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Hilde B Lauritzen, Tricia L Larose, Torbjørn Øien, Torkjel M Sandanger, Jon Ø Odland, Margot van de Bor, Geir W Jacobsen
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), may influence offspring weight gain. More prospective epidemiological studies are needed to compliment the growing body of evidence from animal studies. METHODS: Serum from 412 pregnant Norwegian and Swedish women participating in a Scandinavian prospective cohort study were collected in 1986-88, and analyses of two perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and five organochlorines (OCs) were conducted...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Naoyuki Kishimoto, Koji Doda
Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis at the wavelength of 172 nm in a sulfate solution was introduced as a more efficient process for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) degradation than ultraviolet (UV) photolysis at 254 nm. The effects of pH and coexisting chemicals on VUV photolysis under the coexistence of 100 mM sulfate were investigated. VUV irradiation successfully degraded PFOS, and the degradation rate was 5.5 times higher than by UV photolysis. Direct VUV photolysis was inferred to mainly contribute to PFOS degradation...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Deanna P Scher, James E Kelly, Carin A Huset, Kitrina M Barry, Richard W Hoffbeck, Virginia L Yingling, Rita B Messing
The decades-long disposal of manufacturing waste containing perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in landfills resulted in contamination of groundwater serving as the drinking water supply for the eastern Twin Cities metropolitan region. While measures were taken to reduce the levels of PFAS in the drinking water, questions remained about possible non-drinking water pathways of exposure in these communities. The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) investigated whether PFAS in water used for yard and garden irrigation results in elevated concentrations of PFAS in soil and home-grown produce...
December 29, 2017: Chemosphere
Hawraa Ayoub, Thibault Roques-Carmes, Olivier Potier, Bachar Koubaissy, Steve Pontvianne, Audrey Lenouvel, Cédric Guignard, Emmanuel Mousset, Hélène Poirot, Joumana Toufaily, Tayssir Hamieh
In this paper, for the first time, faujasite Y zeolite impregnated with iron (III) was employed as a catalyst to remove a real cocktail of micropollutants inside real water samples from the Meurthe river by the means of the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process. The catalyst was prepared by the wet impregnation method using iron (III) nitrate nonahydrate as iron precursor. First, an optimization of the process parameters was conducted using phenol as model macro-pollutant. The hydrogen peroxide concentration, the light wavelength (UV and visible) and intensity, the iron loading immobilized, as well as the pH of the solution were investigated...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Qianqian Cui, Yitao Pan, Hongxia Zhang, Nan Sheng, Jianshe Wang, Yong Guo, Jiayin Dai
Research on perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) continues to grow. However, very little is known about these substances in amphibians. Here we report for the first time on the occurrence, tissue distribution, and bioaccumulation of two novel PFASs, chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acid (6:2 Cl-PFESA) and hexafluoropropylene oxide trimer acid (HFPO-TA), in the black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus) from China. Frogs from cities with large-scale fluorochemical industries had significantly greater liver ΣPFAS levels (mean 54...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Rahman Shah, Mannu Nayyar, Ion S Jovin, Abdul Rashid, Beatrix R Bondy, Tai-Hwang M Fan, Michael P Flaherty, Sunil V Rao
Background: The optimal strategy for preventing recurrent stroke in patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO) is unknown. Purpose: To compare transcatheter PFO closure with medical therapy alone for prevention of recurrent stroke in patients with PFO and cryptogenic stroke. Data Sources: PubMed and the Cochrane Library (without language restrictions) from inception to October 2017, reference lists, and abstracts from cardiology meetings...
January 9, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Han Liu, Qian Chen, Lei Lei, Wei Zhou, Lisu Huang, Jun Zhang, Dan Chen
Evidence has shown that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) at birth is related to the susceptibility to various diseases in later life and the setting of newborn LTL is influenced by the intrauterine environment. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), as a kind of persistent organic pollutants, are commonly used in commercial and domestic applications and are capable of crossing the maternal-fetal barrier during pregnancy. We hypothesized that intrauterine exposure to PFASs may affect fetal LTL by increasing oxidative stress...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Xiaomin He, Aimin Li, Shengyao Wang, Hao Chen, Zixin Yang
The occurrence of eight perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the surface sediments from 10 sampling sites spread across the Danjiangkou Reservoir was investigated by isotope dilution ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) after solid-phase extraction (SPE). All the sediments from the 10 sites contained detectable levels of PFCs. The total concentration of the target PFCs in each sediment sample (C∑PFCs) ranged from 0.270 to 0.395 ng g-1 of dry weight, and the mean value of C∑PFCs was 0...
January 7, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Shuyan Zhao, Tao Zhou, Lingyan Zhu, Bohui Wang, Ze Li, Liping Yang, Lifen Liu
N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) is an important perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) precursor (PreFOS) which is used in sulfluramid. The present work studied the uptake, translocation and metabolism of N-EtFOSA in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) by hydroponic exposure. Except for parent N-EtFOSA, its metabolites of perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (FOSAA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), PFOS, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) were detected in the roots and shoots of all the three plant species examined...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Kristen Lyall, Vincent M Yau, Robin Hansen, Martin Kharrazi, Cathleen K Yoshida, Antonia M Calafat, Gayle Windham, Lisa A Croen
BACKGROUND: Emerging work has examined neurodevelopmental outcomes following prenatal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), but few studies have assessed associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to estimate associations of maternal prenatal PFAS concentrations with ASD and intellectual disability (ID) in children. METHODS: Participants were from a population-based nested case-control study of children born from 2000 to 2003 in southern California, including children diagnosed with ASD (n=553), ID without autism (n=189), and general population (GP) controls (n=433)...
January 2, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Xiaowei He, Yuanxin Liu, Bo Xu, Liubao Gu, Wei Tang
Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) is associated with a range of adverse health effects. However, it remains unclear whether PFAS at environmentally relevant exposure levels are related to diabetes and metabolite concentrations in adults. Using cross-sectional data from 7904 adults (age≥20years) in the 2003-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we examined the association of PFAS with the prevalence of diabetes and metabolite concentrations. A multivariate logistic regression was applied to investigate the associations of diabetes prevalence with serum perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) levels...
December 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Chao Su, Yonglong Lu, Tieyu Wang, Xiaotian Lu, Shuai Song, Lei Li, Kifayatullah Khan, Chenchen Wang, Ruoyu Liang
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related substances are widely used in various industrial and commercial applications in China that ultimately discharge sufficient quantities of PFOS to the environment. It remains unclear how emissions of PFOS ultimately affect its concentrations as well as its fate in the environment. In this study, an improved Berkeley-Trent (BETR) multimedia model is developed to predict the PFOS levels with spatial and temporal distributions on unsteady state mode from 1981 to 2050, by taking the Bohai Rim of China as a case...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Min Sun, Hao Zhou, Bei Xu, Junxin Bao
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), which are widely used in industrial and residential areas, have a large negative impact on the environment. This study investigated the removal efficiency of five PFCs in a drinking water treatment plant. The results indicate that the total PFC concentration in raw water is 261.51 ng L-1 and that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are the predominant pollutants. Among all of the treatment processes, coagulation sedimentation process had the highest removal ratio of PFCs (36...
December 26, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Annette Fliedner, Heinz Rüdel, Nina Lohmann, Georgia Buchmeier, Jan Koschorreck
The study addresses the topic of suitable matrices for chemical analysis in fish monitoring and discusses the effects of data normalization in the context of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Differences between species are considered by comparing three frequently monitored species of different trophic levels, i.e., chub (Squalius cephalus, n = 28), (bream, Abramis brama, n = 11), and perch (Perca fluviatilis, n = 19) sampled in the German Danube. The WFD priority substances dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCDD/F + dl-PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), α-hexabromocyclododecane (α-HBCDD), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), mercury (Hg), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) as well as non-dioxin-like (ndl)-PCB were analyzed separately in fillet and carcass and whole body concentrations were calculated...
December 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Shuyan Zhao, Tao Zhou, Bohui Wang, Lingyan Zhu, Meng Chen, Dandan Li, Liping Yang
Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) is a precursor of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and can be broken down to PFOS in environment and biota. In the present work, PFOSA was spiked in soil and its biodegradation in soil, uptake and metabolism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were investigated. The results indicated that PFOSA could be biodegraded to highly stable PFOS, which has the same perfluorinated carbon chain length as PFOSA, by microbes in soil. PFOSA could be taken up by wheat root and earthworm from soil with higher bioaccumulation ability than PFOS...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Elise L Rush, Alison B Singer, Matthew P Longnecker, Line S Haug, Azemira Sabaredzovic, Elaine Symanski, Kristina W Whitworth
OBJECTIVE: Because oral contraceptives (OC) tends to lessen menstrual fluid loss - a route of excretion for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) - we hypothesized that such use would be positively associated with PFAS concentrations. METHODS: This analysis was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) study. We included 1090 women from two previous substudies of women enrolled from 2003 to 2007. Characteristics of OC use were obtained at baseline: use in the past 12months, duration and recency of use, age at first use...
December 19, 2017: Environment International
Gloria B Post, Jessie A Gleason, Keith R Cooper
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), a group of synthetic organic chemicals with industrial and commercial uses, are of current concern because of increasing awareness of their presence in drinking water and their potential to cause adverse health effects. PFAAs are distinctive among persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) contaminants because they are water soluble and do not break down in the environment. This commentary discusses scientific and risk assessment issues that impact the development of drinking water guidelines for PFAAs, including choice of toxicological endpoints, uncertainty factors, and exposure assumptions used as their basis...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
Diana Sanchez Garcia, Marcus Sjödin, Magnus Hellstrandh, Ulf Norinder, Violetta Nikiforova, Johan Lindberg, Emma Wincent, Åke Bergman, Ian Cotgreave, Vesna Munic Kos
Many chemicals accumulate in organisms through a variety of different mechanisms. Cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) accumulate in lysosomes and bind to membranes causing phospholipidosis, whereas many lipophilic chemicals target adipose tissue. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widely used as surfactants, but many of them are highly bioaccumulating and persistent in the environment, making them notorious environmental toxicants. Understanding the mechanisms of their bioaccumulation is, therefore, important for their regulation and substitution with new, less harmful chemicals...
December 14, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
Guohui Shi, Yu Xie, Yong Guo, Jiayin Dai
6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylbetaine (6:2 FTAB) is a major component of Forafac®1157, a novel perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) alternative used globally in aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs). Although 6:2 FTAB has been recently detected in the aquatic environment, its toxic effects on aquatic organisms remain unclear. Here, zebrafish embryos were exposed to various concentrations of 6:2 FTAB (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/L) from 6 to 120 h post-fertilization (hpf) to investigate its developmental toxicity and possible mechanism of action...
December 7, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Shiyi Zhang, Hui Peng, Di Mu, Haoqi Zhao, Jianying Hu
While (N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamido ethanol)-based phosphates (SAmPAPs) have been proposed as a group of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) precursors, investigation of their occurrence and fate has been limited to SAmPAP diester. In this study, SAmPAP diester and triester were simultaneously determined in freshwater sediment from Taihu Lake using a newly developed UPLC-MS/MS method, and their biotransformation to PFOS in lake sediment was investigated. SAmPAP diester and triester were detected in sediments with a detection frequency of 56% and 88%, and their mean concentrations were 0...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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