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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078668/mitochondrial-adaptations-to-exercise-in-human-skeletal-muscle-a-possible-role-for-cristae-density-as-a-determinant-of-muscle-fitness
#1
Christopher G R Perry
Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable plasticity in response to repeated exercise challenges (i.e. exercise 'training'). A hallmark phenotypic change is an increase in the ability to sustain contraction and resist fatigue. Such increased muscle endurance is linked, in part, to an improved ability to sustain ATP synthesis aerobically through coordinated enhancements in the delivery of oxygen (e.g. cardiorespiratory, vascular adaptations) and its utilization within skeletal muscle mitochondria for the oxidation of fat and carbohydrates...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073325/the-moderating-role-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-in-the-relationship-between-cognitive-and-aerobic-endurance-change
#2
Jason R Anderson, Dayana Calvo, Ellen Glickman, John Gunstad, Mary Beth Spitznagel
BACKGROUND: Improvements in cognition often accompany fitness improvements in older adults, and research suggests insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) may influence this association. No prior work has examined this in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We predicted that IGF-1 would moderate the relationship between cognition and aerobic endurance improvement, such that greater baseline IGF-1 would accompany a stronger relationship between cognition and aerobic endurance change. METHOD: Twenty-seven individuals with MCI completed assessments of aerobic endurance (2-minute step test [2MST]) and global cognition (Modified Mini-Mental State [3MS]) before and after a 6-month period of twice-weekly exercise...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044282/are-prepubertal-children-metabolically-comparable-to-well-trained-adult-endurance-athletes
#3
REVIEW
Sébastien Ratel, Anthony J Blazevich
It is well acknowledged that prepubertal children have smaller body dimensions and a poorer mechanical (movement) efficiency, and thus a lower work capacity than adults. However, the scientific evidence indicates that prepubertal children have a greater net contribution of energy derived from aerobic metabolism in exercising muscle and reduced susceptibility to muscular fatigue, which makes them metabolically comparable to well-trained adult endurance athletes. For example, the relative energy contribution from oxidative and non-oxidative (i...
January 2, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044281/the-effects-of-mental-fatigue-on-physical-performance-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Jeroen Van Cutsem, Samuele Marcora, Kevin De Pauw, Stephen Bailey, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
BACKGROUND: Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity. It has recently been suggested that mental fatigue can affect physical performance. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the literature on impairment of physical performance due to mental fatigue and to create an overview of the potential factors underlying this effect. METHODS: Two electronic databases, PubMed and Web of Science (until 28 April 2016), were searched for studies designed to test whether mental fatigue influenced performance of a physical task or influenced physiological and/or perceptual responses during the physical task...
January 2, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039888/aerobic-training-in-myotonia-congenita-effect-on-myotonia-and-fitness
#5
Grete Andersen, Nicoline Løkken, John Vissing
INTRODUCTION: Exercise has not been investigated in myotonia congenita (MC). We investigated whether regular aerobic training can reduce myotonia and improve fitness. METHODS: Untrained patients with MC (age: 24-62 years, n=6) completed 28±3 sessions of 30-minute cycle ergometer training at 75% of maximal capacity for 11±1 weeks. Fitness was evaluated by maximal oxygen uptake. The level of myotonia was assessed by the Myotonia Behavior Scale, 14 step stair test, timed up and go test, and hand and eye closure-open tests...
December 31, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039074/caffeine-stimulates-voluntary-wheel-running-in-mice-without-increasing-aerobic-capacity
#6
Gerald C Claghorn, Zoe Thompson, Kristianna Wi, Lindsay Van, Theodore Garland
The "energy drink" Red Bull and the "sports drink" Gatorade are often marketed to athletes, with claims that they cause performance gains. However, both are high in sugars, and also consumed by non-athletes. Few studies have addressed the effects of these drinks or their biologically active components in rodent exercise models. We used three experiments to test effects on both voluntary exercise behavior and maximal aerobic capacity in lines of mice known to differ in "athletic" traits. Mice from four replicate High Runner (HR) lines have been selectively bred for voluntary running on wheels, and run approximately three times as many revolutions per day as do mice from four non-selected Control (C) lines...
December 28, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032568/seven-day-intensive-preoperative-rehabilitation-for-elderly-patients-with-lung-cancer-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Yutian Lai, Jian Huang, Mei Yang, Jianhua Su, Jing Liu, Guowei Che
BACKGROUND: As a newly developed treatment, preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has been studied in depth. However, few studies have assessed the relationship between advanced age and a shorter term intensive pattern of preoperative PR in patients with lung cancer (LC) and especially those patients waiting for therapeutic LC surgeries. This study investigated short-term preoperative PR combined with inspiratory muscle training (IMT) and aerobic endurance training in elderly patients scheduled to undergo LC lobectomy...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031765/physical-performance-during-water-polo-matches-the-effect-of-the-players-competitive-level
#8
Petros G Botonis, Argyris G Toubekis, Theodoros I Platanou
The purpose of the study was to compare playing intensity and performance changes within a water-polo match in players of different competitive levels. High-level (n = 7) and lower-level (n = 7) players performed a progressively increasing speed test of 5 x 200 m swimming and speed corresponding to lactate concentration of 4.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mmol•l-1 was calculated. Repeated sprint ability (8 x 20 m) was tested at pre-, the middle and post-match and a 400 m swimming test was completed at pre and post in five water-polo matches...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030533/physical-and-physiological-profile-of-wrestler-athletes-short-review
#9
Helmi Chaabene, Yassine Negra, Raja Bouguezzi, Bessem Mkaouer, Emerson Franchini, Ursula Julio, Younés Hachana
Wrestling is one of the oldest combat sports, disputed since the ancient Greek Olympic Games. This combat sport discipline has caught the attention of scientists since 1943 which is the date that matches the appearance of the first scientific research dealing with wrestling. The current short review aimed to summarize and critically analyze the scientific literature related to wrestling's physical and physiological attributes and to provide practical recommendations for testing/training together with new perspective and areas of future scientific research...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018192/differences-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-young-adult-endurance-athletes-and-healthy-controls
#10
David A Raichlen, Pradyumna K Bharadwaj, Megan C Fitzhugh, Kari A Haws, Gabrielle-Ann Torre, Theodore P Trouard, Gene E Alexander
Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013058/leg-compressions-improve-ventilatory-efficiency-while-reducing-peak-and-post-exercise-blood-lactate-but-does-not-improve-perceived-exertion-exercise-economy-or-aerobic-exercise-capacity-in-endurance-trained-runners
#11
Eric Rivas, John D Smith, Nestor W Sherman
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine if leg compressions would alter cardiorespiratory and perceived exertion measures during rest, submaximal and maximal exercise in endurance-trained runners. METHOD: Thirteen young, endurance trained runners (10 males, 20.9±3y, 58.9±5.7mlkgmin(-1)) completed a randomized design, leg compressions and non-compression control condition. The incremental graded exercise test consisted of baseline rest and submaximal intensities at 23%, 70%, 75%, 85% and then a progressive increase to 100% VO2max...
December 21, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005637/effects-of-physical-training-and-fitness-on-running-injuries-in-physically-active-young-men
#12
Tyson L Grier, Michelle Canham-Chervak, Morgan K Anderson, Timothy T Bushman, Bruce H Jones
Grier, TL, Canham-Chervak, M, Anderson, MK, Bushman, TT, and Jones, BH. Effects of physical training and fitness on running injuries in physically active young men. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 207-216, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of physical training (PT) and fitness on risks for running-related injuries (RRIs) in physically active young men. Personal characteristics, PT, Army Physical Fitness Test scores, and injury data were obtained by survey. Army Physical Fitness Test variables (push-ups, sit-ups, and 2-mile run) were converted into quartiles (Q), where Q1 = lowest performance and Q4 = highest performance...
January 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000342/a-new-model-of-short-acceleration-based-training-improves-exercise-performance-in-old-mice
#13
R Niel, M Ayachi, L Mille-Hamard, L Le Moyec, P Savarin, M-J Clement, S Besse, T Launay, V L Billat, I Momken
In order to identify a more appealing exercise strategy for the elderly, we studied a mouse model to determine whether a less time-consuming training program would improve exercise performance, enzyme activities, mitochondrial respiration, and metabolomic parameters. We compared the effects of short-session (acceleration-based) training with those of long-session endurance training in 23-month-old mice. The short-session training consisted of five acceleration-based treadmill running sessions over 2 weeks (the acceleration group), whereas the endurance training consisted of five-one-hour treadmill sessions per week for 4 weeks (the endurance group)...
December 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994494/association-of-physical-performance-and-biochemical-profile-of-mice-with-intrinsic-endurance-swimming
#14
Wen-Ching Huang, Yi-Ju Hsu, Li Wei, Ying-Ju Chen, Chi-Chang Huang
We aimed to investigate the potential mediators and relationship affecting congenital exercise performance in an animal model with physical activity challenge from physiological and biochemical perspectives. A total of 75 male ICR mice (5 weeks old) were adapted for 1 week, then mice performed a non-loading and exhaustive swimming test and were assigned to 3 groups by exhaustive swimming time: low exercise capacity (LEC) (<3 hr), medium exercise capacity (MEC) (3-5 hr), and high exercise capacity (HEC) (>5 hr)...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990224/the-relationship-between-aerobic-and-anaerobic-performance-in-recreational-runners
#15
Zachary M Gillen, Frank B Wyatt, Jason B Winchester, Dalton A Smith, Vidhi Ghetia
Research has indicated that combined aerobic and anaerobic training (concurrent training) may improve aerobic performance greater than aerobic training alone. The purpose of this investigation was to establish any associations between aerobic and anaerobic performance. Eleven participants (n = 11, age = 34.1 ± 13 years, VO2max = 58.4 ± 7.8) volunteered for this study. Participants were asked for endurance training experience (4.7 ± 3.7 years) and resistance training experience (4.1 ± 4.6 years). To meet training status, participants were to have a VO2max in the 80(th) percentile as per ACSM guidelines...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965592/fatigue-induced-by-physical-and-mental-exertion-increases-perception-of-effort-and-impairs-subsequent-endurance-performance
#16
REVIEW
Benjamin Pageaux, Romuald Lepers
Endurance performance involves the prolonged maintenance of constant or self-regulated power/velocity or torque/force. While the impact of numerous determinants of endurance performance has been previously reviewed, the impact of fatigue on subsequent endurance performance still needs to be documented. This review aims to present the impact of fatigue induced by physical or mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance. For the purpose of this review, endurance performance refers to performance during whole-body or single-joint endurance exercise soliciting mainly the aerobic energy system...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964962/improving-community-ambulation-after-hip-fracture-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
D Orwig, K K Mangione, M Baumgarten, M Terrin, R Fortinsky, A M Kenny, A L Gruber-Baldini, B Beamer, Ana Tosteson, M Shardell, L Magder, E Binder, K Koval, B Resnick, R L Craik, J Magaziner
INTRODUCTION: After a hip fracture in older persons, significant disability often remains; dependency in functional activities commonly persists beyond 3 months after surgery. Endurance, dynamic balance, quadriceps strength, and function are compromised, and contribute to an inability to walk independently in the community. In the United States, people aged 65 years and older are eligible to receive Medicare funding for physiotherapy for a limited time after a hip fracture. A goal of outpatient physiotherapy is independent and safe household ambulation 2 to 3 months after surgery...
January 2017: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957824/physical-fitness-level-affects-perception-of-chronic-stress-in-military-trainees
#18
Carolin Tuch, Thomas Teubel, Roberto La Marca, Lilian Roos, Hubert Annen, Thomas Wyss
This study investigated whether physical fitness affects the perception of chronic stress in military trainees while controlling for established factors influencing stress perception. The sample consisted of 273 men (20.23 ± 1.12 years, 73.56 ± 10.52 kg, 1.78 ± 0.06 m). Physical fitness was measured by progressive endurance run (maximum oxygen uptake; VO2 max), standing long jump, seated shot put, trunk muscle strength, and one leg standing test. Perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire in Weeks 1 and 11 of basic military training (BMT)...
December 13, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956540/effective-translation-of-research-to-practice-hospital-based-rehabilitation-program-improves-health-related-physical-fitness-and-quality-of-life-of-cancer-survivors
#19
Amy A Kirkham, Riggs J Klika, Tara Ballard, Paul Downey, Kristin L Campbell
BACKGROUND: Although exercise has been widely established as an efficacious rehabilitative therapy for cancer survivors in rigorously designed research studies, demonstration of translation of this research into clinical oncology practice is needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a real-world cancer rehabilitation program implemented within a healthcare setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study involved 299 adult cancer survivors enrolled in a hospital-based, supervised, individualized, cancer rehabilitation program...
December 2016: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940620/how-to-build-a-deep-diver-the-extreme-morphology-of-mesoplodonts
#20
D Ann Pabst, William A McLellan, Sentiel A Rommel
Mesoplodont beaked whales are extreme divers, diving for over 45 mins and to depths of over 800 m. These dives are of similar depth and duration to those of the giant sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) whose body mass can be 50 times larger. Velten et al. (2013) provided anatomical data that demonstrated that on-board oxygen stores were sufficient to aerobically support the extreme dives of mesoplodonts if their diving metabolic rates are low. Because no physiological data yet exist, we utilized an anatomical approach-the body composition technique-to examine the relative metabolic rates of mesoplodonts...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
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