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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109165/melatonin-and-sirtuins-a-not-so-unexpected-relationship
#1
Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz, Pedro González Menéndez, Vanesa Cepas, Dun-Xian Tan, Russel J Reiter
Epigenetic modifications, including methylation or acetylation as well as posttranscriptional modifications are mechanisms used by eukaryotic cells to increase the genome diversity in terms of differential gene expression and protein diversity. Among these modifying enzymes, sirtuins, a class III histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes are of particular importance. Sirtuins regulate the cell cycle, DNA repair, cell survival and apoptosis, thus having important roles in normal and cancer cells. Sirtuins can also regulate metabolic pathways by changing preference for glycolysis under aerobic conditions as well as glutaminolysis...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108222/diquat-induced-cellular-pyridine-nucleotide-redox-changes-and-alteration-of-metabolic-enzyme-activities-in-colonic-carcinoma-cells
#2
Magdalena L Circu, Ronald E Maloney, Tak Yee Aw
Previously we have shown that the redox cycler menadione (MQ) induced cellular pyridine nucleotide redox imbalance that was linked to a decrease in aerobic glycolysis and perturbation of the mitochondrial respiratory activity due to the redox cycling of the compound; these processes were potentiated by low glucose. In this study, we investigated how colonic epithelial cells maintained pyridine nucleotide (NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(+)/NADPH) redox homeostasis upon acute metabolic variation and exposure to the redox cycling diquat (DQ)...
January 17, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108159/influence-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-benthic-oxygen-consumption-of-microbial-communities-in-freshwater-sediments-determined-by-microelectrodes
#3
Lingzhan Miao, Chao Wang, Jun Hou, Peifang Wang, Yanhui Ao, Yi Li, Yu Yao, Bowen Lv, Yangyang Yang, Guoxiang You, Yi Xu
Increasing use of silver nanoparticles (NPs) will inevitably result in release of these particles into aquatic environments, with sediments as a substantial sink. Nevertheless it remained largely unknown whether Ag NPs present potential impacts in sediment functioning. In this study, thus, a microcosm approach was constructed and the potential impacts of Ag NPs and PVP-coated Ag NPs on the oxygen consumption in freshwater sediments (collected from Taihu Lake) were determined using oxygen microelectrodes. To our knowledge, this is the first time that microelectrodes have been used to estimate the impacts of Ag NPs in sediments...
January 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107215/metabolic-cardiac-and-renal-effects-of-the-slow-hydrogen-sulfide-releasing-molecule-gyy4137-during-resuscitated-septic-shock-in-swine-with-pre-existing-coronary-artery-disease
#4
Benedikt L Nubaum, Josef Vogt, Ulrich Wachter, Oscar McCook, Martin Wepler, José Matallo, Enrico Calzia, Michael Gröger, Michael Georgieff, Mark E Wood, Matthew Whiteman, Peter Radermacher, Sebastian Hafner
Decreased levels of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) contribute to atherosclerosis, whereas equivocal data are available on H2S effects during sepsis. Moreover, H2S improved glucose utilization in anaesthetized, ventilated, hypothermic mice, but normothermia and/or sepsis blunted this effect. The metabolic effects of H2S in large animals are controversial. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the H2S donor GYY4137 during resuscitated, fecal peritonitis-induced septic shock in swine with genetically and diet-induced coronary artery disease (CAD)...
January 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106880/discovery-of-anaerobic-lithoheterotrophic-haloarchaea-ubiquitous-in-hypersaline-habitats
#5
Dimitry Y Sorokin, Enzo Messina, Francesco Smedile, Pawel Roman, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté, Sergio Ciordia, Maria Carmen Mena, Manuel Ferrer, Peter N Golyshin, Ilya V Kublanov, Nazar I Samarov, Stepan V Toshchakov, Violetta La Cono, Michail M Yakimov
Hypersaline anoxic habitats harbour numerous novel uncultured archaea whose metabolic and ecological roles remain to be elucidated. Until recently, it was believed that energy generation via dissimilatory reduction of sulfur compounds is not functional at salt saturation conditions. Recent discovery of the strictly anaerobic acetotrophic Halanaeroarchaeum compels to change both this assumption and the traditional view on haloarchaea as aerobic heterotrophs. Here we report on isolation and characterization of a novel group of strictly anaerobic lithoheterotrophic haloarchaea, which we propose to classify as a new genus Halodesulfurarchaeum...
January 20, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106780/integrins-and-cell-metabolism-an-intimate-relationship-impacting-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Rehman Ata, Costin N Antonescu
Integrins are important regulators of cell survival, proliferation, adhesion and migration. Once activated, integrins establish a regulated link between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. Integrins have well-established functions in cancer, such as in controlling cell survival by engagement of many specific intracellular signaling pathways and in facilitating metastasis. Integrins and associated proteins are regulated by control of transcription, membrane traffic, and degradation, as well as by a number of post-translational modifications including glycosylation, allowing integrin function to be modulated to conform to various cellular needs and environmental conditions...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105937/effect-of-lentivirus-mediated-shrna-inactivation-of-hk1-hk2-and-hk3-genes-in-colorectal-cancer-and-melanoma-cells
#7
Anna V Kudryavtseva, Maria S Fedorova, Alex Zhavoronkov, Alexey A Moskalev, Alexander S Zasedatelev, Alexey A Dmitriev, Asiya F Sadritdinova, Irina Y Karpova, Kirill M Nyushko, Dmitry V Kalinin, Nadezhda N Volchenko, Nataliya V Melnikova, Kseniya M Klimina, Dmitry V Sidorov, Anatoly Y Popov, Tatiana V Nasedkina, Andrey D Kaprin, Boris Y Alekseev, George S Krasnov, Anastasiya V Snezhkina
BACKGROUND: The switch from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis in proliferating cancer cells, even under aerobic conditions, has been shown first in 1926 by Otto Warburg. Today this phenomenon is known as the "Warburg effect" and recognized as a hallmark of cancer. The metabolic shift to glycolysis is associated with the alterations in signaling pathways involved in energy metabolism, including glucose uptake and fermentation, and regulation of mitochondrial functions. Hexokinases (HKs), which catalyze the first step of glycolysis, have been identified to play a role in tumorigenesis of human colorectal cancer (CRC) and melanoma...
December 22, 2016: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104391/na-h-exchanger-mediated-hydrogen-ion-extrusion-as-a-carcinogenic-signal-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-etiopathogenesis-and-prospects-for-its-inhibition-in-therapeutics
#8
REVIEW
Schammim Ray Amith, Larry Fliegel
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women in Europe and North America, and metastasis is the primary cause of fatality in patients with breast cancer. While some breast cancers are quite treatable, the triple-negative breast cancers are more metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy. There is clearly an urgent need for better treatments for this form of the disease. Breast cancer is characterized by genetically complex intra-tumour heterogeneity, particularly within the triple-negative clinical subtype...
January 16, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103744/strategies-to-enhance-implantation-and-survival-of-stem-cells-after-their-injection-in-ischemic-neural-tissue
#9
Ioanna Sandvig, Ivana Gadjanski, Marija Vlaski, Leonora Buzanska, Darija Loncaric, Anna Sarnowska, Laura Rodriguez, Axel Sandvig, Zoran Ivanovic
High post-transplantation cell mortality is the main limitation of various approaches aimed to improve regeneration of injured neural tissue by injection of neural stem cells (NSCs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MStroCs) in and/or around the lesion. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to identify efficient ways to increase cell transplant viability. We have previously proposed the "evolutionary stem cell paradigm", which explains the association between stem cell anaerobic/microaerophilic metabolic set-up and stem cell self-renewal and inhibition of differentiation...
January 19, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099473/the-staphylococcus-aureus-srrab-regulatory-system-modulates-hydrogen-peroxide-resistance-factors-which-imparts-protection-to-aconitase-during-aerobic-growth
#10
Ameya A Mashruwala, Jeffrey M Boyd
The SrrAB two-component regulatory system (TCRS) positively influences the transcription of genes involved in aerobic respiration in response to changes in respiratory flux. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can arise as a byproduct of spontaneous interactions between dioxygen and components of respiratory pathways. H2O2 damages cellular factors including protein associated iron-sulfur cluster prosthetic groups. We found that a Staphylococcus aureus strain lacking the SrrAB two-component regulatory system (TCRS) is sensitive to H2O2 intoxication...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097662/thermal-requirements-for-growth-survival-and-aerobic-performance-of-weatherfish-larvae-misgurnus-fossilis
#11
B Schreiber, J Monka, B Drozd, M Hundt, M Weiss, T Oswald, R Gergs, R Schulz
Thermal requirements of larval weatherfish Misgurnus fossilis were investigated in terms of growth, survival and aerobic performance. Growth and survival of M. fossilis larvae acclimated to five temperatures (11, 15, 19, 23 and 27° C) were measured over 25 days. In the upper temperature treatments (19, 23 and 27° C), survival of larvae was stable throughout the entire rearing period (>75%), whereas 11 and 15° C resulted in severe declines in survival (to <10%). Growth of larvae (expressed as dry mass and total length) was highest at 19 and 23° C, but significantly decreased at 27° C...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097538/the-role-of-glutamine-synthetase-in-energy-production-and-glutamine-metabolism-during-oxidative-stress
#12
Nohaiah Aldarini, Azhar A Alhasawi, Sean C Thomas, Vasu D Appanna
Oxidative stress is known to severely impede aerobic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. However, the metabolically-versatile Pseudomonas fluorescens survives this challenge by invoking alternative ATP-generating networks. When grown in a medium with glutamine as the sole organic nutrient in the presence of H2O2, the microbe utilizes glutamine synthetase (GS) to modulate its energy budget. The activity of this enzyme that mediates the release of energy stored in glutamine was sharply increased in the stressed cells compared to the controls...
January 17, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096432/effects-of-activity-genetic-selection-and-their-interaction-on-muscle-metabolic-capacities-and-organ-masses-in-mice
#13
Scott A Kelly, Fernando R Gomes, Erik M Kolb, Jessica L Malisch, Theodore Garland
Chronic voluntary exercise elevates total daily energy expenditure (DEE) and food consumption, potentially resulting in organ compensation supporting nutrient extraction/utilization. Additionally, species with naturally higher DEE often have larger processing organs, which may represent genetic differences and/or phenotypic plasticity. We tested for possible adaptive changes in organ masses of 4 replicate lines of house mice selected (37 generations) for high running (HR lines) compared with 4 non-selected control (C) lines...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096405/selenium-isotopes-record-extensive-marine-suboxia-during-the-great-oxidation-event
#14
Michael A Kipp, Eva E Stüeken, Andrey Bekker, Roger Buick
It has been proposed that an "oxygen overshoot" occurred during the early Paleoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event (GOE) in association with the extreme positive carbon isotopic excursion known as the Lomagundi Event. Moreover, it has also been suggested that environmental oxygen levels then crashed to very low levels during the subsequent extremely negative Shunga-Francevillian carbon isotopic anomaly. These redox fluctuations could have profoundly influenced the course of eukaryotic evolution, as eukaryotes have several metabolic processes that are obligately aerobic...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094795/impacts-of-chemical-gradients-on-microbial-community-structure
#15
Jianwei Chen, Anna Hanke, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Ines Kattelmann, Ritin Sharma, Emmo Hamann, Theresa Hargesheimer, Beate Kraft, Sabine Lenk, Jeanine S Geelhoed, Robert L Hettich, Marc Strous
Succession of redox processes is sometimes assumed to define a basic microbial community structure for ecosystems with oxygen gradients. In this paradigm, aerobic respiration, denitrification, fermentation and sulfate reduction proceed in a thermodynamically determined order, known as the 'redox tower'. Here, we investigated whether redox sorting of microbial processes explains microbial community structure at low-oxygen concentrations. We subjected a diverse microbial community sampled from a coastal marine sediment to 100 days of tidal cycling in a laboratory chemostat...
January 17, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094552/glucose-metabolism-in-cancer-and-ischemia-possible-therapeutic-consequences-of-the-warburg-effect
#16
Spela Salamon, Eva Podbregar, Peter Kubatka, Dietrich Büsselberg, Martin Caprnda, Radka Opatrilova, Vanda Valentova, Mariusz Adamek, Peter Kruzliak, Matej Podbregar
The Warburg effect states that the main source of energy for cancer cells is not aerobic respiration, but glycolysis-even in normoxia. The shift from one to the other is governed by mutually counteracting enzymes: pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). Anaerobic metabolism of cancer cells promotes cell proliferation, local tissue immunosuppression, resistance to hypoxic conditions, and metastatic processes. By switching glucose back to oxidative metabolism, these effects might be reversed...
January 17, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093985/ketogenic-diet-and-other-dietary-intervention-strategies-in-the-treatment-of-cancer
#17
Matteo Vergati, Eriseld Krasniqi, Girolamo Del Monte, Silvia Riondino, Doriana Vallone, Fiorella Guadagni, Patrizia Ferroni, Mario Roselli
Pre-clinical and clinical studies have investigated the role of a dysregulated metabolism in the sustainability of tumor initiation and progression. One of the most familiar metabolic alterations encountered in several types of cancers is the upregulation of glycolysis, which is also maintained in conditions of normal oxygen tension (aerobic glycolysis, Warburg effect) while oxidative phosphorylation is apparently reduced. As a result, cancer cells convert most incoming glucose to lactate. Although more rapid, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production by glycolysis is less efficient in terms of ATP generated per unit of glucose consumed than oxidative phosphorylation...
January 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093201/molecular-targets-of-the-warburg-effect-and-inflammatory-cytokines-in-the-pathogenesis-of-pulmonary-artery-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Na Liu, Stephanie Parry, Yunbin Xiao, Shenghua Zhou, Qiming Liu
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive vascular disease characterized by increased pulmonary arterial pressure and vasoconstriction and structural remolding of pulmonary arterioles. Recent clinical and experimental studies have discovered the relationship between metabolic alterations and the pathogenesis of PAH. The primary metabolic alteration, previously demonstrated in various cancers, is a gradual change in energy generated from complete aerobic cellular respiration to from solely "aerobic glycolysis," termed the "Warburg effect...
January 13, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092823/ph-lactate-and-hypoxia-reciprocity-in-regulating-high-affinity-monocarboxylate-transporter-expression-in-glioblastoma
#19
James P Caruso, Brandon J Koch, Philip D Benson, Elsa Varughese, Michael D Monterey, Amy E Lee, Ajal M Dave, Sam Kiousis, Andrew E Sloan, Saroj P Mathupala
Highly malignant brain tumors harbor the aberrant propensity for aerobic glycolysis, the excessive conversion of glucose to lactic acid even in the presence of ample tissue oxygen. Lactic acid is rapidly effluxed to the tumor microenvironment via a group of plasma-membrane transporters denoted monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) to prevent "self-poisoning." One isoform, MCT2, has the highest affinity for lactate and thus should have the ability to respond to microenvironment conditions such as hypoxia, lactate, and pH to help maintain high glycolytic flux in the tumor...
January 13, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092657/lipid-production-in-yarrowia-lipolytica-is-maximized-by-engineering-cytosolic-redox-metabolism
#20
Kangjian Qiao, Thomas M Wasylenko, Kang Zhou, Peng Xu, Gregory Stephanopoulos
Microbial factories have been engineered to produce lipids from carbohydrate feedstocks for production of biofuels and oleochemicals. However, even the best yields obtained to date are insufficient for commercial lipid production. To maximize the capture of electrons generated from substrate catabolism and thus increase substrate-to-product yields, we engineered 13 strains of Yarrowia lipolytica with synthetic pathways converting glycolytic NADH into the lipid biosynthetic precursors NADPH or acetyl-CoA. A quantitative model was established and identified the yield of the lipid pathway as a crucial determinant of overall process yield...
January 16, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
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