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anaerobic metabolism

Chayadevie Nanjundeswaran, Jessie VanSwearingen, Katherine Verdolini Abbott
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify potential metabolic mechanisms including (1) neuromuscular inefficiency, (2) cardiovascular recovery deficits, or (3) both, in individuals with complaints of vocal fatigue. STUDY DESIGN: Within- and between-subjects group design was used in this study. METHODS: Three groups of women participated in the study, including (1) individuals with complaints of vocal fatigue; (2) vocally healthy sedentary individuals; and (3) vocally healthy, cardiovascularly conditioned individuals...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Clara Bien Peek, Daniel C Levine, Jonathan Cedernaes, Akihiko Taguchi, Yumiko Kobayashi, Stacy J Tsai, Nicolle A Bonar, Maureen R McNulty, Kathryn Moynihan Ramsey, Joseph Bass
Circadian clocks are encoded by a transcription-translation feedback loop that aligns energetic processes with the solar cycle. We show that genetic disruption of the clock activator BMAL1 in skeletal myotubes and fibroblasts increased levels of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) under hypoxic conditions. Bmal1(-/-) myotubes displayed reduced anaerobic glycolysis, mitochondrial respiration with glycolytic fuel, and transcription of HIF1α targets Phd3, Vegfa, Mct4, Pk-m, and Ldha, whereas abrogation of the clock repressors CRY1/2 stabilized HIF1α in response to hypoxia...
October 19, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Gustav Linder, Jakob Hedberg, Martin Björck, Magnus Sundbom
In esophageal cancer surgery, perfusion of the gastric conduit is a critical issue. Measurement of gastric intramucosal pH (pHi ) is a method to identify anaerobic metabolism as a sign of impaired perfusion. In this study we aimed to monitor changes in the perfusion of the gastric conduit at key steps during and after esophagectomy. pHi was measured per- and postoperatively using intermittent gastric tonometry in 32 patients undergoing open, 65%, or video-assisted thoracoscopic esophagectomy for esophageal cancer...
October 21, 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Karolina Niska, Narcyz Knap, Anna Kędzia, Maciej Jaskiewicz, Wojciech Kamysz, Iwona Inkielewicz-Stepniak
Objectives: In dentistry, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have drawn particular attention because of their wide antimicrobial activity spectrum. However, controversial information on AgNPs toxicity limited their use in oral infections. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities against a panel of oral pathogenic bacteria and bacterial biofilms together with potential cytotoxic effects on human gingival fibroblasts of 10 nm AgNPs: non-functionalized - uncapped (AgNPs-UC) as well as surface-functionalized with capping agent: lipoic acid (AgNPs-LA), polyethylene glycol (AgNPs-PEG) or tannic acid (AgNPs-TA) using silver nitrate (AgNO3) as control...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Jongkeun Lee, Joonrae Roger Kim, Seulki Jeong, Jinwoo Cho, Jae Young Kim
In order to investigate the long-term stability on the performance of the anaerobic digestion process, a laboratory-scale continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) was operated for 1100 days with sunflower harvested in a heavy metal contaminated site. Changes of microbial communities during digestion were identified using pyrosequencing. According to the results, soluble heavy metal concentrations were lower than the reported inhibitory level and the reactor performance remained stable up to OLR of 2.0g-VS/L/day at HRT of 20days...
October 17, 2016: Waste Management
Gan Luo, Jun Li, Yan Li, Zhu Wang, Wen-Tao Li, Ai-Min Li
Performance of internal circulation anaerobic reactor (IC) treating wastewater at high organic loading rate (OLR) and role of external hydraulic circulation were evaluated. When the OLR was increased from 2.50 to 18.94kgCOD/m(3)/d, COD removal decreased to 85% slightly and methane production increased to 4.49L/L/d with the upflow velocity of 1.0m/h resulted from the additional hydraulic circulation. Withdrawal of external hydraulic circulation led to decrease of COD removal to lower than 60% drastically and methane production by 81%...
October 13, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Rosario Scarfone, Antonio Ammendolia
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological demands and technical-tactical performances of field players in Italian elite beach soccer team. METHODS: Three official matches of the Italian First Division beach soccer tournament were analyzed to evaluate the heart rate (HR) and time-motion analysis considering: standing, walking, jogging, running and sprinting, and technical-tactical aspects. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine the effects of time on the physiological measures and time motion analysis...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Jin-Yi Wan, Yu-Zhen Zhang, Jin-Bin Yuan, Feng-Qing Yang, Yan Chen, Lian-Di Zhou, Qi-Hui Zhang
Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel has been commonly used in Asia, and Anemoside B4 conducted as its major saponin with diverse pharmaceutical effects. Previous studies showed that intestinal flora plays an important role in the metabolism of herbs administered orally. In this study, the metabolic profile of AB4 with microflora in rat small and large intestine in vitro was investigated. Gut microflora was collected from different intestinal segments and anaerobically incubated with AB4 at 37 °C for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively...
October 19, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Yiwen Liu, Yaobin Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhao, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Junliang Zhou, Lai Peng, Bing-Jie Ni
Recent studies have shown that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) plays an important part in contributing to methane production from anaerobic digestion. However, so far anaerobic digestion models that have been proposed only consider two pathways for methane production, namely, acetoclastic methanogenesis and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, via indirect interspecies hydrogen transfer, which lacks an effective way for incorporating DIET into this paradigm. In this work, a new mathematical model is specifically developed to describe DIET process in anaerobic digestion through introducing extracellular electron transfer as a new pathway for methane production, taking anaerobic transformation of ethanol to methane as an example...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Katsunori Yanagawa, Akira Ijiri, Anja Breuker, Sanae Sakai, Youko Miyoshi, Shinsuke Kawagucci, Takuroh Noguchi, Miho Hirai, Axel Schippers, Jun-Ichiro Ishibashi, Yoshihiro Takaki, Michinari Sunamura, Tetsuro Urabe, Takuro Nunoura, Ken Takai
Subseafloor microbes beneath active hydrothermal vents are thought to live near the upper temperature limit for life on Earth. We drilled and cored the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough, and examined the phylogenetic compositions and the products of metabolic functions of sub-vent microbial communities. We detected microbial cells, metabolic activities and molecular signatures only in the shallow sediments down to 15.8 m below the seafloor at a moderately distant drilling site from the active hydrothermal vents (450 m)...
October 18, 2016: ISME Journal
Nurbek Mambetsariev, Wai W Lin, Alicia M Wallis, Laura L Stunz, Gail A Bishop
The adaptor protein TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) is a critical regulator of B lymphocyte survival. B cell-specific TRAF3 deficiency results in enhanced viability and is associated with development of lymphoma and multiple myeloma. We show that TRAF3 deficiency led to induction of two proteins important for glucose metabolism, Glut1 and Hexokinase 2 (HXK2). This was associated with increased glucose uptake. In the absence of TRAF3, anaerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation were increased in B cells without changes in mitochondrial mass or reactive oxygen species...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Junji Hamuro, Morio Ueno, Kazuko Asada, Munetoyo Toda, Monty Montoya, Chie Sotozono, Shigeru Kinoshita
Purpose: To clarify whether cultured human corneal endothelial cells (cHCECs), heterogeneous in their differentiation state, exhibit distinctive energy metabolism with the aim to develop a reliable method to sort cHCECs applicable for regenerative medicine. Methods: The presence of cHCEC subpopulations (SPs) was verified via surface cluster-of-differentiation (CD) marker expression. Cultured HCEC metabolic extracts or corresponding culture supernatants with distinctive cellular phenotypes in regard to energy-metabolism-related functional markers c-Myc and CD44 were prepared and analyzed via capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Karim Chamari, Johnny Padulo
The purpose of this Current Opinion article is to focus on the appropriate use of the terms 'aerobic'- and 'anaerobic'-exercise in sports medicine, in order to try to unify their use across coaches/athletes and sport scientists. Despite the high quality of most of the investigations, the terms aerobic/anaerobic continue to be used inappropriately by some researchers in exercise science. Until late 2014, for instance, 14,883 and 6,136 articles were cited in PubMed, in the field of 'exercise science', using the words 'aerobic' or 'anaerobic', respectively...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Mengjie Fan, Nannan Zhou, Peiwen Li, Liuliu Chen, Yingwen Chen, Shubao Shen, Shemin Zhu
Tetrabromobisphenol A(TBBPA), a pollutant in industrial wastewaters, needs to be removed due to its high toxicity and persistence. The main biodegradation pathway for TBBPA has been studied, and bisphenol A(BPA), which is toxic to the environment, is recognized as the general terminal product. In this study, we explored a new approach for the anaerobic biodegradation of TBBPA in a bioelectrochemical system (BES) through co-metabolic degradation of TBBPA with glucose. The half-life of TBBPA was significantly reduced to 13...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Mariana G Lima, Vinícius M Tunholi-Alves, Fabrício N Gaudêncio, Florence G Martins, Rosane N Castro, Silvana C Thiengo, Juberlan S Garcia, Arnaldo Maldonado, Jairo Pinheiro
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is considered the main agent responsible for human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. This parasite has low specificity for mollusk hosts and it can also use aquatic snails as auxiliary hosts. Studies based on the metabolic profile of Biomphalaria spp. infected by A. cantonensis have been conducted to observe parasite-host interactions. In the present study, the glucose content in the hemolymph and glycogen content in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass of Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria straminea experimentally infected by A...
October 12, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Trey K Sato, Mary Tremaine, Lucas S Parreiras, Alexander S Hebert, Kevin S Myers, Alan J Higbee, Maria Sardi, Sean J McIlwain, Irene M Ong, Rebecca J Breuer, Ragothaman Avanasi Narasimhan, Mick A McGee, Quinn Dickinson, Alex La Reau, Dan Xie, Mingyuan Tian, Jennifer L Reed, Yaoping Zhang, Joshua J Coon, Chris Todd Hittinger, Audrey P Gasch, Robert Landick
The inability of native Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert xylose from plant biomass into biofuels remains a major challenge for the production of renewable bioenergy. Despite extensive knowledge of the regulatory networks controlling carbon metabolism in yeast, little is known about how to reprogram S. cerevisiae to ferment xylose at rates comparable to glucose. Here we combined genome sequencing, proteomic profiling, and metabolomic analyses to identify and characterize the responsible mutations in a series of evolved strains capable of metabolizing xylose aerobically or anaerobically...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Pedram Ramin, Andreas Libonati Brock, Fabio Polesel, Ana Causanilles, Erik Emke, Pim de Voogt, Benedek Gy Plosz
Sewer pipelines, although primarily designed for sewage transport, can also be considered as bioreactors. In-sewer processes may lead to significant variations of chemical loadings from source release points to the treatment plant influent. In this study, we assessed in-sewer utilization of growth substrates (primary metabolic processes) and transformation of illicit drug biomarkers (secondary metabolic processes) by suspended biomass. Sixteen drug biomarkers were targeted, including mephedrone, methadone, cocaine, heroin, codeine and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and their major human metabolites...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Matthew A Richards, Thomas J Lie, Juan Zhang, Stephen W Ragsdale, John A Leigh, Nathan D Price
: Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis occurs in multiple environments ranging from the intestinal tracts of animals to anaerobic sediments and hot springs. Energy conservation in hydrogenotrophic methanogens was long a mystery; only within the last decade, it was reported that net energy conservation for growth depends on electron bifurcation. In this work we focus on Methanococcus maripaludis, a well-studied hydrogenotrophic marine methanogen. To better understand hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and compare it with methylotrophic methanogenesis that utilizes oxidative phosphorylation rather than electron bifurcation, we have built iMR539, a genome scale metabolic reconstruction that accounts for 539 of the 1722 protein-coding genes of M...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Wei Qiao, Kazuyuki Takayanagi, Qian Li, Mohammad Shofie, Fang Gao, Renjie Dong, Yu-You Li
In this study, sulfate was employed as an external electron acceptor for enhancing the degradation of propionate in a thermophilic anaerobic membrane reactor (AnMBR). The organic loading rate (OLR) was increased gradually from the initial 3.9 kg-COD/m(3)d to the inhibiting OLR of 14.6 kg-COD/m(3)d. Feeding was stopped for 98 days but the process did not recover until 500 mg/L of sulfate was added into the AnMBR. After that, the enhanced propionate degradation was achieved up to an OLR of 15 kg-COD/m(3)d with a reduced sulfate addition of 300 mg/L...
October 6, 2016: Water Research
Constanze Pinske, R Gary Sawers
Numerous recent developments in the biochemistry, molecular biology, and physiology of formate and H2 metabolism and of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase (Hyd) cofactor biosynthetic machinery are highlighted. Formate export and import by the aquaporin-like pentameric formate channel FocA is governed by interaction with pyruvate formate-lyase, the enzyme that generates formate. Formate is disproportionated by the reversible formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex, which has been isolated, allowing biochemical dissection of evolutionary parallels with complex I of the respiratory chain...
October 2016: EcoSal Plus
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