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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724279/alterations-in-striatal-circuits-underlying-addiction-like-behaviors
#1
REVIEW
Hyun Jin Kim, Joo Han Lee, Kyunghwa Yun, Joung-Hun Kim
Drug addiction is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by the compulsive pursuit of drugs of abuse despite potential adverse consequences. Although several decades of studies have revealed that psychostimulant use can result in extensive alterations of neural circuits and physiology, no effective therapeutic strategies or medicines for drug addiction currently exist. Changes in neuronal connectivity and regulation occurring after repeated drug exposure contribute to addiction-like behaviors in animal models...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724250/reuse-water-exposure-duration-seasonality-and-treatment-affect-tissue-responses-in-a-model-fish
#2
B J Blunt, A Singh, L Wu, M Gamal El-Din, M Belosevic, K B Tierney
Partially remediated gray (reuse) water will likely find increasing use in a variety of applications owing to the increasing scarcity of freshwater. We aimed to determine if a model fish, the goldfish, could sense reuse water using olfaction (smell), and if 30min or 7d (acute) and 60d (sub-chronic) exposures would affect their olfactory responses to natural odorants. We examined olfaction as previous studies have found that numerous chemicals can impair the olfactory sense, which is critical to carrying out numerous life-sustaining behaviors from feeding to mating...
July 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724249/occurrence-and-source-apportionment-of-atmospheric-halogenated-flame-retardants-in-lhasa-city-in-the-tibetan-plateau-china
#3
Wan-Li Ma, Wen-Long Li, Zi-Feng Zhang, Li-Yan Liu, Wei-Wei Song, Chun-Yan Huo, Yi-Xing Yuan, Yi-Fan Li
Active air samples were collected in Lhasa, one of the highest cities in the world (3650m above sea level) located in the Tibetan Plateau, and were analyzed for 38 halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), non-PBDE brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and dechlorane plus (DPs). The median concentrations of PBDEs, NBFRs and DPs were 40, 23 and 0.21pg/m(3), respectively. Correlation analysis indicated the common source and/or similar environmental behavior for several HFRs...
July 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724246/health-consequences-of-electric-lighting-practices-in-the-modern-world-a-report-on-the-national-toxicology-program-s-workshop-on-shift-work-at-night-artificial-light-at-night-and-circadian-disruption
#4
REVIEW
Ruth M Lunn, David E Blask, Andrew N Coogan, Mariana G Figueiro, Michael R Gorman, Janet E Hall, Johnni Hansen, Randy J Nelson, Satchidananda Panda, Michael H Smolensky, Richard G Stevens, Fred W Turek, Roel Vermeulen, Tania Carreón, Claire C Caruso, Christina C Lawson, Kristina A Thayer, Michael J Twery, Andrew D Ewens, Sanford C Garner, Pamela J Schwingl, Windy A Boyd
The invention of electric light has facilitated a society in which people work, sleep, eat, and play at all hours of the 24-hour day. Although electric light clearly has benefited humankind, exposures to electric light, especially light at night (LAN), may disrupt sleep and biological processes controlled by endogenous circadian clocks, potentially resulting in adverse health outcomes. Many of the studies evaluating adverse health effects have been conducted among night- and rotating-shift workers, because this scenario gives rise to significant exposure to LAN...
July 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724223/chromium-vi-adsorption-from-wastewater-using-porous-magnetite-nanoparticles-prepared-from-titanium-residue-by-a-novel-solid-phase-reduction-method
#5
Genkuan Ren, Xinlong Wang, Penghui Huang, Benhe Zhong, Zhiye Zhang, Lin Yang, Xiushan Yang
Porous magnetite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by reduction of titanium residue with pyrite under nitrogen protection, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope, zeta potential and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. The XRD analysis confirmed the formation of porous magnetite nanoparticles with single spinel structure. The SEM image demonstrated that porous magnetite nanoparticles displayed spherical shape with the average diameter of ~51nm...
July 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724149/using-reflections-to-evaluate-the-stfm-behavioral-science-family-systems-educator-fellowship
#6
Deborah A Taylor, Victoria Gorski, Sandra K Burge
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A group of family medicine educators identified a need and developed a 1-year fellowship for early career behavioral science educators. This occurred in response to a reduction in previous opportunities and resources. The program was designed to shape and mentor new behavioral science faculty teaching in family medicine departments and programs. Quantitative data analysis from pre- and post-fellowship survey data from years 1-4 confirmed fellowship objectives were met...
July 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724147/community-and-interns-perspectives-on-community-participatory-medical-education-from-passive-to-active-participation
#7
Akiteru Takamura, Hidekazu Misaki, Yousuke Takemura
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The use of community-based medical education as a method of learning primary care is now common worldwide. However, in many cases community participation remains passive. This study sought to explore the effects of introducing community members into medical education as active teachers. Medical education taught directly by community members might be a key to comprehensive community-based learning. METHODS: This study was conducted in Japan at two postgraduate programs in community hospitals...
July 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724038/sexual-addiction-in-drug-addicts-the-impact-of-drug-of-choice-and-poly-addiction
#8
Nelson Antonio, Alessandra Diehl, Marcelo Niel, Sandra Pillon, Lilian Ratto, Maria Carolina Pinheiro, Dartiu Silveira, Thais Zelia Otani, Victor Otani, Quirino Cordeiro, Ricardo Ushida
Objective: To compare the risk of comorbid sexual addiction in a sample of individuals with a diagnosis of substance dependence, stratifying the sample by drug of choice as well as by mono versus polysubstance addiction. Method: All data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. The study sample comprised all alcohol or drug dependents admitted to the Addiction Treatment Unit between November 2013 and August 2014. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was performed to compare the odds of having a Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST) score greater than 6 points in the subgroups analyzed...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723970/barriers-and-facilitators-of-hiv-vaccine-and-prevention-study-participation-among-young-black-msm-and-transwomen-in-new-york-city
#9
Sharise Richardson, Pich Seekaew, Beryl Koblin, Tasha Vazquez, Vijay Nandi, Hong-Van Tieu
BACKGROUND: Black men who have sex with men (MSM), and Transwomen (TW) shoulder disproportionate burden of HIV. However, they are unrepresented in HIV vaccine trials. We investigated the perceptions of that factors associated with HIV vaccine trials participation among Black MSM and TW in New York. METHODS: Self-administered online questionnaires were administered to 18-29 years of NYC residents who identified as Black MSM and TW, assessing demographics, awareness and willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials, barriers and facilitators associated with willingness, and sexual behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723961/dysfunctional-gpr40-ffar1-signaling-exacerbates-pain-behavior-in-mice
#10
Kazuo Nakamoto, Fuka Aizawa, Kei Miyagi, Takuya Yamashita, Mitsumasa Mankura, Yutaka Koyama, Fumiyo Kasuya, Akira Hirasawa, Takashi Kurihara, Atsuro Miyata, Shogo Tokuyama
We previously showed that activation of G protein-coupled receptor 40/free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) signaling modulates descending inhibition of pain. In this study, we investigated the involvement of fatty acid-GPR40/FFAR1 signaling in the transition from acute to chronic pain. We used GPR40/FFAR1-knockout (GPR40KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. A plantar incision was performed, and mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated with a von Frey filament test and plantar test, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723957/brain-synchronization-during-perception-of-facial-emotional-expressions-with-natural-and-unnatural-dynamics
#11
Dionysios Perdikis, Jakob Volhard, Viktor Müller, Kathrin Kaulard, Timothy R Brick, Christian Wallraven, Ulman Lindenberger
Research on the perception of facial emotional expressions (FEEs) often uses static images that do not capture the dynamic character of social coordination in natural settings. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that dynamic FEEs (videos or morphs) enhance emotion perception. To identify mechanisms associated with the perception of FEEs with natural dynamics, the present EEG (Electroencephalography)study compared (i) ecologically valid stimuli of angry and happy FEEs with natural dynamics to (ii) FEEs with unnatural dynamics, and to (iii) static FEEs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723943/stress-enhances-model-free-reinforcement-learning-only-after-negative-outcome
#12
Heyeon Park, Daeyeol Lee, Jeanyung Chey
Previous studies found that stress shifts behavioral control by promoting habits while decreasing goal-directed behaviors during reward-based decision-making. It is, however, unclear how stress disrupts the relative contribution of the two systems controlling reward-seeking behavior, i.e. model-free (or habit) and model-based (or goal-directed). Here, we investigated whether stress biases the contribution of model-free and model-based reinforcement learning processes differently depending on the valence of outcome, and whether stress alters the learning rate, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723940/modeling-the-dynamics-of-chromosomal-alteration-progression-in-cervical-cancer-a-computational-model
#13
Augusto Cabrera-Becerril, Cruz Vargas-De-León, Sergio Hernández, Pedro Miramontes, Raúl Peralta
Computational modeling has been applied to simulate the heterogeneity of cancer behavior. The development of Cervical Cancer (CC) is a process in which the cell acquires dynamic behavior from non-deleterious and deleterious mutations, exhibiting chromosomal alterations as a manifestation of this dynamic. To further determine the progression of chromosomal alterations in precursor lesions and CC, we introduce a computational model to study the dynamics of deleterious and non-deleterious mutations as an outcome of tumor progression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723918/heterogeneity-of-p53-dependent-genomic-responses-following-ethanol-exposure-in-a-developmental-mouse-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#14
Maria Camargo Moreno, Sandra M Mooney, Frank A Middleton
Prenatal ethanol exposure can produce structural and functional deficits in the brain and result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). In rodent models acute exposure to a high concentration of alcohol causes increased apoptosis in the developing brain. A single causal molecular switch that signals for this increase in apoptosis has yet to be identified. The protein p53 has been suggested to play a pivotal role in enabling cells to engage in pro-apoptotic processes, and thus figures prominently as a hub molecule in the intracellular cascade of responses elicited by alcohol exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723913/prebiotic-selection-for-motifs-in-a-model-of-template-free-elongation-of-polymers-within-compartments
#15
Grant Kinsler, Sam Sinai, Nicholas Keone Lee, Martin A Nowak
The transition from prelife where self-replication does not occur, to life which exhibits self-replication and evolution, has been a subject of interest for many decades. Membranes, forming compartments, seem to be a critical component of this transition as they provide several concurrent benefits. They maintain localized interactions, generate electro-chemical gradients, and help in selecting cooperative functions as they arise. These functions pave the way for the emergence and maintenance of simple metabolic cycles and polymers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723836/subjective-versus-objective-estimated-cardiovascular-disease-risk-and-adherence-to-physical-activity-in-african-american-women
#16
Nadia Robinson, Arlene Miller, JoEllen Wilbur, Louis Fogg
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for African American (AA) women in the United States. Despite high prevalence of CVD risk factors, AA women perceive their CVD risk as low. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to (1) identify relationships between subjective (self-reported perceived) CVD risk and objective CVD risk estimated by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk estimator, (2) identify demographic and psychosocial factors associated with subjective perceived risk and discrepancy with objective estimated CVD risk, and (3) determine whether subjective perceived CVD risk was associated with physical activity (PA) adherence...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723826/clinical-research-by-developmental-and-behavioral-pediatrics-specialists-which-models-work-best
#17
Richard C Wasserman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 26, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723825/feasibility-of-conducting-autism-biomarker-research-in-the-clinical-setting
#18
Laura Sices, Katherine Pawlowski, Laura Farfel, Deirdre Phillips, Yamini Howe, David M Cochran, Roula Choueiri, Peter W Forbes, Stephanie J Brewster, Jean A Frazier, Ann Neumeyer, Carolyn Bridgemohan
OBJECTIVE: Recruitment and completion of research activities during regular clinical care has the potential to increase research participation in complex neurodevelopmental disorders. We evaluated the feasibility, and effect on clinical care, of conducting biomarker research within a subspecialty clinical visit for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Children, aged 5 to 10 years, were recruited by providers in ASD clinics at 5 institutions. Biomarkers collected were growth measurements, head circumference, neurologic and dysmorphology examinations, digit ratio (2D:4D) measurement, and platelet serotonin and urinary melatonin sulfate excretion levels...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723824/a-national-profile-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-diagnosis-and-treatment-among-us-children-aged-2-to-5-years
#19
Melissa L Danielson, Susanna N Visser, Mary Margaret Gleason, Georgina Peacock, Angelika H Claussen, Stephen J Blumberg
OBJECTIVE: Clinical guidelines provide recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with specific guidance on caring for children younger than 6 years. This exploratory study describes ADHD diagnosis and treatment patterns among young children in the United States using 2 nationally representative parent surveys. METHODS: The National Survey of Children's Health (2007-2008, 2011-2012) was used to produce weighted prevalence estimates of current ADHD and ADHD medication treatment among US children aged 2 to 5 years...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723721/instrument-adaptation-modification-and-validation-for-cultural-beliefs-about-colorectal-cancer-screening-among-korean-americans
#20
Shin-Young Lee, Eunice E Lee, Frances Aranda
BACKGROUND: Studies on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among Korean Americans (KAs) lack culturally sensitive, reliable, and validated belief scales. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to adapt, modify, and validate instruments measuring cultural beliefs (physical space, health temporal orientation, personal control, colon cancer fatalism, and health fatalism) about CRC screening in KAs. METHODS: In phase I, instrument adaptation and modification (translation from English into Korean, individual interviews using cognitive interviewing, and expert reviews) were used to make existing cultural beliefs instruments culturally appropriate for KAs...
July 14, 2017: Cancer Nursing
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