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anaerobic metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454040/the-role-of-dissimilatory-arsenate-reducing-bacteria-in-the-biogeochemical-cycle-of-arsenic-based-on-the-physiological-and-functional-analysis-of-aeromonas-sp-o23a
#1
Witold Uhrynowski, Klaudia Debiec, Aleksandra Sklodowska, Lukasz Drewniak
Dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria (DARB) are known to contribute to the mobilization of arsenic and other elements from minerals. Despite this, metabolic capabilities of only a few DARB strains have been thoroughly investigated so far, and the influence of these bacteria on the bioavailability of arsenic in the environment is still a topic for discussion. In this study, Aeromonas sp. O23A, one of the dominant DARB strains found in the Zloty Stok mine (SW Poland), was subjected to a detailed physiological and functional analysis aimed to identify the actual environmental impact of this strain...
April 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447092/the-co-dehydrogenase-accessory-protein-coot-is-a-novel-nickel-binding-protein
#2
J Timm, C Brochier-Armanet, J Perard, B Zambelli, S Ollagnier-de-Choudens, S Ciurli, C Cavazza
In Rhodospirillum rubrum, maturation of Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase (CODH) requires three accessory proteins, CooC, CooT and CooJ, dedicated to nickel insertion into the active site, which is constituted by a distorted [NiFe3S4] cubane coordinated with a mononuclear Fe site. CooC is an ATPase proposed to provide the energy required for the maturation process, while CooJ is described as a metallochaperone with 16 histidines and 2 cysteines at the C-terminus, likely involved in metal binding and/or storage...
April 27, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446901/anaerobic-methanotrophic-archaea-of-the-anme-2d-cluster-are-active-in-a-low-sulfate-iron-rich-freshwater-sediment
#3
Hannah S Weber, Kirsten S Habicht, Bo Thamdrup
ANaerobic MEthanotrophic (ANME) archaea remove the greenhouse gas methane from anoxic environments and diminish its flux to the atmosphere. High methane removal efficiencies are well documented in marine environments, whereas anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) was only recently indicated as an important methane sink in freshwater systems. Freshwater AOM-mediating microorganisms lack taxonomic identification and only little is known about metabolic adaptions to prevailing biogeochemical conditions. One of the first study sites providing information about AOM activity in freshwater sediment is Lake Ørn, a low-sulfate, iron-rich Danish lake...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443070/crystal-structure-of-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-from-the-gram-positive-bacterial-pathogen-a-vaginae-an-immunoevasive-factor-that-interacts-with-the-human-c5a-anaphylatoxin
#4
Javier Querol-García, Francisco J Fernández, Ana V Marin, Sara Gómez, Daniel Fullà, Cecilia Melchor-Tafur, Virginia Franco-Hidalgo, Sebastián Albertí, Jordi Juanhuix, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, José R Regueiro, M Cristina Vega
The Gram-positive anaerobic human pathogenic bacterium Atopobium vaginae causes most diagnosed cases of bacterial vaginosis as well as opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. In addition to its well-established role in carbohydrate metabolism, D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from Streptococcus pyogenes and S. pneumoniae have been reported to act as extracellular virulence factors during streptococcal infections. Here, we report the crystal structure of GAPDH from A. vaginae (AvGAPDH) at 2...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441760/supplementation-with-a-polyphenol-rich-extract-perfload-%C3%A2-improves-physical-performance-during-high-intensity-exercise-a-randomized-double-blind-crossover-trial
#5
Julien Cases, Cindy Romain, Cristian Marín-Pagán, Linda H Chung, José Miguel Rubio-Pérez, Caroline Laurent, Sylvie Gaillet, Emmanuelle Prost-Camus, Michel Prost, Pedro E Alcaraz
Workout capacity is energy-production driven. To produce peak metabolic power outputs, the organism predominantly relies more on anaerobic metabolism, but this undoubtedly has a negative and limiting impact on muscle function and performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate if an innovative polyphenol-based food supplement, PerfLoad(®), was able to improve metabolic homeostasis and physical performance during high-intensity exercises under anaerobic conditions. The effect of a supplementation has been investigated on fifteen recreationally-active male athletes during a randomized, double-blind and crossover clinical investigation...
April 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439295/production-of-high-concentration-n-caproic-acid-from-lactate-through-fermentation-using-a-newly-isolated-ruminococcaceae-bacterium-cpb6
#6
Xiaoyu Zhu, Yan Zhou, Yi Wang, Tingting Wu, Xiangzhen Li, Daping Li, Yong Tao
BACKGROUND: n-Caproic acid (CA), as a medium-chain carboxylic acid, is a valuable chemical feedstock for various industrial applications. The fermentative production of CA from renewable carbon sources has attracted a lot of attentions. Lactate is a significant intermediate waste in the anaerobic breakdown of carbohydrates that comprise 18-70% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in municipal and some industrial wastewaters. Recently, researchers (including our own group) reported the CA production using lactate as electron donor with newly identified microbiome systems...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436819/insight-into-the-evolution-of-microbial-metabolism-from-the-deep-branching-bacterium-thermovibrio-ammonificans
#7
Donato Giovannelli, Stefan M Sievert, Michael Hügler, Stephanie Markert, Dörte Becher, Thomas Schweder, Costantino Vetriani
Anaerobic thermophiles inhabit relic environments that resemble the early Earth. However, the lineage of these modern organisms co-evolved with our planet. Hence, these organisms carry both ancestral and acquired genes and serve as models to reconstruct early metabolism. Based on comparative genomic and proteomic analyses, we identified two distinct groups of genes in Thermovibrio ammonificans: the first codes for enzymes that do not require oxygen and use substrates of geothermal origin; the second appears to be a more recent acquisition, and may reflect adaptations to cope with the rise of oxygen on Earth...
April 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432665/systemic-and-microcirculatory-effects-of-blood-transfusion-in-experimental-hemorrhagic-shock
#8
Gonzalo Ferrara, Vanina S Kanoore Edul, Héctor S Canales, Enrique Martins, Carlos Canullán, Gastón Murias, Mario O Pozo, Juan F Caminos Eguillor, María G Buscetti, Can Ince, Arnaldo Dubin
BACKGROUND: The microvascular reperfusion injury after retransfusion has not been completely characterized. Specifically, the question of heterogeneity among different microvascular beds needs to be addressed. In addition, the identification of anaerobic metabolism is elusive. The venoarterial PCO2 to arteriovenous oxygen content difference ratio (Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2) might be a surrogate for respiratory quotient, but this has not been validated. Therefore, our goal was to characterize sublingual and intestinal (mucosal and serosal) microvascular injury after blood resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock and its relation with O2 and CO2 metabolism...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432118/molecular-basis-for-exercise-induced-fatigue-the-importance-of-strictly-controlled-cellular-ca-2-handling
#9
Arthur J Cheng, Nicolas Place, Håkan Westerblad
The contractile function of skeletal muscle declines during intense or prolonged physical exercise, that is, fatigue develops. Skeletal muscle fibers fatigue acutely during highly intense exercise when they have to rely on anaerobic metabolism. Early stages of fatigue involve impaired myofibrillar function, whereas decreased Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) becomes more important in later stages. SR Ca(2+) release can also become reduced with more prolonged, lower intensity exercise, and it is then related to glycogen depletion...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431199/staphylococcus-aureus-nitric-oxide-synthase-sanos-modulates-aerobic-respiratory-metabolism-and-cell-physiology
#10
Austin B Mogen, Ronan K Carroll, Kimberly L James, Genevy Lima, Dona Silva, Jeffrey A Culver, Christopher Petucci, Lindsey N Shaw, Kelly C Rice
Nitric oxide (NO) is generated from arginine and oxygen via NO synthase (NOS). Staphylococcus aureus NOS (saNOS) has previously been shown to affect virulence and resistance to exogenous oxidative stress, yet the exact mechanism is unknown. Herein, we report a previously-undescribed role of saNOS in S. aureus aerobic physiology. Specifically, aerobic S. aureus nos mutant cultures presented with elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide levels, as well as increased membrane potential, increased respiratory dehydrogenase activity, and slightly elevated oxygen consumption...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429326/wax-ester-fermentation-and-its-application-for-biofuel-production
#11
Hiroshi Inui, Takahiro Ishikawa, Masahiro Tamoi
In Euglena cells under anaerobic conditions, paramylon, the storage polysaccharide, is promptly degraded and converted to wax esters. The wax esters synthesized are composed of saturated fatty acids and alcohols with chain lengths of 10-18, and the major constituents are myristic acid and myristyl alcohol. Since the anaerobic cells gain ATP through the conversion of paramylon to wax esters, the phenomenon is named "wax ester fermentation". The wax ester fermentation is quite unique in that the end products, i...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429319/biochemistry-and-physiology-of-heavy-metal-resistance-and-accumulation-in-euglena
#12
Rafael Moreno-Sánchez, Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez, Ricardo Jasso-Chávez, Emma Saavedra, Jorge D García-García
Free-living microorganisms may become suitable models for removal of heavy metals from polluted water bodies, sediments, and soils by using and enhancing their metal accumulating abilities. The available research data indicate that protists of the genus Euglena are a highly promising group of microorganisms to be used in bio-remediation of heavy metal-polluted aerobic and anaerobic acidic aquatic environments. This chapter analyzes the variety of biochemical mechanisms evolved in E. gracilis to resist, accumulate and remove heavy metals from the environment, being the most relevant those involving (1) adsorption to the external cell pellicle; (2) intracellular binding by glutathione and glutathione polymers, and their further compartmentalization as heavy metal-complexes into chloroplasts and mitochondria; (3) polyphosphate biosynthesis; and (4) secretion of organic acids...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429315/the-mitochondrion-of-euglena-gracilis
#13
Verena Zimorski, Cessa Rauch, Jaap J van Hellemond, Aloysius G M Tielens, William F Martin
In the presence of oxygen, Euglena gracilis mitochondria function much like mammalian mitochondria. Under anaerobiosis, E. gracilis mitochondria perform a malonyl-CoA independent synthesis of fatty acids leading to accumulation of wax esters, which serve as the sink for electrons stemming from glycolytic ATP synthesis and pyruvate oxidation. Some components (enzymes and cofactors) of Euglena's anaerobic energy metabolism are found among the anaerobic mitochondria of invertebrates, others are found among hydrogenosomes, the H2-producing anaerobic mitochondria of protists...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428423/fructose-driven-glycolysis-supports-anoxia-resistance-in-the-naked-mole-rat
#14
Thomas J Park, Jane Reznick, Bethany L Peterson, Gregory Blass, Damir Omerbašić, Nigel C Bennett, P Henning J L Kuich, Christin Zasada, Brigitte M Browe, Wiebke Hamann, Daniel T Applegate, Michael H Radke, Tetiana Kosten, Heike Lutermann, Victoria Gavaghan, Ole Eigenbrod, Valérie Bégay, Vince G Amoroso, Vidya Govind, Richard D Minshall, Ewan St J Smith, John Larson, Michael Gotthardt, Stefan Kempa, Gary R Lewin
The African naked mole-rat's (Heterocephalus glaber) social and subterranean lifestyle generates a hypoxic niche. Under experimental conditions, naked mole-rats tolerate hours of extreme hypoxia and survive 18 minutes of total oxygen deprivation (anoxia) without apparent injury. During anoxia, the naked mole-rat switches to anaerobic metabolism fueled by fructose, which is actively accumulated and metabolized to lactate in the brain. Global expression of the GLUT5 fructose transporter and high levels of ketohexokinase were identified as molecular signatures of fructose metabolism...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428400/safe-anaerobic-metabolism
#15
EDITORIAL
Sacha Vignieri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427557/oxidative-stress-love-and-hate-history-in-central-nervous-system
#16
Genaro Gabriel Ortiz, Fermín P Pacheco Moisés, Mario Mireles-Ramírez, Luis J Flores-Alvarado, Héctor González-Usigli, Víctor J Sánchez-González, Angélica L Sánchez-López, Lorenzo Sánchez-Romero, Eduardo I Díaz-Barba, J Francisco Santoscoy-Gutiérrez, Paloma Rivero-Moragrega
Molecular oxygen is essential for aerobic organisms in order to synthesize large amounts of energy during the process of oxidative phosphorylation and it is harnessed in the form of adenosine triphosphate, the chemical energy of the cell. Oxygen is toxic for anaerobic organisms but it is also less obvious that oxygen is poisonous to aerobic organisms at higher concentrations of oxygen. For instance, oxygen toxicity is a condition resulting from the harmful effects of breathing molecular oxygen at increased partial pressures...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425973/edim-tktl1-apo10-blood-test-an-innate-immune-system-based-liquid-biopsy-for-the-early-detection-characterization-and-targeted-treatment-of-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Johannes F Coy
Epitope detection in monocytes (EDIM) represents a liquid biopsy exploiting the innate immune system. Activated monocytes (macrophages) phagocytose unwanted cells/cell fragments from the whole body including solid tissues. As they return to the blood, macrophages can be used for a non-invasive detection of biomarkers, thereby providing high sensitivity and specificity, because the intracellular presence of biomarkers is due to an innate immune response. Flow cytometry analysis of blood enables the detection of macrophages and phagocytosed intracellular biomarkers...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419691/the-low-diverse-gastric-microbiome-of-the-jellyfish-cotylorhiza-tuberculata-is-dominated-by-four-novel-taxa
#18
Tomeu Viver, Luis H Orellana, Janet K Hatt, Mercedes Urdiain, Sara Díaz, Michael Richter, Josefa Antón, Massimo Avian, Rudolf Amann, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis, Ramon Rosselló-Móra
Cotylorhiza tuberculata is an important scyphozoan jellyfish producing population blooms in the Mediterranean probably due to pelagic ecosystem's decay. Its gastric cavity can serve as a simple model of microbial - animal digestive associations, yet poorly characterized. Using state-of-the-art metagenomic population binning and catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), we show that only four novel clonal phylotypes were consistently associated with multiple jellyfish adults...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415978/bacterial-communities-and-metabolic-activity-of-faecal-cultures-from-equol-producer-and-non-producer-menopausal-women-under-treatment-with-soy-isoflavones
#19
Lucía Guadamuro, Anja B Dohrmann, Christoph C Tebbe, Baltasar Mayo, Susana Delgado
BACKGROUND: Isoflavones are polyphenols with estrogenic activity found mainly in soy and soy-derived products that need to be metabolised in the intestine by the gut bacteria to be fully active. There is little knowledge about isoflavone bioconversion and equol production in the human intestine. In this work, we developed an in vitro anaerobic culture model based on faecal slurries to assess the impact of isoflavone supplementation on the overall intestinal bacterial composition changes and associated metabolic transformations...
April 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414936/east-urals-radioactive-trace-dose-dependent-functional-metabolic-effects-in-the-myocardium-of-the-pygmy-wood-mouse-apodemus-uralensis-taking-into-account-population-size
#20
Nataĺya A Orekhova, Makar V Modorov
The population dynamics, radiometric data and biochemical parameters (concentrations of total lipids, proteins, DNA and RNA, activity of succinate dehydrogenase, glucose phosphate isomerase and catalase, as well as lipid peroxidation level) in the myocardium of the pygmy wood mouse (Apodemus uralensis Pall., 1811) inhabiting the area of the East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) were analyzed. The functional-metabolic radiation effects as a result external and internal exposure to (137)Cs and (90)Sr (unweighted total dose rate 0...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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