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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691243/role-and-prevalence-of-impaired-awareness-of-hypoglycaemia-in-ambulance-service-attendances-to-people-who-have-had-a-severe-hypoglycaemic-emergency-a-mixed-methods-study
#1
Edward A S Duncan, David Fitzpatrick, Theresa Ikegwuonu, Josie Evans, Margaret Maxwell
OBJECTIVES: (1) To compare the experiences of people who are affected by diabetes-related hypoglycaemia and either do or do not require an emergency attendance and (2) to measure the prevalence of impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia in patients who are attended by an ambulance service due to a severe hypoglycaemic event. DESIGN: A sequential mixed-methods study. SETTING: A qualitative interview study was undertaken with 31 people with diabetes (types 1 and 2) resident in the central belt of Scotland...
April 24, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690069/taxonomic-status-of-the-black-fly-prosimulium-italicum-rivosecchi-diptera-simuliidae-based-on-genetic-evidence
#2
MatÚŠ KÚdela, Peter H Adler, Tatiana KÚdelovÁ
The black fly Prosimulium italicum Rivosecchi, distributed in the Apennines and Sicily, was described as a subspecies of Prosimulium hirtipes (Fries), based on a few morphological details. It subsequently was considered conspecific with P. hirtipes and the name was synonymized. Analyses of polytene chromosome banding patterns and sequences of mitochondrial DNA (COI and COII) revealed deep genetic divergence between P. italicum from Italy and P. hirtipes from northern and central Europe and confirmed the species status of P...
January 31, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689959/diphyllobothrium-stemmacephalum-cobbold-1858-diphyllobothriidea-from-common-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-montagu-from-the-texas-gulf-coast-usa
#3
Sophia M SÁnchez, Liat Y Goldstein, Norman O Dronen
Cobbold (1858) established Diphyllobothrium Cobbold, 1858 with the description of Diphyllobothrium stemmacephalum Cobbold, 1858 from the common harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena (Linnaeus) (Phocoenidae), from the North Sea off Scotland. Diphyllobothrium stemmacephalum typically has been reported from a number of Phocoenidae and Delphinidae hosts from a variety of localities: common harbor porpoise from the northern Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea and Black sea (e.g. Cobbold, 1858; Delyamure 1955; Delyamure 1968; Delyamure 1971; Delyamure et al...
February 15, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688317/hiv-and-viral-hepatitis-among-imprisoned-key-populations
#4
Andrea L Wirtz, Ping T Yeh, Natalie L Flath, Chris Beyrer, Kate Dolan
Prisons and other closed facilities create opportunities for transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis during detention and after release. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of peer-reviewed publications (2005-2015) to describe the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus among key populations in prisons worldwide and to compare estimates of infection with those of other prison populations. Most data were reported for people who inject drugs (PWID; n = 72) and for men who have sex with men (MSM; n = 21); few data were reported on sex workers (SW; n = 6), or transgender women (n = 2)...
April 21, 2018: Epidemiologic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687581/mortality-risk-is-still-higher-in-people-with-type-1-diabetes-a-population-based-cohort-study-the-ayrshirre-diabetes-follow-up-cohort-adoc-study
#5
Andrew Collier, Paul J Connelly, Mario Hair, Lyall Cameron, Sujoy Ghosh, Norman Waugh
AIMS: Type 1 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Numerous studies have demonstrated that outcomes for diabetes are improved by intensive glycaemic control, blood pressure control, and treatment of dyslipidaemia plus smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to compare mortalities in type 1 diabetes with non-diabetes subjects, and to investigate the effects of age, gender, glycaemic control, socio-economic status, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease (IHD), smoking status, body mass index (BMI) and dyslipidaemia...
April 23, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685729/assessment-of-health-care-hospital-admissions-and-mortality-by-ethnicity-population-based-cohort-study-of-health-system-performance-in-scotland
#6
Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Genevieve Cezard, Raj S Bhopal, Linda Williams, Anne Douglas, Andrew Millard, Markus Steiner, Duncan Buchanan, Aziz Sheikh, Laurence Gruer
BACKGROUND: Ethnic minorities often experience barriers to health care. We studied six established quality indicators of health-system performance across ethnic groups in Scotland. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we linked ethnicity from Scotland's Census 2001 (April 29, 2001) to hospital admissions and mortality records, with follow-up until April 30, 2013. Indicators of health-system performance included amenable deaths (ie, deaths avertable by effective treatment), preventable deaths (ie, deaths avertable by public health policy), avoidable deaths (combined amenable and preventable deaths), avoidable hospital admissions, unplanned readmissions, and length of stay...
April 20, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684938/female-sexual-homicide-offenders-a-descriptive-and-comparative-study
#7
Sara Skott, Eric Beauregard, Rajan Darjee
Research on female sexual homicide has been very scarce. In Europe, it has rarely been examined, and in Scotland, it has never previously been studied. This exploratory study aims to examine the characteristics of sexual homicides involving female offenders between 1990 and 2015 in Scotland. Using data from the Scottish Homicide Database between 1990 and 2015, female sexual homicides (n = 7) were compared to nonsexual homicides committed by females (n = 106) and to sexual homicides committed by men (n = 89) using Fisher's exact tests...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683038/the-recruitment-of-new-members-to-existing-pbsgl-small-groups-a-qualitative-study
#8
Julia Park, David E Cunningham
Introduction Practice-Based Small Group Learning (PBSGL) is a learning programme widely adopted by primary healthcare professions (general practitioners, general practice nurses and pharmacists) in Scotland and other countries in the UK. PBSGL groups recruit members and decide on meeting dates and venues. Study aims To determine how groups recruit new members and discern what are the important attributes of the new members. Method A grounded theory approach was used with purposive sampling to recruit PBSGL groups to the study...
April 23, 2018: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681255/a-mixed-methods-evaluation-of-a-community-pharmacy-signposting-service-to-a-commercial-weight-loss-provider
#9
Jackie Inch, Alison Avenell, Lorna Aucott, Margaret C Watson
OBJECTIVE: Community pharmacies could provide access for clients to commercial weight management organizations. We evaluated recruitment, referral and outcomes of adults provided with free vouchers by community pharmacies to attend Scottish Slimmers classes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort design with qualitative interviews with clients and pharmacy personnel. Scottish Slimmers collected weight and attendance data. SETTING: Pharmacies in Aberdeen City, Scotland...
April 23, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679860/learning-lessons-to-improve-blood-borne-virus-testing-in-primary-care-in-scotland
#10
J Bell, L Allerton, L Grant, L McLeman, I Tonna, E Okpo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677578/tobacco-outlet-density-and-tobacco-knowledge-beliefs-purchasing-behaviours-and-price-among-adolescents-in-scotland
#11
Helena Tunstall, Niamh K Shortt, Claire L Niedzwiedz, Elizabeth A Richardson, Richard J Mitchell, Jamie R Pearce
Despite long-term falls in global adult smoking prevalence and over 50 years of tobacco control policies, adolescent smoking persists. Research suggests greater densities of tobacco retail outlets in residential neighbourhoods are associated with higher adolescent smoking rates. Policies to reduce retail outlets have therefore been identified by public health researchers as a potential 'new frontier' in tobacco control. Better understanding of the pathways linking density of tobacco retailers and smoking behaviour could support these policies...
February 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677027/surgery-complications-and-quality-of-life-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-exploring-the-role-of-psychosocial-factors
#12
Stephanie Archer, Anna Pinto, Sabine Vuik, Colin Bicknell, Omar Faiz, Ben Byrne, Maximilian Johnston, Petros Skapinakis, Thanos Athanasiou, Charles Vincent, Ara Darzi
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether psychosocial factors moderate the relationship between surgical complications and quality of life (QoL). BACKGROUND: Patients who experience surgical complications have significantly worse postoperative QoL than patients with an uncomplicated recovery. Psychosocial factors, such as coping style and level of social support influence how people deal with stressful events, but it is unclear whether they affect QoL following a surgical complication...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674373/study-protocol-quantitative-fibronectin-to-help-decision-making-in-women-with-symptoms-of-preterm-labour-quids-part-2-uk-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Sarah Jane Stock, Lisa M Wotherspoon, Kathleen Anne Boyd, Rachel K Morris, Jon Dorling, Lesley Jackson, Manju Chandiramani, Anna L David, Asma Khalil, Andrew Shennan, Victoria Hodgetts Morton, Tina Lavender, Khalid Khan, Susan Harper-Clarke, Ben Mol, Richard D Riley, John Norrie, Jane Norman
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the QUIDS study is to develop a decision support tool for the management of women with symptoms and signs of preterm labour, based on a validated prognostic model using quantitative fetal fibronectin (fFN) concentration, in combination with clinical risk factors. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study will evaluate the Rapid fFN 10Q System (Hologic, Marlborough, Massachusetts, USA) which quantifies fFN in a vaginal swab. In QUIDS part 2, we will perform a prospective cohort study in at least eight UK consultant-led maternity units, in women with symptoms of preterm labour at 22+0  to 34+6 weeks gestation to externally validate a prognostic model developed in QUIDS part 1...
April 19, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668763/a-case-study-of-polypharmacy-management-in-nine-european-countries-implications-for-change-management-and-implementation
#14
Jennifer McIntosh, Albert Alonso, Katie MacLure, Derek Stewart, Thomas Kempen, Alpana Mair, Margarida Castel-Branco, Carles Codina, Fernando Fernandez-Llimos, Glenda Fleming, Dimitra Gennimata, Ulrika Gillespie, Cathy Harrison, Maddalena Illario, Ulrike Junius-Walker, Christos F Kampolis, Przemyslaw Kardas, Pawel Lewek, João Malva, Enrica Menditto, Claire Scullin, Birgitt Wiese
BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity and its associated polypharmacy contribute to an increase in adverse drug events, hospitalizations, and healthcare spending. This study aimed to address: what exists regarding polypharmacy management in the European Union (EU); why programs were, or were not, developed; and, how identified initiatives were developed, implemented, and sustained. METHODS: Change management principles (Kotter) and normalization process theory (NPT) informed data collection and analysis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667385/chance-of-reimbursement-for-add-on-therapies-in-poland-and-in-the-world-review-of-the-reimbursement-recommendations
#15
Ewa Borowiack, Magdalena Marzec, Anna Nowotarska, Joanna Jarosz, Agata Orkisz, Patrycja Prząda-Machno
INTRODUCTION: Oncology drugs combined with standard therapies (so-called add-on therapies, e.g. bevacizumab, palbociclib) often receive negative recommendations regarding the legitimacy of public financing, issued by government agencies responsible for their assessment, i.e. health technology assessment agencies. The aim of the study was to estimate the scale of the problem related to the reimbursement of add-on therapies used in the treatment of breast and genitourinary cancers in Poland and in the world...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665419/widespread-associations-between-trait-conscientiousness-and-thickness-of-brain-cortical-regions
#16
Gary J Lewis, David Alexander Dickie, Simon R Cox, Sherif Karama, Alan C Evans, John M Starr, Mark E Bastin, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
The neural correlates of human personality have been of longstanding interest; however, most studies in the field have relied on modest sample sizes and few replicable results have been reported to date. We investigated relationships between personality and brain gray matter in a sample of generally healthy, older (mean age 73 years) adults from Scotland drawn from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Participants (N = 578) completed a brain MRI scan and self-reported Big Five personality trait measures. Conscientiousness trait scores were positively related to brain cortical thickness in a range of regions, including bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral fusiform gyrus, left cingulate gyrus, right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex...
April 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664119/e-cigarettes-vaping-and-performativity-in-the-context-of-tobacco-denormalisation
#17
Mark Lucherini, Catriona Rooke, Amanda Amos
E-cigarettes are devices through which a nicotine solution is 'vapourised' and inhaled by the user. Unlike cigarettes, the process involves no tobacco combustion. However, the inhalation and exhalation of vapour is reminiscent of smoking and there is debate about the possible harms and benefits of e-cigarette use, including the 'renormalisation' of smoking. Despite these debates, there has been little exploration into the embodied and semiotic similarities between smoking and vaping. This paper views the practices of vaping and smoking through the lens of performativity that is, the accumulation of meaning associated with the habits over time and space...
April 17, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661571/drug-related-homicide-in-europe-first-review-of-data-and-sources
#18
Roel de Bont, Teodora Groshkova, Andrew Cunningham, Marieke Liem
BACKGROUND: Drugs can act as facilitators for all types of violence, including drug-related homicide (DRH). Addressing this phenomenon is not only of importance given the severity of a homicide event and its high costs on society, but also because DRH has the potential to act as a valuable indicator or proxy of wider drug-related violent crime. However, there appears to be an important gap in terms of available European data on DRH. This study aimed to identify relevant European data sources on DRH, to assess the role of drugs in national homicide data, and to assess these sources and data in terms of monitoring potential...
April 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661229/can-arthroplasty-stem-influence-outcome-casino-a-randomized-controlled-equivalence-trial-of-125-mm-versus-150-mm-exeter-v40-stems-in-total-hip-arthroplasty
#19
David F Hamilton, Nicholas E Ohly, Paul Gaston
BACKGROUND: The use of shorter length femoral stems during total hip arthroplasty has been suggested to accommodate wider patient femoral geometry and offer maximal bone preservation. However, cemented short-stem designs may increase the risk of varus stem malalignment and influence patient outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: CASINO is a multi-centre randomised equivalence trial that will recruit 220 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis at two NHS hospitals in Scotland...
April 16, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660046/seeing-new-opportunities-to-help-smokers-quit-a-uk-national-survey-of-optometrist-delivered-smoking-cessation-behavioural-support-interventions
#20
Fabiana Lorencatto, Shamina Asif, Jill J Francis, Alice M Harper, John G Lawrenson
Background: Smoking is a risk factor for various eye conditions. Brief smoking cessation interventions have demonstrated effectiveness when delivered by a range of healthcare professionals. Optometrists are well-placed in the community to advise otherwise healthy smokers to quit, yet remain relatively neglected in smoking cessation research and policy. In a national survey, this study investigated self-reported practices of UK optometrists for delivering brief tobacco smoking cessation interventions to patients...
April 5, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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