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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139646/physical-fitness-and-digit-ratio-2d-4d-in-male-students-from-wroc%C3%A5-aw-poland
#1
Slawomir Koziel, Marek Kociuba Mail, Raja Chakraborty, Zofia Ignasiak
There is sex-difference in humans as regards aerobic efficiency, physical strength and endurance and the sex difference is greatly dependent upon differential concentration of testosterone during different phases of growth and development including the intrauterine phase or prenatal growth. Second-to-fourth digit lengths ratio (2D:4D) is an putative indicator of prenatal testosterone exposure. Lower 2D:4D indicates higher prenatal testosterone exposure and vice versa. Males generally have lower 2D:4D than females...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136482/impact-of-an-elementary-school-based-intervention-on-physical-activity-time-and-aerobic-capacity-georgia-2013-2014
#2
Hayley A Braun, Christi M Kay, Patricia Cheung, Paul S Weiss, Julie A Gazmararian
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the impact of a 1-year elementary school physical activity intervention on changes in teacher-reported school-based physical activity time and (2) assess the relationship between these changes and changes in student aerobic capacity. METHODS: HealthMPowers, a nonprofit organization, provided a multicomponent physical activity intervention to 3479 students in 39 schools in Georgia during 2013-2014. HealthMPowers administered a survey to faculty members before (August 2013) and after (May 2014) the intervention to measure student physical activity times...
November 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130051/the-effect-of-a-12-week-health-training-program-on-selected-anthropometric-and-biochemical-variables-in-middle-aged-women
#3
Wanda Pilch, Łukasz Tota, Ewa Sadowska-Krępa, Anna Piotrowska, Magdalena Kępińska, Tomasz Pałka, Adam Maszczyk
Regular moderate physical activity positively affects health, fitness, and body composition; it regulates the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines levels. Vitamin D plays an important regulatory role; its adequate levels correlate with low values of inflammation markers and an increase in muscle strength and fitness in exercising people. The study's aim was to evaluate changes in somatic variables, oxidative stress, and inflammation markers, as well as blood calcidiol concentration in middle-aged healthy women after 12 weeks of aerobics classes-endurance exercises, including choreographic sequences, aiming to improve fitness and motor coordination...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127265/mortality-and-health-related-habits-in-900-finnish-former-elite-athletes-and-their-brothers
#4
Titta Katariina Kontro, Seppo Sarna, Jaakko Kaprio, Urho M Kujala
BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence on the associations between participation in vigorous sports, health habits, familial factors and subsequent mortality. We investigated all-cause mortality and health-related behaviour among former elite athletes and their brothers. METHODS: The mortality of Finnish male former elite athletes, who had represented Finland between 1920 and 1965 (n=900) and their age-matched brothers (n=900), was followed from the time when athlete started an elite athlete career until 31 December 2015...
November 10, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120983/assessing-differences-in-anthropometric-and-fitness-characteristics-between-police-academy-cadets-and-incumbent-officers
#5
Robin Orr, J Jay Dawes, Rodney Pope, Joseph Terry
The physical fitness of police officers must be developed in new cadets and sustained in incumbent officers. The aims of this study were to profile and compare the anthropometric and fitness characteristics of police academy cadets and incumbent officers of varying ages from a single police force. Retrospective data for 84 police academy cadets (♂=66, mean age=27.96±5.73 yrs; ♀=18, mean age=30.50±5.76 yrs) and 80 incumbent police officers (♂=73, mean age=39.43±8.28 yrs; ♀=7, mean age=37.86±3.67 yrs) were compiled...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120978/effect-of-load-carriage-on-tactical-performance-in-swat-operators
#6
J Matthew Thomas, Michael B Pohl, Robert Shapiro, Jason Keeler, Mark G Abel
Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) operators are specially trained personnel that are required to carry equipment to perform high risk tasks. Given the need to carry this equipment, it is important to understand the potentially deleterious effect that the additional load may have on tactical performance. Furthermore, it is important to identify physical fitness characteristics that are associated with the potential decrement in performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of load carriage on tactical physical ability and marksmanship, and to identify fitness characteristics associated with any decrement in performance...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119861/carbohydrate-and-fat-oxidation-in-persons-with-lower-limb-amputation-during-walking-with-different-speeds
#7
Terje Gjovaag, Peyman Mirtaheri, Inger Marie Starholm
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that the energy expenditure of healthy persons (control) during walking with the preferred walking speed in steady-state conditions is dominated by fat oxidation. Conversely, carbohydrate and fat oxidation during walking is little investigated in transfemoral amputees. OBJECTIVES: To investigate carbohydrate and fat oxidation, energy cost of walking, and percent utilization of maximal aerobic capacity [Formula: see text]during walking...
November 1, 2017: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099231/effects-of-high-intensity-intermittent-training-on-vascular-function-in-obese-preadolescent-boys
#8
Napasakorn Chuensiri, Daroonwan Suksom, Hirofumi Tanaka
BACKGROUND: High-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) may serve as an effective alternative to traditional endurance training, since HIIT has been shown to induce greater improvements in aerobic fitness and health-related markers in adult populations. Our objective was to determine whether HIIT and supramaximal high-intensity intermittent training (supra-HIIT) would improve vascular structure and function in obese preadolescent boys. METHODS: Before the baseline testing, 48 obese preadolescent boys, aged 8-12 years, were randomly assigned into control (CON; n = 16), HIIT (8 × 2 minutes at 90% peak power output, n = 16), and supra-HIIT (8 × 20 seconds at 170% peak power output, n = 16) groups...
November 3, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098620/clinical-evidence-of-exercise-benefits-for-stroke
#9
Peipei Han, Wen Zhang, Li Kang, Yixuan Ma, Liyuan Fu, Liye Jia, Hairui Yu, Xiaoyu Chen, Lin Hou, Lu Wang, Xing Yu, Masahiro Kohzuki, Qi Guo
Even though stroke is the third, not the first, most common cause of disability-adjusted life years in developed countries, it is one of the most expensive to treat. Part of the expense is due to secondary problems in the post-stroke period including: cognition, memory, attention span, pain, sensation loss, psychological issues, and problems with mobility and balance. Research has identified that exercise has both positive physical and psychosocial effects for post-stroke patients. Therefore, this scientific statement provides an overview on exercise rehabilitation for post-stroke patients...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098617/effects-of-exercise-on-arrhythmia-and-viceversa-lesson-from-the-greek-mythology
#10
Caterina Lambiase, Silvia Macerola, Giovanna Bosco, Elisa Messina, Pasquale Franciosa
Exercise represents an important lifestyle factor in all human ages when felt in harmony with other psycho-physical and environmental variables that affect individual life (e. g. quality of interest, affections, environment, diet and food). Consequently, in addition to the training level, the amount, intensity and modality of exercise (ana-/aerobic, isometric/isotonic), need to be personalized, considering the underlying diseases, which may benefit from it or worsening.Greek mythology gives us good examples of the exercise concept's evolution...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097329/two-day-fasting-evokes-stress-but-does-not-affect-mood-brain-activity-cognitive-psychomotor-and-motor-performance-in-overweight-women
#11
Rima Solianik, Artūras Sujeta
The physiological, cognitive state, and motor behavior changes that occur during acute fasting are not completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the effect of 2-day total fasting on evoked stress, mood, brain activity, and cognitive, psychomotor, and motor function in overweight women. Eleven overweight women (body mass index above 25kg/m(2)) aged 20-30 years were tested under two conditions allocated randomly: 2-day zero-calorie diet with water provided ad libitum and 2-day usual diet...
October 31, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095264/effects-of-age-and-sex-on-epigenetic-modification-induced-by-an-acute-physical-exercise
#12
Marinella Coco, Vincenzo Perciavalle, Paolo Cavallari, Francesco Bolzoni, Adriana Carol Eleonora Graziano, Valentina Perciavalle
It has been observed that, after 2 hours of aerobic exercise, plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) increases whereas nuclear concentrations of enzyme DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3B significantly decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), with no change observed in DNMT3A. The aim of the present study was to detect differences in these changes induced by exercise in plasma IL-6 levels as well as in PBMC nuclear concentrations of DNMT3A and DNMT3B, in relation to age and sex. Four groups were studied: 12 young men (24...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076961/six-sessions-of-sprint-interval-training-improves-running-performance-in-trained-athletes
#13
Jerome Koral, Dustin J Oranchuk, Roberto Herrera, Guillaume Y Millet
Sprint interval training (SIT) is gaining popularity with endurance athletes. Various studies have shown that SIT allows similar or greater endurance, strength, and power performance improvements than traditional endurance training, but demands less time and volume. One of the main limitations in SIT research is that most studies were performed in a laboratory using expensive treadmills or ergometers. The aim of this study was to assess the performance effects of a novel short term and highly accessible training protocol based on maximal shuttle runs in the field (SIT-F)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075557/rats-bred-for-low-and-high-running-capacity-display-alterations-in-peripheral-tissues-and-nerves-relevant-to-neuropathy-and-pain
#14
Michael A Cooper, Megan M Jack, Janelle M Ryals, Page Hayley, Taylor Escher, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Shelby M Raupp, Michelle K Winter, Kenneth E McCarson, Paige C Geiger, John P Thyfault, Douglas E Wright
INTRODUCTION: Diet and activity are recognized as modulators of nervous system disease, including pain. Studies of exercise consistently reveal a benefit on pain. This study focused on female rats to understand differences related to metabolic status and peripheral nerve function in females. METHODS: Here, we investigated parameters of peripheral nerve function relevant to pain in rats selectively bred for high (high-capacity runners; HCR) or low endurance exercise capacity (low-capacity runners; LCR) resulting in divergent intrinsic aerobic capacities and susceptibility for metabolic conditions...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072025/does-small-sided-games-training-improve-physical-fitness-and-specific-skills-for-team-sports-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#15
Amri Hammami, Tim J Gabbett, Maamer Slimani, Ezdine Bouhlel
INTRODUCTION: This paper aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the training effects of small-sided games (SSG) on physical fitness and specific skills related to team sport according to the level of play and the period of the season. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The search covered the following electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect). The publications' search period ranged from 2000 to 2016. The terms (small- sided game, training, skill-based game, aerobic fitness, sprint, agility, jump and team sports) were used either singularly or combined in a systematic sequence...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071072/effect-of-high-flow-nasal-therapy-during-acute-aerobic-exercise-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-after-exacerbation-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-cross-over-trial
#16
Guillaume Prieur, Clement Medrinal, Yann Combret, Aurora Robledo Quesada, Fabrice Prieur, Jean Quieffin, Jean Christian Borel, Gregory Reychler
INTRODUCTION: Early pulmonary rehabilitation is recommended after a severe exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, this is difficult to implement, particularly for exercise training. High-flow nasal therapy (HFNT) may reduce the work of breathing and dyspnoea and may improve exercise tolerance. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a single-centre, prospective, controlled, randomised, cross-over study. Eligible patients will have a diagnosis of COPD (postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio of <0...
2017: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039261/one-year-follow-up-of-the-capo-kids-trial-are-physical-benefits-maintained
#17
Rossana C Nogueira, Benjamin K Weeks, Belinda Beck
PURPOSE: To determine the 12-month maintenance of a 9-month, thrice-weekly, 10-minute high-intensity exercise program, delivered in schools, on bone and other health-related performance variables in prepubertal children. METHODS: All participants (N = 311) of the CAPO kids trial (testing times T1-T2) were contacted to undergo retesting (T3) of all original measures-including weight, standing and sitting height, calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (Achilles, GE), and stiffness index (Achilles, GE)-waist circumference, resting heart rate, blood pressure, vertical jump, and aerobic capacity...
October 17, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021828/endurance-exercise-training-decreased-serum-levels-of-surfactant-protein-d-and-improved-aerobic-fitness-of-obese-women-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Sajjad Rezaei, Mahdieh Molanouri Shamsi, Mehdi Mahdavi, Azadeh Jamali, Jonato Prestes, Ramires Alsamir Tibana, James Wilfred Navalta, Fabrício Azevedo Voltarelli
BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a member of the collectin family and is an important component of the pulmonary innate host defense. To find the relationship between exercise training and SP-D in diabetes, we examined the possible effects of a 10-week endurance exercise-training program on serum levels of SP-D, leptin, lipid profile and insulin resistance in obese women with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Twenty-two obese women with T2DM were randomly assigned to either exercise training (ET) or control (C) group...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986086/functional-physical-training-improves-women-s-military-occupational-performance
#19
Bradley C Nindl, Shawn R Eagle, Peter N Frykman, Christopher Palmer, Eric Lammi, Katy Reynolds, Katelyn Allison, Everett Harman
The U.S. Armed Forces have recently approved full integration of women into combat roles. Physical fitness demands for executing Military Occupational Specialties (MOS) are substantial; thus lifting and load carriage capability improvements are desirable. OBJECTIVES: To determine if a specially-designed physical conditioning program could lessen the gap between the performance of male and female Soldiers in lifting and load carriage and thereby enable women to meet the requirements of most, if not all, Army MOSs...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985267/effect-of-exercise-on-arterial-stiffness-is-there-a-ceiling-effect
#20
David Montero, Andreas Breenfeldt-Andersen, Laura Oberholzer, Thomas Haider
BACKGROUND: Whether arterial stiffness (AS) can be improved by regular exercise in healthy individuals remains equivocal according to cross-sectional and longitudinal studies assessing arterial properties at discrete time points. The purpose of the present study was to pinpoint the time course of training-induced adaptations in central AS. METHODS: Aorta characteristic impedance (Zc) and carotid distensibility (CD) were determined with ultrasonography prior to (week 0) and across 8 weeks (weeks 2, 4, and 8) of supervised endurance training (ET) (3 × 60 minutes cycle ergometry sessions per week), in 9 previously untrained healthy normotensive adults (27 ± 4 years) with no history of cardiovascular disease...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
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