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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912858/effect-of-caffeine-on-sprint-cycling-in-experienced-cyclists
#1
Dawn E Anderson, Sarah E LeGrand, Reece D McCart
Anderson, DE, LeGrand, SE, and McCart, RD. Effect of caffeine on sprint cycling in experienced cyclists. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Research regarding the ergogenic effects of caffeine (CAF) in anaerobic activity remains inconclusive. However, some researchers have found significant improvements in anaerobic performance when testing specifically trained athletes. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, cross-over design was implemented to assess the impact of CAF on a 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) in experienced cyclists...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910741/physiology-and-pathophysiology-in-ultra-marathon-running
#2
REVIEW
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
In this overview, we summarize the findings of the literature with regards to physiology and pathophysiology of ultra-marathon running. The number of ultra-marathon races and the number of official finishers considerably increased in the last decades especially due to the increased number of female and age-group runners. A typical ultra-marathoner is male, married, well-educated, and ~45 years old. Female ultra-marathoners account for ~20% of the total number of finishers. Ultra-marathoners are older and have a larger weekly training volume, but run more slowly during training compared to marathoners...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910449/four-weeks-of-off-season-training-improves-peak-oxygen-consumption-in-female-field-hockey-players
#3
Lindsey T Funch, Erik Lind, Larissa True, Deborah Van Langen, John T Foley, James F Hokanson
The purpose of the study was to examine the changes in peak oxygen consumption ( V ˙O2peak ) and running economy (RE) following four-weeks of high intensity training and concurrent strength and conditioning during the off-season in collegiate female field hockey players. Fourteen female student-athletes (age 19.29 ± 0.91 years) were divided into two training groups, matched from baseline V ˙O2peak : High Intensity Training (HITrun ; n = 8) and High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT; n = 6). Participants completed 12 training sessions...
November 28, 2017: Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910417/effects-of-heart-rate-vs-speed-based-high-intensity-interval-training-on-aerobic-and-anaerobic-capacity-of-female-soccer-players
#4
Hamid Arazi, Abbas Keihaniyan, Amin EatemadyBoroujeni, Amir Oftade, Sheida Takhsha, Abbas Asadi, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two types of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs on aerobic and anaerobic capacity of female soccer players. Regional-level female athletes were randomly divided into heart rate-based HIIT ( n = 8; age 23.4 ± 1.1 year) and speed-based HIIT groups ( n = 8; age 23.4 ± 1.3 year). Athletes trained three days per week for six weeks. Before and after training, each athlete's performance was assessed directly through the Hoff test, 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (VIFT), and repeated-sprint ability test (RAST); maximal oxygen consumption (VO₂max), power and fatigue were estimated indirectly...
August 4, 2017: Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904351/heart-rate-monitoring-in-team-sports-a-conceptual-framework-for-contextualizing-heart-rate-measures-for-training-and-recovery-prescription
#5
Christoph Schneider, Florian Hanakam, Thimo Wiewelhove, Alexander Döweling, Michael Kellmann, Tim Meyer, Mark Pfeiffer, Alexander Ferrauti
A comprehensive monitoring of fitness, fatigue, and performance is crucial for understanding an athlete's individual responses to training to optimize the scheduling of training and recovery strategies. Resting and exercise-related heart rate measures have received growing interest in recent decades and are considered potentially useful within multivariate response monitoring, as they provide non-invasive and time-efficient insights into the status of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and aerobic fitness. In team sports, the practical implementation of athlete monitoring systems poses a particular challenge due to the complex and multidimensional structure of game demands and player and team performance, as well as logistic reasons, such as the typically large number of players and busy training and competition schedules...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897308/optimization-of-maximal-rate-of-heart-rate-increase-assessment-in-runners
#6
Clint R Bellenger, Rebecca L Thomson, Kade Davison, Eileen Y Robertson, Maximillian J Nelson, Laura Karavirta, Jonathan D Buckley
PURPOSE: Correlations between fatigue-induced changes in exercise performance and maximal rate of heart rate (HR) increase (rHRI) may be affected by exercise intensity during assessment. This study evaluated the sensitivity of rHRI for tracking performance when assessed at varying exercise intensities. METHOD: Performance (time to complete a 5-km treadmill time-trial [5TTT]) and rHRI were assessed in 15 male runners following 1 week of light training, 2 weeks of heavy training (HT), and a 10-day taper (T)...
June 13, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893599/effects-of-a-short-daytime-nap-on-shooting-and-sprint-performance-in-high-level-adolescent-athletes
#7
Haresh T Suppiah, Low Chee Yong, Gabriel Choong, Michael Chia
PURPOSE: The purpose of the research was to investigate the sport-specific performance effect of a brief afternoon nap on high-level Asian adolescent student-athletes that were habitually short sleepers. METHODS: In the studies, participants were randomly assigned to a nap or non-nap (reading) condition. In the first study, 12 male shooters (13.8 ± 1.0 yrs) performed a shooting assessment (20 competition shots) with heart rate variability monitored during the assessment...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893589/sport-field-properties-influence-muscle-recruitment-patterns-and-metabolic-response
#8
Michael E Hales, John D Johnson
PURPOSE: The study investigated different sport field properties influence on muscular recruitment patterns and metabolic response during a series of running and agility drills. METHODS: Eleven male athletes were fitted with a standard multi-purpose training shoe. The test protocol consisting of four high-intensity trials with 60 seconds rest between trials performed on two fields with different properties. Time-dependent field properties were recorded using ASTM protocol (F-1936)...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893180/potential-adverse-cardiac-remodelling-in-highly-trained-athletes-still-unknown-clinical-significance
#9
Luigi Gabrielli, Marta Sitges, Mario Chiong, Jorge Jalil, María Ocaranza, Silvana Llevaneras, Sebastian Herrera, Rodrigo Fernandez, Rodrigo Saavedra, Fernando Yañez, Luis Vergara, Alexis Diaz, Sergio Lavandero, Pablo Castro
Moderate endurance exercise has long been considered an essential element to maintain cardiovascular health, and sedentary behaviour in the general population has been related to a significant increase in all-causes of mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality and cardiovascular disease incidence. However, a growing group of people performs an intense exercise that leads to multiple heart adaptive changes that are collectively called "athlete's heart". In this review, we discussed the evidence of cardiac remodelling process secondary to repetitive and strenuous exercise in some predisposed athletes that produces intense and probably deleterious changes in cardiac morphology and function with no clear clinical significance in long-term follow-up...
June 12, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891249/differentiating-athlete-s-heart-from-cardiomyopathies-the-left-side
#10
Maria J Brosnan, Dhrubo Rakhit
In athletes who undertake a high volume of high intensity exercise, the resultant changes in cardiac structure and function which develop as a result of physiological adaptation to exercise (so called "Athlete's Heart") may overlap with some features of pathological conditions. This chapter will focus on the left side of the heart, where left ventricular cavity enlargement, increase in left ventricular wall thickness and increased left ventricular trabeculation associated with athletic remodelling may sometimes be difficult to differentiate from conditions such as dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or isolated left ventricular non-compaction...
May 16, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886418/ventricular-arrhythmias-in-young-competitive-athletes-prevalence-determinants-and-underlying-substrate
#11
Alessandro Zorzi, Manuel De Lazzari, Giulio Mastella, Alice Niero, Domenico Trovato, Alberto Cipriani, Francesco Peruzza, Leonardo Portolan, Giampaolo Berton, Federco Sciacca, Saverio Tollot, Chiara Palermo, Roberto Bellu, Flavio D'ascenzi, Denisa Muraru, Luigi Paolo Badano, Sabino Iliceto, Maurizio Schiavon, Martina Perazzolo Marra, Domenico Corrado
BACKGROUND: Whether ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) represent a feature of the adaptive changes of the athlete's heart remains elusive. We aimed to assess the prevalence, determinants, and underlying substrates of VAs in young competitive athletes. METHOD AND RESULTS: We studied 288 competitive athletes (age range, 16-35 years; median age, 21 years) and 144 sedentary individuals matched for age and sex who underwent 12-lead 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring...
June 9, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866199/individualized-hydration-plans-improve-performance-outcomes-for-collegiate-athletes-engaging-in-in-season-training
#12
David Ayotte, Michael P Corcoran
BACKGROUND: Athletes commonly consume insufficient fluid and electrolytes just prior to, or during training and competition. Unlike non-athletes or athletes who do not engage in frequent rigorous and prolonged training sessions, "hard trainers" may require additional sodium and better benefit from a hydration plan tailored to their individual physiology. The purpose of this randomized cross-over study was to determine whether a hydration plan based off of an athlete's sweat rate and sodium loss improves anaerobic and neurocognitive performance during a moderate to hard training session as well as heart rate recovery from this session...
June 4, 2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863622/reduced-resting-and-increased-elevation-of-heart-rate-variability-with-cognitive-task-performance-in-concussed-athletes
#13
Mu Huang, Justin Frantz, Gilbert Moralez, Tonia Sabo, Peter F Davis, Scott L Davis, Kathleen R Bell, Sushmita Purkayastha
OBJECTIVE: To examine heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and with a 2-Back cognitive task involving executive function and sustained attention in athletes during the acute phase following concussion and compare them with the controls. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three male and female collegiate athletes (20 ± 1 years) following (4 ± 1 days) a sports-related concussion and 23 sports- and sex-matched noninjured controls. PROCEDURE: Continuous R-R interval was acquired using 3-lead electrocardiogram for 3 minutes each at rest and during the 2-Back task...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861322/differentiating-athlete-s-heart-from-cardiomyopathies-the-right-side
#14
David Prior
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a recognised cause of sudden cardiac death during exercise in young athletes. Competitive exercise is also known to accelerate progression of ARVC and exercise restriction is an important part of disease management. Regular endurance training can induce physiological changes detectable on electrocardiography and imaging which may overlap with pathological findings caused by ARVC, thus making differentiation of athlete's heart from ARVC difficult in some cases...
May 19, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860439/aviator-s-heart-a-case-of-athlete-s-heart-in-an-active-duty-male-naval-aviator
#15
Ilya V Ryaboy, James A Watts, Megan L Barnwell
Athlete's heart is the condition of cardiac remodeling as a result of physiologic stress induced by regular strenuous physical activity by professional or elite amateur individuals. The literature describes several characteristics of the athletic heart, including left ventricular hypertrophy, increased left ventricular mass, right ventricular dilatation, atrial enlargement, electrocardiographic changes, and abnormalities on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We present a case of athletic heart in an exceptionally physically fit active duty naval aviator who experienced syncope and underwent extensive cardiac testing...
May 31, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849993/a-wearable-system-for-real-time-continuous-monitoring-of-physical-activity
#16
Fabrizio Taffoni, Diego Rivera, Angelica La Camera, Andrea Nicolò, Juan Ramón Velasco, Carlo Massaroni
Over the last decades, wearable systems have gained interest for monitoring of physiological variables, promoting health, and improving exercise adherence in different populations ranging from elite athletes to patients. In this paper, we present a wearable system for the continuous real-time monitoring of respiratory frequency ( f R ), heart rate (HR), and movement cadence during physical activity. The system has been experimentally tested in the laboratory (by simulating the breathing pattern with a mechanical ventilator) and by collecting data from one healthy volunteer...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843381/elevated-lv-mass-and-lv-mass-index-sign-on-the-athlete-s-ecg-athletes-hearts-are-prone-to-ventricular-arrhythmia
#17
Mücahid Yılmaz, Hidayet Kayançiçek
OBJECTIVES: Intense exercise elevates all heart chambers' dimensions, left ventricular mass (LV mass), and left ventricular mass index (LV mass index). The relationship between increased ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death with LV dilatation and elevated LV mass has been previously demonstrated. We investigated whether sports-related LV dilatation and elevated LV mass and LV mass index cause an increase in ventricular repolarization heterogeneity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study recruited 565 participants...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802319/frequency-of-genetic-variants-associated-with-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-cardiomyopathy-in-the-genome-aggregation-database
#18
Charlotte L Hall, Henry Sutanto, Chrysoula Dalageorgou, William John McKenna, Petros Syrris, Marta Futema
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a rare inherited heart-muscle disorder, which is the most common cause of life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young adults and athletes. Early and accurate diagnosis can be crucial in effective ARVC management and prevention of SCD.The genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) population of 138,632 unrelated individuals was searched for previously identified ARVC variants, classified as pathogenic or unknown on the disease genetic variant database ( http://www...
May 25, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796856/impact-of-ischaemia-reperfusion-cycles-during-ischaemic-preconditioning-on-2000-m-rowing-ergometer-performance
#19
Tiago Turnes, Rafael Alves de Aguiar, Rogério Santos de Oliveira Cruz, Amadeo Félix Salvador, Felipe Domingos Lisbôa, Kayo Leonardo Pereira, João Antônio Gesser Raimundo, Fabrizio Caputo
PURPOSE: Although ischaemic preconditioning (IPC), induced by cycles of transient limb ischaemia and reperfusion, seems to improve exercise performance, the optimal duration of ischaemia-reperfusion cycles is not established. The present study investigated the effect of ischaemia-reperfusion duration within each IPC cycle on performance in a 2000-m rowing ergometer test. METHODS: After incremental and familiarization tests, 16 trained rowers (mean ± SD: age, 24 ± 11 years; weight, 74...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795741/simulated-altitude-via-re-breathing-creates-arterial-hypoxemia-but-fails-to-improve-elements-of-running-performance
#20
Matthew J Garver, Cory M Scheadler, Logan M Smith, Sarah J Taylor, Chase M Harbach
Acclimatization to altitude has been shown to improve elements of performance. Use of simulated altitude is popular among athletes across the sports spectrum. This work was on a handheld, re-breathing device touted to enhance performance. Seven recreationally-trained athletes used the device for 18 hours over the course of the 37-day intervention trial. The elevations simulated were progressively increased from 1,524m to 6,096m. To ascertain potential efficacy, four performance trials were included (familiarization, baseline, and 2 follow-ups)...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
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