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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545247/how-does-psychosocial-behavior-contribute-to-cognitive-health-in-old-age
#1
Robert S Wilson, David A Bennett
With the aging of the U.S. population, the number of cognitively disabled persons is expected to substantially increase in coming decades, underscoring the urgent need for effective interventions. Here, we review the current evidence linking psychosocial factors to late-life cognitive loss and consider the study design needed to illuminate the biologic bases of the associations. We then examine an ongoing study that includes several of the key design elements, the Rush Memory and Aging Project. In this longitudinal clinical-pathological cohort study, indicators of personality, social connectedness, and psychological well-being were shown to predict late-life cognitive outcomes...
May 23, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545239/lora-scalability-a-simulation-model-based-on-interference-measurements
#2
Jetmir Haxhibeqiri, Floris Van den Abeele, Ingrid Moerman, Jeroen Hoebeke
LoRa is a long-range, low power, low bit rate and single-hop wireless communication technology. It is intended to be used in Internet of Things (IoT) applications involving battery-powered devices with low throughput requirements. A LoRaWAN network consists of multiple end nodes that communicate with one or more gateways. These gateways act like a transparent bridge towards a common network server. The amount of end devices and their throughput requirements will have an impact on the performance of the LoRaWAN network...
May 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545133/survey-of-health-literacy-level-and-related-influencing-factors-in-military-college-students-in-chongqing-china-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#3
Honghui Rong, Xin Cheng, Jose M Garcia, Ling Zhang, Lu Lu, Jian Fang, Mingshan Le, Peng Hu, Xinlu Dong, Junli Yang, Ya Wang, Ting Luo, Jun Liu, Ji-An Chen
Health literacy (HL) has become an important public health issue and is receiving growing attention. However, the HL levels of military college students in China have never been analyzed. This study aimed to investigate the HL and related associate factors in military college students in Chongqing, China. Data was obtained with the "Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (2012 edition)" from 3183 military college students aged 16-28 years at Chongqing in December 2015. A total score of ≥80 points determined adequate HL, and HL level was defined as the proportion of students who had adequate HL out of the total number of participants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545131/major-changes-in-microbial-diversity-and-community-composition-across-gut-sections-of-a-juvenile-panchlora-cockroach
#4
Erin A Gontang, Frank O Aylward, Camila Carlos, Tijana Glavina Del Rio, Mansi Chovatia, Alison Fern, Chien-Chi Lo, Stephanie A Malfatti, Susannah G Tringe, Cameron R Currie, Roberto Kolter
Investigations of gut microbiomes have shed light on the diversity and genetic content of these communities, and helped shape our understanding of how host-associated microorganisms influence host physiology, behavior, and health. Despite the importance of gut microbes to metazoans, our understanding of the changes in diversity and composition across the alimentary tract, and the source of the resident community are limited. Here, using community metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we assess microbial community diversity and coding potential in the foregut, midgut, and hindgut of a juvenile Panchlora cockroach, which resides in the refuse piles of the leaf-cutter ant species Atta colombica...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545123/predictability-of-arousal-in-mouse-slow-wave-sleep-by-accelerometer-data
#5
Gustavo Zampier Dos Santos Lima, Sergio Roberto Lopes, Thiago Lima Prado, Bruno Lobao-Soares, George C do Nascimento, John Fontenele-Araujo, Gilberto Corso
Arousals can be roughly characterized by punctual intrusions of wakefulness into sleep. In a standard perspective, using human electroencephalography (EEG) data, arousals are associated to slow-wave rhythms and K-complex brain activity. The physiological mechanisms that give rise to arousals during sleep are not yet fully understood. Moreover, subtle body movement patterns, which may characterize arousals both in human and in animals, are usually not detectable by eye perception and are not in general present in sleep studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545099/fine-particles-in-homes-of-predominantly-low-income-families-with-children-and-smokers-key-physical-and-behavioral-determinants-to-inform-indoor-air-quality-interventions
#6
Neil E Klepeis, John Bellettiere, Suzanne C Hughes, Benjamin Nguyen, Vincent Berardi, Sandy Liles, Saori Obayashi, C Richard Hofstetter, Elaine Blumberg, Melbourne F Hovell
Children are at risk for adverse health outcomes from occupant-controllable indoor airborne contaminants in their homes. Data are needed to design residential interventions for reducing low-income children's pollutant exposure. Using customized air quality monitors, we continuously measured fine particle counts (0.5 to 2.5 microns) over a week in living areas of predominantly low-income households in San Diego, California, with at least one child (under age 14) and at least one cigarette smoker. We performed retrospective interviews on home characteristics, and particle source and ventilation activities occurring during the week of monitoring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545095/feeding-on-dispersed-vs-aggregated-particles-the-effect-of-zooplankton-feeding-behavior-on-vertical-flux
#7
Marja Koski, Julia Boutorh, Christina de la Rocha
Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles) and of metabolic rates. We fed 5 copepod species-three calanoid, one harpacticoid and one poecilamastoid-microplankton food, in either dispersed or aggregated form and measured rates of respiration, fecal pellet production and egg production...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545069/behavioral-alterations-are-associated-with-vitamin-b12-deficiency-in-the-transcobalamin-receptor-cd320-ko-mouse
#8
Kaveri Arora, Jeffrey M Sequeira, Alejandro I Hernández, Juan M Alarcon, Edward V Quadros
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is prevalent worldwide and causes megaloblastic anemia and neurologic deficits. While the anemia can be treated, the neurologic deficits can become refractive to treatment as the disease progresses. Therefore, timely intervention is critical for a favorable outcome. Moreover, the metabolic basis for the neuro-pathologic changes and the role of cobalamin deficiency in the pathology still remains unexplained. Using a transcobalamin receptor / CD320 knockout mouse that lacks the receptor for cellular uptake of transcobalamin bound cobalamin, we aimed to determine whether cobalamin deficiency in the central nervous system produced functional neurologic deficits in the mouse that would parallel those observed in humans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545060/signet-a-signaling-network-data-simulator-to-enable-signaling-network-inference
#9
Elizabeth A Coker, Costas Mitsopoulos, Paul Workman, Bissan Al-Lazikani
Network models are widely used to describe complex signaling systems. Cellular wiring varies in different cellular contexts and numerous inference techniques have been developed to infer the structure of a network from experimental data of the network's behavior. To objectively identify which inference strategy is best suited to a specific network, a gold standard network and dataset are required. However, suitable datasets for benchmarking are difficult to find. Numerous tools exist that can simulate data for transcriptional networks, but these are of limited use for the study of signaling networks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545048/a-distribution-model-of-functional-connectome-based-on-criticality-and-energy-constraints
#10
Kosuke Takagi
The analysis of the network structure of the functional connectivity data constructed from fMRI images provides basic information about functions and features of the brain activity. We focus on the two features which are considered as relevant to the brain activity, the criticality and the constraint regarding energy consumptions. Within a wide variety of complex systems, the critical state occurs associated with a phase transition between distinct phases, random one and order one. Although the hypothesis that human brain activity is also in a state of criticality is supported by some experimental results, it still remains controversial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545029/tusc3-induces-autophagy-in-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-through-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#11
Yun Peng, Jun Cao, Xiao-Yi Yao, Jian-Xin Wang, Mei-Zuo Zhong, Ping-Ping Gan, Jian-Huang Li
We investigated the effects of tumor suppressor candidate 3 (TUSC3) on autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. A total of 118 NSCLC patients (88 males and 30 females) who underwent surgery at our institute were enrolled in the study. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TUSC3 protein expression was lower in NSCLC specimens than adjacent normal tissue. Correspondingly, there was greater methylation of TUSC3 in NSCLC than adjacent normal tissue. After transient transfection of A549 NSCLC cells with constructs designed to up-regulate or down-regulate TUSC3 expression, we analyzed the effects of inhibiting the Wnt pathway (XAV939) and autophagy (chloroquine, CQ) on the behavior of NSCLC cells...
May 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545008/psychiatric-disorders-in-a-cohort-of-individuals-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#12
L Shriki-Tal, H Avrahamy, Y Pollak, V Gross-Tsur, L Genstil, H J Hirsch, F Benarroch
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric manifestations in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) are common and often are the most debilitating problem in these individuals. We present an epidemiological nation-wide survey of psychiatric diagnoses in the PWS population, based on full-range psychiatric interviews. METHODS: We studied the distribution of psychiatric diagnoses (as opposed to a symptom-based approach) in the Israel national cohort of adolescents and adults with PWS. There was a total of 53 (32 males) ages 12 years and older...
April 5, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545006/cognitive-control-and-reward-loss-processing-in-internet-gaming-disorder-results-from-a-comparison-with-recreational-internet-game-users
#13
G Dong, H Li, L Wang, M N Potenza
Although playing of Internet games may lead to Internet gaming disorder (IGD), most game-users do not develop problems and only a relatively small subset experiences IGD. Game playing may have positive health associations, whereas IGD has been repeatedly associated with negative health measures, and it is thus important to understand differences between individuals with IGD, recreational (non-problematic) game use (RGU) and non-/low-frequency game use (NLFGU). Individuals with IGD have shown differences in neural activations from non-gamers, yet few studies have examined neural differences between individuals with IGD, RGU and NLFGU...
March 30, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544996/temperate-bacteriophages-as-regulators-of-host-behavior
#14
REVIEW
Tal Argov, Gil Azulay, Anna Pasechnek, Olga Stadnyuk, Shai Ran-Sapir, Ilya Borovok, Nadejda Sigal, Anat A Herskovits
Bacteriophages are ubiquitous and affect most facets of life, from evolution of bacteria, through ecology and global biochemical cycling to human health. The interactions between phages and bacteria often lead to biological novelty and an important milestone in this process is the ability of phages to regulate their host's behavior. In this review article, we will focus on newly reported cases that demonstrate how temperate phages regulate bacterial gene expression and behavior in a variety of bacterial species, pathogenic and environmental...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544995/intrauterine-exposure-to-tobacco-and-executive-functioning-in-high-school
#15
Ruth Rose-Jacobs, Mark A Richardson, Kathryn Buchanan-Howland, Clara A Chen, Howard Cabral, Timothy C Heeren, Jane Liebschutz, Leah Forman, Deborah A Frank
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning (EF), an umbrella construct encompassing gradual maturation of cognitive organization/management processes, is important to success in multiple settings including high school. Intrauterine tobacco exposure (IUTE) correlates with negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes, but little is known about its association with adolescent EF and information from real-life contexts is sparse. We evaluated the impact of IUTE on teacher-reported observations of EF in urban high school students controlling for covariates including other intrauterine and adolescent substance exposures...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544983/longitudinal-associations-among-family-environment-neural-cognitive-control-and-social-competence-among-adolescents
#16
Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Dominique Maciejewski, Jacob Lee, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Brooks King-Casas
During adolescence, prefrontal cortex regions, important in cognitive control, undergo maturation to adapt to changing environmental demands. Ways through which social-ecological factors contribute to adolescent neural cognitive control have not been thoroughly examined. We hypothesize that household chaos is a context that may modulate the associations among parental control, adolescent neural cognitive control, and developmental changes in social competence. The sample involved 167 adolescents (ages 13-14 at Time 1, 53% male)...
May 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544963/fibronectin-based-multilayer-thin-films
#17
Adeline Gand, Maud Tabuteau, Coline Chat, Guy Ladam, Hassan Atmani, Paul R Van Tassel, Emmanuel Pauthe
Thin films mimicking the structure and composition of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) are potentially attractive as biomaterials for cell contacting applications. Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of a biological polycation, poly(l-lysine) (PLL), and a common ECM protein, fibronectin (Fn), was employed here to construct nanoscale, ECM mimicking films. Incremental film thickness and interfacial charge magnitude are observed to diminish with layer number, resulting in sub-linear film growth scaling and saturation after about 10 layers...
May 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544961/superficial-physicochemical-properties-of-polyurethane-biomaterials-as-osteogenic-regulators-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-fates
#18
Mohsen Shahrousvand, Gity Mir Mohamad Sadeghi, Ehsan Shahrousvand, Marzieh Ghollasi, Ali Salimi
All of the cells' interactions are done through their surfaces. Evaluation of surface physicochemical scaffolds along with other factors is important and determines the fate of stem cells. In this work, biodegradable and biocompatible polyester/polyether based polyurethanes (PUs) were synthesized by polycaprolactone diol (PCL) and poly (tetra methylene ether) glycol (PTMEG) as the soft segment. To assess better the impact of surface parameters such as stiffness and roughness effects on osteogenic differentiation of the human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC), the dimension effect of substrates was eliminated and two-dimensional membranes were produced by synthesized polyurethane...
May 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544958/impact-of-triblock-copolymers-on-the-biophysical-function-of-naturally-derived-lung-surfactant
#19
Moritz Beck-Broichsitter, Christian A Ruge, Adam Bohr
The current study aimed at investigating the general applicability of triblock copolymers consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(propylene glycol) (Pluronic(®)) as excipients for lung delivery. After thorough physicochemical characterization of the diverse polymers, their cytotoxicity was evaluated using alveolar epithelial cells. Next, a naturally-derived lung surfactant was challenged with the distinct triblock copolymers with respect to changes in microstructure, adsorption to the air/liquid interface and dynamic surface tension behavior under bubble pulsation...
May 17, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544953/designing-feedback-to-mitigate-teen-distracted-driving-a-social-norms-approach
#20
Maryam Merrikhpour, Birsen Donmez
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research is to investigate teens' perceived social norms and whether providing normative information can reduce distracted driving behaviors among them. BACKGROUND: Parents are among the most important social referents for teens; they have significant influences on teens' driving behaviors, including distracted driving which significantly contributes to teens' crash risks. Social norms interventions have been successfully applied in various domains including driving; however, this approach is yet to be explored for mitigating driver distraction among teens...
May 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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