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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443402/nursingstandard-com
#1
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1 The RCN opened an online poll for270,000 NHS nurses on whether to take strike action over pay, following announcements that below-inflation pay rises will continue in England, Scotland and Wales. The poll closes on 7 May. Read more: rcni.com/pay-poll.
April 26, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438741/maternal-macronutrient-intake-and-offspring-blood-pressure-20%C3%A2-years-later
#2
Laufey Hrolfsdottir, Thorhallur I Halldorsson, Dorte Rytter, Bodil Hammer Bech, Bryndis E Birgisdottir, Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir, Charlotta Granström, Tine Brink Henriksen, Sjurdur F Olsen, Ekaterina Maslova
BACKGROUND: Results from 2 cohort studies in Scotland established in the 1940s and 1950s (Aberdeen and Motherwell) suggested that a high protein diet during pregnancy might adversely influence offspring blood pressure at adult age. Our objective was to examine this association in the Danish Fetal Origins Cohort (DaFO88). METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a prospective birth cohort of 965 women who gave birth in 1988-1989 in Aarhus, Denmark, and whose offspring (n=434) participated in a clinical examination ≈20 years later...
April 24, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438195/delivery-of-alcohol-brief-interventions-in-community-based-youth-work-settings-exploring-feasibility-and-acceptability-in-a-qualitative-study
#3
Martine Stead, Tessa Parkes, Avril Nicoll, Sarah Wilson, Cheryl Burgess, Douglas Eadie, Niamh Fitzgerald, Jennifer McKell, Garth Reid, Ruth Jepson, John McAteer, Linda Bauld
BACKGROUND: Alcohol Brief Interventions (ABIs) are increasingly being delivered in community-based youth work settings. However, little attention has been paid to how they are being implemented in such settings, or to their feasibility and acceptability for practitioners or young people. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the context, feasibility and acceptability of ABI delivery in youth work projects across Scotland. METHODS: Individual, paired and group interviews were conducted with practitioners and young people in nine community projects that were either involved in the delivery of ABIs or were considering doing so in the near future...
April 24, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437587/relationship-type-affects-the-reliability-of-dispersal-distance-estimated-using-pedigree-inferences-in-partially-sampled-populations-a-case-study-involving-invasive-american-mink-in-scotland
#4
Y Melero, M K Oliver, X Lambin
Estimating dispersal - a key parameter for population ecology and management - is notoriously difficult. The use of pedigree assignments, aided by likelihood-based softwares, has become popular to estimate dispersal rate and distance. However, the partial sampling of populations may produce false assignments. Further, it is unknown how the accuracy of assignment is affected by the genealogical relationships of individuals and is reflected by software-derived assignment probabilities. Inspired by a project managing invasive American mink (Neovison vison), we estimated individual dispersal distances using inferred pairwise relationships of culled individuals...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431505/using-evaluability-assessment-to-assess-local-community-development-health-programmes-a-scottish-case-study
#5
Melissa Belford, Tony Robertson, Ruth Jepson
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of a programme's objectives (health or otherwise) is important in demonstrating how programmes work. However, evaluations are expensive and can focus on unrealistic outcomes not grounded in strong theory, especially where there is pressure to show effectiveness. The aim of this research was to demonstrate that the evaluability assessment (a cost-effective pre-evaluation tool that primarily gives quick, constructive feedback) can be used to help develop programme and outcome objectives to improve programmes while they run and to assist in producing more effective evaluations...
April 21, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424796/external-data-required-timely-response-by-the-trial-steering-data-monitoring-committee-for-the-naloxone-investigation-n-alive-pilot-trial
#6
Sheila M Bird, John Strang, Deborah Ashby, John Podmore, J Roy Robertson, Sarah Welch, Angela M Meade, Mahesh K B Parmar
The prison-based N-ALIVE pilot trial had undertaken to notify the Research Ethics Committee and participants if we had reason to believe that the N-ALIVE pilot trial would not proceed to the main trial. In this paper, we describe how external data for the third year of before/after evaluation from Scotland's National Naloxone Programme, a related public health policy, were anticipated by eliciting prior opinion about the Scottish results in the month prior to their release as official statistics. We summarise how deliberations by the N-ALIVE Trial Steering-Data Monitoring Committee (TS-DMC) on N-ALIVE's own interim data, together with those on naloxone-on-release (NOR) from Scotland, led to the decision to cease randomization in the N-ALIVE pilot trial and recommend to local Principal Investigators that NOR be offered to already-randomized prisoners who had not yet been released...
March 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423467/early-life-antibiotic-use-and-the-risk-of-asthma-and-asthma-exacerbations-in-children
#7
Fariba Ahmadizar, Susanne J H Vijverberg, Hubertus G M Arets, Anthonius de Boer, Steve Turner, Graham Devereux, Ali Arabkhazaeli, Patricia Soares, Somnath Mukhopadhyay, Johan Garssen, Colin N A Palmer, Johan C de Jongste, Vincent Wv Jaddoe, Liesbeth Duijts, Evelien R van Meel, Aletta D Kraneveld, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee
BACKGROUND: The use of antibiotic therapy early in life might influence the risk of developing asthma. Studies assessing the influence of early life antibiotic use on the risk of asthma exacerbations are limited, and the results are inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the association between use of antibiotic during the first three years of life and the risk of developing childhood asthma and the occurrence of asthma exacerbations. METHODS: Data from four large childhood cohorts were used; two population-based cohorts to study the risk of developing asthma: Generation R (n=7,393, the Netherlands) and SEATON (n=891, Scotland, UK), and two asthma cohorts to assess the risk of asthma exacerbations: PACMAN (n=668, the Netherlands) and BREATHE (n=806, Scotland, UK)...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422917/an-adapted-clavien-dindo-scoring-system-in-trauma-as-a-clinically-meaningful-non-mortality-endpoint
#8
David N Naumann, Laura E Vincent, Nicola Pearson, Alastair Beaven, Iain M Smith, Kieran Smith, Emma Toman, Helen R Dorrance, Keith Porter, Charles E Wade, Bryan A Cotton, John B Holcomb, Mark J Midwinter
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on reporting non-mortality trauma complications in a graded manner. The Clavien-Dindo scale of complications was originally for elective surgery, and requires adaptation to provide meaningful data for trauma patients. In particular the original score does not account for those treated without surgery. We report an adapted Clavien-Dindo in trauma (ACDiT) scale and apply it to patients managed operatively and non-operatively. METHODS: A combined prospective and retrospective international multi-center observational study was undertaken to apply the ACDiT scale to 484 trauma patients at 3 university teaching hospitals (Birmingham, England (n=303); Houston, Texas (n=113); and Glasgow, Scotland (n=68))...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421933/rcn-asks-are-you-prepared-to-strike-for-better-pay
#9
Matthew Mckew
The RCN has opened an online poll on whether members would strike over pay. Some 270,000 RCN members are being asked for their views on NHS pay, two weeks after governments in England, Scotland and Wales announced the latest below-inflation pay increases.
April 19, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421651/self-management-of-first-trimester-medical-termination-of-pregnancy-a-qualitative-study-of-women-s-experiences
#10
Carrie Purcell, Sharon Cameron, Julia Lawton, Anna Glasier, Jeni Harden
OBJECTIVE: To explore the experiences of women in Scotland who return home to complete medical termination of pregnancy (TOP) ≤63 days of gestation, after being administered with mifepristone and misoprostol at an NHS TOP clinic. DESIGN: Qualitative interview study. SETTING: One National Health Service health board (administrative) area in Scotland. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: Women in Scotland who had undergone medical TOP ≤63 days, and self-managed passing the pregnancy at home; recruited from three clinics in on NHS health board area between January and July 2014...
April 19, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421039/population-structure-of-sclerotinia-subarctica-and-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum-in-england-scotland-and-norway
#11
John P Clarkson, Rachel J Warmington, Peter G Walley, Matthew Denton-Giles, Martin J Barbetti, Guro Brodal, Berit Nordskog
Sclerotinia species are important fungal pathogens of a wide range of crops and wild host plants. While the biology and population structure of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been well-studied, little information is available for the related species S. subarctica. In this study, Sclerotinia isolates were collected from different crop plants and the wild host Ranuculus ficaria (meadow buttercup) in England, Scotland, and Norway to determine the incidence of Sclerotinia subarctica and examine the population structure of this pathogen for the first time...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420990/managed-entry-agreements-for-oncology-drugs-lessons-from-the-european-experience-to-inform-the-future
#12
Kim Pauwels, Isabelle Huys, Sabine Vogler, Minne Casteels, Steven Simoens
Objectives: The aim of this study is to conduct an analysis on the regulation and application of managed entry agreements (MEA) for oncology drugs across different European countries. Methods: Literature search and document analysis were performed between September 2015 and June 2016 to collect information on the regulatory framework and practice of MEA in Belgium, The Netherlands, Scotland, England and Wales, Sweden, Italy, Czech Republic and France. An overview of the content and typology of MEA applied for oncology drugs between 2008 and 2015 was generated based on publically available sources and contributions by national health authorities...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420596/the-behaviors-and-experiences-of-the-community-pharmacy-team-on-the-provision-of-multi-compartment-compliance-aids
#13
Derek Stewart, Craig McDonald, Joan MacLeod, Katie MacLure, Gwen Gray, Trudi McIntosh
BACKGROUND: Multi-compartment compliance aids (MCAs) are repackaging systems for solid dosage form medicines. Acknowledging the lack of evidence that MCAs improve adherence or clinical outcomes, the Royal Pharmaceutical Society has expressed concern that MCAs have 'become regarded as a panacea for medicines use'. OBJECTIVES: To determine the behaviors and experiences of the community pharmacy team around MCA provision. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 26 community pharmacies in the north east of Scotland...
April 9, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420323/study-protocol-insight-46-a-neuroscience-sub-study-of-the-mrc-national-survey-of-health-and-development
#14
Christopher A Lane, Thomas D Parker, Dave M Cash, Kirsty Macpherson, Elizabeth Donnachie, Heidi Murray-Smith, Anna Barnes, Suzie Barker, Daniel G Beasley, Jose Bras, David Brown, Ninon Burgos, Michelle Byford, M Jorge Cardoso, Ana Carvalho, Jessica Collins, Enrico De Vita, John C Dickson, Norah Epie, Miklos Espak, Susie M D Henley, Chandrashekar Hoskote, Michael Hutel, Jana Klimova, Ian B Malone, Pawel Markiewicz, Andrew Melbourne, Marc Modat, Anette Schrag, Sachit Shah, Nikhil Sharma, Carole H Sudre, David L Thomas, Andrew Wong, Hui Zhang, John Hardy, Henrik Zetterberg, Sebastien Ourselin, Sebastian J Crutch, Diana Kuh, Marcus Richards, Nick C Fox, Jonathan M Schott
BACKGROUND: Increasing age is the biggest risk factor for dementia, of which Alzheimer's disease is the commonest cause. The pathological changes underpinning Alzheimer's disease are thought to develop at least a decade prior to the onset of symptoms. Molecular positron emission tomography and multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging allow key pathological processes underpinning cognitive impairment - including β-amyloid depostion, vascular disease, network breakdown and atrophy - to be assessed repeatedly and non-invasively...
April 18, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418765/brucella-ceti-infection-in-a-common-minke-whale-balaenoptera-acutorostrata-with-associated-pathology
#15
Nicholas J Davison, Lorraine L Perrett, Claire Dawson, Mark P Dagleish, Gary Haskins, Jakub Muchowski, Adrian M Whatmore
There are three major lineages of marine mammal strains of Brucella spp.: Brucella ceti ST23, found predominantly in porpoises; B. ceti ST26, in pelagic delphinids and ziphiids; and Brucella pinnipedialis ST24/25, predominantly in seals. The isolation of Brucella spp. in mysticetes has been described only in common minke whales ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) in Norway and Scotland. We report a third case of Brucella infection and isolation in a minke whale associated with a large abscess. In contrast to the two previous reports that involved isolates of B...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418403/assessing-the-presence-of-shared-genetic-architecture-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-major-depressive-disorder-using-genome-wide-association-data
#16
J Gibson, T C Russ, M J Adams, T-K Clarke, D M Howard, L S Hall, A M Fernandez-Pujals, E M Wigmore, C Hayward, G Davies, A D Murray, B H Smith, D J Porteous, I J Deary, A M McIntosh
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are both common in older age and frequently co-occur. Numerous phenotypic studies based on clinical diagnoses suggest that a history of depression increases risk of subsequent AD, although the basis of this relationship is uncertain. Both illnesses are polygenic, and shared genetic risk factors could explain some of the observed association. We used genotype data to test whether MDD and AD have an overlapping polygenic architecture in two large population-based cohorts, Generation Scotland's Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS; N=19 889) and UK Biobank (N=25 118), and whether age of depression onset influences any relationship...
April 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418314/population-genomics-of-legionella-longbeachae-and-hidden-complexities-of-infection-source-attribution
#17
Rodrigo Bacigalupe, Diane Lindsay, Giles Edwards, J Ross Fitzgerald
Legionella longbeachae is the primary cause of legionellosis in Australasia and Southeast Asia and an emerging pathogen in Europe and the United States; however, our understanding of the population diversity of L. longbeachae from patient and environmental sources is limited. We analyzed the genomes of 64 L. longbeachae isolates, of which 29 were from a cluster of legionellosis cases linked to commercial growing media in Scotland in 2013 and 35 were non-outbreak-associated isolates from Scotland and other countries...
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417674/international-summit-consensus-statement-intellectual-disability-inclusion-in-national-dementia-plans
#18
Karen Watchman, Matthew P Janicki, Michael Splaine, Frode K Larsen, Tiziano Gomiero, Ronald Lucchino
The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the development and adoption of national plans or strategies to guide public policy and set goals for services, supports, and research related to dementia. It called for distinct populations to be included within national plans, including adults with intellectual disability (ID). Inclusion of this group is important as having Down's syndrome is a significant risk factor for early-onset dementia. Adults with other ID may have specific needs for dementia-related care that, if unmet, can lead to diminished quality of old age...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416471/chemotherapy-resistant-human-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells-are-not-enriched-for-leukemic-stem-cells-but-require-oxidative-metabolism
#19
Thomas Farge, Estelle Saland, Fabienne de Toni, Nesrine Aroua, Moshen Hosseini, Robin Perry, Claudie Bosc, Mayumi Sugita, Lucille Stuani, Marine Fraisse, Sarah Scotland, Clément Larrue, Héléna Boutzen, Virginie Féliu, Marie-Laure Nicolau-Travers, Stephanie Cassant-Sourdy, Nicolas Broin, Marion David, Nizar Serhan, Audrey Sarry, Suzanne Tavitian, Tony Kaoma, Laurent Vallar, Jason Iacovoni, Laetitia K Linares, Camille Montersino, Remy Castellano, Emmanuel Griessinger, Yves Collette, Olivier Duchamp, Yara Barreira, Pierre Hirsch, Tony Palama, Lara Gales, Francois Delhommeau, Barbara H Garmy-Susini, Jean-Charles Portais, Francois Vergez, Mary Selak, Gwenn Danet-Desnoyers, Martin Carroll, Christian Récher, Jean Emmanuel Sarry
Chemotherapy-resistant human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells are thought to be enriched in quiescent immature leukemic stem cells (LSCs). To validate this hypothesis in vivo, we developed a clinically relevant chemotherapeutic approach treating patient-derived xenograft (PDX) with cytarabine. Cytarabine residual AML cells are enriched neither in immature, quiescent cells nor LSCs. Strikingly, cytarabine-resistant pre-existing and persisting cells displayed high levels of reactive oxygen species, showed increased mitochondrial mass, and retained active polarized mitochondria, consistent with a high oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) status...
April 17, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416395/the-early-history-of-manganese-and-the-recognition-of-its-neurotoxicity-1837-1936
#20
Paul D Blanc
The history of the biomedical recognition manganese-caused neurotoxicity mirrors changing technologies as much as it does the ontology of parkinsonism. The initial 1837 report of manganese-induced neurologic injury was made by John Couper, a university-based physician in Scotland. He made clear that the outbreak occurred among workers at the Charles Tennant bleach manufactory in the environs of Glasgow. The relatively new technology of chlorine generation using manganese accounted for the novel exposure involved...
April 14, 2017: Neurotoxicology
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