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Matteo Convertino, Timothy R Church, Geary W Olsen, Yang Liu, Eddie Doyle, Clifford R Elcombe, Anna L Barnett, Leslie M Samuel, Iain R MacPherson, Thomas R J Evans
A phase 1 dose-escalation trial assessed the chemotherapeutic potential of ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO). Forty-nine primarily solid-tumor cancer patients who failed standard therapy received weekly APFO doses (50mg-1200mg) for six-weeks. Clinical chemistries and plasma PFOA (anionic APFO) were measured pre-dose and weekly thereafter. Several clinical measures including total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and free thyroxine (fT4), relative to PFOA concentrations, were examined by: standard statistical analyses using general estimating equations (GEE) and a probabilistic analysis using probability distribution functions (pdf) at various PFOA concentrations; and a two-compartment pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model to directly estimate mean changes...
February 16, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Hexing Wang, Jiaqi Yang, Hongyi Du, Linji Xu, Shuping Liu, Jianping Yi, Xu Qian, Yue Chen, Qingwu Jiang, Gengsheng He
BACKGROUND: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can affect glucose homeostasis and has been suggested as a potential risk of diabetes mellitus, but data are limited for pregnant women. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the associations of exposure to PFASs with glucose homeostasis and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese pregnant women. METHODS: The current study was conducted in Hebei Province of Northern China between 2013 and 2014 and 560 pregnant women were recruited in their early term of pregnancy and two representative serum PFASs, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were measured...
February 16, 2018: Environment International
Juan Tang, Xiuying Jia, Nana Gao, Yingzhu Wu, Zhengquan Liu, Xiangjun Lu, Qiongxia Du, Jianbo He, Ning Li, Bin Chen, Jinxiao Jiang, Wenli Liu, Ying Ding, Weiqin Zhu, Hangjun Zhang
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is widely distributed in various environmental media and is toxic to organisms. This study demonstrated that PFOA induces hepatotoxicity in the frog and evaluated the role of CYP3A and the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway in regulating responses to PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity. Rana nigromaculata were exposed to 0, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, or 1 mg/L PFOA solutions in a static-renewal system for 14 days. Liver tissue samples were collected 24 h after the last treatment. Hepatic histology was observed by HE staining and transmission electron microscopy...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Young Ah Lee, Jin Hee Kim, Hae Woon Jung, Youn-Hee Lim, Sanghyuk Bae, Younglim Kho, Yun-Chul Hong, Choong Ho Shin, Sei Won Yang
The relationship between the serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) and growth parameters was investigated in 2-year-old Korean children. The study included 361 children aged 2years (192 boys and 169 girls; 22-27months), born at term appropriate-for-gestational-age, who visited between 2012 and 2013. Growth parameters of height and weight, and serum samples were collected from 2-year-old children. Four PFCs (perfluorohexane sulfonic acid [PFHxS], perfluorooctane sulfonic acid [PFOS], perfluorooctanoic acid [PFOA], and perfluorononanoic acid [PFNA]), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were detected in >99, 93...
February 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Gang Liu, Klodian Dhana, Jeremy D Furtado, Jennifer Rood, Geng Zong, Liming Liang, Lu Qi, George A Bray, Lilian DeJonge, Brent Coull, Philippe Grandjean, Qi Sun
BACKGROUND: The potential endocrine-disrupting effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been demonstrated in animal studies, but whether PFASs may interfere with body weight regulation in humans is largely unknown. This study aimed to examine the associations of PFAS exposure with changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight-loss setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the 2-year POUNDS Lost randomized clinical trial based in Boston, Massachusetts, and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, that examined the effects of energy-restricted diets on weight changes, baseline plasma concentrations of major PFASs were measured among 621 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years...
February 2018: PLoS Medicine
Yasong Li, Danielle P Oliver, Rai S Kookana
Widespread usage of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has caused major environmental contamination globally. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of PFASs affect the sorption behaviour and suggest organic carbon may not be the only factor affecting sorption. We reviewed the quality of all data published in peer-reviewed literature on sorption of PFASs to critically evaluate the role organic carbon (OC) and other properties have in sorption of PFASs in soils or sediments. The largest data sets available were for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, n = 147) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS, n = 178), and these analyses showed very weak correlations between sorption coefficient (Kd) and OC alone (R2 = 0...
February 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Quan Chi, Zhixiong Li, Juan Huang, Jieyao Ma, Xian Wang
The binding information of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) with bovine and human serum albumins was investigated and characterized in details by using a combination method of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and molecular docking (MD). The ESI-MS analysis revealed that maximally eight PFOA or PFOS molecules could bind to serum albumins at high mole ratios of PFOA/PFOS. Association constants were measured by ESI-MS and suggested that PFOS had a better binding affinity than PFOA...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Barbara J Henry, Joseph P Carlin, Jon A Hammerschmidt, Robert C Buck, L William Buxton, Heidelore Fiedler, Jennifer Seed, Oscar Hernandez
Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of fluorinated substances that are in the focus of researchers and regulators due to widespread presence in the environment and biota, including humans, of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Fluoropolymers, high molecular weight polymers within the PFAS group, have unique properties that constitute a distinct class within the PFAS group. Fluoropolymers have thermal, chemical, photochemical, hydrolytic, oxidative and biological stability...
February 9, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Xiaofei Song, Shaoyu Tang, Haimin Zhu, Zhiyuan Chen, Zhijun Zang, Yanan Zhang, Xiaojun Niu, Xiaojun Wang, Hua Yin, Feng Zeng, Chang He
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been suspected to act as endocrine disruptors and adversely affect human reproductive health. We aimed to investigate the association between PFAAs in blood and semen, explore a potential link between PFAAs exposure and semen quality in the population of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in China, one of the "world factories". The monitoring results demonstrated that the population (103 male participants) from the PRD region in this study had higher PFAAs levels in blood and semen than some other areas in China...
January 29, 2018: Environment International
Melissa I Gomis, Robin Vestergren, Daniel Borg, Ian T Cousins
Since 2000, long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their respective precursors have been replaced by numerous fluorinated alternatives. The main rationale for this industrial transition was that these alternatives were considered less bioaccumulative and toxic than their predecessors. In this study, we evaluated to what extent differences in toxicological effect thresholds for PFAAs and fluorinated alternatives, expressed as administered dose, were confounded by differences in their distribution and elimination kinetics...
January 28, 2018: Environment International
Itsaso Zabaleta, Ekhine Bizkarguenaga, Deborah B O Nunoo, Lara Schultes, Juliana Leonel, Ailette Prieto, Olatz Zuloaga, Jonathan P Benskin
N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA) is the active ingredient of Sulfluramid, a pesticide which is used extensively in South America for control of leaf-cutting ants. Despite being a known precursor to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), the importance of EtFOSA as a source of environmental PFOS remains unclear. In the present work, uptake, leaching, and biodegradation of EtFOSA and its transformation products were assessed over 81 days in soil/carrot (Daucus carota ssp sativus) mesocosms for the first time...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Changhui Liu, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
The immunotoxicity of 4 commonly detected perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), namely, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was investigated by measuring biomarkers of the immune profile of green mussels, Perna viridis. The biomarkers included neutral red retention, phagocytosis, and spontaneous cytotoxicity, all of which were tested on mussel hemocytes. Hemocytes are an important component of the invertebrate immune system...
February 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Changlong Wei, Qing Wang, Xin Song, Xing Chen, Renjun Fan, Da Ding, Yun Liu
Little research has been carried out for the per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in groundwater from non-industrial areas, even though it has been proved that PFASs can transport for long distance. In this study, the concentration profiles and geographical distribution of 14 PFASs, including two alternatives of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTS) and potassium 9-chlorohexadecafluoro-3-oxanonane-1-sulfonate (F-53B), were analyzed in groundwater samples (n = 102) collected from water wells in non-industrial areas...
February 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Xindi C Hu, Clifton Dassuncao, Xianming Zhang, Philippe Grandjean, Pál Weihe, Glenys M Webster, Flemming Nielsen, Elsie M Sunderland
BACKGROUND: Humans are exposed to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from diverse sources and this has been associated with negative health impacts. Advances in analytical methods have enabled routine detection of more than 15 PFASs in human sera, allowing better profiling of PFAS exposures. The composition of PFASs in human sera reflects the complexity of exposure sources but source identification can be confounded by differences in toxicokinetics affecting uptake, distribution, and elimination...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Hangbiao Jin, Guo Qiang Shan, Lingyan Zhu, Hongwen Sun, Yi Luo
Measurement of airborne perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is challenging, but important for understanding their atmospheric transport. Tree bark is a good media for monitoring semi-volatile compounds in the atmosphere. Whether it could work as an indicator of airborne PFAAs was firstly examined in this study. Bark and leaf samples collected around a Chinese fluorochemical manufacturing park (FMP) were analyzed for PFAAs and their branched isomers. Total PFAA concentrations (∑PFAAs) in the bark (mean, 279 ng/g dw) and leaf (250 ng/g dw) samples were comparable...
January 27, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Keika Adachi, Kaori Ohtani, Michio Kawano, Ravindra Pal Singh, Basit Yousuf, Kenji Sonomoto, Tohru Shimizu, Jiro Nakayama
Clostridium perfringens produces various exotoxins and enzymes that cause food poisoning and gas gangrene. The genes involved in virulence are regulated by the agr-like quorum sensing (QS) system, which consists of a QS signal synthesis system and a VirSR two-component regulatory system (VirSR TCS) which is a global regulatory system composed of signal sensor kinase (VirS) and response regulator (VirR). We found that the perfringolysin O gene (pfoA) was transiently expressed during mid-log phase of bacterial growth; its expression was rapidly shut down thereafter, suggesting the existence of a self-quorum quenching (sQQ) system...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Hilde B Lauritzen, Tricia L Larose, Torbjørn Øien, Torkjel M Sandanger, Jon Ø Odland, Margot van de Bor, Geir W Jacobsen
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), may influence offspring weight gain. More prospective epidemiological studies are needed to compliment the growing body of evidence from animal studies. METHODS: Serum from 412 pregnant Norwegian and Swedish women participating in a Scandinavian prospective cohort study were collected in 1986-88, and analyses of two perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and five organochlorines (OCs) were conducted...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Qian Chen, Rong Huang, Li Hua, Yifeng Guo, Lisu Huang, Yanjun Zhao, Xia Wang, Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been reported to suppress immune function. However, previous studies on prenatal exposure to PFASs and allergic disorders in offspring provided inconsistent results. We aimed to examine the association between prenatal exposure to PFASs and childhood atopic dermatitis (AD) in offspring up to 24 months of age. METHODS: A prospective birth cohort study involving 1056 pregnant women was conducted in two hospitals in Shanghai from 2012 to 2015...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Gang Du, Jinhong Sun, Yang Zhang
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is commonly applied in manufactured products, and its potential health risk is concerned greatly. Increasing evidences have indicated PFOA-induced liver dysfunction. However, detailed molecular mechanism has not been completely identified. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanical association between PFOA exposure and AKT pathway in white adipose tissue. As results, PFOA-treated mice showed increased blood glucose and insulin levels, and induced insulin resistance. In addition, serum levels of leptin and adiponectin in PFOA-treated mice were elevated...
January 16, 2018: Cytotechnology
Ji-Yun Ren, Xiao-Li Wang, Xiao-Li Li, Ming-Lin Wang, Ru-Song Zhao, Jin-Ming Lin
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs), which are a new type of carbonaceous polymeric material, have attracted great interest because of their large surface area and high chemical and thermal stability. However, to the best of our knowledge, no work has reported the use of magnetic COFs as adsorbents for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) to enrich and determine environmental pollutants. This work aims to investigate the feasibility of using covalent triazine-based framework (CTF)/Fe2O3 composites as MSPE adsorbents to enrich and analyze perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) at trace levels in water samples...
January 12, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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