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aerobic metabolism

Natalia Crespo Tapia, Heidy M W den Besten, Tjakko Abee
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that can grow as a biofilm on surfaces. Biofilm formation in food-processing environments is a big concern for food safety, as it can cause product contamination through the food-processing line. Although motile aerobic bacteria have been described to form biofilms at the air-liquid interface of cell cultures, to our knowledge, this type of biofilm has not been described in L. monocytogenes before. In this study we report L. monocytogenes biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface of aerobically grown cultures, and that this phenotype is specifically induced when the media is supplemented with glycerol as a carbon and energy source...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Ram Chandra, Vineet Kumar, Sonam Tripathi
The extracted sugarcane molasses-melanoidins showed the presence of Mn (8.20), Cr (2.97), Zn (16.61), Cu (2.55), Fe (373.95), Pb (2.59), and Ni (4.18 mg L-1 ) along with mixture of other organic compounds which have endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) properties. A consortium of aerobic bacteria comprising Klebsiella pneumoniae (KU321273), Salmonella enteric (KU726954), Enterobacter aerogenes (KU726955), and Enterobacter cloacae (KU726957) showed the optimum decolourisation of molasses-melanoidins up to 81% through co-metabolism in the presence of glucose (1...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
Paul P Lin, Alec J Jaeger, Tung-Yun Wu, Sharon C Xu, Abraxa S Lee, Fanke Gao, Po-Wei Chen, James C Liao
The Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas (EMP) pathway, commonly known as glycolysis, represents the fundamental biochemical infrastructure for sugar catabolism in almost all organisms, as it provides key components for biosynthesis, energy metabolism, and global regulation. EMP-based metabolism synthesizes three-carbon (C3) metabolites before two-carbon (C2) metabolites and must emit one CO2 in the synthesis of the C2 building block, acetyl-CoA, a precursor for many industrially important products. Using rational design, genome editing, and evolution, here we replaced the native glycolytic pathways in Escherichia coli with the previously designed nonoxidative glycolysis (NOG), which bypasses initial C3 formation and directly generates stoichiometric amounts of C2 metabolites...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yujie He, Alette A M Langenhoff, Rob N J Comans, Nora B Sutton, Huub H M Rijnaarts
Natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) and nitrification can play an important role in biodegradation of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in aerobic zones of constructed wetlands (CWs). This study used an enrichment culture originating from CW sediment to study the effect of DOM and nitrification on aerobic biodegradation of seven PhACs. The enriched culture degraded caffeine (CAF), metoprolol (MET), naproxen (NAP), and ibuprofen (IBP) with a consistent biodegradability order of CAF>MET>NAP>IBP...
March 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Susana Braz-Mota, Derek F Campos, Tyson J MacCormack, Rafael M Duarte, Adalberto L Val, Vera M F Almeida-Val
Copper oxide nanoparticles (nCuO) are widely used in boat antifouling paints and are released into the environment, potentially inducing toxicity to aquatic organisms. The present study aimed to understand the effects of nCuO and dissolved copper (Cu) on two ornamental Amazon fish species: dwarf cichlid (Apistogramma agassizii) and cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi). Fish were exposed to 50% of the LC50 for nCuO (dwarf cichlid 58.31μgL-1 and cardinal tetra 69.6μgL-1 ) and Cu (dwarf cichlid 20μgL-1 and cardinal tetra 22...
March 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Konstantinos Feidantsis, Hans O Pörtner, Elisavet Vlachonikola, Efthimia Antonopoulou, Basile Michaelidis
Seasonal temperature changes may take organisms to the upper and lower limit of their thermal range, with respective variations in their biochemical and metabolic profile. To elucidate these traits, we investigated metabolic and antioxidant patterns in tissues of sea bream Sparus aurata during seasonal acclimatization for 1 yr in the field. Metabolic patterns were assessed by determining lactate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities, their kinetic properties and plasma levels of glucose, lactate, and triglycerides and tissue succinate levels...
May 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
José Pedro Ferreira, Chrystiane Vasconcelos Andrade Toscano, Aristides Machado Rodrigues, Guilherme Eustaquio Furtado, Mauro Gomes Barros, Rildo Souza Wanderley, Humberto Moreira Carvalho
Physical exercise has shown positive effects on symptomatology and on the reduction of comorbidities in population with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is still no consensus about the most appropriate exercise intervention model for children with ASD. The physical exercise program for children with autism (PEP-Aut) protocol designed allow us to (i) examine the multivariate associations between ASD symptoms, metabolic profile, physical activity level, physical fitness, and health-related quality of life of children with ASD; (ii) assess the effects of a 40-week exercise program on all these aspects of children with ASD...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Connor M Pettem, Jennifer M Briens, David M Janz, Lynn P Weber
Selenium (Se) is considered an essential trace element, involved in important physiological and metabolic functions for all vertebrate species. Fish require dietary concentrations of 0.1-0.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) to maintain normal physiological and selenoprotein function, however concentrations exceeding 3 μg/g d.m. have been shown to cause toxicity. As Se is reported to have a narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity, there is growing concern surrounding the adverse effects of elevated Se exposure caused by anthropogenic activities...
March 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Taissa Silva de Oliveira, Santo Fabio Corsino, Daniele Di Trapani, Michele Torregrossa, Gaspare Viviani
Excess sludge minimization was studied in a MBR with pre-denitrification scheme. Sludge minimization, nitrogen removal performance and membrane fouling tendency were investigated in two configurations, characterized by a different position of the sludge retention reactor (SRR). In particular, the SRR was placed: i) in the return activated sludge line (Anaerobic Side-Stream Reactor - ASSR configuration) and ii) in the mainstream between the anoxic and aerobic reactor (Anaerobic Main-Stream Reactor - AMSR configuration)...
March 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Qiushi Li, Jihui Wang, Xuteng Xing, Wenbin Hu
The corrosion behavior of X65 steel was investigated in the seawater inoculated with sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) under the aerobic environment by electrochemical impedance techniques and immersion tests. The corroded morphologies and the composition of the corrosion products were investigated. The variation of the solution parameters including the bacterium number, the pH value and the soluble iron concentration were also investigated. The results indicated that in the SRB-containing system, the impedance responses presented a depressed semi-circle in the initial period, which then turned into the blocked electrode characteristic during the later immersion...
March 11, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Carey L Holleran, Patrick W Hennessey, Abigail L Leddy, Gordhan B Mahtani, Gabrielle Brazg, Brian D Schmit, T George Hornby
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous data suggest that large amounts of high-intensity stepping training in variable contexts (tasks and environments) may improve locomotor function, aerobic capacity, and treadmill gait kinematics in individuals poststroke. Whether similar training strategies are tolerated and efficacious for patients with other acute-onset neurological diagnoses, such as motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), is unknown. Individuals with iSCI potentially have greater bilateral impairments...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Daniela Calzia, Greta Garbarino, Federico Caicci, Mario Pestarino, Lucia Manni, Carlo Enrico Traverso, Isabella Panfoli, Simona Candiani
Previous studies on purified bovine rod outer segments (OS) disks pointed to Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as being the most likely mechanism involved in ATP production, as yet not fully understood, to support the first phototransduction steps. Bovine and murine rod OS disks, devoid of mitochondria, would house respiratory chain complexes I to IV and ATP synthase, similar to mitochondria. Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is a well-suited animal model to study vertebrate embryogenesis as well as the retina, morphologically and functionally similar to its human counterpart...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Jun-Ho Cho, Goo-Young Kim, Brian C Mansfield, Janice Y Chou
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC), a key enzyme in endogenous glucose production. This autosomal recessive disorder is characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and long-term complications of hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma (HCA/HCC). We have shown that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency-mediated steatosis leads to defective autophagy that is frequently associated with carcinogenesis. We now show that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency also leads to enhancement of hepatic glycolysis and hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS) that can contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jian Lu, Min Chen, Sumeng Gao, Jigang Yuan, Zhu Zhu, Xiaoping Zou
The 'Warburg effect' is considered a vital hallmark of cancer cells, characterized by an altered metabolism, in which cells rely on aerobic glycolysis. As a key enzyme of aerobic glycolysis, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) serves a crucial role in tumorigenesis. Accumulating studies have indicated that PKM2 is a potential target for cancer therapy. The aim of the present study was to assess the anticancer effects of LY294002, a specific phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor, on gastric cancer (GC) cells and further explore its possible mechanism in vitro ...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Chee Huei Phing, Hazizi Abu Saad, M Y Barakatun Nisak, M T Mohd Nasir
Background/Objective: Our study aimed to assess the effects of physical activity interventions via standing banners (point-of-decision prompt) and aerobics classes to promote physical activity among individuals with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial (16-week intervention and 8-week follow-up). Malaysian government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned by cluster to a point-of-decision prompt group (n = 44), an aerobics group (n = 42) or a control group (n = 103) based on sample size calculation formula...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Jordan Perry, Wayne Johnson, Gilbert W Fellingham, Pat R Vehrs
Background/Objective: The heart rate (HR) and metabolic (VO2 ) responses to treadmill running using the GlideTrak™ body weight support system have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the submaximal and maximal HR and VO2 responses to normal-weight treadmill running (TMR) to treadmill running with body weight support provided by the GlideTrak™ (GTR). Methods: Twenty participants (11 males; 9 females) 18 to 26 years of age voluntarily participated in this study...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Adam J Chicco, Catherine H Le, Erich Gnaiger, Hans C Dreyer, Jonathan B Muyskens, Angelo D'Alessandro, Travis Nemkov, Austin D Hocker, Jessica E Prenni, Lisa M Wolfe, Nathan M Sindt, Andrew T Lovering, Andrew W Subudhi, Robert C Roach
Metabolic responses to hypoxia play important roles in cell survival strategies and disease pathogenesis in humans.  However, the homeostatic adjustments that balance changes in energy supply and demand to maintain organismal function under chronic low oxygen conditions remain incompletely understood, making it difficult to distinguish adaptive from maladaptive responses in hypoxia-related pathologies.  We integrated metabolomic and proteomic profiling with mitochondrial respirometry and blood gas analyses to comprehensively define the physiological responses of skeletal muscle energy metabolism to 16 days of high-altitude hypoxia (5260 m) in healthy volunteers from the AltitudeOmics project...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jessica N R Peoples, Timmi Maxmillian, Quynh Le, Sergiy M Nadtochiy, Paul S Brookes, George A Porter, Victor L Davidson, Steven N Ebert
Cardiac energy demands during early embryonic periods are sufficiently met through glycolysis, but as development proceeds, oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria becomes increasingly vital. Adrenergic hormones are known to stimulate metabolism in adult mammals and are essential for embryonic development, but relatively little is known about their effects on metabolism in the embryonic heart.  Here, we show that embryos lacking adrenergic stimulation have approximately 10-fold less cardiac ATP compared to littermate controls...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Silvia Ravera, Maria Grazia Signorello, Martina Bartolucci, Sara Ferrando, Lucia Manni, Federico Caicci, Daniela Calzia, Isabella Panfoli, Alessandro Morelli, Giuliana Leoncini
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Energy demand in human platelets is very high, to carry out their functions. As for most human cells, the aerobic metabolism represents the primary energy source in platelets, even though mitochondria are negligibly represented. Following the hypothesis that other structures could be involved in chemical energy production, in this work, we have investigated the functional expression of an extramitochondrial aerobic metabolism in platelets. RESULTS: Oximetric and luminometric analyses showed that platelets consume large amounts of oxygen and produce ATP in the presence of common respiring substrates, such as pyruvate + malate or succinate, although morphological electron microscopy analysis showed that these contain few mitochondria...
March 14, 2018: Biology of the Cell
Agata Leońska-Duniec, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Aleksandra Jażdżewska, Waldemar Moska, Ewelina Lulińska-Kuklik, Marek Sawczuk, Svetlana I Gubaydullina, Alsu T Shakirova, Pawel Cięszczyk, Adam Maszczyk, Ildus I Ahmetov
The effectiveness of physical exercise on fat loss and improvement of aerobic capacity varies considerably between individuals. A strong linkage exists between common allelic variants of the adrenergic receptor genes and weight gain, as well as changes in body composition. Therefore we aimed to check if body composition and metabolic variables were modulated by the ADRB2 (Gly16Arg and Glu27Gln), ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) and ADRA2A (rs553668 G/A) gene polymorphisms in 163 Polish sedentary women (age 19-24; body mass index (BMI) 21...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
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