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Shuyan Zhao, Bohui Wang, Lingyan Zhu, Tiankun Liang, Meng Chen, Liping Yang, Jingping Lv, Lifen Liu
N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) is commonly known as the active ingredient of sulfluramid. It can be degraded to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in biota and environment. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were exposed with N-EtFOSA to examine the bioaccumulation, elimination and metabolism of N-EtFOSA by the earthworms after in vivo and in vitro exposure. N-EtFOSA could be biodegraded in quartz sands to perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and PFOS. In the in vivo tests, in addition to parent N-EtFOSA, three metabolites, including perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (FOSAA), FOSA and PFOS also accumulated in earthworms as a result of N-EtFOSA biotransformation, with FOSA as the predominant metabolite...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yizhi Cai, Xinhong Wang, Yuling Wu, Songhe Zhao, Yongyu Li, Liya Ma, Can Chen, Jun Huang, Gang Yu
The seasonal variations and spatial distributions of fifteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in the water of the subtropical Jiulong River Estuary (JRE) in Fujian, China. The concentrations and composition profiles of PFASs showed significant seasonal variations. ∑PFASs concentrations ranged from 4.8 to 37.6 ng L-1 , 12.2 to 110 ng L-1 and 3.3 to 43.0 ng L-1 in the dry, medium and wet seasons, respectively. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was found to be the most abundant PFAS in the dry season, with a composition of 33% ± 5%, Perfluorohexanoic acid PFHxA (47% ± 13%) and perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA) (52% ± 15%) were the dominant compounds in the medium and wet seasons, respectively...
May 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yuxin Wang, Yuxin Zhong, Jingguang Li, Jianqing Zhang, Bing Lyu, Yunfeng Zhao, Yongning Wu
The purpose of this study was to determine perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum, urine, hair and nail from general populations, and to investigate the possibility for human urine, hair and nail used as the biomonitoring sample for PFASs exposure. We detected the concentrations of PFHxA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoA, PFHxS and PFOS in 39 matched human serum, urine, hair and nail samples from Shenzhen in China. The detection frequency and the median level of PFOS were all higher than that of the other PFASs in four matrices...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Thomas A Bruton, David L Sedlak
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a class of organic contaminants notable for their extreme persistence. The unique chemical properties of these compounds make them difficult to remove from water using most standard water treatment techniques. To gain insight into the possibility of remediating contaminated groundwater by in situ chemical oxidation with heat-activated persulfate, PFAA removal and the generation of transformation products were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Solution pH had a strong influence on the removal of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), resulting in its transformation into shorter-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) at pH values below 3...
April 21, 2018: Chemosphere
B O Fagbayigbo, B O Opeolu, O S Fatoki, O S Olatunji
In this study, an analytical method for the routine determination of nine perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-QTOF-MS), was developed, validated, and used for their assay in surface water and sediments. The method yielded good linearity with a correlation coefficient (R2 ) ranging between 0.991 and 0.999 for all the compounds investigated. Limits of detection (LOD) ranged between 0.02 and 0.08 ng/l, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Wenxiu Liu, Wei He, Jingyi Wu, Ning Qin, Qishuang He, Fuliu Xu
Residual levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in seven species of aquatic animals were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The distribution, composition, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification of PFAAs and their effect factors were studied. The results showed that: 1) Wet weight concentrations of 17 PFAAs in the aquatic animals ranged from 1.77 to 38.65 ng/g, with a mean value of 12.71 ± 9.21 ng/g. PFOS was the predominant contaminant (4.57 ± 4.57 ng/g, 6.76%-46.25%), followed by PFDA (1...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Irina Gyllenhammar, Jonathan P Benskin, Oskar Sandblom, Urs Berger, Lutz Ahrens, Sanna Lignell, Karin Wiberg, Anders Glynn
Little is known about factors influencing infant perfluorinated alkyl acid (PFAA) concentrations. Associations between serum PFAA concentrations in 2-4-month-old infants (n=101) and determinants were investigated by multiple linear regression and General Linear Model (GLM) analysis. In exclusively breastfed infants, maternal serum PFAA concentrations 3 weeks after delivery explained 13% (perfluoroundecanoic acid, PFUnDA) to 73% (perfluorohexane sulfonate, PFHxS) of infant PFAA concentration variation. Median infant/maternal ratios decreased with increasing PFAA carbon chain length from 2...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Zhen Cheng, Lingling Du, Panpan Zhu, Qian Chen, Kejun Tan
Because of the serious harm to animals and the environment associated with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a rapid, sensitive and low-cost method for detecting PFOS and PFOA is of great importance. In this paper, a novel sensing method has been proposed for the highly sensitive detection of PFOS and PFOA in environmental water samples based on the "turn-on" switch of erythrosine B (EB)-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) system. In pH 8.55 Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer, EB can react with CTAB by electrostatic attraction, resulting in a strong fluorescence quenching of EB...
May 4, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Meng-Shan Tsai, Chihiro Miyashita, Atsuko Araki, Sachiko Itoh, Yu Ait Bamai, Houman Goudarzi, Emiko Okada, Ikuko Kashino, Hideyuki Matsuura, Reiko Kishi
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent bio-accumulative chemicals that impact the health of pregnant women and their children. PFAS derive from environmental and consumer products, which depend on human lifestyle, socioeconomic characteristics, and time variation. Here, we aimed to explore the temporal trends of PFAS in pregnant women and the characteristics related to maternal PFAS concentration. Our study is part of the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health, the Hokkaido large-scale cohort that recruited pregnant women between 2003 and 2011...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jøran Solnes Skaar, Erik Magnus Ræder, Jan Ludvig Lyche, Lutz Ahrens, Roland Kallenborn
A combination of local (i.e. firefighting training facilities) and remote sources (i.e. long-range transport) is assumed to be responsible for the occurrence of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic). However, no systematic elucidation of local PFASs sources has been conducted yet. Therefore, a survey was performed aiming at identifying local PFAS pollution sources on the island of Spitsbergen (Svalbard, Norway). Soil, freshwater (lake, draining rivers), seawater, meltwater run-off, surface snow and coastal sediment samples were collected from Longyearbyen (Norwegian mining town), Ny-Ålesund (research facility) and the Lake Linnévatnet area (background site) during several campaigns (2014-2016) and analysed for 14 individual target PFASs...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Min Joo Kim, Shinje Moon, Byung-Chul Oh, Dawoon Jung, Kyunghee Ji, Kyungho Choi, Young Joo Park
OBJECTIVE: Many people are exposed to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) because these substances are widely used as industrial products. Although epidemiological studies suggest that PFASs can disrupt thyroid hormones, the association between PFAS exposure and thyroid function remains inconclusive. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to investigate the association between PFASs exposure and thyroid hormones. METHODS: We searched medical literature databases for articles on the association between PFASs-perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS)-and thyroid hormone levels in adults...
2018: PloS One
John Neill, C Huie Lin
A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common variant in cardiac anatomy found in 25% to 30% of U.S. adults. While PFOs are a normal part of fetal development and commonly seen in asymptomatic adults, they have been implicated in a variety of pathophysiologic conditions. The most clinically important of these is paradoxical embolization of venous thrombus resulting in stroke or systemic embolism. Various devices can be used to close PFOs via a transcatheter approach to prevent recurrent stroke. Data regarding the safety and effectiveness of these devices is rapidly evolving, with recent long-term results suggesting efficacy in preventing secondary stroke in carefully selected patients...
July 2017: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
Ravinder Anand-Ivell, Arieh Cohen, Bent Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bo A G Jönsson, Jens-Peter Bonde, David M Hougaard, Christian H Lindh, Gunnar Toft, Morten S Lindhard, Richard Ivell
The period of the first to second trimester transition in human pregnancy represents a sensitive window for fetal organogenesis, particularly in regard to the development of the male reproductive system. This is a time of relative analytical inaccessibility. We have used a large national biobank of amniotic fluid samples collected at routine amniocentesis to determine the impacts of exogenous endocrine disruptor load on specific fetal biomarkers at this critical time. While adrenal and testicular steroids are highly correlated, they are also mostly positively influenced by increasing phthalate load, represented by the metabolites 7cx-MMeHP and 5cx-MEPP, by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure, and by smoking, suggesting an adrenal stress response...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Zuoqing Yuan, Xinxin Shao, Zili Miao, Bosheng Zhao, Ziyang Zheng, Jianyong Zhang
As a persistent and widespread toxic organic pollutant in the environment, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has the potential to cause great harm to wildlife. In our study, the effects of PFOS on neurodevelopment gene expression, neurotransmitter content, neuronal morphology, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were examined, and the potential neurotoxicity mechanisms of PFOS were also investigated in planarians, Dugesia japonica. Using quantitative real-time PCR analysis, five neurodevelopmental related genes were measured, among which, DjotxA, DjotxB, DjFoxD, and DjFoxG were found to be down-regulated, while Djnlg was found to be up-regulated, following exposure to PFOS for 10 days compared with control groups...
May 2, 2018: Chemosphere
Brianna N VanNoy, Juleen Lam, Ami R Zota
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals widely detected in human serum, and at low levels in breast milk. We conducted a rapid systematic review on breastfeeding practices and serum concentrations of PFASs-specifically PFOS and PFOA-among reproductive-aged women and young children using the Navigation Guide systematic review methodology. RECENT FINDINGS: We included 14 studies examining associations between breastfeeding and PFASs in infants/toddlers or pregnant/postnatal women...
May 8, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Tae-Hun Kim, Seungho Yu, Yeowool Choi, Tae-Yong Jeong, Sang Don Kim
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been found in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and in surface water as a result of domestic uses of textiles, electronics, and surfactants. The detection of PFOS in the aqueous environment has been linked to hazardous biological effects including estrogenicity and genotoxicity. To provide an alternative to conventional processes, one of the radical-based advanced oxidation and reduction processes being tested for treatment of refractory compounds in water, involves the use of an electron beam...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Vladimir P Beškoski, Atsushi Yamamoto, Takeshi Nakano, Katsuya Yamamoto, Chisato Matsumura, Mamoru Motegi, Latinka Slavković Beškoski, Hideyuki Inui
We investigated the capability of microorganisms isolated from environments polluted with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to conduct biotransformation of these emerging pollutants. Two different microbial consortia (chemoorganoheterotrophic bacteria and total yeast and molds) were isolated from two river sediments in Saitama and Osaka, Japan, known for long term pollution with perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The microbial consortia were incubated in the presence of added PFOS and PFOA, and decreases in concentrations of these compounds were between 46-69% and 16-36%, respectively...
April 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Qian-Wen Wang, Gui-Peng Yang, Ze-Ming Zhang, Jing Zhang
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitous pollutants present in various environmental media, including marine sediments. A method was proposed for the determination of 17 target PFAA analytes in marine sediment samples (n = 49) collected from the Yangtze Estuary and East China Sea. The proposed method involves the use of an optimized pretreatment procedure and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in dynamic multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method relied on extraction cycles using methanol followed by concentration, filtration, and small volume injection to UHPLC-MS/MS...
April 23, 2018: Chemosphere
Estefanía Concha-Graña, Gerardo Fernández-Martínez, Purificación López-Mahía, Darío Prada-Rodríguez, Soledad Muniategui-Lorenzo
In this work, a novel, fast, and sensitive method was developed for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and PFOS precursor's determination in seawater. The proposed method consists in a vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME) combined with liquid chromatography (LC) and LTQ-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap HRMS) determination. Several parameters affecting both the HPLC-LTQ Orbitrap HRMS determination and the VALLME were studied, with special attention to blank contamination problem...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Yanyan Zhang, Yue Zhi, Jinxia Liu, Subhasis Ghoshal
The sorption of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), particularly perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), to freshly-synthesized nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) and aged (oxidized) and sulfidated nZVI, was investigated under anaerobic conditions. The of sorption of PFAAs to nZVI was 2-4 orders of magnitude higher than what has been reported for sediments, soils, and iron oxides. The hydrophobicity of the perfluorocarbon chain dominated the sorption, although FTIR spectra indicated specific interactions between sulfonate and carboxylate head groups and nZVI...
April 30, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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