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Wolf Petersen, Ingo Rembitzki, Christian Liebau
Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a frequent cause of anterior knee pain in athletes, which affects patients with and without structural patellofemoral joint (PFJ) damage. Most younger patients do not have any structural changes to the PFJ, such as an increased Q angle and a cartilage damage. This clinical entity is known as patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Older patients usually present with signs of patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA). A key factor in PFPS development is dynamic valgus of the lower extremity, which leads to lateral patellar maltracking...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Samantha L Kingsley, Karl T Kelsey, Rondi Butler, Aimin Chen, Melissa N Eliot, Megan E Romano, Andres Houseman, Devin C Koestler, Bruce P Lanphear, Kimberly Yolton, Joseph M Braun
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a perfluoroalkyl substance, is commonly detected in the serum of pregnant women and may impact fetal development via epigenetic re-programming. In a pilot study, we explored associations between serum PFOA concentrations during pregnancy and offspring peripheral leukocyte DNA methylation at delivery in women with high (n = 22, range: 12-26ng/mL) and low (n = 22, range: 1.1-3.1ng/mL) PFOA concentrations. After adjusting for cell type, child sex, and income, we did not find differences in CpG methylation in the two exposure groups that reached epigenome-wide significance...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Research
Rachel Rogers Worley, Susan McAfee Moore, Bruce C Tierney, Xiaoyun Ye, Antonia M Calafat, Sean Campbell, Million B Woudneh, Jeffrey Fisher
BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are considered chemicals of emerging concern, in part due to their environmental and biological persistence and the potential for widespread human exposure. In 2007, a PFAS manufacturer near Decatur, Alabama notified the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) it had discharged PFAS into a wastewater treatment plant, resulting in environmental contamination and potential exposures to the local community. OBJECTIVES: To characterize PFAS exposure over time, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) collected blood and urine samples from local residents...
June 20, 2017: Environment International
Zuoqing Yuan, Jianyong Zhang, Lili Zhao, Jing Li, Hongbin Liu
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are the two best-known perfluorinated chemicals and have received much attention due to their ubiquity in the environment. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of PFOS and PFOA on acute toxicity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and cellulase activities in Eisenia fetida. The results of acute toxicity testing using a filter paper contact test and a natural field soil test showed that PFOA and PFOS exhibited acute toxicity in earthworms, and the toxic effect of PFOS was greater than that of PFOA...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dilek Eke, Ayla Çelik, Mehmet Bertan Yilmaz, Nurcan Aras, Sabriye Kocatürk Sel, Davut Alptekin
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) such as PFOS and PFOA, are xenobiotics that can be detected worldwide in the environment and humans. PFOS (C8F17SO3(-)) is a fluorinated organic compound has been used for decades in industrial and commercial products. We investigated the genotoxic and apoptotic impact of PFOS in rat liver using comet assay, micronucleus test and apoptotic gene expression methods for caspase 3, caspase 8 and the protective role of curcumin on the PFOS- induced damage under chronic exposure. In this study, rats were treated either with three different PFOS doses only (0...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mónica Bartolomé, Alejandrina Gallego-Picó, Francisco Cutanda, Olga Huetos, Marta Esteban, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Argelia Castaño
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are widely found in humans and the environment. Their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity make them a source of increasing public health concern. In this study, we analyzed the concentrations and geographical distribution of six PFAS in the serum of 755 Spanish adults aged 18-65. The geometric mean concentrations (and P95 values) for PFOS (perfluoroctane sulfonate), PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFNA (perfluorononanoic acid) and PFDA (perfluorodecanoic acid) were 7...
June 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Rebecca Siebenaler, Rochelle Cameron, Craig M Butt, Kate Hoffman, Christopher P Higgins, Heather M Stapleton
The ubiquitous use of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a variety of industrial and consumer products has resulted in chronic exposure in most industrialized nations, and led to measurable concentrations in blood and other tissues in humans across all life stages; however, behavioral attributes that relate to exposure are not well studied. To further investigate how behavior may relate to PFAS exposure, 37 adults were recruited from central North Carolina. Participants provided blood samples and behavioral questionnaires were administered, asking questions about a variety of household, dietary, and behavioral outcomes...
June 9, 2017: Chemosphere
Eva Negri, Francesca Metruccio, Valentina Guercio, Luca Tosti, Emilio Benfenati, Rossella Bonzi, Carlo La Vecchia, Angelo Moretto
Toxicological and epidemiological evidence on the association between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) or perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and birth/fetal weight was assessed. An extensive search for toxicological information in rats and mice, and a systematic search for epidemiological evidence were conducted. The linear regression coefficient (LRC) of birth weight (BrthW) on PFOA/PFOS was considered, and separate random effects meta-analyses for untransformed (i.e. not mathematically transformed) and log-transformed values were performed...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Maria Wielsøe, Peder Kern, Eva Cecilie Bonefeld-Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: Environmental Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) can alter the hormone homeostasis by mimicking, interfering or blocking the function of hormones; moreover POPs are hypothesized to modify the risk of breast cancer. The association between POPs and breast cancer has been widely studied but the conclusions are inconsistent. The present study examined the associations between serum levels of POPs and breast cancer with focus on the highly exposed Greenlandic Inuit population...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Xiaofei Wang, Liangpo Liu, Weibing Zhang, Jie Zhang, Xiaoyan Du, Qingyu Huang, Meiping Tian, Heqing Shen
Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have linked perfluorinated compound (PFC) exposure with metabolic interruption, but the inter-species difference and high treatment doses usually make the results difficult to be extrapolated to humans directly. The best strategy for identifying the metabolic interruption may be to establish the direct correlations between monitored PFCs data and metabolic data on human samples. In this study, serum metabolome data and PFC concentrations were acquired for a Chinese adult male cohort...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Meng Zhao, Qixiao Jiang, Wencheng Wang, Min Geng, Meng Wang, Yantao Han, Chunbo Wang
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an environmental contaminant that could induce developmental cardiotoxicity in a chicken embryo, which may be alleviated by l-carnitine. To explore the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in such changes and the potential effects of l-carnitine, fertile chicken eggs were exposed to PFOA via an air cell injection, with or without l-carnitine co-treatment. The ROS and NO levels in chicken embryo hearts were determined with electron spin resonance (ESR), and the protein levels of the nuclear factor κ-light chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in chicken embryo hearts were assessed with western blotting...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mandu Inyang, Eric R V Dickenson
Bench- and pilot-scale sorption tests were used to probe the performance of several biochars at removing perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) from field waters, compared to granular activated carbon (GAC). Screening tests using organic matter-free water resulted in hardwood (HWC) (Kd = 41 L g(-1)) and pinewood (PWC) (Kd = 49 L g(-1)) biochars having the highest perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) removal performance that was comparable to bituminous coal GAC (Kd = 41 L g(-1)). PWC and HWC had a stronger affinity for PFOA sorbed in Lake Mead surface water (KF = 11 mg((1-n)) L(n) g(-1)) containing a lower (2 mg L(-1)) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration than in a tertiary-filtered wastewater (KF = 8 mg((1-n)) L(n) g(-1)) with DOC of 4...
May 30, 2017: Chemosphere
Hongbo Yang, Guihong Li, Zhu Rao, Feng Guo, Zhanbin Li, Feng Xie, Hong Tan
A systematic examination was conducted for the first time of a wide carbon-chain range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFASs) in eighty-three samples of edible vegetable and animal oils from Guiyang, China. The occurrence and levels of 18 PFASs in 7 types of edible oil were analyzed. Analytes were determined based on a simplified, sensitive and reliable solvent extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Ten target PFASs were found and the most frequently detected compounds with maximum concentration were PFOS (88%, 1...
June 6, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Xin Xiao, Bridget A Ulrich, Baoliang Chen, Christopher P Higgins
Despite growing concerns about human exposure to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), other poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) derived from aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) have garnered little attention. While these other PFASs may also be present in AFFF-impacted drinking water, their removal by conventional drinking-water treatment is poorly understood. This study compared the removal of 30 PFASs, including 13 recently discovered PFASs, from an AFFF-impacted drinking water using carbonaceous sorbents (i...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Mitchell B Rosen, Kaberi P Das, John Rooney, Barbara Abbott, Christopher Lau, J Christopher Corton
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants. Compounds such as perfluoroocanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) are readily found in the tissues of humans and wildlife. While PFOA and PFOS have been the subject of numerous studies since they were first described over a decade ago, less is known about the biological activity of PFHxS and PFNA. Most PFAAs are activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), although the biological effects of these compounds are likely mediated by other factors in addition to PPARα...
May 27, 2017: Toxicology
Zhaoyang Liu, Yonglong Lu, Yajuan Shi, Pei Wang, Kevin Jones, Andrew J Sweetman, Andrew C Johnson, Meng Zhang, Yunqiao Zhou, Xiaotian Lu, Chao Su, Suriyanarayanan Sarvajayakesavaluc, Kifayatullah Khan
Significant quantities of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are released to the environment from fluorochemical manufacturing processes through wastewater discharge and air emission in China, which may lead to human exposure and health risks through crop bioaccumulation from PFAAs-contaminated soil and irrigation water. This paper systematically studied the distribution and transport of PFAAs in agricultural soil, irrigation water and precipitation, followed by crop bioaccumulation and finally human exposure of PFAAs within a 10km radius around a mega-fluorochemical industrial park (FIP)...
May 27, 2017: Environment International
Leilei Xiao, Yuhan Ling, Alaaeddin Alsbaiee, Chenjun Li, Damian E Helbling, William R Dichtel
Per- and poly fluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs), notably perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), contaminate many ground and surface waters and are environmentally persistent. The performance limitations of existing remediation methods motivate efforts to develop effective adsorbents. Here we report a β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-based polymer network with higher affinity for PFOA compared to powdered activated carbon, along with comparable capacity and kinetics. The β-CD polymer reduces PFOA concentrations from 1 μg L(-1) to <10 ng L(-1), at least 7 times lower than the 2016 U...
May 30, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Osamu Kimura, Yukiko Fujii, Koichi Haraguchi, Yoshihisa Kato, Chiho Ohta, Nobuyuki Koga, Tetsuya Endo
The mechanism underlying the intestinal absorption of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was investigated using Caco-2 cells. The uptake of PFOA from the apical membrane of Caco-2 cells was fast, and pH, temperature, and concentration dependent, but Na(+) independent. Coincubation with sulfobromophthalein (BSP), glibenclamide, estron-3-sulfate, cyclosporine A or rifamycin SV, which are typical substrates or inhibitors of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), significantly decreased the uptake of PFOA...
May 25, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Y M Wong, R Li, C K F Lee, H T Wan, Chris K C Wong
Our previous study in 2011 reported the detection of BPA and PFAAs in 20 species of marine and freshwater fishes. With an emerging evidence to suggest the metabolic-disrupting effects of BPA/PFAAs in animals, the present study was aimed to provide a time-trend analysis to determine the current concentrations of PFAAs and BPA in 20 commercially available Hong Kong species of fishes. Since the manufacture and use of BPA is being prohibited in most nations, the introduction of BPA alternatives has recently been incorporated in the markets...
May 25, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Renai Xu, Qiuxia Shen, Senlin Li, Xiaojun Li, Huitao Li, Yao Lü, Qing-Quan Lian, Ren-Shan Ge
Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctyl sulphonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane acid (PFOA), have been classified as persistent organic pollutants and are known to cause endocrine-disrupting effects in humans. The objective of the present study was to compare the potencies of four different PFASs, PFOS, PFOA, perfluorohexyl sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorobutyl sulfonate (PFBS), to inhibit neurosteroidogenic 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1), 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C9), and retinol dehydrogenase 2 (RoDH2) in rats...
June 25, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
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