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Maria H Harris, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Ana Maria Mora, Thomas F Webster, Emily Oken, Sharon K Sagiv
Certain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are suspected developmental toxicants, but data on PFAS concentrations and exposure routes in children are limited. We measured plasma PFASs in children aged 6-10 years from the Boston-area Project Viva pre-birth cohort, and used multivariable linear regression to estimate associations with sociodemographic, behavioral, and health-related factors, and maternal PFASs measured during pregnancy. PFAS concentrations in Project Viva children (sampled 2007-2010) were similar to concentrations among youth participants (aged 12-19 years) in the 2007-8 and 2009-10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); mean concentrations of most PFASs declined from 2007 to 2010 in Project Viva and NHANES...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
D Zacs, V Bartkevics
An analytical method was established and validated for the analysis of the most frequently monitored representatives among the group of perfluorinated compounds (PFAS), namely, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and prefluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in environmental samples (surface water, wastewater, sediments, sewage sludge, and biota). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Orbitrap-MS) employing a heated electrospray ionization (HESI) interface operated in negative mode was used for the quantitative determination of these contaminants...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Jing Meng, Yonglong Lu, Tieyu Wang, Pei Wang, John P Giesy, Andrew J Sweetman, Qifeng Li
China has been the largest producer and emitter of perfluorooctanoic acid and its salts (PFOA/PFO). However, the flows of PFOA/PFO from manufacture and application to the environment are indistinct, especially flows from waste treatment sites to the environment. Here, a life cycle analysis of PFOA/PFO is conducted in which all major flows of PFOA/PFO have been characterized for 2012. Processes related to uses and possible releases of PFOA/PFO include manufacture and use, waste management, and environmental storage...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Meng Li, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Zhengmin Min Qian, Michael G Vaughn, Sébastien Sauvé, Gunther Paul, Shao Lin, Long Lu, Li-Wen Hu, Bo-Yi Yang, Yang Zhou, Xiao-Di Qin, Shu-Li Xu, Wen-Wen Bao, Ya-Zhi Zhang, Ping Yuan, Jia Wang, Chuan Zhang, Yan-Peng Tian, Min Nian, Xiang Xiao, Chuanxi Fu, Guang-Hui Dong
Prior investigations on the associations of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with fetal growth are mixed. Moreover, little research has accrued pertaining to the association between isomers of PFASs with gestational age and birth weight. To address this gap and present novel information, we conducted a study including 321 pairs of mothers and their infants recruited from Guangzhou, China. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to analyze isomers of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) along with other PFAS levels in cord serum samples...
March 12, 2017: Environment International
Sandra Rainieri, Nadia Conlledo, Tomaž Langerholc, Eneko Madorran, Martin Sala, Alejandro Barranco
This work aims at deepening the understanding of the mode of action of some of the most prominent perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) by detecting in a realistic way their effects. To this end, after adjusting the exposure media taking into account the biological model employed and the physico-chemical properties of PFCs, we evaluated the toxic effects of PFOA, PFOS and PFNA in a human macrophage cell line (TLT cells) and in zebrafish embryos. We performed such evaluation on individual compounds and mixtures. Acute toxicity was greater for PFOS in zebrafish; however, it was greater for PFNA in TLT cells...
March 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Hellmuth Lilienthal, Hermann H Dieter, Jürgen Hölzer, Michael Wilhelm
The detection of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface and drinking water from various countries raised the attention to the presence of these chemicals in environmental probes and led to several regulatory actions to limit exposure in human beings. There was particular concern about perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), due to their former wide-spread use. Recently, several institutions published revisions of former regulatory or recommended maximum concentrations in drinking water and food, which are markedly lower than the former values...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Andrea Kristina Weber, Larry B Barber, Denis R LeBlanc, Elsie M Sunderland, Chad David Vecitis
Growing evidence that certain poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are associated with negative human health effects prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to issue lifetime drinking water health advisories for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in 2016. Given that groundwater is a major source of drinking water, the main objective of this work was to investigate geochemical and hydrological processes governing the subsurface transport of PFASs at a former fire training area (FTA) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, where PFAS-containing aqueous film-forming foams were used historically...
March 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Jana H Johansson, Urs Berger, Ian T Cousins
Experimental work was undertaken to test whether gaseous perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) sorbs to glass fibre filters (GFFs) during air sampling, causing an incorrect measure of the gas-particle equilibrium distribution. Furthermore, tests were performed to investigate whether deactivation by siliconisation prevents sorption of gaseous PFOA to filter materials. An apparatus was constructed to closely simulate a high-volume air sampler, although with additional features allowing introduction of gaseous test compounds into an air stream stripped from particles...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
H Ge, E Yamazaki, N Yamashita, S Taniyasu, A Ogata, M Furuuchi
Seasonal and local characteristics of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) were examined using size-segregated particles including an ultrafine range. The examination included sampling and analysis of ambient particles collected at four sites located in different environments in three different countries, Japan (Kanazawa and Okinawa), Hong Kong and India. To minimize the evaporation artefacts derived from PFASs during the sampling, an air sampler that permitted particles smaller than 0.1 μm (PM0.1) to be separated at a moderate pressure drop (<5-15 kPa), was used for all of the air sampling procedures...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Qi Luo, Zunyao Wang, Mingbao Feng, Dora Chiang, David Woodward, Shangtao Liang, Junhe Lu, Qingguo Huang
This study investigated the factors that regulated the degradation of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in laccase-catalyzed oxidative humification reactions with 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) as a mediator. The reaction rates were examined under conditions with key factors varied, including initial PFOA concentrations, laccase and HBT dosages, and the ionic contents of the reaction solutions. The PFOA degradation followed pseudo-first order kinetics, and the rate constants (k) were similar for the high (100 μmol L(-1)) and low (1...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Yukiko Fujii, Kouji H Harada, Koichi Haraguchi, Akio Koizumi
We investigated temporal changes of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with 8-14 carbon atoms (C8 to C14) in duplicate diet and serum samples in Japan. The sum dietary intakes of PFCAs (C8 to C13) in the Kansai and Tohoku region were highest in the 2010s (mean; 177 ng/day for Kansai, 107 ng/day for Tohoku) followed by the 2000s (77 ng/day for Kansai, 34 ng/day for Tohoku) and the 1990s (53 ng/day for Kansai, 58 ng/day for Tohoku), then the 1980s (19 ng/day for Kansai, 23 ng/day for Tohoku). The sum of the serum concentartions (C8 to C13) was also highest in the 2010s (mean; 17 ng/mL for Kansai, 7...
February 17, 2017: Chemosphere
Eduard Rogatsky, Colleen O'Hehir, James Daly, Amelie Tedesco, Richard Jenny, Kenneth Aldous
A simple method for determination of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from human serum by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and utilizing high-throughput sample preparation was developed by New York State Public Health Emergency Preparedness Laboratory and used for biomonitoring studies. 50μl of serum was mixed with a 0.4ml of acetonitrile containing isotopically labeled internal standard, followed by phospholipid removal/protein precipitation. The extract was partially dried and analyzed by LC/MS/MS...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
G Sammut, E Sinagra, R Helmus, P de Voogt
The presence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in rain water on the Maltese Islands is reported here for the first time and an extensive survey of these substances in surface water also reported. The Maltese archipelago lies at the centre of the Mediterranean Sea and consists of three main inhabited islands: Malta, Gozo and Comino. Surface water was collected from 41 valleys during the months of February and March 2015 at the peak of the wet season. Rain water was collected during the months of December 2014, February, August, September and October 2015...
March 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Md Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md Kawser Ahmed, Mohammad Raknuzzaman, Md Saiful Islam, Mir Mohammad Ali, Masahiro Tokumura, Shigeki Masunaga
This study reports the first evidence of the occurrence of PFAAs in commonly consumed seafood from the coastal area of Bangladesh. Fifteen target PFAAs in 48 seafood samples (5 finfish and 2 shellfish species) were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. The ΣPFAAs in finfish and shellfish were in the range of 0.32-14.58 and 1.31-8.34 (ng/g wet weight), respectively. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in finfish (0.1-3.86ng/g ww), whereas perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in shellfish (0.07-2.39ng/g ww) were the most abundant PFAAs...
March 1, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Gabriella Cavallini, Alessio Donati, Michele Taddei, Ettore Bergamini
Like mitochondria, peroxisomes produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), compounds which have been implicated to play an important role in many degenerative diseases and aging itself, and an exaggerated ROS production might occur in altered or older organelles. Growing evidence shows that autophagy, a required function in cell housekeeping during fasting, can remove damaged macromolecules, organelles, and membranes selectively. Proliferation of peroxisomes can be enhanced in liver cells by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which causes a marked increase of the Acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX) activity and no significant change in urate oxidase (UOX) activity...
March 2, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Yangjie Li, Yating Cheng, Zhiyong Xie, Feng Zeng
In this study, eight perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) and five thyroid hormones (TSH, FT4, FT3, TGAb, and TMAb) were determined in 202 human serum samples of the general population of Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan provinces in southern China. Σ8PFASs concentrations ranged from 0.85 to 24.3 ng/mL with a mean value of 4.66 ng/mL. The PFASs composition profiles of human serum samples nearly make no difference at different locations. A significant increase was observed for ∑8PFASs, PFOS, and PFHxS concentrations with age (p < 0...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zhanyun Wang, Jamie C DeWitt, Christopher P Higgins, Ian T Cousins
More than 3000 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are, or have been, on the global market, yet most research and regulation continues to focus on a limited selection of rather well-known long-chain PFASs, particularly perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and their precursors. Continuing to overlook the vast majority of other PFASs is a major concern for society. We provide recommendations for how to proceed with research and cooperation to tackle the vast number of PFASs on the market and in the environment...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Jia Bao, Li Liu, Xin Wang, Yi-He Jin, Guang-Hui Dong
Severe perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) contaminations have been observed in both surface water and groundwater in the vicinity of Fuxin, China, over the past years, attributing to the fast-growing fluorochemical industries locally. However, little is known about the overall daily intake of PFAS contaminations by Fuxin residents recently. In the present study, ten target PFAS analytes in the blood serum samples collected from 100 non-occupationally exposed healthy residents in Fuxin, with an average age of 47...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yilu Chen, Ling Zhou, Jingjie Xu, Lu Zhang, Mo Li, Xingxing Xie, Yajuan Xie, Dan Luo, Dalei Zhang, Xiaochun Yu, Bei Yang, Haibin Kuang
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a synthetic perfluorinated compound, which has been reported to exert adverse effect on the pregnancy. However, whether it is associated with alteration of luteal function remains unknown. Mice were administered PFOA by gavage from gestational days (GD) 1-7 or 13. PFOA treatment did not significantly affect numbers of embryo implantation. Nevertheless, on GD 13, 10mg/kg PFOA treatment significantly increased numbers of resorbed embryo. Furthermore, PFOA exposure markedly reduced serum progesterone levels but did not affect estradiol levels...
February 20, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Xianming Zhang, Rainer Lohmann, Clifton Dassuncao, Xindi C Hu, Andrea K Weber, Chad D Vecitis, Elsie M Sunderland
Exposure to poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. Understanding pollution sources is essential for environmental regulation but source attribution for PFASs has been confounded by limited information on industrial releases and rapid changes in chemical production. Here we use principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering, and geospatial analysis to understand source contributions to 14 PFASs measured across 37 sites in the Northeastern United States in 2014...
September 13, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology Letters
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