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Maria H Harris, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Ana Maria Mora, Thomas F Webster, Emily Oken, Sharon K Sagiv
Certain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are suspected developmental toxicants, but data on PFAS concentrations and exposure routes in children are limited. We measured plasma PFASs in children aged 6-10 years from the Boston-area Project Viva pre-birth cohort, and used multivariable linear regression to estimate associations with sociodemographic, behavioral, and health-related factors, and maternal PFASs measured during pregnancy. PFAS concentrations in Project Viva children (sampled 2007-2010) were similar to concentrations among youth participants (aged 12-19 years) in the 2007-8 and 2009-10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); mean concentrations of most PFASs declined from 2007 to 2010 in Project Viva and NHANES...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Zhanyun Wang, Justin M Boucher, Martin Scheringer, Ian T Cousins, Konrad Hungerbuehler
Here a new global emission inventory of C4-C10 perfluoroalkanesulfonic acids (PFSAs) from the life cycle of perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride (POSF)-based products in 1958-2030 is presented. In particular, we substantially improve and expand the previous frameworks by incorporating missing pieces (e.g., emissions to soil through land treatment, overlooked precursors) and updating parameters (e.g., emission factors, degradation half-lives). In 1958-2015, total direct and indirect emissions of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) are estimated as 1228-4930 tonnes, and emissions of PFOS precursors are estimated as 1230-8738 and approximately 670 tonnes for x-perfluorooctanesulfonamides/sulfonamido ethanols (xFOSA/Es) and POSF, respectively...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Yanwei Liu, Ting Ruan, Yongfeng Lin, Aifeng Liu, Miao Yu, Runzeng Liu, Mei Meng, Yawei Wang, Jiyan Liu, Guibin Jiang
F-53B, the commercial product of chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs), has been used in Chinese chrome plating industry for 30 years, and was recently identified in the environment, which caused great concerns. So far, limited investigations have been performed on their environmental occurrence, fate and impact. In this study, we demonstrated the wide occurrence of Cl-PFESAs and their trophic transfer behavior in marine organisms from Chinese Bohai Sea. 6:2 Cl-PFESA (< 0.016-0.575 ng/g wet weight) was the dominant congener, and 8:2 Cl-PFESA (< 0...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
D Zacs, V Bartkevics
An analytical method was established and validated for the analysis of the most frequently monitored representatives among the group of perfluorinated compounds (PFAS), namely, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and prefluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in environmental samples (surface water, wastewater, sediments, sewage sludge, and biota). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Orbitrap-MS) employing a heated electrospray ionization (HESI) interface operated in negative mode was used for the quantitative determination of these contaminants...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Pingping Meng, Shubo Deng, Ziwen Du, Bin Wang, Jun Huang, Yujue Wang, Gang Yu, Baoshan Xing
Perfluorocarbon chain of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is not only hydrophobic but also oleophobic, and its effect on PFOS distribution in oil-water mixture and underlying mechanism are unclear. For the first time, we propose that PFOS can emulsify oil-water mixture only in the presence of air, completely different from hydrocarbon surfactants. The perfluorocarbon chain repels hydrophobic compounds and its oleophobicity increases with decreasing polarity of organic solvents. The formed emulsion in oil phase contains high concentrations of PFOS, resulting in PFOS decrease in water...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Meng Li, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Zhengmin Min Qian, Michael G Vaughn, Sébastien Sauvé, Gunther Paul, Shao Lin, Long Lu, Li-Wen Hu, Bo-Yi Yang, Yang Zhou, Xiao-Di Qin, Shu-Li Xu, Wen-Wen Bao, Ya-Zhi Zhang, Ping Yuan, Jia Wang, Chuan Zhang, Yan-Peng Tian, Min Nian, Xiang Xiao, Chuanxi Fu, Guang-Hui Dong
Prior investigations on the associations of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with fetal growth are mixed. Moreover, little research has accrued pertaining to the association between isomers of PFASs with gestational age and birth weight. To address this gap and present novel information, we conducted a study including 321 pairs of mothers and their infants recruited from Guangzhou, China. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to analyze isomers of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) along with other PFAS levels in cord serum samples...
March 12, 2017: Environment International
Lei-Lei Tang, Jia-Dan Wang, Ting-Ting Xu, Zhe Zhao, Jia-Jie Zheng, Ren-Shan Ge, Dan-Yan Zhu
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic contaminant that may cause cardiotoxicity in animals and humans. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism by which it affects the organelle toxicity in cardiomyocytes during the cardiogenesis. Our previous proteomic study showed that differences of protein expression mainly existed in mitochondria of cardiomyocytes differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells after exposure to PFOS. Here, we focused on mitochondrial toxicity of PFOS in ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes...
March 10, 2017: Toxicology
Sandra Rainieri, Nadia Conlledo, Tomaž Langerholc, Eneko Madorran, Martin Sala, Alejandro Barranco
This work aims at deepening the understanding of the mode of action of some of the most prominent perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) by detecting in a realistic way their effects. To this end, after adjusting the exposure media taking into account the biological model employed and the physico-chemical properties of PFCs, we evaluated the toxic effects of PFOA, PFOS and PFNA in a human macrophage cell line (TLT cells) and in zebrafish embryos. We performed such evaluation on individual compounds and mixtures. Acute toxicity was greater for PFOS in zebrafish; however, it was greater for PFNA in TLT cells...
March 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Hellmuth Lilienthal, Hermann H Dieter, Jürgen Hölzer, Michael Wilhelm
The detection of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface and drinking water from various countries raised the attention to the presence of these chemicals in environmental probes and led to several regulatory actions to limit exposure in human beings. There was particular concern about perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), due to their former wide-spread use. Recently, several institutions published revisions of former regulatory or recommended maximum concentrations in drinking water and food, which are markedly lower than the former values...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Andrea Kristina Weber, Larry B Barber, Denis R LeBlanc, Elsie M Sunderland, Chad David Vecitis
Growing evidence that certain poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are associated with negative human health effects prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to issue lifetime drinking water health advisories for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in 2016. Given that groundwater is a major source of drinking water, the main objective of this work was to investigate geochemical and hydrological processes governing the subsurface transport of PFASs at a former fire training area (FTA) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, where PFAS-containing aqueous film-forming foams were used historically...
March 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Mélanie Blanc, Anna Kärrman, Petr Kukucka, Nikolai Scherbak, Steffen Keiter
Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) are persistent organic pollutants of high concern because of their environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic properties. Besides, the amphiphilic properties of fluorinated compounds such as PFOS and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) suggest a role in increasing cell membrane permeability and solubilizing chemicals. The present study aimed at investigating whether PFOS and PFHxA are capable of modifying the activation of PCB126 toxicity-related pathways...
March 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
H Ge, E Yamazaki, N Yamashita, S Taniyasu, A Ogata, M Furuuchi
Seasonal and local characteristics of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) were examined using size-segregated particles including an ultrafine range. The examination included sampling and analysis of ambient particles collected at four sites located in different environments in three different countries, Japan (Kanazawa and Okinawa), Hong Kong and India. To minimize the evaporation artefacts derived from PFASs during the sampling, an air sampler that permitted particles smaller than 0.1 μm (PM0.1) to be separated at a moderate pressure drop (<5-15 kPa), was used for all of the air sampling procedures...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Mauro Ferri, Loredana Baldi, Stefania Cavallo, Roberta Pellicanò, Gianfranco Brambilla
The consumption habits of 766 Italian shooters (96% males, 4% females), on average 52 years old, have been investigated, in Italy, through the distribution of questionnaires delivered during shooters' attendance to training and teaching courses, in compliance with 853/2004/EC Regulation provisions on food hygiene. The most consumed wild species recorded were pheasant > woodcock > choke among feathered animals, and wild boar > hare > roe deer among mammals, respectively. An average of 100-200 g game per serving (four servings per month) was consumed, with highest intakes of 3000 g per month; meat, liver, and heart were the preferred food items...
March 8, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Sue Chang, Brian T Mader, Kent R Lindstrom, Cleston C Lange, Jill A Hart, Thomas A Kestner, Jay F Schulz, David J Ehresman, John L Butenhoff
Ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-perfluorooctanesulfonamide (EtFOSE) was one of the key building blocks for many of the perfluorooctanesulfonyl-based chemistry and laboratory studies have shown that EtFOSE can metabolically degrade to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). Non-occupational contribution sources to PFOS are thought to occur in general population via diets, drinking water, air and dust. For workers, however, the exposure route was mostly airborne and the exposure source was predominantly to precursor compounds such as EtFOSE...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Research
Jeong Hwan Oh, Eun-Young Kim, Youn Hee Choi, Taek-Jeong Nam
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a stable fluorosurfactant, which causes adverse effects in various organisms. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Pyropia yezoensis peptide (PYP), a peptide comprised of 11 residues (ALEGGKSSGGG), on PFOS-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in Chang cells. PFOS exposure (400 µM) for 24 h significantly decreased cell viability, which was upregulated by 250‑1,000 pg/ml PYP treatment. Exposure to PFOS also significantly increased expression of the ER stress response protein, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and phosphorylation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)...
March 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
G Sammut, E Sinagra, R Helmus, P de Voogt
The presence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in rain water on the Maltese Islands is reported here for the first time and an extensive survey of these substances in surface water also reported. The Maltese archipelago lies at the centre of the Mediterranean Sea and consists of three main inhabited islands: Malta, Gozo and Comino. Surface water was collected from 41 valleys during the months of February and March 2015 at the peak of the wet season. Rain water was collected during the months of December 2014, February, August, September and October 2015...
March 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Md Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md Kawser Ahmed, Mohammad Raknuzzaman, Md Saiful Islam, Mir Mohammad Ali, Masahiro Tokumura, Shigeki Masunaga
This study reports the first evidence of the occurrence of PFAAs in commonly consumed seafood from the coastal area of Bangladesh. Fifteen target PFAAs in 48 seafood samples (5 finfish and 2 shellfish species) were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. The ΣPFAAs in finfish and shellfish were in the range of 0.32-14.58 and 1.31-8.34 (ng/g wet weight), respectively. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in finfish (0.1-3.86ng/g ww), whereas perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in shellfish (0.07-2.39ng/g ww) were the most abundant PFAAs...
March 1, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Therese Haugdahl Nøst, Torkjel Manning Sandanger, Evert Nieboer, Jon Øyvind Odland, Knut Breivik
BACKGROUND: In this short communication, our focus is on the relationship between human concentrations of select persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and environmental emissions. It is based on a longitudinal study (1979-2007) conducted in Norway. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to extract general insights from observed and predicted temporal trends in human concentrations of 49 POPs to assist in the design and interpretation of future monitoring studies. DISCUSSION: Despite considerable decline for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) since 1986, the sum of the targeted POPs increased from 1979 until 2001, with per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) dominating recent blood burden measurements...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
John L Butenhoff, Geary W Olsen, Sue Chang
Perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (POSF) was a volatile starting material in the production of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a stable surfactant that has been extensively studied due to its ubiquitous environmental distribution and slow clearance in humans. Because the inhalation toxicity of POSF on repeated exposure has not been previously reported, the current study evaluated the inhalation toxicity of POSF at 30, 100, and 300ppm (v/v) in rats for up to 13 weeks with a four-week recovery period. The extent of PFOS formation was also measured because POSF hydrolyzed to form PFOS...
February 27, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Yangjie Li, Yating Cheng, Zhiyong Xie, Feng Zeng
In this study, eight perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) and five thyroid hormones (TSH, FT4, FT3, TGAb, and TMAb) were determined in 202 human serum samples of the general population of Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan provinces in southern China. Σ8PFASs concentrations ranged from 0.85 to 24.3 ng/mL with a mean value of 4.66 ng/mL. The PFASs composition profiles of human serum samples nearly make no difference at different locations. A significant increase was observed for ∑8PFASs, PFOS, and PFHxS concentrations with age (p < 0...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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