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Ryu Miura, Atsuko Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Sachiko Kobayashi, Shu-Li Wang, Chung-Hsing Chen, Kunio Miyake, Mayumi Ishizuka, Yusuke Iwasaki, Yoichi M Ito, Takeo Kubota, Reiko Kishi
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) influences fetal development and later in life. OBJECTIVE: To investigate cord blood DNA methylation changes associated with prenatal exposure to PFASs. METHODS: We assessed DNA methylation in cord blood samples from 190 mother-child pairs from the Sapporo cohort of the Hokkaido Study (discovery cohort) and from 37 mother-child pairs from the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study (replication cohort) using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip...
March 12, 2018: Environment International
Sahar Dalahmeh, Sana Tirgani, Allan John Komakech, Charles B Niwagaba, Lutz Ahrens
Occurrence and concentrations of 26 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were evaluated in wastewater, surface water, soil and crop plants (yam (Dioscorea spp.), maize (Zea mays) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)) in Nakivubo wetland and Lake Victoria at Kampala, Uganda. ∑PFAS concentrations in effluent from Bugolobi wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were higher (5.6-9.1ngL-1 ) than in the corresponding influent (3.4-5.1ngL-1 ), indicating poor removal of PFASs within the WWTP. ∑PFAS concentrations decreased by a factor of approximately five between Nakivubo channel (8...
March 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ane Urtiaga, Alvaro Soriano, Jordi Carrillo-Abad
The concerns about the undesired impacts on human health and the environment of long chain perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) have driven industrial initiatives to replace PFASs by shorter chain fluorinated homologues. 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) is applied as alternative to PFOS in metal plating and fluoropolymer manufacture. This study reports the electrochemical treatment of aqueous 6:2 FTSA solutions on microcrystalline BDD anodes. Bench scale batch experiments were performed, focused on assessing the effect of the electrolyte and the applied current density (5-600 A m-2 ) on the removal of 6:2 FTSA, the reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and the fluoride release...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Laura Gobelius, Johanna Kim Hedlund, Wiebke Dürig, Rikard Tröger, Karl Lilja, Karin Wiberg, Lutz Ahrens
The aim of this study was to assess per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the Swedish aquatic environment, identify emission sources and compare measured concentrations with environmental quality standards (EQS) and (drinking) water guideline values. In total, 493 samples were analysed in 2015 for 26 PFASs (∑26PFASs) in surface water, groundwater, landfill leachate, sewage treatment plant effluents and reference lakes, focusing on hot spots and drinking water sources. Highest ∑26PFAS concentrations were detected in surface- (13,000 ng L-1) and groundwater (6,400 ng L-1)...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Xiaoxu Chen, Xiaoke Nie, Jiamin Mao, Yan Zhang, Kaizhi Yin, Shengyang Jiang
Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)-containing compounds are widely used in all aspects of industrial and consumer products. Recent studies indicated that PFOS is ubiquitous in environments and is considered to be a new type of persistent organic pollutant (POP). This has raised concerns regarding its adverse effects on human health. The nervous system is regarded as a sensitive target of environmental contaminants, including PFOS. Previous findings showed that PFOS can induce neurobehavioral deficits. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PFOS neurotoxicity remains obscure...
March 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Emily S Larson, Jason M Conder, Jennifer A Arblaster
Releases of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) associated with Aqueous Film Forming Foams (AFFFs) have the potential to impact on-site and downgradient aquatic habitats. Dietary exposures of aquatic-dependent birds were modeled for seven PFASs (PFHxA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFHxS, PFOS, and PFDS) using five different scenarios based on measurements of PFASs obtained from five investigations of sites historically-impacted by AFFF. Exposure modeling was conducted for four avian receptors representing various avian feeding guilds: lesser scaup (Aythya affinis), spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularia), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and osprey (Pandion haliaetus)...
March 2, 2018: Chemosphere
Karilyn E Sant, Paul P Sinno, Haydee M Jacobs, Alicia R Timme-Laragy
The glutathione redox system undergoes precise and dynamic changes during embryonic development, protecting against and mitigating oxidative insults. The antioxidant response is coordinately largely by the transcription factor Nuclear factor erythroid-2 (Nrf2), an endogenous sensor for cellular oxidative stress. We have previously demonstrated that impaired Nrf family signaling disrupts the glutathione redox system in the zebrafish embryo, and that impaired Nrf2 function increases embryonic sensitivity to environmental toxicants...
February 20, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Clifton Dassuncao, Xindi Cindy Hu, Flemming Nielsen, Pal Weihe, Philippe Grandjean, Elsie M Sunderland
Rapid declines in legacy poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been reported in human populations globally following changes in production since 2000. However, changes in exposure sources are not well understood. Here, we report serum concentrations of 19 PFASs ( ∑19 PFAS) measured in children between 1993 and 2012 from a North Atlantic fishing community (Faroe Islands). Median ∑19 PFAS concentrations in children (ages 5 to 13 years) peaked in 2000 (47.7 ng mL-1) and declined significantly by 14...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Elizabeth R Daly, Benjamin P Chan, Elizabeth A Talbot, Julianne Nassif, Christine Bean, Steffany J Cavallo, Erin Metcalf, Karen Simone, Alan D Woolf
BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are synthetic chemicals used in manufacturing that resist environmental degradation, can leach into drinking water, and bioaccumulate in tissues. Some studies have shown associations with negative health outcomes. In May 2014, a New Hampshire public drinking water supply was found to be contaminated with PFAS from a former U.S. Air Force base. OBJECTIVES: We established a serum testing program to assess PFAS exposure in the affected community...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Tongzhou Liu, Yurong Gu, Ding Yu Xing, Wenyi Dong, Xiuwei Wu
Adsorption is well accepted as an effective method for perfluorinated compounds' (PFCs) removal from water among various conventional methods. However, development of adsorbents that combine good performance of PFC removal and regenerability has not yet been realized. This work demonstrated the fabrication and application of an ammoniated magnetic adsorbent for efficient and economical PFOS and PFOA removal. Functional ammonium groups and γ-Fe2 O3 were effectively incorporated in the particle with the proposed method...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Paula Pierozan, Fredrik Jerneren, Oskar Karlsson
Despite significant advances in early detection and treatment, breast cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a suspected endocrine disruptor and a common environmental pollutant associated with various diseases including cancer. However, the effects of PFOA and its mechanisms of action on hormone-responsive cells remain unclear. Here, we explored the potential tumorigenic activity of PFOA (100 nM-1 mM) in human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). MCF-10A cells exposed to 50 and 100 µM PFOA demonstrated a higher growth rate compared to controls...
March 3, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Xiangzhen Kong, Wenxiu Liu, Wei He, Fuliu Xu, Albert A Koelmans, Wolf M Mooij
Freshwater shallow lake ecosystems provide valuable ecological services to human beings. However, these systems are subject to severe contamination from anthropogenic sources. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS), are among the contaminants that have received substantial attention, primarily due to abundant applications, environment persistence, and potential threats to ecological and human health. Understanding the environmental behavior of these contaminants in shallow freshwater lake environments using a modeling approach is therefore critical...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Maria Averina, Jan Brox, Sandra Huber, Anne-Sofie Furberg
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are environmentally persistent chemicals widely used in many consumer products due to water and oil proofing and fire-resistant properties. Several PFASs are recognized as environmental pollutants. This study investigated serum concentrations of 18 different PFASs and their associations with diet and lifestyle variables in 940 adolescents (age 15-19 years) who participated in the Fit Futures 1 study in the Troms arctic district of Norway. Serum concentrations of PFASs were analyzed by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS)...
February 28, 2018: Environment International
Qi Sun, Geng Zong, Damaskini Valvi, Flemming Nielsen, Brent Coull, Philippe Grandjean
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are endocrine disruptors and may contribute to the etiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but this hypothesis needs to be clarified in prospective human studies. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to examine the associations between PFAS exposures and subsequent incidence of T2D in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). In addition, we aimed to evaluate potential demographic and lifestyle determinants of plasma PFAS concentrations...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Mohammad K Mojadidi, Muhammad O Zaman, Islam Y Elgendy, Ahmed N Mahmoud, Nimesh K Patel, Nayan Agarwal, Jonathan M Tobis, Bernhard Meier
Nearly one-half of patients with cryptogenic stroke have a patent foramen ovale (PFO). The dilemma of whether to close these PFOs percutaneously, in an effort to reduce the risk of recurrent paradoxical embolism, has been a matter of ongoing debate for more than a decade. Early randomized clinical trials failed to demonstrate a significant benefit of percutaneous PFO closure for secondary prevention of cryptogenic stroke in an intention-to-treat analysis. The long-term follow-up data from the RESPECT trial and 2 new randomized trials (CLOSE and REDUCE) have clarified these findings...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Rui Han, Fang Zhang, Chong Wan, Limin Liu, Qiang Zhong, Wenjun Ding
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), one member of polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFASs), persist in the environment and are found in relatively high concentrations in animal livers. PFOS has been shown to induce tumour of the liver in rats following chronic dietary administration. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in PFOS-induced hepatocellular hypertrophy are still not well characterized. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily gavaged with PFOS (1 or 10 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. Rat primary cultured Kupffer cells or hepatocytes were exposed to 100 μM PFOS for 0-48 h...
February 23, 2018: Chemosphere
Emma V Preston, Thomas F Webster, Emily Oken, Birgit Claus Henn, Michael D McClean, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Elizabeth N Pearce, Lewis E Braverman, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Sharon K Sagiv
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to some per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may disrupt maternal and neonatal thyroid function, which is critical for normal growth and neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations of PFAS exposure during early pregnancy with maternal and neonatal thyroid hormone levels. METHODS: We studied 732 mothers and 480 neonates in Project Viva, a longitudinal prebirth cohort in Boston, Massachusetts. We quantified six PFASs, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and maternal thyroid hormones [thyroxine (T4 ), Free T4 Index (FT4 I), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)] in plasma samples collected at a median 9...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Edmond Sanganyado, Imran Rashid Rajput, Wenhua Liu
Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) are chronically exposed to organic pollutants since they inhabit shallow coastal waters that are often impacted by anthropogenic activities. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing knowledge on the occurrence of organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, identify knowledge gaps, and offer recommendations for future research directions. We discussed the trends in the bioaccumulation of organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins focusing on sources, physicochemical properties, and usage patterns...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Wayne A O'Connor, Anthony Zammit, Michael C Dove, Gavin Stevenson, Matthew D Taylor
Following the discovery of potential chronic perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) contamination of Tilligerry Creek, Port Stephens (New South Wales Australia), sampling was undertaken to confirm the presence, extent and levels of contamination in commercial oyster crops of Sydney Rock Oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) and Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) grown within the estuary. Among a range of PFAS tested, only perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected. Concentrations of PFOS in oyster tissues for S. glomerata ranged from 1...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Hexing Wang, Jiaqi Yang, Hongyi Du, Linji Xu, Shuping Liu, Jianping Yi, Xu Qian, Yue Chen, Qingwu Jiang, Gengsheng He
BACKGROUND: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can affect glucose homeostasis and has been suggested as a potential risk of diabetes mellitus, but data are limited for pregnant women. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the associations of exposure to PFASs with glucose homeostasis and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese pregnant women. METHODS: The current study was conducted in Hebei Province of Northern China between 2013 and 2014 and 560 pregnant women were recruited in their early term of pregnancy and two representative serum PFASs, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were measured...
February 16, 2018: Environment International
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