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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452409/recruitment-and-retention-of-trainee-physicians-a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-motivations-and-influences-on-career-choice-of-trainee-physicians
#1
C Ryan, E Ward, M Jones
Background: Across the UK there are vacant physician posts at every level. This increases workload and stress for those who remain, in turn making substantive jobs less attractive. Aim: To understand the influences on career choice and retention in training of current trainee physicians. Methods: An online survey, with a combination of closed and free text questions, was developed to assess factors that affected career choices. This was sent to all core and higher specialty trainees in Scotland and Associate or Collegiate members of the Royal College of Physicians Edinburgh not training in Scotland...
February 14, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442296/first-report-of-the-presence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-in-scottish-harvested-shellfish-purchased-at-retail-level
#2
Zoe O'Hara, Claire Crossan, John Craft, Linda Scobie
Shellfish samples (n = 310) purchased from local supermarkets were analysed for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) by nested RT-PCR and real-time qRT-PCR. Overall, 2.9% of samples tested positive for the presence of HEV. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV sequences revealed all as being genotype 3 HEV. This is the first report of the detection of HEV in commercially sold shellfish in Scotland. These findings may encourage further research that will help address the gaps in the knowledge in respect to foodborne transmission of HEV in Scotland and the rest of the United Kingdom...
February 13, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440824/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-a-retrospective-review-of-trends-and-outcomes-in-scotland
#3
Maziar Khorsandi, Mark Davidson, Omar Bouamra, Andrew McLean, Kenneth MacArthur, Ida Torrance, Gillian Wylie, Ed Peng, Mark Danton
Introduction: Around 3.2%-8.4% of patients receive venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support after pediatric cardiac surgery. The desired outcome is "bridge-to-recovery" in most cases. There is no universally agreed protocol, and given the associated costs and complications rates, the decisions as of when and when not to institute VA ECMO are largely empirical. Methods: A retrospective review of the ECMO database at the Scottish Pediatric Cardiac Services (SPCS) was undertaken...
January 2018: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440602/counting-mountain-hares-in-scotland
#4
(no author information available yet)
The mountain hare ( Lepus timidus ) is Britain's only native hare, but counting them is challenging. Here, Georgina Mills explains how new research is helping to finally discover the numbers of this elusive species.
February 10, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440152/protocol-for-validation-of-the-4at-a-rapid-screening-tool-for-delirium-a-multicentre-prospective-diagnostic-test-accuracy-study
#5
Susan D Shenkin, Christopher Fox, Mary Godfrey, Najma Siddiqi, Steve Goodacre, John Young, Atul Anand, Alasdair Gray, Joel Smith, Tracy Ryan, Janet Hanley, Allan MacRaild, Jill Steven, Polly L Black, Julia Boyd, Christopher J Weir, Alasdair Mj MacLullich
INTRODUCTION: Delirium is a severe neuropsychiatric syndrome of rapid onset, commonly precipitated by acute illness. It is common in older people in the emergency department (ED) and acute hospital, but greatly under-recognised in these and other settings. Delirium and other forms of cognitive impairment, particularly dementia, commonly coexist. There is a need for a rapid delirium screening tool that can be administered by a range of professional-level healthcare staff to patients with sensory or functional impairments in a busy clinical environment, which also incorporates general cognitive assessment...
February 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437634/nhs-in-scotland-must-face-up-to-difficult-decisions-to-remain-sustainable
#6
Bryan Christie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437032/computerised-interpretation-of-the-fetal-heart-rate-during-labour-a-randomised-controlled-trial-infant
#7
Peter Brocklehurst, David Field, Keith Greene, Edmund Juszczak, Sara Kenyon, Louise Linsell, Chris Mabey, Mary Newburn, Rachel Plachcinski, Maria Quigley, Philip Steer, Liz Schroeder, Oliver Rivero-Arias
BACKGROUND: Continuous electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) in labour is widely used and computerised interpretation has the potential to increase its utility. OBJECTIVES: This trial aimed to find out whether or not the addition of decision support software to assist in the interpretation of the cardiotocograph (CTG) reduced the number of poor neonatal outcomes, and whether or not it was cost-effective. DESIGN: Two-arm individually randomised controlled trial...
February 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436408/enhanced-detection-services-for-developmental-dysplasia-of-the-hip-in-scottish-children-1997-2013
#8
David A McAllister, Joanne R Morling, Colin M Fischbacher, Mike Reidy, Alastair Murray, Rachael Wood
BACKGROUND: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) remains common. If detected early, DDH can usually be corrected with conservative management. Late presentations often require surgery and have worse outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We estimated the risk of undergoing surgery for DDH by age 3 years before and after the introduction of enhanced DDH detection services. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Scotland, 1997/98-2010/11...
February 7, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435773/livestock-disease-management-for-trading-across-different-regulatory-regimes
#9
Andrew M Bate, Glyn Jones, Adam Kleczkowski, Rebecca Naylor, Jon Timmis, Piran C L White, Julia Touza
The maintenance of livestock health depends on the combined actions of many different actors, both within and across different regulatory frameworks. Prior work recognised that private risk management choices have the ability to reduce the spread of infection to trading partners. We evaluate the efficiency of farmers' alternative biosecurity choices in terms of their own-benefits from unilateral strategies and quantify the impact they may have in filtering the disease externality of trade. We use bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in England and Scotland as a case study, since this provides an example of a situation where contrasting strategies for BVD management occur between selling and purchasing farms...
February 12, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431619/prevalence-of-physical-conditions-and-multimorbidity-in-a-cohort-of-adults-with-intellectual-disabilities-with-and-without-down-syndrome-cross-sectional-study
#10
Deborah Kinnear, Jill Morrison, Linda Allan, Angela Henderson, Elita Smiley, Sally-Ann Cooper
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of multimorbidity in adults with intellectual disabilities with and without Down syndrome. DESIGN: Large, population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: The geographical area of one Health Board, Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: All adults (aged 16+ years) known to general practitioners to have intellectual disabilities and adults receiving services provided or paid by intellectual disabilities health or social work services...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429873/deposition-of-artificial-radionuclides-in-sediments-of-loch-etive-scotland
#11
Hamza Al-Qasmi, Gareth T W Law, L Keith Fifield, John A Howe, Tim Brand, Gregory L Cowie, Kathleen A Law, Francis R Livens
The nuclear fuel reprocessing plants on the Sellafield site (UK) have released low-level effluents into the Irish Sea under authorisation since 1952. This has led to the labelling of nearby offshore sediments with a range of artificial radionuclides. In turn, these sediments act as a long-term secondary source of both soluble and particle-associated radionuclides to coastal areas. These radionuclides are of interest both in assessing possible environmental impacts and as tracers for marine processes. Here we present results from a study of the geochemistry of natural (234, 238U) and artificial (137Cs, 241Am, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 236U) radionuclides and their accumulation in sediments from Loch Etive, Scotland...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428888/medical-provision-and-urban-rural-differences-in-maternal-mortality-in-late-nineteenth-century-scotland
#12
Alice Reid, Eilidh Garrett
This paper examines the effect of variable reporting and coding practices on the measurement of maternal mortality in urban and rural Scotland, 1861-1901, using recorded causes of death and women who died within six weeks of childbirth. This setting provides data (n = 604 maternal deaths) to compare maternal mortality identified by cause of death with maternal mortality identified by record linkage and to contrast urban and rural settings with different certification practices. We find that underreporting was most significant for indirect causes, and that indirect causes accounted for a high proportion of maternal mortality where the infectious disease load was high...
February 8, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424757/survey-of-core-trainees-confidence-in-electroconvulsive-therapy
#13
Gillian Scott, David M Semple
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the survey was to assess confidence in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in core psychiatry trainees across Scotland, looking at both theoretical and practical aspects of ECT. METHODS: A link to a 14-item electronic questionnaire was distributed to core trainees via deanery administrators. Most questions were based on the Royal College of Psychiatry's ECT guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 85 responses were analyzed from trainees at all 3 levels of core training and from all health boards across Scotland...
February 7, 2018: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423981/embedding-routine-health-checks-for-adults-with-intellectual-disabilities-in-primary-care-practice-nurse-perceptions
#14
S Macdonald, J Morrison, C A Melville, M Baltzer, L MacArthur, S A Cooper
BACKGROUND: Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have consistently poorer health outcomes than the general population. There is evidence that routine health checks in primary care may improve outcomes. We conducted a randomised controlled trial of practice nurse led health checks. Here, we report findings from the nested qualitative study. AIM: To explore practice nurse perceptions and experience of delivering an anticipatory health check for adults with IDs...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421468/differentiating-the-effect-of-social-enterprise-activities-on-health
#15
Bobby Macaulay, Micaela Mazzei, Michael J Roy, Simon Teasdale, Cam Donaldson
An emerging stream of literature has focused on the ways in which social enterprises might act on the social determinants of health. However, this previous work has not taken a sufficiently broad account of the wide range of stakeholders involved in social enterprises and has also tended to reduce and simplify a complex and heterogeneous set of organisations to a relatively homogenous social enterprise concept. In an attempt to address these gaps, we conducted an empirical investigation between August 2014 and October 2015 consisting of qualitative case studies involving in-depth semi-structured interviews and a focus group with a wide variety of stakeholders from three social enterprises in different regions of Scotland...
February 2, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420741/use-of-text-mining-methods-to-improve-efficiency-in-the-calculation-of-drug-exposure-to-support-pharmacoepidemiology-studies
#16
Stuart McTaggart, Clifford Nangle, Jacqueline Caldwell, Samantha Alvarez-Madrazo, Helen Colhoun, Marion Bennie
Background: Efficient generation of structured dose instructions that enable researchers to calculate drug exposure is central to pharmacoepidemiology studies. Our aim was to design and test an algorithm to codify dose instructions, applied to the NHS Scotland Prescribing Information System (PIS) that records about 100 million prescriptions per annum. Methods: A natural language processing (NLP) algorithm was developed that enabled free-text dose instructions to be represented by three attributes - quantity, frequency and qualifier - specified by three, three and two variables, respectively...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416859/applying-realistic-medicine-to-intrathecal-opioid-utilisation-in-scotland-do-we-have-a-standardised-approach
#17
Robert Hart, Gordon Burns, Susan Smith
Intrathecal opioids (ITOs) are commonly administered as part of a multimodal anaesthetic strategy for a variety of surgical procedures. The evolution of laparoscopic surgical techniques has seen the popularity of ITOs increase as they are effective, well tolerated and lack the cardiovascular side effects associated with epidural infusions. The risk of delayed respiratory depression remains a concern; therefore, high-quality post-operative monitoring is vital. The evidence regarding the practicalities of ITO administration such as opioid dose, type, side effect prevalence and ideal post-operative care arrangements are sparse...
February 2018: British Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414462/determinants-of-hepatitis-c-antiviral-effectiveness-awareness-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-the-direct-acting-antiviral-era
#18
Heather Valerio, Andrew McAuley, Hamish Innes, Norah Palmateer, David J Goldberg, Alison Munro, Avril Taylor, Sharon J Hutchinson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although people who inject drugs (PWID) are at greatest risk of hepatitis C (HCV), treatment uptake in this population has historically been low. Highly effective direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatments for HCV have recently become available. Our aim was to assess the awareness among PWID of these new therapies and their effectiveness. METHODS: A national survey of PWID attending injecting equipment provision sites in Scotland during 2015-2016 included questions to gauge the awareness in this population of antiviral treatment and the high cure rates associated with new therapies (defined here as >80%)...
January 18, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414187/prevalence-of-pre-treatment-hepatitis-c-virus-ns5a-resistance-associated-amino-acid-substitutions-in-genotype-1a-infected-patients-in-scotland
#19
Amanda Bradley-Stewart, Emily Goldstein, Alasdair MacLean, Rory Gunson
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C (HCV) NS5A resistance associated amino-acid substitutions (RAS) can exist at baseline in treatment naïve individuals and have been shown to be associated with lower rates of sustained virological response (SVR) for patients infected with HCV genotype 1A (G1A) following treatment with NS5A inhibitors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of baseline NS5A resistance in Scotland. STUDY DESIGN: The study population consisted of 531 treatment naïve, G1A infected patients...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411890/breastfeeding-and-the-substance-exposed-mother-and-baby
#20
Sonya MacVicar, Tracy Humphrey, Katrina E Forbes-McKay
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding rates are typically low for women with a substance-use disorder. This is despite the specific benefits of breastfeeding to alleviate the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome and the well-documented generic advantages. This study explored the feasibility of in-hospital, tailored breastfeeding support for the substance-exposed mother and baby. METHODS: This was a mixed-methods feasibility study undertaken in Scotland from April 2014 to May 2015...
February 7, 2018: Birth
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