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anaerobic metabolism

Victoria Pons, Joan Riera, Xavier Capó, Miquel Martorell, Antoni Sureda, Josep A Tur, Franchek Drobnic, Antoni Pons
Background: Caloric restriction induces mitochondrial biogenesis and improves physical fitness in rodents. We aimed to provide evidence of how caloric restriction affects the body composition and physical performance of trained athletes and to evaluate the possible impact of an every-other-day feeding diet on nutritional deficiencies of micronutrients and essential fatty acids. Methods: The study was performed with 12 healthy male athletes by carrying out a 33% caloric restriction with respect to their usual diet...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Stephen E Beaton, Rhiannon M Evans, Alexander J Finney, Ciaran M Lamont, Fraser A Armstrong, Frank Sargent, Stephen B Carr
Under anaerobic conditions Escherichia coli is able to metabolize molecular hydrogen via the action of several [NiFe]-hydrogenase enzymes. Hydrogenase-2, which is typically present in cells at low levels during anaerobic respiration, is a periplasmic-facing membrane-bound complex that functions as a proton pump to convert energy from H2 oxidation into a proton gradient; consequently, its structure is of great interest. Empirically, the complex consists of a tightly-bound core catalytic module, comprising large (HybC) and small (HybO) subunits, which is attached to an Fe-S protein (HybA) and an integral membrane protein, HybB...
March 19, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Paul P Lin, Alec J Jaeger, Tung-Yun Wu, Sharon C Xu, Abraxa S Lee, Fanke Gao, Po-Wei Chen, James C Liao
The Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas (EMP) pathway, commonly known as glycolysis, represents the fundamental biochemical infrastructure for sugar catabolism in almost all organisms, as it provides key components for biosynthesis, energy metabolism, and global regulation. EMP-based metabolism synthesizes three-carbon (C3) metabolites before two-carbon (C2) metabolites and must emit one CO2 in the synthesis of the C2 building block, acetyl-CoA, a precursor for many industrially important products. Using rational design, genome editing, and evolution, here we replaced the native glycolytic pathways in Escherichia coli with the previously designed nonoxidative glycolysis (NOG), which bypasses initial C3 formation and directly generates stoichiometric amounts of C2 metabolites...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Peng Wei, Katja K Dove, Claire Bensard, John C Schell, Jared Rutter
Compared to their differentiated progeny, stem cells are often characterized by distinct metabolic landscapes that emphasize anaerobic glycolysis and a lower fraction of mitochondrial carbohydrate oxidation. Until recently, the metabolic program of stem cells had been thought to be a byproduct of the environment, rather than an intrinsic feature determined by the cell itself. However, new studies highlight the impact of metabolic behavior on the maintenance and function of intestinal stem cells and hair follicle stem cells...
March 16, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Angeliki Marietou, Hans Røy, Bo B Jørgensen, Kasper U Kjeldsen
The first step in the sulfate reduction pathway is the transport of sulfate across the cell membrane. This uptake has a major effect on sulfate reduction rates. Much of the information available on sulfate transport was obtained by studies on assimilatory sulfate reduction, where sulfate transporters were identified among several types of protein families. Despite our growing knowledge on the physiology of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) there are no studies identifying the proteins involved in sulfate uptake in members of this ecologically important group of anaerobes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Christopher S Jones, Sea-Won Kim, Thomas F Wilton, Keith E Schilling, Caroline A Davis
Real-time, continuous, in situ water quality sensors were deployed on a fourth-order Iowa (U.S.) stream draining an agricultural watershed to evaluate key in-stream processes affecting concentrations of nitrate during a 24-day late summer (Aug-Sep) period. Overall, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 -N) concentrations declined 0.11 mg L-1  km-1 , or about 1.9% km-1 and 35% in total across 18 km. We also calculated stream metabolic rates using in situ dissolved oxygen data and determined stream biotic N demand to be 108-117 mg m-2  day-1 ...
March 17, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Taissa Silva de Oliveira, Santo Fabio Corsino, Daniele Di Trapani, Michele Torregrossa, Gaspare Viviani
Excess sludge minimization was studied in a MBR with pre-denitrification scheme. Sludge minimization, nitrogen removal performance and membrane fouling tendency were investigated in two configurations, characterized by a different position of the sludge retention reactor (SRR). In particular, the SRR was placed: i) in the return activated sludge line (Anaerobic Side-Stream Reactor - ASSR configuration) and ii) in the mainstream between the anoxic and aerobic reactor (Anaerobic Main-Stream Reactor - AMSR configuration)...
March 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jeroen Frank, Sebastian Lücker, Rolf H A M Vossen, Mike S M Jetten, Richard J Hall, Huub J M Op den Camp, Seyed Yahya Anvar
Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are a group of strictly anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms. They are capable of oxidizing ammonium to nitrogen gas using nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor, thereby facilitating the release of fixed nitrogen into the atmosphere. The anammox process is thought to exert a profound impact on the global nitrogen cycle and has been harnessed as an environment-friendly method for nitrogen removal from wastewater. In this study, we present the first closed genome sequence of an anammox bacterium, Kuenenia stuttgartiensis MBR1...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chao Yang, Yan Qi, Jiayi Zheng, X U Fan, Peixin Liang, Cunjiang Song
Uncontrolled bacterial growth and metabolic activities are responsible for the short shelf life of raw pork. Culture-independent analysis by 16S ribosome cDNA could reveal viable bacteria in raw pork. This study investigated microbial growth and volatile organic compounds of raw pork supplemented with various preservatives. Vacuum-packaged raw pork was stored at 4°C, after soaking in solutions of potassium sorbate, ε-poly-l-lysine, kojic acid (KA), or sodium diacetate, individually. Spoilage of raw pork was monitored by determining pH and total volatile basic nitrogen, whereas bacterial growth was determined by culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Adam J Chicco, Catherine H Le, Erich Gnaiger, Hans C Dreyer, Jonathan B Muyskens, Angelo D'Alessandro, Travis Nemkov, Austin D Hocker, Jessica E Prenni, Lisa M Wolfe, Nathan M Sindt, Andrew T Lovering, Andrew W Subudhi, Robert C Roach
Metabolic responses to hypoxia play important roles in cell survival strategies and disease pathogenesis in humans.  However, the homeostatic adjustments that balance changes in energy supply and demand to maintain organismal function under chronic low oxygen conditions remain incompletely understood, making it difficult to distinguish adaptive from maladaptive responses in hypoxia-related pathologies.  We integrated metabolomic and proteomic profiling with mitochondrial respirometry and blood gas analyses to comprehensively define the physiological responses of skeletal muscle energy metabolism to 16 days of high-altitude hypoxia (5260 m) in healthy volunteers from the AltitudeOmics project...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Silvia Ravera, Maria Grazia Signorello, Martina Bartolucci, Sara Ferrando, Lucia Manni, Federico Caicci, Daniela Calzia, Isabella Panfoli, Alessandro Morelli, Giuliana Leoncini
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Energy demand in human platelets is very high, to carry out their functions. As for most human cells, the aerobic metabolism represents the primary energy source in platelets, even though mitochondria are negligibly represented. Following the hypothesis that other structures could be involved in chemical energy production, in this work, we have investigated the functional expression of an extramitochondrial aerobic metabolism in platelets. RESULTS: Oximetric and luminometric analyses showed that platelets consume large amounts of oxygen and produce ATP in the presence of common respiring substrates, such as pyruvate + malate or succinate, although morphological electron microscopy analysis showed that these contain few mitochondria...
March 14, 2018: Biology of the Cell
Petra Schwendner, Maria Bohmeier, Petra Rettberg, Kristina Beblo-Vranesevic, Frédéric Gaboyer, Christine Moissl-Eichinger, Alexandra K Perras, Pauline Vannier, Viggó T Marteinsson, Laura Garcia-Descalzo, Felipe Gómez, Moustafa Malki, Ricardo Amils, Frances Westall, Andreas Riedo, Euan P Monaghan, Pascale Ehrenfreund, Patricia Cabezas, Nicolas Walter, Charles Cockell
Growth in sodium chloride (NaCl) is known to induce stress in non-halophilic microorganisms leading to effects on the microbial metabolism and cell structure. Microorganisms have evolved a number of adaptations, both structural and metabolic, to counteract osmotic stress. These strategies are well-understood for organisms in NaCl-rich brines such as the accumulation of certain organic solutes (known as either compatible solutes or osmolytes). Less well studied are responses to ionic environments such as sulfate-rich brines which are prevalent on Earth but can also be found on Mars...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tomáš Štětina, Petr Hůla, Martin Moos, Petr Šimek, Petr Šmilauer, Vladimír Koštál
Physiological adjustments accompanying insect cold acclimation prior to cold stress have been relatively well explored. In contrast, recovery from cold stress received much less attention. Here we report on recovery of drosophilid fly larvae (Chymomyza costata) from three different levels of cold stress: supercooling to -10 °C, freezing at -30 °C, and cryopreservation at -196 °C. Analysis of larval CO2 production suggested that recovery from all three cold stresses requires access to additional energy reserves to support cold-injury repair processes...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
A C Van Erp, R A Rebolledo, D Hoeksma, N R Jespersen, P J Ottens, R Nørregaard, M Pedersen, C Laustsen, J G M Burgerhof, J C Wolters, J Ciapaite, H E Bøtker, H G D Leuvenink, B Jespersen
Hepatic and renal energy status prior to transplantation correlates with graft survival. However, effects of brain death (BD) on organ-specific energy status are largely unknown. We studied metabolism, perfusion, oxygen consumption, and mitochondrial function in the liver and kidneys following BD. BD was induced in mechanically-ventilated rats, inflating an epidurally-placed Fogarty-catheter, with sham-operated rats as controls. A 9.4T-preclinical MRI system measured hourly oxygen availability (BOLD-related R2*) and perfusion (T1-weighted)...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
José V Subiela, Sonia H Torres, Juan B De Sanctis, Noelina Hernández
There is evidence that myocardial infarction (MI) patients have an inflammatory process that includes skeletal muscles, and exercise has been reported to reduce some inflammatory markers. The aim of this work was to study NO and some inflammatory markers in quadriceps muscle of MI patients before and after cardiac rehabilitation. Muscle biopsy was obtained in17 MI patients before and after CR and only once in 11 healthy subjects. Several cardiorespiratory and metabolic parameters were evaluated and skeletal muscle levels of nitric oxide synthases, nitrate, nitrite, nitrotyrosine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), interleukin- 6 (IL-6) and CD154...
March 10, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Dibyendu Raj, Punam Chowdhury, Rituparna Sarkar, Yumiko Saito-Nakano, Keinosuke Okamoto, Shanta Dutta, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Sandipan Ganguly
Giardia lamblia , an anaerobic, amitochondriate protozoan parasite causes parasitic infection giardiasis in children and young adults. It produces pyruvate, a major metabolic product for its fermentative metabolism. The current study was undertaken to explore the effects of pyruvate as a physiological antioxidant during oxidative stress in Giardia by cysteine-ascorbate deprivation and further investigation upon the hypothesis that oxidative stress due to metabolism was the reason behind the cytotoxicity. We have estimated intracellular reactive oxygen species generation due to cysteine-ascorbate deprivation in Giardia ...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Jie Fan, Hang Zhang, Jiasong Ye, Bin Ji
In simultaneous precipitation, interaction between chemical and biological P removal could not be ignored. This work investigated effects of ferrous sulfate and Fe precipitates on metabolic behavior of bio-P and its counter cation of potassium. After dosing, mixed liquid suspended solids (MLSS) increased 9%, pH decreased from 7.35 to 7.00, sludge volume index (SVI) decreased, electrical conductivity increased. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH3 removal was not affected. Fe dosing initially showed synergistic effect, and then inhibition appeared at accumulative dose above 10 mgFe/gMLSS...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Maria S Yusseppone, Iara Rocchetta, Sebastian E Sabatini, Carlos M Luquet, Maria Del Carmen Ríos de Molina, Christoph Held, Doris Abele
Hypoxia in freshwater ecosystems is spreading as a consequence of global change, including pollution and eutrophication. In the Patagonian Andes, a decline in precipitation causes reduced lake water volumes and stagnant conditions that limit oxygen transport and exacerbate hypoxia below the upper mixed layer. We analyzed the molecular and biochemical response of the North Patagonian bivalve Diplodon chilensis after 10 days of experimental anoxia (<0.2 mg O2 /L), hypoxia (2 mg O2 /L), and normoxia (9 mg O2 /L)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Santiago Barreiro-Vescovo, Ignacio de Godos, Elia Tomás-Pejó, Mercedes Ballesteros, Cristina González-Fernández
During the last decade, a lot of research has been focused on identifying the methane yields achievable when using microalgae biomass (fresh and pretreated) as a substrate in anaerobic digestion. Encountered differences are frequently attributed to the different microalgae strains (cell walls and macromolecular profiles) or the different metabolic activities of anaerobic sludge used as inoculum. Nevertheless, under the hypothesis that the state of microalgae upon biomass storage may also play a significant role, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of biomass processing and storage on methane yields and hydrolysis kinetics in batch mode assays...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jun-Yu Xu, Zhen Xu, Xin-Xin Liu, Minjia Tan, Bang-Ce Ye
Clostridium acetobutylicum is a strict anaerobic, endospore-forming bacterium, which is used for the production of the high energy biofuel butanol in metabolic engineering. The life cycle of C. acetobutylicum can be divided into two phases, with acetic and butyric acids being produced in the exponential phase (acidogenesis) and butanol formed in the stationary phase (solventogenesis). During the transitional phase from acidogenesis to solventogenesis and latter stationary phase, concentration peaks of the<br />metabolic intermediates butyryl phosphate and acetyl phosphate are observed...
March 9, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
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