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anaerobic metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340434/potentially-direct-interspecies-electron-transfer-of-methanogenesis-for-syntrophic-metabolism-under-sulfate-reducing-conditions-with-stainless-steel
#1
Yue Li, Yaobin Zhang, Yafei Yang, Xie Quan, Zhiqiang Zhao
Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) is an alternative to syntrophic metabolism in natural carbon cycle as well as in anaerobic digesters, but its function in anaerobic treatment of sulfate-containing wastewater have not yet to be described. Here, conductive stainless steel was added into anaerobic digesters for treating sulfate-containing wastewater to investigate the potential role of DIET in the response to the sulfate impact. Results showed that adding the conductive stainless steel made the anaerobic digestion less affected by the sulfate reduction than adding insulative plastic material...
March 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340326/effects-of-coupling-a-uf-membrane-with-a-mesh-screen-and-elevating-temperature-in-the-methanogenic-digester-of-a-two-phased-anaerobic-system
#2
Min Ho Kim, Chul-Hwi Park, Gee-Bong Han
This study was conducted to investigate coupling of UF with a mesh screen under thermophilic temperatures and compare the effectiveness of membrane filtration and temperature change in the methanogenic digester. A two-phased anaerobic digester coupled with an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system was used for anaerobic sludge digestion. The overall average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency achieved in the two-phased anaerobic digester coupled with the UF membrane system was 97.9 ± 0.8%. In the methanogenic digester, 10...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340292/combined-spiroergometry-and-31-p-mrs-of-human-calf-muscle-during-high-intensity-exercise
#3
K Moll, A Gussew, C Hein, N Stutzig, J R Reichenbach
Simultaneous measurements of pulmonary oxygen consumption (VO2 ), carbon dioxide exhalation (VCO2 ) and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31) P-MRS) are valuable in physiological studies to evaluate muscle metabolism during specific loads. Therefore, the aim of this study was to adapt a commercially available spirometric device to enable measurements of VO2 and VCO2 whilst simultaneously performing (31) P-MRS at 3 T. Volunteers performed intense plantar flexion of their right calf muscle inside the MR scanner against a pneumatic MR-compatible pedal ergometer...
March 24, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340243/finite-time-parametric-identification-for-the-model-representing-the-metabolic-and-genetic-regulatory-effects-of-sequential-aerobic-respiration-and-anaerobic-fermentation-processes-in-escherichia-coli
#4
Alfonso Sepúlveda-Gálvez, Jesús Agustín Badillo-Corona, Isaac Chairez
Mathematical modelling applied to biological systems allows for the inferring of changes in the dynamic behaviour of organisms associated with variations in the environment. Models based on ordinary differential equations are most commonly used because of their ability to describe the mechanisms of biological systems such as transcription. The disadvantage of using this approach is that there is a large number of parameters involved and that it is difficult to obtain them experimentally. This study presents an algorithm to obtain a finite-time parameter characterization of the model used to describe changes in the metabolic behaviour of Escherichia coli associated with environmental changes...
March 17, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339929/dietary-resveratrol-supplementation-prevents-transport-stress-impaired-meat-quality-of-broilers-through-maintaining-muscle-energy-metabolism-and-antioxidant-status
#5
C Zhang, L Wang, X H Zhao, X Y Chen, L Yang, Z Y Geng
This experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary resveratrol (Res) supplementation (0, 400 mg/kg) on growth performance, meat quality, and muscle anaerobic glycolysis and antioxidant capacity of transported broilers. A total of 360 21-day-old male Cobb broilers was randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments (Res-free group and Res group) with 12 replicates of 15 birds each. On the morning of d 42, after a 9-hour fast, 24 birds (2 birds of each replicate) were selected from the Res-free group and then equally placed into 2 crates, and the other 12 birds (one bird of each replicate) were selected from the Res group and then placed into the other crate...
March 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338745/circadian-oscillations-of-microbial-and-functional-composition-in-the-human-salivary-microbiome
#6
Lena Takayasu, Wataru Suda, Kageyasu Takanashi, Erica Iioka, Rina Kurokawa, Chie Shindo, Yasue Hattori, Naoko Yamashita, Suguru Nishijima, Kenshiro Oshima, Masahira Hattori
The human microbiomes across the body evidently interact with various signals in response to biogeographical physiological conditions. To understand such interactions in detail, we investigated how the salivary microbiome in the oral cavity would be regulated by host-related signals. Here, we show that the microbial abundance and gene participating in keeping the human salivary microbiome exhibit global circadian rhythm. Analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences of salivary microbial samples of six healthy adults collected at 4-h intervals for three days revealed that the microbial genera accounting for 68...
February 23, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338677/integrated-metabolism-in-sponge-microbe-symbiosis-revealed-by-genome-centered-metatranscriptomics
#7
Lucas Moitinho-Silva, Cristina Díez-Vives, Giampiero Batani, Ana Is Esteves, Martin T Jahn, Torsten Thomas
Despite an increased understanding of functions in sponge microbiomes, the interactions among the symbionts and between symbionts and host are not well characterized. Here we reconstructed the metabolic interactions within the sponge Cymbastela concentrica microbiome in the context of functional features of symbiotic diatoms and the host. Three genome bins (CcPhy, CcNi and CcThau) were recovered from metagenomic data of C. concentrica, belonging to the proteobacterial family Phyllobacteriaceae, the Nitrospira genus and the thaumarchaeal order Nitrosopumilales...
March 24, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338361/method-induced-differences-of-energy-contributions-in-adolescent-female-kayaking
#8
Yongming Li, Margot Niessen, Xiaoping Chen, Ulrich Hartmann
Purpose Different relative aerobic energy contribution (WAER%) has been reported for the two female Olympic kayaking disciplines (i.e. 200 and 500m). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the adopted method of energy calculation influenced the value of WAER% during the kayaking time trials. Methods Eleven adolescent female kayakers (age 14±1 yrs, height 172±4 cm, body mass 65.4±4.2 kg, VO2peak 42.6±4.9 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1), training experience 1.5±0.3 yrs) volunteered to participate in one incremental exercise test and two time trials (40s and 120s) on the kayak ergometer...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335808/potential-for-hydrogen-oxidizing-chemolithoautotrophic-and-diazotrophic-populations-to-initiate-biofilm-formation-in-oligotrophic-deep-terrestrial-subsurface-waters
#9
Xiaofen Wu, Karsten Pedersen, Johanna Edlund, Lena Eriksson, Mats Åström, Anders F Andersson, Stefan Bertilsson, Mark Dopson
BACKGROUND: Deep terrestrial biosphere waters are separated from the light-driven surface by the time required to percolate to the subsurface. Despite biofilms being the dominant form of microbial life in many natural environments, they have received little attention in the oligotrophic and anaerobic waters found in deep bedrock fractures. This study is the first to use community DNA sequencing to describe biofilm formation under in situ conditions in the deep terrestrial biosphere. RESULTS: In this study, flow cells were attached to boreholes containing either "modern marine" or "old saline" waters of different origin and degree of isolation from the light-driven surface of the earth...
March 23, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331161/isolation-of-cyanobacterial-mutants-exhibiting-growth-defects-under-microoxic-conditions-by-transposon-tagging-mutagenesis-of-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803
#10
Kazuki Terauchi, Riho Sobue, Yuho Furutani, Rina Aoki, Yuichi Fujita
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes that perform oxygenic photosynthesis by extracting electrons from water, with the generation of oxygen as a byproduct. Cyanobacteria use oxygen not only for respiration to produce energy in the dark but also for biosynthesis of various metabolites, such as heme and chlorophyll. Oxygen levels dynamically fluctuate in the field environments, from hyperoxic at daytime to almost anaerobic at night. Thus, adaptation to anaerobiosis should be important for cyanobacteria to survive in low-oxygen and anaerobic environments...
March 22, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330166/a-molecular-phylogenetic-framework-for-bacillus-subtilis-using-genome-sequences-and-its-application-to-bacillus-subtilis-subspecies-stecoris-strain-d7xpn1-an-isolate-from-a-commercial-food-waste-degrading-bioreactor
#11
Joseph Adelskov, Bharat K C Patel
A thermophilic, heterotrophic and facultatively anaerobic bacterium designated strain D7XPN1 was isolated from Baku BakuKing™, a commercial food-waste degrading bioreactor (composter). The strain grew optimally at 45 °C (growth range between 24 and 50 °C) and pH 7 (growth pH range between pH 5 and 9) in Luria Broth supplemented with 0.3 % glucose. Strain D7XPN1 tolerated up to 7 % NaCl and showed amylolytic and xylanolytic activities. 16S rRNA gene analysis placed strain D7XPN1 in the cluster represented by Bacillus subtilis and the genome analysis of the 4...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330142/an-overview-of-physico-chemical-mechanisms-of-biogas-production-by-microbial-communities-a-step-towards-sustainable-waste-management
#12
REVIEW
Ramansu Goswami, Pritam Chattopadhyay, Arunima Shome, Sambhu Nath Banerjee, Amit Kumar Chakraborty, Anil K Mathew, Shibani Chaudhury
Biogas is a combination of methane, CO2, nitrogen, H2S and traces of few other gases. Almost any organic waste can be biologically transformed into biogas and other energy-rich organic compounds through the process of anaerobic digestion (AD) and thus helping in sustainable waste management. Although microbes are involved in each step of AD, knowledge about those microbial consortia is limited due to the lack of phylogenetic and metabolic data of predominantly unculturable microorganisms. However, culture-independent methods like PCR-based ribotyping has been successfully employed to get information about the microbial consortia involved in AD...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326448/anaerobic-metabolism-in-t4-acanthamoeba-genotype
#13
Daniella de Sousa Mendes Moreira Alves, Luciano Moreira Alves, Tatiane Luiza da Costa, Ana Maria de Castro, Marina Clare Vinaud
Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are of the most common protozoa that has been isolated from a variety of environment and affect immunocompromised individuals, causing granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and skin lesions. Acanthamoeba, in immunocompetent patients, may cause a keratitis related to corneal microtrauma. These free-living amoebas easily adapt to the host environment and wield metabolic pathways such as the energetic and respiratory ones in order to maintain viability for long periods. The energetic metabolism of cysts and trophozoites remains mostly unknown...
March 22, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322436/modelling-hydraulic-transport-and-anaerobic-uptake-by-paos-and-gaos-during-wastewater-feeding-in-ebpr-granular-sludge-reactors
#14
David G Weissbrodt, Christof Holliger, Eberhard Morgenroth
New-generation bioprocesses using granular sludge aim for a high-rate removal of nutrients from wastewater with low footprint. Achieving enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) relies on the design of sludge beds and wastewater feeding conditions to optimally load the biomass and to select for polyphosphate- (PAOs) over glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) and other heterotrophs. A hydraulic-metabolic mathematical model was developed to elucidate the impact of hydraulic transport patterns and environmental conditions on the PAO/GAO competition during up-flow feeding through an EBPR granular sludge bed...
March 21, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321009/energy-metabolism-during-anaerobic-methane-oxidation-in-anme-archaea
#15
Shawn E McGlynn
Anaerobic methane oxidation in archaea is often presented to operate via a pathway of "reverse methanogenesis". However, if the cumulative reactions of a methanogen are run in reverse there is no apparent way to conserve energy. Recent findings suggest that chemiosmotic coupling enzymes known from their use in methylotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens-in addition to unique terminal reductases-biochemically facilitate energy conservation during complete CH4 oxidation to CO2. The apparent enzyme modularity of these organisms highlights how microbes can arrange their energy metabolisms to accommodate diverse chemical potentials in various ecological niches, even in the extreme case of utilizing "reverse" thermodynamic potentials...
March 17, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320620/effect-of-fe-0-addition-on-volatile-fatty-acids-evolution-on-anaerobic-digestion-at-high-organic-loading-rates
#16
Xin Kong, Shuyao Yu, Shuang Xu, Wen Fang, Jianguo Liu, Huan Li
Excessive acidification frequently occurs in the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) at high organic loading rates (OLR), due to the accumulation of non-acetic volatile fatty acids (VFA). In this study, the performance of Fe(0) in enhancing various VFA production and metabolism was investigated. The butyric acid concentration in a high OLR reactor with Fe(0) addition decreased from 7200 to 0mg/L after a short lag phase, and the total VFA (TVFA) concentration also decreased substantially...
March 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320314/quorum-sensing-of-streptococcus-mutans-is-activated-by-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-and-by-the-periodontal-microbiome
#17
Szymon P Szafrański, Zhi-Luo Deng, Jürgen Tomasch, Michael Jarek, Sabin Bhuju, Manfred Rohde, Helena Sztajer, Irene Wagner-Döbler
BACKGROUND: The oral cavity is inhabited by complex microbial communities forming biofilms that can cause caries and periodontitis. Cell-cell communication might play an important role in modulating the physiologies of individual species, but evidence so far is limited. RESULTS: Here we demonstrate that a pathogen of the oral cavity, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. act.), triggers expression of the quorum sensing (QS) regulon of Streptococcus mutans, a well-studied model organism for cariogenic streptococci, in dual-species biofilms grown on artificial saliva...
March 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315600/elucidation-of-microbial-nitrogen-transformation-mechanisms-in-activated-sludge-by-comprehensive-evaluation-of-nitrogen-transformation-activity
#18
Xueyu Zhang, Shaokui Zheng, Jian Sun, Xuze Xiao
Using prepared nitrifying sludge, anaerobic ammonia oxidization (anammox) sludge and two heterotrophic ammonia oxidization bacterial (AOB) species as inocula, this study elucidated the effect of oxygen conditions, assay media, and selective metabolic inhibitors on various microbial nitrogen (N)-transformation activities including aerobic chemolithotrophic ammonia and nitrite oxidization, aerobic heterotrophic ammonia oxidization, anammox, and aerobic and anoxic denitrification. The oxygen conditions and assay media effectively differentiated among almost all ammonia removal pathways except for separating aerobic chemolithotrophic ammonia oxidization from aerobic heterotrophic ammonia oxidization...
March 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315193/resistance-training-using-different-hypoxic-training-strategies-a-basis-for-hypertrophy-and-muscle-power-development
#19
REVIEW
Belén Feriche, Amador García-Ramos, Antonio J Morales-Artacho, Paulino Padial
The possible muscular strength, hypertrophy, and muscle power benefits of resistance training under environmental conditions of hypoxia are currently being investigated.Nowadays, resistance training in hypoxia constitutes a promising new training strategy for strength and muscle gains. The main mechanisms responsible for these effects seem to be related to increased metabolite accumulation due to hypoxia. However, no data are reported in the literature to describe and compare the efficacy of the different hypertrophic resistance training strategies in hypoxia...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315163/activity-of-metabolic-enzymes-and-muscle-specific-gene-expression-in-parr-and-smolts-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-of-different-age-groups
#20
Maria V Churova, Olga V Meshcheryakova, Aleksey E Veselov, Denis A Efremov, Nina N Nemova
This study was conducted to characterize the energy metabolism level and the features of muscle growth regulation during the development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) inhabiting the Indera River (Kola Peninsula, Russia). The activities of aerobic and anaerobic enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase and lactate dehydrogenase) and carbohydrate metabolism enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and aldolase) were measured in muscle and liver tissue. Gene expression levels of myosin heavy chain (MyHC), myostatin (MSTN-1a), and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs-MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MyoD1c, Myf5, myogenin) were measured in the white muscles of salmon parr of ages 0+, 1+, 2+, and 3+ and smolts of ages 2+ and 3+...
March 18, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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