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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104511/serum-perfluoroalkyl-substances-in-children-exposed-to-the-world-trade-center-disaster
#1
Leonardo Trasande, Tony T Koshy, Joseph Gilbert, Lauren K Burdine, Teresa M Attina, Akhgar Ghassabian, Masato Honda, Michael Marmor, Dinh Binh Chu, Xiaoxia Han, Yongzhao Shao, Kurunthachalam Kannan
The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster released large amounts of various chemical substances into the environment, including perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Yet, no studies have examined exposures in children living or attending schools near the disaster site. We measured serum PFASs in WTC Health Registry (WTCHR) respondents who were ≤8 years of age on September 11, 2001 and a sociodemographically-matched comparison group. We also examined the relationship of PFASs levels with dust cloud exposure; home dust exposure, and with traumatic exposure, the latter to take into account differences related to possible mental health consequences and associated behavioral problems...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091990/revaluation-of-stockpile-amount-of-pfos-containing-aqueous-film-forming-foam-in-japan-gaps-and-pitfalls-in-the-stockpile-survey
#2
Yasuyuki Zushi, Atsushi Yamamoto, Kiyotaka Tsunemi, Shigeki Masunaga
Stockpiles of perfluoro-octane sulfonic acid (PFOS) containing aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) have the potential to be emitted by leaching, spills, and during use in fire response and other processes. Several studies have discussed the high levels of stockpiled PFOS-containing AFFF and the risk they pose to the environment; however, there are large gaps in the amounts in Japan compared with other countries. For example, 300 tons are stockpiled in Canada, 2200-2600 tons in Switzerland, 1400 tons in Norway, and 19,000 tons in Japan from their reports for publication...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091126/association-between-perfluoroalkyl-substance-exposure-and-asthma-and-allergic-disease-in-children-as-modified-by-mmr-vaccination
#3
Clara Amalie Gade Timmermann, Esben Budtz-Jørgensen, Tina Kold Jensen, Christa Elyse Osuna, Maria Skaalum Petersen, Ulrike Steuerwald, Flemming Nielsen, Lars K Poulsen, Pál Weihe, Philippe Grandjean
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly persistent chemicals that might be associated with asthma and allergy, but the associations remain unclear. Therefore, this study examined whether pre- and postnatal PFAS exposure was associated with childhood asthma and allergy. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination in early life may have a protective effect against asthma and allergy, and MMR vaccination is therefore taken into account when evaluating these associations. In a cohort of Faroese children whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy, serum concentrations of five PFASs - Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) - were measured at three timepoints (maternal serum in pregnancy week 34-36 and child serum at ages 5 and 13 years) and their association with immunoglobulin E (IgE) (cord blood and at age 7 years) and asthma/allergic diseases (questionnaires at ages 5 and 13 years and skin prick test at age 13 years) was determined...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089466/contaminants-of-emerging-concern-in-caspian-tern-compared-to-herring-gull-eggs-from-michigan-colonies-in-the-great-lakes-of-north-america
#4
Guanyong Su, Robert J Letcher, Jeremy N Moore, Lisa L Williams, Keith A Grasman
A broad suite of 87 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including 26 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 23 non-PBDEs halogenated FRs (NPHFRs), 16 organophosphate esters (OPEs), 4 perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), 13 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 5 emerging perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) or precursors, were determined in 30 individual Caspian tern (listed as a threatened species in the U.S. State of Michigan) eggs collected in 2013 and 2014 from Michigan nesting sites on Two Tree Island (St, Mary's River), Charity Reef (Saginaw Bay) and Channel-Shelter Island (a Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) in Saginaw Bay)...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080043/plasma-based-water-treatment-efficient-transformation-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-pfass-in-prepared-solutions-and-contaminated-groundwater
#5
Gunnar R Stratton, Fei Dai, Christopher L Bellona, Thomas M Holsen, Eric Reyvell Velazquez Dickenson, Selma Mededovic Thagard
A process based on electrical discharge plasma was tested for the transformation of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The plasma-based process was adapted for two cases, high removal rate and high removal efficiency. During a 30 minute treatment, the PFOA concentration in 1.4 L aqueous solutions was reduced by 90% with the high rate process (76.5 W input power) and 25% with the high efficiency process (4.1 W input power). Both achieved remarkably high PFOA removal and defluorination efficiencies compared to leading alternative technologies...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073630/adona-and-perfluoroalkylated-substances-in-plasma-samples-of-german-blood-donors-living-in-south-germany
#6
Hermann Fromme, Mandy Wöckner, Eike Roscher, Wolfgang Völkel
Perfluorinated compounds are fully fluorinated anthropogenic substances that have been used in various products, applications, and industrial processes. Due to their persistence and toxic effects, some of them are restricted, and therefore replacement products have been developed. The aim of the study was to quantify the body burden of different perfluorinated substances in two adult populations living close to or about 80km apart from a former perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) production plant who are exposed via drinking water, and in a control population...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073048/perfluoroalkyl-substances-and-fish-consumption
#7
Krista Y Christensen, Michelle Raymond, Michael Blackowicz, Yangyang Liu, Brooke A Thompson, Henry A Anderson, Mary Turyk
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are an emerging class of contaminants. Certain PFAS are regulated or voluntarily limited due to concern about environmental persistence and adverse health effects, including thyroid disease and dyslipidemia. The major source of PFAS exposure in the general population is thought to be consumption of seafood. OBJECTIVES: In this analysis we examine PFAS levels and their determinants, as well as associations between PFAS levels and self-reported fish and shellfish consumption, using a representative sample of the U...
January 7, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065522/perfluoroalkyl-substances-thyroid-hormones-and-neuropsychological-status-in-older-adults
#8
Srishti Shrestha, Michael S Bloom, Recai Yucel, Richard F Seegal, Robert Rej, Robert J McCaffrey, Qian Wu, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Edward F Fitzgerald
Minimal data exist regarding the neurotoxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aging populations and the possible mediating effects of thyroid hormones (THs). Hence, the aims of this study were to: (i) assess associations between PFASs and neuropsychological function, and (ii) determine if such associations are mediated by changes in circulating THs in an aging population. We measured perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) in serum and performed neuropsychological tests in 157 men and women aged 55-74 years and living in upper Hudson River communities...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063710/the-presence-of-mwcnts-reduces-developmental-toxicity-of-pfos-in-early-life-stage-of-zebrafish
#9
Shutao Wang, Changlu Zhuang, Jia Du, Chuan Wu, Hong You
Both carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used widely. There is considerable concern regarding their ecotoxicity. CNTs might interact with PFOS in water and result in different impacts compared with those after single exposures. To our knowledge, the developmental toxicity of PFOS in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the early life stage of zebrafish (from 3 h post fertilization (hpf) to 96 hpf) was investigated for the first time in this study. The embryos and larvae were exposed to PFOS (0...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058243/assessment-of-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-and-perfluorooctanoic-acid-exposure-through-fish-consumption-in-italy
#10
Andrea Barbarossa, Teresa Gazzotti, Federica Farabegoli, Francesca R Mancini, Elisa Zironi, Luca Busani, Giampiero Pagliuca
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are pollutants of anthropic origin with possible side effects on human health. Diet, and in particular fish and seafood, is considered the major intake pathway for humans. The present study investigated the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contamination in twenty-five samples of fresh fillet of five widely consumed fish species purchased from large retailers in Italy, to be used for an estimation of the Italian population exposure to these contaminants...
September 20, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057344/depuration-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-from-the-edible-tissues-of-wild-caught-invertebrate-species
#11
Matthew D Taylor, Karl C Bowles, Daniel D Johnson, Natalie A Moltschaniwskyj
Detection and quantification of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aquatic organisms is increasing, particularly for saltwater species. Depuration can remove PFASs from the tissues of some species once they are removed from the contaminant source, but it is not known if this process occurs for saltwater crustaceans. Such information is important for managing human health risks for exploited migratory species following exposure. We present the results of a depuration trial for School Prawn (Metapenaeus macleayi) and Mud Crab (Scylla serrata), two commercially important crustaceans in Australia...
January 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056448/dietary-predictors-and-plasma-concentrations-of-perfluorinated-alkyl-acids-in-a-singapore-population
#12
Yu Liu, Jin Su, Rob M van Dam, Kiesha Prem, Joey Y S Hoong, Li Zou, Yonghai Lu, Choon Nam Ong
Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), a family of man-made organofluorinated compounds, have drawn much attention due to their ubiquitous existence in the environment and their bioaccumulation potential. Here, we examined the plasma concentrations of thirteen PFAAs in a healthy population (N = 270) in Singapore, and investigated the association between major food groups and plasma PFAA concentrations. We detected eight types of PFAAs in more than 75% of all samples (N = 270), and their median concentrations ranged from 0...
December 26, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052194/per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-pfass-in-food-and-human-dietary-intake-a-review-of-the-recent-scientific-literature
#13
José L Domingo, Martí Nadal
Because of the important environmental presence and the potential human toxicity of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs), in recent years the social and scientific interest in these compounds has notably increased. Special attention has been paid to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the most extensively investigated PFASs. Although human exposure to PFASs may occur through different pathways, dietary intake seems to be the main route of exposure to these compounds...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049043/perfluoroalkyl-acids-induced-liver-steatosis-effects-on-genes-controlling-lipid-homeostasis
#14
Kaberi P Das, Carmen R Wood, Mimi J Lin, Anatoly A Starkov, Christopher Lau, Kendall B Wallace, J Christopher Corton, Barbara D Abbott
Persistent presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment is due to their extensive use in industrial and consumer products, and their slow decay. Biochemical tests in rodent demonstrated that these chemicals are potent modifiers of lipid metabolism and cause hepatocellular steatosis. However, the molecular mechanism of PFAAs interference with lipid metabolism remains to be elucidated. Currently, two major hypotheses are that PFAAs interfere with mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids and/or they affect the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in liver...
December 31, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040212/pollution-pathways-and-release-estimation-of-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-pfos-and-perfluorooctanoic-acid-pfoa-in-central-and-eastern-china
#15
Zhaoyang Liu, Yonglong Lu, Pei Wang, Tieyu Wang, Shijie Liu, Andrew C Johnson, Andrew J Sweetman, Yvette Baninla
China has gradually become the most important manufacturing and consumption centre for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the world, and inadvertently become the world's major contamination hotspots. However, a systematic analysis of pollution pathways for PFOS/PFOA into the different environmental compartments and their quantification in China has yet to be carried out. This study focused on PFOS and PFOA release into the environment in the central and eastern region of China, which accounts for the vast majority of national emission...
December 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032147/comparative-hepatotoxicity-of-6-2-fluorotelomer-carboxylic-acid-and-6-2-fluorotelomer-sulfonic-acid-two-fluorinated-alternatives-to-long-chain-perfluoroalkyl-acids-on-adult-male-mice
#16
Nan Sheng, Xiujuan Zhou, Fei Zheng, Yitao Pan, Xuejiang Guo, Yong Guo, Yan Sun, Jiayin Dai
Due to their structural similarities, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) and 6:2 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (6:2 FTCA) are often used as alternatives to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), respectively. With limited health risk data and 6:2 FTSA detection in water and sludge, the toxicity of these chemicals is of growing concern. Here, adult male mice were exposed with 5 mg/kg/day of 6:2 FTCA or 6:2 FTSA for 28 days to investigate their hepatotoxicological effects...
December 28, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029183/temporal-monitoring-of-pfos-accumulation-in-aquatic-biota-downstream-of-historical-aqueous-film-forming-foam-use-areas
#17
Heather A Lanza, Rebecca S Cochran, Joseph F Mudge, Adric D Olson, Brett R Blackwell, Jonathan D Maul, Christopher J Salice, Todd A Anderson
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have recently received increased research attention, particularly concerning aquatic organisms and in regions of exposure to Aqueous Film Forming Foams (AFFFs). Air Force bases historically applied AFFFs in the interest of fire training exercises and have since expressed concern for PFAS contamination in biota from water bodies surrounding former fire training areas. We monitored six PFASs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), in aquatic species from eight bayou locations at Barksdale Air Force Base in Bossier City, Louisiana over the course of one year...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024853/inferior-vena-cava-compression-as-a-novel-maneuver-to-detect-patent-foramen-ovale-a%C3%A2-transesophageal-echocardiographic-study
#18
Eiji Yamashita, Tomoyuki Murata, Eri Goto, Takeshi Fujiwara, Takehito Sasaki, Kentaro Minami, Kohki Nakamura, Koji Kumagai, Shigeto Naito, Kazuomi Kario, Shigeru Oshima
BACKGROUND: The Valsalva maneuver, the most sensitive test for patent foramen ovale (PFO) detection, is difficult during transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), especially after sedation. The aim of this study was to compare PFO detection effectiveness between inferior vena cava (IVC) compression and the Valsalva maneuver. METHODS: A total of 293 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation undergoing TEE before initial atrial fibrillation ablation were prospectively enrolled...
December 23, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024813/perfluoroalkyl-substances-and-thyroid-hormones-in-cord-blood
#19
Meng-Shan Tsai, Ching-Chun Lin, Mei-Huei Chen, Wu-Shiun Hsieh, Pau-Chung Chen
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are pollutants that tend to accumulate in the environment and organisms. The animal and human studies to date have focused on thyroid function, but the results are inconsistent. METHODS: A sample of 118 mother-infant pairs was obtained from the Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS). Cord blood PFASs levels were evaluated using the Waters ACQUITY UPLC system coupled with a Waters Quattro Premier XE triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, and cord blood thyroid hormones were assessed using a Roche Analytics E170 modular analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany)...
December 23, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013215/organic-anion-transporting-polypeptides-contribute-to-the-disposition-of-perfluoroalkyl-acids-in-humans-and-rats
#20
Wen Zhao, Jeremiah D Zitzow, Yi Weaver, David J Ehresman, Shu-Ching Chang, John L Butenhoff, Bruno Hagenbuch
Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) such as perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have very long serum elimination half-lives in humans, and preferentially distribute to serum and liver. The enterohepatic circulation of PFHxS and PFOS likely contributes to their extended elimination half-lives. We previously demonstrated that perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), PFHxS, and PFOS are transported into hepatocytes both in a sodium-dependent and a sodium-independent manner. We identified Na(+)/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) as the responsible sodium-dependent transporter...
December 24, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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