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aerobic metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775761/the-bone-anabolic-effects-of-irisin-are-through-preferential-stimulation-of-aerobic-glycolysis
#1
Dingdong Zhang, ChuHyun Bae, Junghak Lee, Jiho Lee, Zeyu Jin, Myeongmo Kang, Young Suk Cho, Jeong-Han Kim, Weontae Lee, Sung-Kil Lim
Irisin, a recently identified hormone secreted by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, exhibits anabolic effects on the skeleton primarily through the stimulation of bone formation. However, the mechanism underlying the irisin-stimulated anabolic response remains largely unknown. To uncover the underlying mechanism, we biosynthesized recombinant irisin (r-irisin) using an Escherichia coli expression system and used it to treat several osteoblast cell types. Our synthesized r-irisin could promote proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts as evidenced by enhanced expression of osteoblast-specific transcriptional factors, including Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2), Oster (Osx), as well as early osteoblastic differentiation markers such as alkaline phosphatase (Alp) and collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1a1)...
May 15, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773495/metabolic-changes-in-bladder-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Benjamin L Woolbright, Matthew Ayres, John A Taylor
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Bladder cancer is a common solid tumor. Outcomes are poor in advanced disease, with few novel clinical therapeutics introduced over the previous several decades. Otto Warburg's original hypothesis that cancer cells use aerobic glycolysis to produce ATP instead of traditional oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria was a landmark discovery in its time. Recent studies indicate metabolic changes in cancer are far more complex than originally anticipated though...
May 14, 2018: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771915/inactivation-of-bpsl1039-1040-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-reduces-intracellular-survival-in-macrophages-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-in-the-murine-model-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-infection
#3
Peechanika Pinweha, Pornpan Pumirat, Jon Cuccui, Niramol Jitprasutwit, Veerachat Muangsombut, Varintip Srinon, Usa Boonyuen, Parameth Thiennimitr, Paiboon Vattanaviboon, Felipe Cia, Sam Willcocks, Gregory J Bancroft, Brendan W Wren, Sunee Korbsrisate
Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram-negative intracellular bacillus, is the causative agent of a tropical infectious disease called melioidosis. Bacterial ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters import and export a variety of molecules across bacterial cell membranes. At present, their significance in B. pseudomallei pathogenesis is poorly understood. We report here characterization of the BPSL1039-1040 ABC transporter. B. pseudomallei cultured in M9 medium supplemented with nitrate, demonstrated that BPSL1039-1040 is involved in nitrate transport for B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771450/effects-of-intense-aerobic-exercise-and-or-antihypertensive-medication-in-individuals-with-metabolic-syndrome
#4
M Ramirez-Jimenez, F Morales-Palomo, J F Ortega, R Mora-Rodriguez
We studied the blood pressure lowering effects of a bout of exercise and/or antihypertensive medicine with the goal of studying if exercise could substitute or enhance pharmacologic hypertension treatment. Twenty-three hypertensive metabolic syndrome patients chronically medicated with angiotensin II receptor 1 blockade antihypertensive medicine underwent 24-hr monitoring in four separated days in a randomized order; a) after taking their habitual dose of antihypertensive medicine (AHM trial), b) substituting their medicine by placebo medicine (PLAC trial), c) placebo medicine with a morning bout of intense aerobic exercise (PLAC+EXER trial) and d) combining the exercise and antihypertensive medicine (AHM+EXER trial)...
May 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770164/aquaporin-membrane-channels-in-oxidative-stress-cell-signaling-and-aging-recent-advances-and-research-trends
#5
REVIEW
Grazia Tamma, Giovanna Valenti, Elena Grossini, Sandra Donnini, Angela Marino, Raul A Marinelli, Giuseppe Calamita
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as a result of aerobic metabolism and as by-products through numerous physiological and biochemical processes. While ROS-dependent modifications are fundamental in transducing intracellular signals controlling pleiotropic functions, imbalanced ROS can cause oxidative damage, eventually leading to many chronic diseases. Moreover, increased ROS and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability are main key factors in dysfunctions underlying aging, frailty, hypertension, and atherosclerosis...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769417/lactate-in-cardiogenic-shock-current-understanding-and-clinical-implications
#6
G M Kubiak, A R Tomasik, K Bartus, R Olszanecki, P Ceranowicz
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an essential substrate metabolite in human beings. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation provides > 95% of ATP with the remainder derived from glycolysis or tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). In normal hearts, acetyl-CoA is synthesized from the β-oxidation of free fatty acids (FFA) and the oxidation of pyruvate. Pyruvate is synthesized from glycolysis and can be submitted either for decarboxylation to acetyl-CoA or for dehydrogenation to lactate. Moreover, pyruvate, as well as lactate, plays a key role in aerobic glucose metabolism which is highly dependent on ubiquitous regulatory mechanisms...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768290/intense-aerobic-exercise-lowers-blood-pressure-in-individuals-with-metabolic-syndrome-taking-antihypertensive-medicine
#7
Miguel Ramirez-Jimenez, Valentin Fernandez-Elias, Felix Morales-Palomo, Juan F Ortega, Ricardo Mora-Rodriguez
OBJECTIVE: There is a growing tendency for physicians to prescribe exercise in accordance with the 'exercise is medicine' global health initiative. However, the exercise-pharmacologic interactions for controlling blood pressure are not well described. Our purpose was to study whether angiotensin II receptor type 1 blocker (ARB) antihypertensive medicine enhances the blood pressure-lowering effects of intense exercise. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Fifteen hypertensive individuals with metabolic syndrome chronically medicated with ARB underwent two exercise trials in a blind randomized order...
May 15, 2018: Blood Pressure Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768122/long-term-trait-consistency-in-mice-selected-for-swim-induced-high-aerobic-capacity
#8
Julita Sadowska, Andrzej K Gębczyński, Marek Konarzewski
The majority of studies show that metabolic rates are usually repeatable at the individual level, although their repeatabilities tend to decline with time and to be strongly affected by physiological changes. Changes in individual repeatabilities may therefore affect putative differences between experimental groups or populations. This problem is particularly relevant to artificial selection experiments that apply the selection protocol at early life stages, running the risk of a poor correlation of the trait with itself throughout the life cycle of individuals...
July 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767961/real-time-monitoring-of-tricarboxylic-acid-metabolites-in-exhaled-breath
#9
Alberto Tejero Rioseras, Kapil Dev Singh, Nora Nowak, Martin T Gaugg, Tobias Bruderer, Renato Zenobi, Pablo M-L Sinues
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is one of the most important metabolic pathway for cellular respiration in aerobic organisms. It provides and collects intermediates for many other interconnecting pathways and acts as a hub connecting metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids. Alteration in intracellular levels of its intermediates has been linked with a wide range of illnesses ranging from cancer to cellular necrosis or liver cirrhosis. Therefore, there exists an intrinsic interest in monitoring such metabolites...
May 16, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767350/inverse-relationship-between-changes-of-maximal-aerobic-capacity-and-changes-in-walking-economy-after-weight-loss
#10
Juliano H Borges, Stephen J Carter, Harshvardhan Singh, Gary R Hunter
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to: (1) determine the relationships between maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2max ) and walking economy during non-graded and graded walking among overweight women and (2) examine potential differences in [Formula: see text]O2max and walking economy before and after weight loss. METHODS: One-hundred and twenty-four premenopausal women with a body mass index (BMI) between 27 and 30 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) diet only; (b) diet and aerobic exercise training; and (c) diet and resistance exercise training...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767227/effect-of-a-balance-training-programme-on-postural-balance-aerobic-capacity-and-frequency-of-falls-in-women-with-osteoporosis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Ibolya Miko, Imre Szerb, Anna Szerb, Tamas Bender, Gyula Poor
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a 12-month complex balance-training programme on static and dynamic postural balance, aerobic capacity and frequency of falls in women with established osteoporosis. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial in which the intervention group was assigned a 12-month exercise programme (3 times a week for 30 min) and the control group had no intervention. SUBJECTS: A total of 100 osteoporotic women with at least one previous fracture...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766601/functional-high-intensity-exercise-training-ameliorates-insulin-resistance-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-type-2-diabetes
#12
Ciarán E Fealy, Stephan Nieuwoudt, Julie A Foucher, Amanda R Scelsi, Steve K Malin, Mangesh Pagadala, Lauren A Cruz, Miranda Li, Michael Rocco, Bartolome Burguera, John P Kirwan
AIM: Functional high intensity training (F-HIT) is a novel fitness paradigm that integrates simultaneous aerobic and resistance training in sets of constantly varied movements, based on real-world situational exercises, performed at high intensity in workouts that range from ∼8-20 min/session. We hypothesized that F-HIT would be an effective exercise mode for reducing insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: We recruited 13 overweight/obese adults (5 males, 8 females; 53 ± 7 years; BMI 34...
May 15, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764892/intense-exercise-for-survival-among-men-with-metastatic-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer-interval-gap4-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-phase-iii-study-protocol
#13
Robert U Newton, Stacey A Kenfield, Nicolas H Hart, June M Chan, Kerry S Courneya, James Catto, Stephen P Finn, Rosemary Greenwood, Daniel C Hughes, Lorelei Mucci, Stephen R Plymate, Stephan F E Praet, Emer M Guinan, Erin L Van Blarigan, Orla Casey, Mark Buzza, Sam Gledhill, Li Zhang, Daniel A Galvão, Charles J Ryan, Fred Saad
INTRODUCTION: Preliminary evidence supports the beneficial role of physical activity on prostate cancer outcomes. This phase III randomised controlled trial (RCT) is designed to determine if supervised high-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise increases overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Participants (n=866) must have histologically documented metastatic prostate cancer with evidence of progressive disease on androgen deprivation therapy (defined as mCRPC)...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764469/chibby-suppresses-aerobic-glycolysis-and-proliferation-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-via-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-lin28-let7-pdk1-cascade
#14
Cheng-Fu Cai, Guo-Dong Ye, Dong-Yan Shen, Wei Zhang, Mao-Li Chen, Xin-Xin Chen, Da-Xiong Han, Yan-Jun Mi, Qi-Cong Luo, Wang-Yu Cai, Shu-Yu Yang
BACKGROUND: Great progress has been achieved in the study of the aerobic glycolysis or the so-called Warburg effect in a variety of cancers; however, the regulation of the Warburg effect in Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has not been completely defined. METHODS: Gene expression pattern of NPC cells were used to test associations between Chibby and β-catenin expression. Chibby siRNAs and over-expression vector were transfected into NPC cells to down-regulate or up-regulate Chibby expression...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764240/ferrous-glycinate-regulates-cell-energy-metabolism-by-restricting-hypoxia-induced-factor-1%C3%AE-expression-in-human-a549-cells
#15
Yung-Ting Kuo, Jhong-Huei Jheng, Mei-Chen Lo, Wei-Lu Chen, Shyang-Guang Wang, Horng-Mo Lee
Iron or oxygen regulates the stability of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). We investigated whether ferrous glycinate would affect HIF-1α accumulation, aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial energy metabolism in human A549 lung cancer cells. Incubation of A549 cells with ferrous glycinate decreased the protein levels of HIF-1α, which was abrogated by proteosome inhibitor, or prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor. Addition of ferrous glycinate decreased protein levels of glucose transporter-1, hexokinase-2, and lactate dehydrogenase A, and decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 (PDK-1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) phosphorylation in A549 cells...
May 15, 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763299/in-vivo-assimilation-of-one-carbon-via-a-synthetic-reductive-glycine-pathway-in-escherichia-coli
#16
Oren Yishai, Madeleine Bouzon, Volker Döring, Arren Bar-Even
Assimilation of one-carbon compounds presents a key biochemical challenge, which limits their use as sustainable feedstocks for microbial growth and production. The reductive glycine pathway is a synthetic metabolic route that could provide an optimal way for the aerobic assimilation of reduced C1 compounds. Here, we show that a rational integration of native and foreign enzymes enables the tetrahydrofolate and glycine cleavage/synthase systems to operate in the reductive direction, such that Escherichia coli satisfies all of its glycine and serine requirements from the assimilation of formate and CO2...
May 15, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762540/the-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-and-their-transcriptional-coactivators-gene-variations-in-human-trainability-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Miroslav Petr, Petr Stastny, Adam Zajac, James J Tufano, Agnieszka Maciejewska-Skrendo
BACKGROUND: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ( PPARA , PPARG , PPARD ) and their transcriptional coactivators' ( PPARGC1A , PPARGC1B ) gene polymorphisms have been associated with muscle morphology, oxygen uptake, power output and endurance performance. The purpose of this review is to determine whether the PPARs and/or their coactivators' polymorphisms can predict the training response to specific training stimuli. METHODS: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses, a literature review has been run for a combination of PPARs and physical activity key words...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760743/crosstalk-between-the-warburg-effect-redox-regulation-and-autophagy-induction-in-tumourigenesis
#18
REVIEW
Mokgadi Violet Gwangwa, Anna Margaretha Joubert, Michelle Helen Visagie
Tumourigenic tissue uses modified metabolic signalling pathways in order to support hyperproliferation and survival. Cancer-associated aerobic glycolysis resulting in lactic acid production was described nearly 100 years ago. Furthermore, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lactate quantities increase metabolic, survival and proliferation signalling, resulting in increased tumourigenesis. In order to maintain redox balance, the cell possesses innate antioxidant defence systems such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione...
2018: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760603/relationship-between-aerobic-capacity-with-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-biomarkers-in-the-blood-of-older-mexican-urban-dwelling-population
#19
Juana Rosado-Pérez, Víctor Manuel Mendoza-Núñez
The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) constitutes an indicator of an organism's capacity to integrate oxygen into the metabolism to obtaining energy. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between VO2max and oxidative stress (OxS) and chronic inflammation in the elderly individuals. A cross-sectional and exploratory study was conducted in a sample of 52 older persons. We measured plasma lipid peroxides (LPO), red blood cell glutathione peroxidase, red blood cell superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant status...
April 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759552/the-emerging-co-regulatory-role-of-long-noncoding-rnas-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-the-warburg-effect-in-aggressive-tumors
#20
REVIEW
Qian Hua, Baoming Mi, Gang Huang
Malignant tumor cells have several unique characteristics, and their ability to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a molecular gateway to invasive behavior. Rapid proliferation and increased invasiveness during EMT enhance aberrant glucose metabolism in tumor cells. Meanwhile, aerobic glycolysis provides energy, biosynthesis precursors, and an appropriate microenvironment to facilitate EMT. Reciprocal crosstalk between the processes synergistically contributes to malignant cancer behaviors, but the regulatory mechanisms underlying this interaction remain unclear...
June 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
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