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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528447/a-single-bout-of-endurance-exercise-modulates-eeg-microstates-temporal-features
#1
Jérôme N Spring, Miralena I Tomescu, Jérôme Barral
Electrical neuroimaging is a promising method to explore the spontaneous brain function after physical exercise. The present study aims to investigate the effect of acute physical exercise on the temporal dynamic of the resting brain activity captured by the four conventional map topographies (microstates) described in the literature, and to associate these brain changes with the post-exercise neuromuscular function. Twenty endurance-trained subjects performed a 30-min biking task at 60% of their maximal aerobic power followed by a 10 km all-out time trial...
May 20, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524725/a-sport-education-fitness-season-s-impact-on-students-fitness-levels-knowledge-and-in-class-physical-activity
#2
Jeffery Kurt Ward, Peter A Hastie, Danielle D Wadsworth, Shelby Foote, Sheri J Brock, Nikki Hollett
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a sport education season of fitness could provide students with recommended levels of in-class moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) while also increasing students' fitness knowledge and fitness achievement. METHOD: One hundred and sixty-six 5th-grade students (76 boys, 90 girls) participated in a 20-lesson season called "CrossFit Challenge" during a 4-week period. The Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run, push-ups, and curl-ups tests of the FITNESSGRAM® were used to assess fitness at pretest and posttest, while fitness knowledge was assessed through a validated, grade-appropriate test of health-related fitness knowledge (HRF)...
May 19, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493406/beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate-supplementation-and-skeletal-muscle-in-healthy-and-muscle-wasting-conditions
#3
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the essential amino acid leucine that has been reported to have anabolic effects on protein metabolism. The aims of this article were to summarize the results of studies of the effects of HMB on skeletal muscle and to examine the evidence for the rationale to use HMB as a nutritional supplement to exert beneficial effects on muscle mass and function in various conditions of health and disease. The data presented here indicate that the beneficial effects of HMB have been well characterized in strength-power and endurance exercise...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489682/personalised-prehabilitation-in-high-risk-patients-undergoing-elective-major-abdominal-surgery-a-randomized-blinded-controlled-trial
#4
Anael Barberan-Garcia, Marta Ubré, Josep Roca, Antonio M Lacy, Felip Burgos, Raquel Risco, Dulce Momblán, Jaume Balust, Isabel Blanco, Graciela Martínez-Pallí
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of personalized prehabilitation on postoperative complications in high-risk patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Prehabilitation, including endurance exercise training and promotion of physical activity, in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery has been postulated as an effective preventive intervention to reduce postoperative complications. However, the existing studies provide controversial results and show a clear bias toward low-risk patients...
May 9, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488921/sex-differences-in-world-record-performance-the-influence-of-sport-discipline-and-competition-duration
#5
Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli, Hans-Christer Holmberg
In the present review, we summarize scientific knowledge concerning sex differences in world record performance and the influence of sport discipline and competition duration. In addition, we discuss how physiological factors relate to sex dimorphism. While cultural factors played a major role in the rapid improvement of performance of women relative to men up until the 1990's, sex differences between the world's best athletes in most events have remained relatively stable at approximately 8-12%. The exceptions are events in which upper-body power is a major contributor, where this difference is more than 15%, and ultra-endurance swimming, where the gap is now less than 5%...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486334/aerobic-exercise-supplemented-with-muscular-endurance-training-improves-onset-of-blood-lactate-accumulation
#6
John W Farrell, David J Lantis, Carl J Ade, Greg S Cantrell, Rebecca D Larson
Studies have shown that when aerobic exercise is supplemented with muscular endurance training metabolic adaptions occur that result in the delay of the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). However, previous studies have not explored any submaximal cardiorespiratory adaptations that may result from this training protocol. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effect of supplementing an aerobic exercise training program with a muscular endurance training program on various cardiorespiratory and metabolic measurements...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486015/muscular-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-homeschool-versus-public-school-children
#7
Laura S Kabiri, Katy Mitchell, Wayne Brewer, Alexis Ortiz
PURPOSE: The growth and unregulated structure of homeschooling creates an unknown population in regard to muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of this research was to compare muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness between elementary school aged homeschool and public school children. METHOD: Homeschool children ages 8-11 years old (n=75) completed the curl-up, 90° push-up, and Progressive Aerobic Capacity Endurance Run (PACER) portions of the FitnessGram® to assess abdominal and upper body strength and endurance as well as cardiorespiratory fitness...
May 9, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480693/factors-determining-800-m-running-performance-in-young-male-athletes
#8
Ramon Cruz, Romulo C de Moraes Bertuzzi, Danilo L Alves, Rafael Azevedo, Phelipe H Cardoso Castro, Jefferson Verbena Freitas, Adriano E Lima-Silva, Fernando R de Oliveira, Jorge R Perrout Lima
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to identify determinant variables on 800-m running performance in young male athletes derived from field tests and biological maturity. METHODS: A total of 89 athletes, aged between 13 and 15 years old, performed a 800-m running trial and a battery of tests which involved anthropometric measurements, a running anaerobic test (RAST), a flexibility test (sit-and-reach), a counter movement jump test and progressive test for aerobic fitness evaluation...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469757/analysis-of-motor-activities-of-professional-soccer-players-during-the-2014-world-cup-in-brazil
#9
Paweł Chmura, Marcin Andrzejewski, Marek Konefał, Dariusz Mroczek, Andrzej Rokita, Jan Chmura
The aim of the present study was to analyze motor activities of soccer players in seven consecutive rounds of matches of the 2014 World Cup in Brazil and to compare the performance of the world champions, the German national team with other participating teams. The study sample comprised 905 observations of 340 soccer players, who played full-time matches in all seven rounds of the tournament. The study was conducted using data collected from the Castrol Performance Index, a kinematic game analysis system that records movements of players with semi-automatic cameras...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469746/low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-can-it-help-exercise-performance
#10
Chen-Kang Chang, Katarina Borer, Po-Ju Lin
Low-carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diets have been used as a means of weight loss and control of symptoms in several clinical conditions. There is emerging evidence that the metabolic changes induced by LCHF diets enhance endurance performance. The aims of this review are to examine the evidence of LCHF diets in improving various aspects of athletic performance. Long-term LCHF dietary intake may help control body weight and fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in athletes in weight-sensitive sports. LCHF-adapted endurance athletes can reach the maximal fat oxidation rate of approximately 1...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468260/6mwt-performance-and-its-correlations-with-vo%C3%A2-and-handgrip-strength-in-home-dwelling-mid-aged-and-older-chinese
#11
Qing Zhang, Hailin Lu, Shiqin Pan, Yuan Lin, Kun Zhou, Li Wang
Six-minute walk test (6MWT) performance is more commonly used in clinic patients with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases but not in home-dwelling individuals of similar age, and its correlations with oxygen uptake (VO₂) and muscle strength require further investigation. The current study determined the 6MWT performance of 106 home-dwelling residents (mean age of 62 years) in Suzhou, China. VO₂ at a respiratory exchange ratio (R) of 1 was measured through graded cycling exercise tests on 46 participants. Handgrip strength of all participants was tested...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465675/dietary-thiols-in-exercise-oxidative-stress-defence-exercise-performance-and-adaptation
#12
REVIEW
Yanita McLeay, Stephen Stannard, Stuart Houltham, Carlene Starck
Endurance athletes are susceptible to cellular damage initiated by excessive levels of aerobic exercise-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Whilst ROS can contribute to the onset of fatigue, there is increasing evidence that they play a crucial role in exercise adaptations. The use of antioxidant supplements such as vitamin C and E in athletes is common; however, their ability to enhance performance and facilitate recovery is controversial, with many studies suggesting a blunting of training adaptations with supplementation...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462571/effects-of-minimal-dose-of-strength-training-on-running-performance-in-female-recreational-runners
#13
Michal Štohanzl, Jiri Baláš, Nick Draper
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyse the extent to which minimal dose strength training would elicit improvements in running performance for female recreational runners. METHODS: Forty-one female recreational runners were randomly assigned to one of three groups (endurance running [E] n=14; combined endurance running and strength training program once [ES30] n=14 and twice a week [ES60] n=13, respectively). During the 10-week training program, the E group completed 3 hours of continuous endurance running per week; ES30 completed 2 ½ hours of continuous endurance running and 1 x 30 min of strength training per week, while ES60 group completed 2 hours of continuous endurance running and 2x30 min of strength training per week...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459794/effectiveness-of-a-16-week-high-intensity-cardio-resistance-training-hicrt-program-in-adults
#14
Tina A Greenlee, Daniel R Greene, Nathan J Ward, Ginger E Reeser, Courtney M Allen, Nicholas W Baumgartner, Neal J Cohen, Arthur F Kramer, Charles H Hillman, Aron K Barbey
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a novel, 16-week High-Intensity Cardio-Resistance Training (HICRT) program on measures of aerobic fitness, agility, aerobic power, muscular endurance, lower body explosive power, and self-reported activity level. The intervention group (N=129; 63 f, 24.65±5.55 y) had a baseline VO2max of 39.83±9.13. These individuals participated in 26, 70-minute exercise sessions, and 4 fitness testing sessions. Participants were matched with a non-exercise control group, paired by sex, age, and baseline VO2max...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445229/a-cross-sectional-and-retrospective-cohort-analysis-of-the-effects-of-age-on-flexibility-strength-endurance-lower-body-power-and-aerobic-fitness-in-law-enforcement-officers
#15
Robert G Lockie, J Jay Dawes, Charles L Kornhauser, Ryan J Holmes
There can be a great age range in cohorts of law enforcement officers. As the tasks required of officers generally do not change with advancing age, it is important to understand how physical performance in tests that assess job-specific characteristics may be altered. Retrospective analysis of performance test data for 383 officers (362 males, 21 females) was conducted. The tests included: sit-and-reach to determine hamstring and lower back flexibility; maximal push-up and sit-up repetitions in 60 s to measure muscle endurance; vertical jump (VJ) to assess lower-body power; and 2...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445078/effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-on-canoeing-performance
#16
Ming-Ta Yang, Mien-Mien Lee, Shu-Ching Hsu, Kuei-Hui Chan
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) utilizing a canoeing ergometer on endurance determinants, as well as aerobic and anaerobic performances among flat-water canoeists. Fourteen well-trained male flat-water canoeists were divided into an HIIT group or an MICT group. All subjects performed a continuous graded exercise test (GXT) and three fixed-distance (200, 500, and 1000 m) performance tests on a canoeing ergometer to determine canoeing economy, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and power at VO2peak, and to calculate the critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic work capacity before and after the training programmes...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442803/effects-of-fitness-training-on-physical-fitness-parameters-and-quality-of-life-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-indian-females
#17
Renuka Patil, Apurv Shimpi, Savita Rairikar, Ashok Shyam, Parag Sancheti
PURPOSE: Highly active antiretroviral therapy has significantly extended survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. These drugs suppress replication of HIV but at the same time, have many physical and mental side effects which may affect daily activities of the patients. The present study assessed if moderate intensity exercise program helped in enhancing the physical fitness and quality of life (QoL) in HIV positive females which may reduce the comorbidities associated with the disease and medications...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425231/the-relationship-between-physical-fitness-and-falling-risk-and-fear-of-falling-in-community-dwelling-elderly-people-with-different-physical-activity-levels
#18
Mehmet Duray, Arzu Genç
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this research was to determine the effects of physical activity level (PAL) and physical fitness on falling parameters in community-dwelling elderly people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-six elderly people were grouped as low PAL group (group 1, n: 38) and high PAL (group 2, n: 38) according to their PAL scores. PAL was measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly and muscle strength, muscle endurance, aerobic endurance, and flexibility tests were applied; body mass index (BMI) was calculated for physical fitness measurement...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406700/moderate-exercise-based-on-artificial-gravity-preserves-orthostatic-tolerance-and-exercise-capacity-during-short-term-head-down-bed-rest
#19
Xiao-Tao Li, Chang-Bin Yang, Yong-Sheng Zhu, Jing Sun, Fei Shi, Yong-Chun Wang, Yuan Gao, Jiang-Dong Zhao, Xi-Qing Sun
Numerous countermeasures have been proposed to minimize microgravity-induced physical deconditioning, but their benefits are limited. The present study aimed to investigate whether personalized aerobic exercise based on artificial gravity (AG) mitigates multisystem physical deconditioning. Fourteen men were assigned to the control group (n=6) and the countermeasure group (CM, n=8). Subjects in the CM group were exposed to AG (2Gz at foot level) for 30 min twice daily, during which time cycling exercise of 80-95% anaerobic threshold (AT) intensity was undertaken...
April 12, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399624/effect-of-respiratory-muscle-training-on-pulmonary-function-and-aerobic-endurance-in-soccer-players
#20
Tarik Ozmen, Gokce Y Gunes, Ilyas Ucar, Hanife Dogan, Tuba U Gafuroglu
BACKGROUND: Few studies investigated the effects of the respiratory muscle training (RMT) in soccer although exhaustive high intensity exercise is known to lead to muscle fatigue in respiratory muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of RMT on pulmonary function and aerobic endurance in soccer players. METHODS: Eighteen male soccer players (mean age 22.2±1.4 years) participated in this study. Participants were assigned randomly to either an RMT or a control (CON) group...
May 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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