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Clara Amalie Gade Timmermann, Esben Budtz-Jørgensen, Tina Kold Jensen, Christa Elyse Osuna, Maria Skaalum Petersen, Ulrike Steuerwald, Flemming Nielsen, Lars K Poulsen, Pál Weihe, Philippe Grandjean
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly persistent chemicals that might be associated with asthma and allergy, but the associations remain unclear. Therefore, this study examined whether pre- and postnatal PFAS exposure was associated with childhood asthma and allergy. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination in early life may have a protective effect against asthma and allergy, and MMR vaccination is therefore taken into account when evaluating these associations. In a cohort of Faroese children whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy, serum concentrations of five PFASs - Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) - were measured at three timepoints (maternal serum in pregnancy week 34-36 and child serum at ages 5 and 13 years) and their association with immunoglobulin E (IgE) (cord blood and at age 7 years) and asthma/allergic diseases (questionnaires at ages 5 and 13 years and skin prick test at age 13 years) was determined...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Gunnar R Stratton, Fei Dai, Christopher L Bellona, Thomas M Holsen, Eric Reyvell Velazquez Dickenson, Selma Mededovic Thagard
A process based on electrical discharge plasma was tested for the transformation of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The plasma-based process was adapted for two cases, high removal rate and high removal efficiency. During a 30 minute treatment, the PFOA concentration in 1.4 L aqueous solutions was reduced by 90% with the high rate process (76.5 W input power) and 25% with the high efficiency process (4.1 W input power). Both achieved remarkably high PFOA removal and defluorination efficiencies compared to leading alternative technologies...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Hermann Fromme, Mandy Wöckner, Eike Roscher, Wolfgang Völkel
Perfluorinated compounds are fully fluorinated anthropogenic substances that have been used in various products, applications, and industrial processes. Due to their persistence and toxic effects, some of them are restricted, and therefore replacement products have been developed. The aim of the study was to quantify the body burden of different perfluorinated substances in two adult populations living close to or about 80km apart from a former perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) production plant who are exposed via drinking water, and in a control population...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Krista Y Christensen, Michelle Raymond, Michael Blackowicz, Yangyang Liu, Brooke A Thompson, Henry A Anderson, Mary Turyk
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are an emerging class of contaminants. Certain PFAS are regulated or voluntarily limited due to concern about environmental persistence and adverse health effects, including thyroid disease and dyslipidemia. The major source of PFAS exposure in the general population is thought to be consumption of seafood. OBJECTIVES: In this analysis we examine PFAS levels and their determinants, as well as associations between PFAS levels and self-reported fish and shellfish consumption, using a representative sample of the U...
January 7, 2017: Environmental Research
Srishti Shrestha, Michael S Bloom, Recai Yucel, Richard F Seegal, Robert Rej, Robert J McCaffrey, Qian Wu, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Edward F Fitzgerald
Minimal data exist regarding the neurotoxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aging populations and the possible mediating effects of thyroid hormones (THs). Hence, the aims of this study were to: (i) assess associations between PFASs and neuropsychological function, and (ii) determine if such associations are mediated by changes in circulating THs in an aging population. We measured perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) in serum and performed neuropsychological tests in 157 men and women aged 55-74 years and living in upper Hudson River communities...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Andrea Barbarossa, Teresa Gazzotti, Federica Farabegoli, Francesca R Mancini, Elisa Zironi, Luca Busani, Giampiero Pagliuca
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are pollutants of anthropic origin with possible side effects on human health. Diet, and in particular fish and seafood, is considered the major intake pathway for humans. The present study investigated the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contamination in twenty-five samples of fresh fillet of five widely consumed fish species purchased from large retailers in Italy, to be used for an estimation of the Italian population exposure to these contaminants...
September 20, 2016: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Matthew D Taylor, Karl C Bowles, Daniel D Johnson, Natalie A Moltschaniwskyj
Detection and quantification of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aquatic organisms is increasing, particularly for saltwater species. Depuration can remove PFASs from the tissues of some species once they are removed from the contaminant source, but it is not known if this process occurs for saltwater crustaceans. Such information is important for managing human health risks for exploited migratory species following exposure. We present the results of a depuration trial for School Prawn (Metapenaeus macleayi) and Mud Crab (Scylla serrata), two commercially important crustaceans in Australia...
January 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yu Liu, Jin Su, Rob M van Dam, Kiesha Prem, Joey Y S Hoong, Li Zou, Yonghai Lu, Choon Nam Ong
Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), a family of man-made organofluorinated compounds, have drawn much attention due to their ubiquitous existence in the environment and their bioaccumulation potential. Here, we examined the plasma concentrations of thirteen PFAAs in a healthy population (N = 270) in Singapore, and investigated the association between major food groups and plasma PFAA concentrations. We detected eight types of PFAAs in more than 75% of all samples (N = 270), and their median concentrations ranged from 0...
December 26, 2016: Chemosphere
José L Domingo, Martí Nadal
Because of the important environmental presence and the potential human toxicity of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs), in recent years the social and scientific interest in these compounds has notably increased. Special attention has been paid to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the most extensively investigated PFASs. Although human exposure to PFASs may occur through different pathways, dietary intake seems to be the main route of exposure to these compounds...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kaberi P Das, Carmen R Wood, Mimi J Lin, Anatoly A Starkov, Christopher Lau, Kendall B Wallace, J Christopher Corton, Barbara D Abbott
Persistent presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment is due to their extensive use in industrial and consumer products, and their slow decay. Biochemical tests in rodent demonstrated that these chemicals are potent modifiers of lipid metabolism and cause hepatocellular steatosis. However, the molecular mechanism of PFAAs interference with lipid metabolism remains to be elucidated. Currently, two major hypotheses are that PFAAs interfere with mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids and/or they affect the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in liver...
December 31, 2016: Toxicology
Zhaoyang Liu, Yonglong Lu, Pei Wang, Tieyu Wang, Shijie Liu, Andrew C Johnson, Andrew J Sweetman, Yvette Baninla
China has gradually become the most important manufacturing and consumption centre for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the world, and inadvertently become the world's major contamination hotspots. However, a systematic analysis of pollution pathways for PFOS/PFOA into the different environmental compartments and their quantification in China has yet to be carried out. This study focused on PFOS and PFOA release into the environment in the central and eastern region of China, which accounts for the vast majority of national emission...
December 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Nan Sheng, Xiujuan Zhou, Fei Zheng, Yitao Pan, Xuejiang Guo, Yong Guo, Yan Sun, Jiayin Dai
Due to their structural similarities, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) and 6:2 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (6:2 FTCA) are often used as alternatives to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), respectively. With limited health risk data and 6:2 FTSA detection in water and sludge, the toxicity of these chemicals is of growing concern. Here, adult male mice were exposed with 5 mg/kg/day of 6:2 FTCA or 6:2 FTSA for 28 days to investigate their hepatotoxicological effects...
December 28, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Hong Chen, Xiaomeng Wang, Can Zhang, Ruijun Sun, Jianbo Han, Gengchen Han, Wenchao Yang, Xin He
Concentrations of 19 PFASs in riverwater, coastal wastewater and effluents from WWTPs which were directly discharged into the Bohai Sea of China were measured and their inputs to this sea area were calculated accordingly. For riverwater samples, the total PFAS concentrations ranged from 13.1 to 69 238 ng/L. PFAS levels in riverwater collected from Liaoning Province were comparable to those from Shandong Province, while they were two orders of magnitude greater than those from Hebei Province and the city of Tianjin...
February 2017: Environmental Pollution
Shuji Tsuda
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent environmental contaminants. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are representatives of PFASs. Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) set the health advisory level as 70 parts per trillion for lifetime exposure to PFOS and PFOA from drinking water, based on the EPA's 2016 Health Effects Support Documents. Then, a monograph on PFOA was made available online by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, where the agency classified PFOA as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2B)...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Lei Li, Tieyu Wang, Yajun Sun, Pei Wang, Baninla Yvette, Jing Meng, Qifeng Li, Yunqiao Zhou
The concentration of Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and the bacterial community composition along the Xiaoqing River were explored with HPLC-MS/MS and Illumina high-throughput sequencing in present study. The results showed that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAAs in all sediment samples, and high level of PFOA could lead to an evident increase in the abundance of Thiobacillus. Thiobacillus was identified with the survival ability in high concentrations of PFOA accordingly. Therefore, Thiobacillus thioparus and Thiobacillus denitrificans were selected as receptors to design indoor biosorption experiment...
December 13, 2016: Chemosphere
Hongna Zhang, Bei Wen, Xiaoyu Hu, Yali Wu, Ying Pan, Honglin Huang, Liu Liu, Shuzhen Zhang
Biotransformation of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) is widely considered as an additional source of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in environmental biota. Compared with the extensive studies conducted in animals and microbes, biotransformation pathways of FTOHs in plants are still unclear. In this study, a hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake, translocation and metabolism of 8:2 FTOH in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) over 144 h. 8:2 FTOH and its metabolites were found in all parts of soybean plants...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Cristina Bach, Xavier Dauchy, Virginie Boiteux, Adeline Colin, Jessica Hemard, Véronique Sagres, Christophe Rosin, Jean-François Munoz
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging contaminants that have been detected in the environment, biota, and humans. Drinking water is a route of exposure for populations consuming water contaminated by PFAS discharges. This research study reports environmental measurement concentrations, mass flows, and the fate of dozens of PFASs in a river receiving effluents from two fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities. In addition to quantified levels of PFASs using LC- and GC-MS analytical methods, the total amount of unidentified PFASs and precursors was assessed using two complementary analytical methods, absorbable organic fluorine (AOF) determination and oxidative conversion of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) precursors...
December 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dongmei Han, Matthew J Currell
Following recent rapid industrialization, China is now one of the largest producers and consumers of organic chemicals in the world. This is compounded by variable regulatory oversight with respect to storage, use and waste management of these chemicals and their byproducts. This review synthesizes the data on the distribution of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in waters in China. Surface water heavily polluted with POPs is distributed in the Yangtze River Estuary, Pearl River Delta, Minjiang River Estuary, Jiulongjiang Estuary, Daya Bay, Taihu Lake, and the waterways of Zhejiang Province, where concentrations of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) frequently exceed both international and Chinese guideline values...
December 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Apisara Boonya-Atichart, Suwanna Kitpati Boontanon, Narin Boontanon
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is very persistent in the environment and resistant to typical degradation processes. PFOA has been widely used in surface-active agents and as an emulsifier in several products and can contaminate groundwater. Groundwater is considered as an important source of water; hence removal of PFOA contamination in groundwater is needed. This study aimed to examine the removal of PFOA in spiked deionized water and spiked groundwater samples by nanofiltration (NF) membrane. PFOA removal efficiency was performed by using NF membrane and all samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS)...
December 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
N E Lankhorst, J Damen, E H Oei, J A N Verhaar, M Kloppenburg, S M A Bierma-Zeinstra, M van Middelkoop
OBJECTIVE: To examine the proportion of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA) compared to tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (TFOA) in middle-aged participants with early osteoarthritis (OA) symptoms of the knee; to describe the natural course of PFOA compared with that of TFOA and to identify whether patients with PFOA have a different phenotype compared to patients with TFOA, or with combined PFOA and TFOA (combined osteoarthritis (COA)). DESIGN: Participants with early OA symptoms of the knee were selected, completed questionnaires, underwent physical examination, and had knee radiographs at baseline, and at 2 and 5 years follow-up...
December 9, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
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