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aerobic endurance

Krzysztof Durkalec-Michalski, Emilia E Zawieja, Bogna E Zawieja, Dominika Jurkowska, Maciej S Buchowski, Jan Jeszka
The glycemic index (GI) of ingested carbohydrates may influence substrate oxidation during exercise and athletic performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of low- and moderate-GI three-week diets on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in runners. We conducted a randomized crossover feeding study of matched diets differing only in GI (low vs. moderate) in 21 endurance-trained runners. Each participant consumed both, low- (LGI) and moderate-GI (MGI) high-carbohydrate (~60%) and nutrient-balanced diets for three weeks each...
March 17, 2018: Nutrients
Jonpaul Nevin, Mark Waldron, Stephen Patterson, Paul Smith, Mike Price, Alex Hunt
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week concurrent strength and endurance training programme in comparison to endurance training only on several key determinants of hand cycling performance. Five H4 and five H3 classified hand cyclists with at least one year's hand cycling training history consented to participate in the study. Subjects underwent a battery of tests to establish body mass, body composition, VO2peak, maximum aerobic power, gross mechanical efficiency, maximal upper body strength, and 30 km time trial performance...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Christoph Höchsmann, Anja Rossmeissl, Sandra Baumann, Denis Infanger, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss
OBJECTIVES: To examine cardiorespiratory exertion during mini trampoline exercises of different intensities in both endurance-trained athletes and overweight-obese adults. METHODS: Physically healthy participants (Group A: normal-weight, endurance-trained athletes; Group B: inactive, overweight-obese adults) participated in two measurement appointments and three training sessions in between appointments, in which participants familiarized themselves with the use of the mini trampoline and the execution of the exercises...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Naser Naser, Ajmol Ali, Paul Macadam
Futsal, the 5-a-side version of soccer (i.e. 1 goalkeeper and 4 outfield players), was introduced in 1930 and continues to grow in popularity around the world. Competitive games comprise of two 20-min periods of high-intensity and intermittent activities requiring substantial physical, tactical, and technical efforts from the players. A greater understanding of the physical and skill requirements will aid the development of futsal and enable practitioners to undertake appropriate training regimes for the demands of the sport...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Pedro B Junior, Vitor L de Andrade, Eduardo Z Campos, Carlos A Kalva-Filho, Alessandro M Zagatto, Gustavo G de Araújo, Marcelo Papoti
Due to the controversy about the sensitive of lactate minimum intensity (LMI) to training and the need to develop other tool for aerobic fitness evaluation, the purpose of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of glucose minimum intensity (GMI) and LMI to endurance training. Eight trained male cyclists (21.4 ± 1.9 years, 67.6 ± 7.5 kg and 1.72 ± 0.10 m) were evaluated twice, before and after 12 weeks of training. GMI and LMI were calculated, respectively, by the lowest blood glucose and lactate values attained during an incremental test performed after a hyperlactemia induction, and VO2 max was determined during standard incremental effort...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Christopher G Guglielmo
Migratory birds are physiologically specialized to accumulate massive fat stores (up to 50-60% of body mass), and to transport and oxidize fatty acids at very high rates to sustain flight for many hours or days. Target gene, protein and enzyme analyses and recent -omic studies of bird flight muscles confirm that high capacities for fatty acid uptake, cytosolic transport, and oxidation are consistent features that make fat-fueled migration possible. Augmented circulatory transport by lipoproteins is suggested by field data but has not been experimentally verified...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Liliana C Baptista, André Pinto Amorim, João Valente-Dos-Santos, Aristides M Machado-Rodrigues, Manuel Teixeira Veríssimo, Raul A Martins
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of functionally-limited hypertensive individuals highlights the need for interventions to reduce the burden of hypertension-aging-disability and to maximize the chances of healthy aging. AIM: This study aims to compare the effects of multicomponent exercise and different pharmacological treatments on functional status and cardiovascular risk outcomes in hypertensive older adults with comorbidities. METHODS: Participants (n = 96) engage in a 3 days/week multicomponent (aerobic + resistance) exercise program and for one of the following three conditions: (1) thiazide-related diuretics (TDs; n = 33, 69...
March 6, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Hyoung-Kil Park, Min-Kyung Jung, Eunkyung Park, Chang-Young Lee, Yong-Seok Jee, Denny Eun, Jun-Youl Cha, Jaehyun Yoo
Performing warm-ups increases muscle temperature and blood flow, which contributes to improved exercise performance and reduced risk of injuries to muscles and tendons. Stretching increases the range of motion of the joints and is effective for the maintenance and enhancement of exercise performance and flexibility, as well as for injury prevention. However, stretching as a warm-up activity may temporarily decrease muscle strength, muscle power, and exercise performance. This study aimed to clarify the effect of stretching during warm-ups on muscle strength, muscle power, and muscle endurance in a nonathletic population...
February 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Susan S Levy, Katie J Thralls, Daniel J Goble, Taylor B Krippes
Community-based exercise programs have demonstrated feasibility, yet many lack controlled studies examining their efficacy. This study examined the efficacy of a community-based exercise program, using a controlled design. Participants ( N = 262, Mage = 74.0 years, SD = 8.4) were women (77%) and men recruited from senior centers served by the county Area Agency on Aging. Intervention participants ( n = 133) were newly enrolled in classes. Controls ( n = 129) were recruited from matched sites not offering classes...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
Juh Hyun Shin
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an older adult exercise program in a senior-living complex campus. DESIGN: A longitudinal one-group design was used. METHODS: To supply residents with tools to maintain or improve general quality of life, balance, endurance, depression, and functional mobility, the Wellness and Fitness Center at the research setting provided a wide assortment of user-friendly equipment with many options...
March 2018: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
Christian Cobbold
Obesity and associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pose an increasing risk to the health of both individuals and society. Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ, secreting many hormones, known as adipokines. Evidence suggests that one suggest adipokine, resistin, may be elevated in the plasma of individuals with T2DM, and early reports indicated that this may contribute to the impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance observed in T2DM, hence its name, resistin, however subsequent evidence suggests it may have a proinflammatory role...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Ryota Kobayashi, Soichiro Iwanuma, Nobuyuki Ohashi, Takeo Hashiguchi
Arterial velocity pulse index (AVI) and arterial pressure-volume index (API), new indicators of arterial stiffness, are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Regular aerobic exercise decreases arterial stiffness. In fact, pulse wave velocity (PWV), index of arterial stiffness, is lower in endurance-trained than in untrained young adults. However, the effect of regular aerobic exercise on AVI and API remains unknown. This study investigates the effect of regular aerobic exercise on AVI and API, new indicators of arterial stiffness...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Michael A Moxley, Kalyan C Vinnakota, Jason N Bazil, Nathan R Qi, Daniel A Beard
High capacity and low capacity running rats, HCR and LCR respectively, have been bred to represent two extremes of running endurance and have recently demonstrated disparities in fuel usage during transient aerobic exercise. HCR rats can maintain fatty acid (FA) utilization throughout the course of transient aerobic exercise whereas LCR rats rely predominantly on glucose utilization. We hypothesized that the difference between HCR and LCR fuel utilization could be explained by a difference in mitochondrial density...
February 23, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Kengo Ishihara, Hirokazu Taniguchi
Endurance exercise performance has been used as a representative index in experimental animal models in the field of health sciences, exercise physiology, comparative physiology, food function or nutritional physiology. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fatmax (the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation) as an additional index of endurance exercise performance that can be measured during running at submaximal exercise intensity in mice. We measured both Fatmax and Vo2 peak of trained ICR mice that voluntary exercised for 8 weeks and compared them with a sedentary group of mice at multiple inclinations of 20, 30, 40, and 50° on a treadmill...
2018: PloS One
Julia Kathrin Baumgart, Berit Brurok, Øyvind Sandbakk
BACKGROUND: Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in Paralympic sitting sports athletes represents their maximal ability to deliver energy aerobically in an upper-body mode, with values being influenced by sex, disability-related physiological limitations, sport-specific demands, training status and how they are tested. OBJECTIVES: To identify VO2peak values in Paralympic sitting sports, examine between-sports differences and within-sports variations in VO2peak and determine the influence of sex, age, body-mass, disability and test-mode on VO2peak...
2018: PloS One
Karla Fabiana Goessler, Roselien Buys, Dieter VanderTrappen, Lise Vanhumbeeck, Veronique Ann Cornelissen
Aerobic endurance exercise (AEX) is an effective treatment in the prevention and management of high blood pressure (BP). Growing evidence suggests potential benefits from isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise, which may promote similar or even larger reductions in BP than AEX. We compared the effects of home-based AEX and home-based IHG on BP. Sixty healthy individuals (31 men; mean age, 33.1 years; mean BP, 126.9 ± 1.6/84.7 ± 1.1 mm Hg) were randomized to IHG, AEX, or a control group. Both exercise interventions were performed in the home environment...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
Paul Robach, Joar Hansen, Aurélien Pichon, Anne-Kristine Meinild Lundby, Sune Dandanell, Gunnar Slettaløkken Falch, Daniel Hammarström, Dominik H Pesta, Christoph Siebenmann, Stefanie Keiser, Patricia Kérivel, Jon Elling Whist, Bent R Rønnestad, Carsten Lundby
Live high - train low (LHTL) using hypobaric hypoxia was previously found to improve sea-level endurance performance in well-trained individuals, however confirmatory controlled data in athletes are lacking. Here we test the hypothesis that natural-altitude LHTL improves aerobic performance in cross-country skiers, in conjunction with expansion of total hemoglobin mass (Hbmass , carbon-monoxide rebreathing technique) promoted by accelerated erythropoiesis. Following duplicate baseline measurements at sea level over the course of two weeks, nineteen Norwegian cross-country skiers (three women, sixteen men, age 20±2 yr, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) 69±5 ml...
February 22, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Alon Eliakim
The Pediatric Exercise Science "Year That Was" section aims to highlight the most important (to the author's opinion) manuscripts that were published in 2017 in the field of endocrinology and pediatric exercise science. This year's selection includes studies showing that 1) in pubertal swimmers, there is a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) during intense training (a catabolic-type hormonal response) with an anabolic "rebound" characterized by a significant increase of these growth factors during training tapering down...
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Bülent Sökmen, Ronald L Witchey, Gene M Adams, William C Beam
Sökmen, B, Witchey, RL, Adams, GM, and Beam, WC. Effects of sprint interval training with active recovery vs. endurance training on aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint ability. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 624-631, 2018-This study compared sprint interval training with active recovery (SITAR) to moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) in aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint time results. Forty-two recreationally active adults were randomly assigned to a SITAR or ET group...
March 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Mindy Millard-Stafford, Ann E Swanson, Matthew T Wittbrodt
Men outperform women in sports requiring muscular strength and/or endurance, but the relative influence of "nurture" versus "nature" remains difficult to quantify. Performance gaps between elite men and women are well-documented using world records in second, centimeter or kilogram sports. However, this approach is biased by global disparity in reward structures and opportunities for women. Despite policies enhancing female participation (Title IX legislation), USA women only closed performance gaps by 2 and 5% in Olympic Trial swimming and running, respectively, from 1972 to 1980 (with no change thereafter through 2016)...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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