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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228948/health-system-frameworks-and-performance-indicators-in-eight-countries-a-comparative-international-analysis
#1
Jeffrey Braithwaite, Peter Hibbert, Brette Blakely, Jennifer Plumb, Natalie Hannaford, Janet Cameron Long, Danielle Marks
OBJECTIVES: Performance indicators are a popular mechanism for measuring the quality of healthcare to facilitate both quality improvement and systems management. Few studies make comparative assessments of different countries' performance indicator frameworks. This study identifies and compares frameworks and performance indicators used in selected Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development health systems to measure and report on the performance of healthcare organisations and local health systems...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225783/heart-and-skeletal-muscle-inflammation-hsmi-disease-diagnosed-on-a-british-columbia-salmon-farm-through-a-longitudinal-farm-study
#2
Emiliano Di Cicco, Hugh W Ferguson, Angela D Schulze, Karia H Kaukinen, Shaorong Li, Raphaël Vanderstichel, Øystein Wessel, Espen Rimstad, Ian A Gardner, K Larry Hammell, Kristina M Miller
Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is an emerging disease of marine-farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar), first recognized in 1999 in Norway, and later also reported in Scotland and Chile. We undertook a longitudinal study involving health evaluation over an entire marine production cycle on one salmon farm in British Columbia (Canada). In previous production cycles at this farm site and others in the vicinity, cardiac lesions not linked to a specific infectious agent or disease were identified. Histologic assessments of both live and moribund fish samples collected at the farm during the longitudinal study documented at the population level the development, peak, and recovery phases of HSMI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225781/chronic-pain-depression-and-cardiovascular-disease-linked-through-a-shared-genetic-predisposition-analysis-of-a-family-based-cohort-and-twin-study
#3
Oliver van Hecke, Lynne J Hocking, Nicola Torrance, Archie Campbell, Sandosh Padmanabhan, David J Porteous, Andrew M McIntosh, Andrea V Burri, Haruka Tanaka, Frances M K Williams, Blair H Smith
BACKGROUND: Depression and chronic pain are the two most important causes of disability (Global Burden of Disease Study 2013). They occur together more frequently than expected and both conditions have been shown to be co-morbid with cardiovascular disease. Although shared socio-demographic risk factors (e.g. gender, deprivation) might explain the co-morbidity of these three conditions, we hypothesised that these three long-term, highly prevalent conditions co-occur and may be due to shared familial risk, and/or genetic factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222519/genetic-stratification-to-identify-risk-groups-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Riccardo E Marioni, Archie Campbell, Saskia P Hagenaars, Reka Nagy, Carmen Amador, Caroline Hayward, David J Porteous, Peter M Visscher, Ian J Deary
Stratification by genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) may help identify groups with the greatest disease risk. Biological changes that cause late-onset AD are likely to occur years, if not decades prior to diagnosis. Here, we select a subset of the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study cohort in a likely preclinical age-range of 60-70 years (subset n = 3,495 with cognitive and genetic data). We test for cognitive differences by polygenic risk scores for AD. The polygenic scores are constructed using all available SNPs, excluding those within a 500 kb distance of the APOE locus...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221107/use-of-mass-participation-outdoor-events-to-assess-human-exposure-to-tickborne-pathogens
#5
Jessica L Hall, Kathrin Alpers, Kevin J Bown, Stephen J Martin, Richard J Birtles
Mapping the public health threat of tickborne pathogens requires quantification of not only the density of infected host-seeking ticks but also the rate of human exposure to these ticks. To efficiently sample a high number of persons in a short time, we used a mass-participation outdoor event. In June 2014, we sampled ≈500 persons competing in a 2-day mountain marathon run across predominantly tick-infested habitat in Scotland. From the number of tick bites recorded and prevalence of tick infection with Borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato and B...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217836/range-shifting-species-reduce-phylogenetic-diversity-in-high-latitude-communities-via-competition
#6
Robert Fitt, Lesley T Lancaster
Under anthropogenic climate change, many species are expanding their ranges to higher latitudes and altitudes, resulting in novel species interactions. The consequences of these range shifts for native species, patterns of local biodiversity, and community structure in high latitude ecosystems are largely unknown but critical to understand in light of widespread poleward expansions by many warm-adapted generalists. Using niche modelling, phylogenetic methods, and field and laboratory studies, we investigated how colonisation of Scotland by a range expanding damselfly, Ischnura elegans, influences patterns of competition and niche shifts in native damselfly species, and changes in phylogenetic community structure...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217600/primary-care-hypnotic-and-anxiolytic-prescription-reviewing-prescribing-practice-over-8-years
#7
Lloyd D Hughes, Neil Raitt, Muhammed Awais Riaz, Sarah-Jane Baldwin, Kay Erskine, Gail Graham
INTRODUCTION: Over the last few years, hypnotic and anxiolytic medications have had their clinical efficacy questioned in the context of concerns regarding dependence, tolerance alongside other adverse effects. It remains unclear how these concerns have impacted clinical prescribing practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a study reviewing community-dispensed prescribing data for patients on the East Practice Medical Center list in Arbroath, Scotland, in 2007, 2011 and 2015...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216646/long-term-satellite-tracking-reveals-variable-seasonal-migration-strategies-of-basking-sharks-in-the-north-east-atlantic
#8
P D Doherty, J M Baxter, F R Gell, B J Godley, R T Graham, G Hall, J Hall, L A Hawkes, S M Henderson, L Johnson, C Speedie, M J Witt
Animal migration is ubiquitous in nature with individuals within a population often exhibiting varying movement strategies. The basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is the world's second largest fish species, however, a comprehensive understanding of their long-term wider-ranging movements in the north-east Atlantic is currently lacking. Seventy satellite tags were deployed on basking sharks over four years (2012-2015) off the west coast of Scotland and the Isle of Man. Data from 28 satellite tags with attachment durations of over 165 days reveal post-summer ranging behaviours...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215189/socio-economic-differences-in-diet-physical-activity-and-leisure-time-screen-use-among-scottish-children-in-2006-and-2010-are-we-closing-the-gap
#9
Geraldine McNeill, Lindsey F Masson, Jennie I Macdiarmid, Leone Ca Craig, Wendy J Wills, Catherine Bromley
OBJECTIVE: To investigate socio-economic differences in children's diet, activity and inactivity and changes in these differences over 4 years during which new policies on food in schools were introduced. DESIGN: Two cross-sectional surveys in which diet was assessed by FFQ and physical activity and inactivity were assessed by interviewer-administered questionnaire. Socio-economic status was assessed by the area-based Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation. SETTING: Scotland, 2006 and 2010...
February 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215044/developing-caring-conversations-in-care-homes-an-appreciative-inquiry
#10
Belinda Dewar, Tamsin MacBride
Relationship-centred practice is key to delivering quality care in care homes. Evidence is strong about the centrality of human interaction in developing relationships that promote dignity and compassion. The Caring Conversations framework is a framework for delivering compassionate care based on human interactions that was developed in the acute healthcare setting. The key attributes are: be courageous, connect emotionally, be curious, consider other perspectives, collaborate, compromise and celebrate. This paper reports on a study to explore its relevance to the care home setting and the development of an educational intervention, based on the framework, to enhance development of human interaction...
February 19, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215019/goose-management-in-scotland-an-overview
#11
Ian Bainbridge
This paper reviews the changing status of goose populations in Scotland since the 1940s, and the changing policies and management activities employed over that time. The size of all goose populations has risen since the 1940s due to protection measures, changes in agriculture and levels of shooting, in the UK and elsewhere. The development of goose policies in response to public interest and pressures is described. Some changes in goose populations since 2000 can be linked to this policy development. Policy is now split between protective measures for some species and adaptive management approaches encompassing control measures for others...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214123/a-tool-for-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-field-scale-sediment-bound-phosphorus-mitigation-measures-and-application-to-analysis-of-spatial-and-temporal-targeting-in-the-lunan-water-catchment-scotland
#12
Andy Vinten, James Sample, Adekunle Ibiyemi, Yakubu Abdul-Salam, Marc Stutter
The cost-effectiveness of six edge-of-field measures for mitigating diffuse pollution from sediment bound phosphorus (P) runoff from temperate arable farmland is analysed at catchment/field scales. These measures were: buffer strips, permanent grassland in the lowest 7% of arable fields, dry detention bunds, wetlands, and temporary barriers such as sediment fences. Baseline field P export was estimated using export coefficients (low risk crops) or a modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (high risk crops). The impact of measures was estimated using simple equations...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211181/a-national-survey-of-the-use-of-pachymeters-by-optometrists-in-scotland-experience-views-and-barriers-to-use
#13
Colin Goudie, Savva Pronin, Helen Court, Janet Pooley, Andrew J Tatham
PURPOSE: Thin central corneal thickness (CCT) is a risk factor for glaucoma. In 2016 all optometry practices in Scotland were provided with pachymeters aiming to improve risk assessment and accuracy of referrals to secondary care. We examined optometrists' experience and views of pachymetry, including perceived barriers to pachymetry in primary care. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent using the REDCap electronic data capture tool to all 1264 optometrists registered with NHS Education for Scotland (NES)...
March 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210306/respiratory-training-in-scotland
#14
Adam D L Marshall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206830/medical-student-beliefs-about-disclosure-of-mental-health-issues-a-qualitative-study
#15
Peter Winter, Andrew Rix, Andrew Grant
In 2012 the United Kingdom's General Medical Council (GMC) commissioned research to develop guidance for medical schools on how best to support students with mental illness. One of the key findings from medical student focus groups in the study was students' strong belief that medical schools excluded students on mental health grounds. Students believed mental illness was a fitness to practice matter that led to eventual dismissal, although neither personal experience nor empirical evidence supported this belief...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196951/understanding-repeated-non-attendance-in-health-services-a-pilot-analysis-of-administrative-data-and-full-study-protocol-for-a-national-retrospective-cohort
#16
Andrea E Williamson, David A Ellis, Philip Wilson, Ross McQueenie, Alex McConnachie
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the causes of low engagement in healthcare is a pre-requisite for improving health services' contribution to tackling health inequalities. Low engagement includes missing healthcare appointments. Serially (having a pattern of) missing general practice (GP) appointments may provide a risk marker for vulnerability and poorer health outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A proof of concept pilot using GP appointment data and a focus group with GPs informed the development of missed appointment categories: patients can be classified based on the number of appointments missed each year...
February 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196553/association-between-body-energy-content-in-the-dry-period-and-post-calving-production-disease-status-in-dairy-cattle
#17
G L Smith, N C Friggens, C J Ashworth, M G G Chagunda
The transition from gestation to lactation is marked by significant physiological changes for the individual cow such that disease incidence is highest in early lactation. Around the time of calving, cows rely on mobilisation of body energy reserves to fill the energy deficit created by an increase in nutrient demands at a time of restricted feed intake. It is well established that monitoring of body energy reserves in lactation is an important component of herd health management. However, despite their influence on future health and productivity, monitoring of body energy reserves in the dry period is often sparse...
February 15, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196069/correction-pedigree-and-snp-associated-genetics-and-recent-environment-are-the-major-contributors-to-anthropometric-and-cardiometabolic-trait-variation
#18
Charley Xia, Carmen Amador, Jennifer Huffman, Holly Trochet, Archie Campbell, David Porteous, Generation Scotland, Nicholas D Hastie, Caroline Hayward, Veronique Vitart, Pau Navarro, Chris S Haley
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005804.].
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192615/the-impact-of-tv-mass-media-campaigns-on-calls-to-a-national-quitline-and-the-use-of-prescribed-nicotine-replacement-therapy-a-structural-vector-autoregression-analysis
#19
Houra Haghpanahan, Daniel F Mackay, Jill P Pell, David Bell, Tessa Langley, Sally Haw
AIMS: To estimate 1) the immediate impact; 2) the cumulative impact; and 3) the duration of impact of Scottish tobacco control TV mass media campaigns (MMCs) on smoking cessation activity, as measured by calls to Smokeline and the volume of prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). DESIGN: Multivariate time series analysis using secondary data on population level measures of exposure to TV MMCs broadcast and smoking cessation activity between 2003 and 2012...
February 13, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189101/the-structural-linguistic-complexity-of-lawyers-questions-and-children-s-responses-in-scottish-criminal-courts
#20
Samantha J Andrews, Michael E Lamb
In the first study to systematically assess the structural linguistic complexity of lawyers' questions of children in Scotland, we examined 56 trial transcripts of 5- to 17-year-old children testifying as alleged victims of sexual abuse. Complexity was assessed using 8 quantitative measures of each utterance's components (number of questions, phrases, clauses, sentences, false starts, average word count, word length, and sentence length) and a composite measure was used in the analyses. Lawyers did not alter the complexity of questions when prompting children of different ages...
February 8, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
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