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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642137/overexpression-cdc42-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-neurotoxicity-in-developmental-brain-of-rats
#1
Xi Fang, Shiyong Li, Qiang Han, Yilin Zhao, Jie Gao, Jing Yan, Ailin Luo
Nowadays many children receive operations with general anesthesia. Isoflurane is a commonly-used general anesthetic. Numbers of studies demonstrated that isoflurane induced neurotoxicity and neurobehavioral deficiency in young rats, however, the underlying mechanism remained unknown. Cell division cycle 42 (cdc42) played an important role in regulating synaptic vesicle trafficking and actin dynamics in neuron, which closely linked to synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine formation. Meanwhile, cdc42 also involved in many neurodegenerative diseases...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642134/mitochondrial-potassium-channels-in-cell-death
#2
Vanessa Checchetto, Michele Azzolini, Roberta Peruzzo, Paola Capitanio, Luigi Leanza
Mitochondria are intracellular organelles involved in several processes from bioenergetics to cell death. In the latest years, ion channels are arising as new possible targets in controlling several cellular functions. The discovery that several plasma membrane located ion channels have intracellular counterparts, has now implemented this consideration and the number of studies enforcing the understanding of their role in different metabolic pathways. In this review, we will discuss the recent updates in the field, focusing our attention on the involvement of potassium channels during mitochondrial mediated apoptotic cell death...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641276/atherosclerosis-and-the-hydrogen-sulfide-signaling-pathway-therapeutic-approaches-to-disease-prevention
#3
Zhi-Jun Wang, Jian Wu, Wei Guo, Yi-Zhun Zhu
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now admitted as a third gasotransmitter together with nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), albeit it was originally considered as a foul and poisonous gas. Endogenous H2S production in mammalian cells is counting on the three enzymes acting on cysteine. Involvement of H2S in various physiological and pathological processes has been extensively studied in the last fifteen years. Mounting evidence suggests that H2S is able to protect against atherosclerosis development and progression...
June 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640632/gut-microbiota-nitric-oxide-and-microglia-as-pre-requisites-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#4
Joyce Ka Yu Tse
Regulating fluctuating endogenous nitric oxide (NO) levels is necessary for proper physiological functions. Aberrant NO pathways are implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease. The mechanism of NO in oxidative and nitrosative stress with pathological consequences involves reactions with reactive oxygen species (e.g. superoxide) to form the highly reactive peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochloride ions and hydroxyl radical. NO levels are typically regulated by endogenous nitric oxide synthases (NOS), and inflammatory iNOS is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, in which elevated NO mediates axonal degeneration and activates cyclooxygenases to provoke neuroinflammation...
June 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636944/transduction-of-repetitive-mechanical-stimuli-by-piezo1-and-piezo2-ion-channels
#5
Amanda H Lewis, Alisa F Cui, Malcolm F McDonald, Jörg Grandl
Several cell types experience repetitive mechanical stimuli, including vein endothelial cells during pulsating blood flow, inner ear hair cells upon sound exposure, and skin cells and their innervating dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons when sweeping across a textured surface or touching a vibrating object. While mechanosensitive Piezo ion channels have been clearly implicated in sensing static touch, their roles in transducing repetitive stimulations are less clear. Here, we perform electrophysiological recordings of heterologously expressed mouse Piezo1 and Piezo2 responding to repetitive mechanical stimulations...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633068/multi-electrode-system-for-measurement-of-transmembrane-ion-fluxes-through-living-epithelial-cells
#6
Mirosław Zając, Andrzej Lewenstam, Krzysztof Dolowy
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most common fatal human genetic disease. It is caused by the defect in a single anion channel protein which affects ion and water transport across the epithelial tissue. A flat multi-electrode platform of diameter 12mm, allowing for measurement of four ions: sodium, potassium, hydrogen and chloride by exchangeable/replaceable ion-selective electrodes is described. The measurement is possible owing to the architecture of the platform which accommodates all the electrodes and inlets/outlets...
June 13, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629808/physiological-and-pathophysiological-role-of-transient-receptor-potential-canonical-channels-in-cardiac-myocytes
#7
REVIEW
Azmi A Ahmad, Molly Streiff, Chris Hunter, Qinghua Hu, Frank B Sachse
Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels constitute a family of seven Ca(2+) permeable ion channels, named TRPC1 to 7. These channels are abundantly expressed in the mammalian heart, yet mechanisms underlying activation of TRPC channels and their precise role in cardiac physiology remain poorly understood. In this review, we perused original literature regarding TRPC channels in cardiomyocytes. We first reviewed studies on TRPC channel assembly and sub-cellular localization across multiple species and cell types...
June 16, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628195/heterogeneity-of-tight-junctions-in-the-thick-ascending-limb
#8
REVIEW
Markus Bleich, Vera C Wulfmeyer, Nina Himmerkus, Susanne Milatz
Renal tubular transport mechanisms are optimized to be energy efficient and tailored to local gradients and transport rates. The combined transcellular action of ion channels, transporters, and pumps, together with the paracellular pathway, enables kidney function. Monogenetic diseases and mouse models indicate that both trans- and paracellular proteins can become disease-causing candidates and may be targets for future therapeutic approaches. Recent advances in tight junction research have provided new insights into their structure, function, and regulation...
June 19, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622163/novel-roles-for-mucin-1-in-the-kidney
#9
Mohammad M Al-Bataineh, Rebecca P Hughey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies in the kidney have revealed that the well characterized tumor antigen mucin 1 (MUC1/Muc1) also has numerous functions in the normal and injured kidney. RECENT FINDINGS: Mucin 1 is a transmembrane mucin with a robust glycan-dependent apical targeting signal and efficient recycling from endosomes. It was recently reported that the TRPV5 calcium channel is stabilized on the cell surface by galectin-dependent cross-linking to mucin 1, providing a novel mechanism for regulation of ion channels and normal electrolyte balance...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620080/the-sorting-nexin-3-retromer-pathway-regulates-the-cell-surface-localization-and-activity-of-a-wnt-activated-polycystin-channel-complex
#10
Shuang Feng, Andrew J Streets, Vasyl Nesin, Uyen Tran, Hongguang Nie, Marta Onopiuk, Oliver Wessely, Leonidas Tsiokas, Albert C M Ong
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by inactivating mutations in PKD1 (85%) or PKD2 (15%). The ADPKD proteins encoded by these genes, polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2), form a plasma membrane receptor-ion channel complex. However, the mechanisms controlling the subcellular localization of PC1 and PC2 are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the involvement of the retromer complex, an ancient protein module initially discovered in yeast that regulates the retrieval, sorting, and retrograde transport of membrane receptors...
June 15, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618351/structure-of-ip3r-channel-high-resolution-insights-from-cryo-em
#11
REVIEW
Mariah R Baker, Guizhen Fan, Irina I Serysheva
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are ubiquitously expressed intracellular Ca(2+) channels and the major mediators of cellular Ca(2+) signals generated by the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. Despite established physiological significance and proven involvements of IP3R channels in many human diseases, detailed structural basis for signal detection by these ion channels and their gating remain obscure. Recently, single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has yielded a long-awaited near-atomic resolution structure of the entire full-length type 1 IP3R...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606853/proteomic-analysis-of-the-kissing-bug-rhodnius-prolixus-antenna
#12
Daniele S Oliveira, Nathalia F Brito, Fabio C S Nogueira, Monica F Moreira, Walter S Leal, Marcia R Soares, Ana C A Melo
Reception of odorants is essential in insects' life since the chemical signals in the environment (=semiochemicals) convey information about availability of hosts for a blood meal, mates for reproduction, sites for oviposition and other relevant information for fitness in the environment. Once they reach the antennae, these semiochemicals bind to odorant-binding proteins and are transported through the sensillar lymph until reach the odorant receptors. Such perireceptor events, particularly the interactions with transport proteins, are the liaison between the external environment and the entire neuroethological system and, therefore, a potential target to disrupt insect chemical communication...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606760/progress-in-the-discovery-of-small-molecule-modulators-of-the-cys-loop-superfamily-receptors
#13
REVIEW
Brian A Sparling, Erin F DiMauro
The vertebrate Cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) are comprised of nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR), serotonin type 3 (5-HT3R), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAAR), and glycine (GlyR) receptors. Here, we review efforts to discover selective small molecules targeting one or more Cys-loop receptors, with a focus on state-of-the-art modulators that have been reported over the past five years. Several highlighted compounds offer robust oral bioavailability and central exposure and have thus been useful in delineating pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships in pre-clinical disease models...
May 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602913/trpv4-calcium-permeable-channel-is-a-novel-regulator-of-oxidized-ldl-induced-macrophage-foam-cell-formation
#14
Rishov Goswami, Michael Merth, Shweta Sharma, Mazen O Alharbi, Helim Aranda-Espinoza, Xiaoping Zhu, Shaik O Rahaman
Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in United States, and atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory arterial disease, is the most dominant underlying pathology. Macrophages are thought to orchestrate atherosclerosis by generating lipid-laden foam cells and by secreting inflammatory mediators. Emerging data support a role for a mechanical factor, e.g., matrix stiffness, in regulation of macrophage function, vascular elasticity, and atherogenesis. However, the identity of the plasma membrane mechanosensor and the mechanisms by which pro-atherogenic signals are transduced/maintained are unknown...
June 8, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601532/genetics-of-atrial-fibrillation-state-of-the-art-in-2017
#15
REVIEW
Diane Fatkin, Celine F Santiago, Inken G Huttner, Steven A Lubitz, Patrick T Ellinor
Genetic variation is an important determinant of atrial fibrillation (AF) susceptibility. Numerous rare variants in protein-coding sequences of genes have been associated with AF in families and in early-onset cases, and chromosomal loci harbouring common risk variants have been mapped in AF cohorts. Many of these loci are in non-coding regions of the human genome and are thought to contain regulatory sequences that modulate gene expression. Disease genes implicated to date have predominantly encoded cardiac ion channels, with predicted mutation effects on the atrial action potential duration...
May 11, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596175/calcium-signaling-and-cardiac-arrhythmias
#16
REVIEW
Andrew P Landstrom, Dobromir Dobrev, Xander H T Wehrens
There has been a significant progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which calcium (Ca(2+)) ions mediate various types of cardiac arrhythmias. A growing list of inherited gene defects can cause potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia syndromes, including catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, congenital long QT syndrome, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In addition, acquired deficits of multiple Ca(2+)-handling proteins can contribute to the pathogenesis of arrhythmias in patients with various types of heart disease...
June 9, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591378/is-there-a-role-for-voltage-gated-na-channels-in-the-aggressiveness-of-breast-cancer
#17
P Rhana, R R Trivelato, P S L Beirão, J S Cruz, A L P Rodrigues
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and its metastatic potential is responsible for numerous deaths. Thus, the need to find new targets for improving treatment, and even finding the cure, becomes increasingly greater. Ion channels are known to participate in several physiological functions, such as muscle contraction, cell volume regulation, immune response and cell proliferation. In breast cancer, different types of ion channels have been associated with tumorigenesis. Recently, voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSC) have been implicated in the processes that lead to increased tumor aggressiveness...
June 5, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589518/forty-years-of-sodium-channels-structure-function-pharmacology-and-epilepsy
#18
William A Catterall
Voltage-gated sodium channels initiate action potentials in brain neurons. In the 1970s, much was known about the function of sodium channels from measurements of ionic currents using the voltage clamp method, but there was no information about the sodium channel molecules themselves. As a postdoctoral fellow and staff scientist at the National Institutes of Health, I developed neurotoxins as molecular probes of sodium channels in cultured neuroblastoma cells. During those years, Bruce Ransom and I crossed paths as members of the laboratories of Marshall Nirenberg and Philip Nelson and shared insights about sodium channels in neuroblastoma cells from my work and electrical excitability and synaptic transmission in cultured spinal cord neurons from Bruce's pioneering electrophysiological studies...
June 7, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584051/ion-pulling-simulations-provide-insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-channel-opening-of-the-skeletal-muscle-ryanodine-receptor
#19
David D Mowrey, Le Xu, Yingwu Mei, Daniel A Pasek, Gerhard Meissner, Nikolay V Dokholyan
The type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) mediates Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to initiate skeletal muscle contraction and is associated with muscle diseases, malignant hyperthermia, and central core disease. To better understand RyR1 channel function, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of channel gating and ion permeation. An adequate model of channel gating requires accurate, high-resolution models of both open and closed states of the channel. To this end, we generated an open-channel RyR1 model using molecular simulations to pull Ca(2+) through the pore constriction site of a closed-channel RyR1 structure determined at 3...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583325/neuroprotective-effect-of-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-against-mpp-induced-neurotoxicity-in-pc12-cells-involvement-of-k2p-channels-and-stretch-activated-ion-channels
#20
Lu Zhao, Yi Feng, Aiwei Shi, Lei Zhang, Shifang Guo, Mingxi Wan
Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. It is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) is a dopaminergic neuronal toxin that is widely used in constructing Parkinson's disease models in vitro. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a non-invasive therapeutic approach that has neuromodulation and neuroprotective effects in the central neural system; however, whether LIPUS can provide protection for dopaminergic neurons against MPP(+)-induced neurocytotoxicity remains unknown...
June 2, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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