations...
September 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Mark L Brusseau
A comprehensive understanding of the transport and fate of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in the subsurface is critical for accurate risk assessments and design of effective remedial actions. A multi-process retention model is proposed to account for potential additional sources of retardation for PFAS transport in source zones. These include partitioning to the soil atmosphere, adsorption at air-water interfaces, partitioning to trapped organic liquids (NAPL), and adsorption at NAPL-water interfaces...
September 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Susan Genualdi, Nahyun Jeong, Lowri deJager, Timothy Begley
The contamination of groundwater and surface water from previous uses of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), particularly products containing the contaminants perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), has become a concern for drinking water and as a potential exposure route to the food supply. In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was asked to investigate a bog in Massachusetts where the surface water was believed to be contaminated with PFASs. As a result, a method was developed for the analysis of PFASs in cranberries, and water and fruit from the affected bog were evaluated...
September 13, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Sunggyu Lee, Sunmi Kim, Jeongim Park, Hai-Joong Kim, Gyuyeon Choi, Sooran Choi, Sungjoo Kim, Su Young Kim, Sungkyoon Kim, Kyungho Choi, Hyo-Bang Moon
Breastfeeding is an important exposure pathway to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) for newborn infants. Nevertheless, reports are limited on the occurrence and time-course of PFASs in breast milk, and most studies have focused on the analysis of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, 16 PFASs were analyzed in breast milk samples (n=293) collected from 128 mothers in Korea during various lactation periods to assess maternal exposure levels, contamination profiles, time-course variations, and infant health risks...
August 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Nan Sheng, Ruina Cui, Jinghua Wang, Yong Guo, Jianshe Wang, Jiayin Dai
Although shorter chain homologues and other types of fluorinated chemicals are currently used as alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), their safety information remains unclear and urgently needed. Here, the cytotoxicity of several fluorinated alternatives (i.e., 6:2 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (6:2 FTCA), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA), 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFESA), and hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO) homologues) to human liver HL-7702 cell line were measured and compared with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)...
September 1, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
Anna Kjerstine Rosenmai, Lutz Ahrens, Théo le Godec, Johan Lundqvist, Agneta Oskarsson
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a molecular target for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Little is known about the cellular uptake of PFASs and how it affects the PPARα activity. We investigated the relationship between PPARα activity and cellular concentration in HepG2 cells of 14 PFASs, including perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). Cellular concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and PPARα activity was determined in transiently transfected cells by reporter gene assay...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Zhihao Hu, Xin Song, Changlong Wei, Jianguo Liu
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is known to be extremely persistent and is toxic to wildlife and humans. In this study, we evaluated the sorptive removal behavior of PFOS from aqueous solution using three forms of layered double hydroxides (LDHs), namely, nitrate-, carbonate- and chloride-intercalated LDHs. Batch experiments showed that the sorption process was very fast with an equilibrium time of 10-60 min. The nitrate-LDH had the greatest ability to remove PFOS with a removal rate of 99.7% at an initial concentration of 100 mg/L and the maximum uptake capacity reached 865 mg/g...
August 25, 2017: Chemosphere
Xinxin Ma, Guoqiang Shan, Meng Chen, Jinyu Zhao, Lingyan Zhu
The occurrence, riverine inputs and sources of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Taihu Lake, one of the largest lakes in China, were investigated by measuring PFASs including the isomers of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in the Lake and its main flow-in rivers. It was found that PFHxS, instead of PFOS or PFOA, was predominant both in the Lake and rivers (45.9-351ng/L), reflecting increasing demand of PFHxS in recent years. The riverine flux of PFASs into the Lake was estimated to be 1255kg/year...
August 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Gehui Wang, Jianjiang Lu, Zhenni Xing, Shanman Li, Zilong Liu, Yanbin Tong
Despite risks associated with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in many regions, little is known about their prevalence in Xinjiang. We determined the presence of 13 PFAAs in 293 beef muscle and liver samples collected in 22 cities covering northern, southern, and eastern Xinjiang using liquid chromatography, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Overall, the average values for PFAAs were relatively low compared with previous studies. Liver presented higher mean levels of total PFAAs at 1.632 ng/g, which was over 60-fold higher than in muscle (0...
August 28, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Xianyong Lu, Zhuang Kong, Guozheng Xiao, Chao Teng, Yunan Li, Guangyuan Ren, Shuangbao Wang, Ying Zhu, Lei Jiang
Whelk-like polypyrrole (PPy) arrays film is successfully prepared by electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of low-surface-energy tetraethylammonium perfluorooctanesulfonate (TEAPFOS) as dopant. The underwater wettability of PPy whelk-like arrays can be successfully tuned by electrical doping/dedoping of PFOS ions. Interestingly, CCl4 droplets with microliter-size as a representative sample are gathered together to form a larger droplet underwater at the potential of +0.8 V (vs Ag/AgCl), because PPy is in its PFOS-doped states...
August 28, 2017: Small
Mehdi Rajabnia Khansari, Bahareh Sadat Yousefsani, Farzad Kobarfard, Mehrdad Faizi, Jalal Pourahmad
Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), an anthropogenic fluorosurfactant, is one of the most common global pollutants. PFOS is used in various consumer products to provide soil, oil, and water resistance to materials used in clothing, upholstery, and food packaging. PFOS is persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic to mammalian species. In this study, the cellular mechanisms involved in PFOS hepatotoxicity were evaluated. For this purpose, we determined oxidative stress markers including cell lysis, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, lysosomal membrane leakiness, and cellular proteolysis...
August 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shingo Kuwata, Juliane Vierecke, Steffen Gloekler, Francesco Maisano, Bernhard Meier, Fabian Nietlispach
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous atrial septal defect (ASD) closure is a routine procedure to prevent right ventricular failure, pulmonary hypertension, or paradoxical embolism. The latter is the typical reason for percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure. Atrial enlargement represents a risk for developing atrial fibrillation (AF). Percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) closure is emerging as a preventive therapy for patients in AF who suffered from a previous stroke or bleeding (secondary prevention) or patients without previous stroke or bleeding (primary prevention)...
August 25, 2017: Cardiology Journal
Ruijia Zhang, Qinzhi Wei, Minjie Li, Zihuan Li, Wenting Lin, Ande Ma, Zhifeng Zhou
To evaluate the exposure of children to 14 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in a typical and representative industrial city, plasma samples from 476 children aged 0-7 years in Foshan, China, were analysed. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected in 100% of the samples, accounting for 82.27 and 11.46% of the total PFC concentrations, respectively, while PFOS peaked at age 0-1 years, for which the mean and median concentrations were 113.71 and 83.65 ng/mL, respectively, while PFOA peaked at age 3-4 years, for which the mean and median concentrations were 10...
August 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Daniel B Gingerich, Meagan S Mauter
Water treatment processes present inter-sectoral and cross-media risk trade-offs that are not presently considered in Safe Drinking Water Act regulatory analyses. This paper develops a method for assessing the air emission implications of common municipal water treatment processes used to comply with recently promulgated and proposed regulatory standards, including arsenic, lead and copper, disinfection byproducts, chromium (VI), strontium, and PFOA/PFOS. Life-cycle models of electricity and chemical consumption for individual drinking water unit processes are used to estimate embedded NOx, SO2, PM2...
August 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Saerom Park, Jenny E Zenobio, Linda S Lee
PFOS removal at 6 and 21days (d) when reacted with palladium coated zero valent iron nanoparticles (Pd(0)/nFe(0) NPs) was quantified as a function of pH (3.6, 5.5, and 8.7) and temperature (22, 45 and 70°C). PFOS concentrations were measured in aqueous phases and NP extracts. The greatest PFOS removal occurred at 6 d with the lowest pH and highest temperature; however, recovered PFOS increased at 21 d. Furthermore, neither F(-) nor SO4(2-) (from SO3(2-) cleavage) generation was observed indicating the absence of PFOS transformation...
August 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Cristiana Guerranti, Guido Perra, Eva Alessi, Davide Baroni, Dante Caserta, Donatella Caserta, Augusto De Sanctis, Emiliano Leonida Fanello, Cinzia La Rocca, Michela Mariottini, Monia Renzi, Sabrina Tait, Carlo Zaghi, Alberto Mantovani, Silvano Ettore Focardi
The PREVIENI project (funded by the Ministry of Environment) investigated the exposure to endocrine disrupters in samples of human population and environmental biota in Italy. The environmental biomonitoring considered two Italian WWF Oasis, with the aim to compare the presence and effects of endocrine disruptors in organisms from two protected natural areas, respectively, upstream and downstream a chemical emission site. Chemical analysis of pollutants' tissue levels was made on tissues from earthworm, barbell, trout, and coot, selected as bioindicator organisms...
August 18, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Melissa I Gomis, Robin Vestergren, Matthew MacLeod, Jochen F Mueller, Ian T Cousins
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) are found in the blood of humans and wildlife worldwide. Since the beginning of the 21st century, a downward trend in the human body burden, especially for PFOS and PFOA, has been observed while there is no clear temporal trend in wildlife. The inconsistency between the concentration decline in human serum and in wildlife could be indicative of a historical exposure pathway for humans linked to consumer products that has been reduced or eliminated...
August 14, 2017: Environment International
Raju Prasad Sharma, Marta Schuhmacher, Vikas Kumar
Integration of a dynamic signal transduction pathway into the tissue dosimetry model is a major advancement in the area of computational toxicology. This paper illustrates the ways to incorporate the use of existing system biological model in the field of toxicology via its coupling to the Physiological based Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics (PBPK/PD) model. This expansion framework of integrated PBPK/PD coupled mechanistic system pathway model can be called as system toxicology that describes the kinetics of both - the chemicals and - biomolecules, help us to understand the dynamic and steady-state behaviors of molecular pathways under perturbed condition...
August 14, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Katarzyna H Kucharzyk, Ramona Darlington, Mark Benotti, Rula Deeb, Elisabeth Hawley
Perfluorinated compounds such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have recently drawn great attention due to their wide distribution in aquatic environments. The understanding of the physicochemical properties and fate and transport of PFAs in groundwater is still limited. Preliminary studies indicate that these compounds can readily bioaccumulate and pose human and animal health concerns. Due to their physicochemical properties, PFOS and PFOA are water soluble, nonvolatile and persistent in the environment, which is a cause of concern related to their treatment with conventional remediation technologies...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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