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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941388/high-frequency-of-s-aureus-mssa-mrsa-in-children-under-1-year-old-with-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#1
Lorena Salazar, Judy Natalia Jimenez Quiceno
OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a large number of infections in pediatric population; however, information about the behavior of such infections in this population is limited. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical, epidemiological, and molecular characteristics of infections caused by methicillin-susceptible and resistant S. aureus (MSSA-MRSA) in a pediatric population. METHOD: A cross-sectional descriptive study in patients from birth to 14 years of age from three high-complexity institutions was conducted (2008-2010)...
September 20, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938796/complex-interactions-of-circadian-rhythms-eating-behaviors-and-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-and-their-potential-impact-on-health
#2
Jennifer L Kaczmarek, Sharon V Thompson, Hannah D Holscher
Human health is intricately intertwined with the composition and function of the trillions of microorganisms that make up the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome. The GI microbiome is essentially a microbial organ that provides metabolic, immunologic, and protective functions for the host. Habitual diet, changes in macronutrient composition, and consumption of nondigestible dietary fibers have all been shown to impact the human GI microbiome. Intriguingly, the impact of diet on the microbiome may be related not only to what humans eat but also to the timing of food consumption...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938782/perch-use-by-broiler-breeders-and-its-implication-on-health-and-production
#3
S G Gebhardt-Henrich, M J Toscano, H Würbel
Broiler breeders are commonly kept without perches, although perching has been shown to be a high-priority behavior in laying hens. We studied whether broiler breeders used elevated perches of different lengths during the night and how access to perches affected health and production. Using the Ross 308 hybrid, pens offering 4 different perch spaces per bird (5, 10, 14, and 20 cm) in a cross-over design were compared with pens without perches. The number of birds on perches at midnight were recorded 7 times during production...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938777/role-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-during-the-transition-from-incubation-behavior-to-rearing-behavior-in-the-female-native-thai-chicken
#4
S Namken, P Sinpru, B Kamkrathok, N Sartsoongnoen, Y Chaiseha
It is well documented that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an avian prolactin-releasing factor, regulating the reproductive cycle, that initiates and maintains incubation behavior in avian species. Native Thai chicken has strong maternal behaviors. Thus, it is an excellent animal model to study this phenomenon. Changes in the numbers of VIP neurons within the nucleus inferioris hypothalami (IH) and nucleus infundibuli hypothalami (IN) are associated with maternal behaviors in the native Thai chicken...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938767/isothermal-gelation-behavior-of-myofibrillar-proteins-from-white-and-red-chicken-meat-at-different-temperatures
#5
S Glorieux, L Steen, H Paelinck, I Foubert, I Fraeye
This paper provides insights in the isothermal gelation behavior of white and red chicken myofibrillar proteins (CMP) at different temperatures (20 to 80°C) and the underlying aggregation mechanism, allowing understanding of structure formation in poultry products during thermal processing. At low temperatures (20 to 60°C), an increase in aromatic surface hydrophobicity (SoANS) was found, suggesting potential formation of hydrophobic interactions between CMP. At higher temperatures (60 to 80°C), high SoANS and a significant decrease in total sulfhydryl amount (SH-amount) strongly indicate the presence of hydrophobic interactions and disulfide bonding, resulting in aggregation, as suggested by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938746/women-s-career-priority-is-associated-with-attitudes-towards-family-planning-and-ethical-acceptance-of-reproductive-technologies
#6
Michael K Simoni, Lin Mu, Stephen C Collins
STUDY QUESTION: Do women who place high importance on career success have different perceptions of pregnancy planning, delayed reproduction, and the ethical acceptability of ART than women with less emphasis on their career? SUMMARY ANSWER: Career-focused women place more importance on pregnancy planning, have greater confidence in delayed childbearing, and are more ethically accepting of donor gamete ART than women who do not place as much importance on career success...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938582/effect-of-hepatic-steatosis-on-the-progression-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-a-prospective-cohort-and-in-vitro-study
#7
Yangqin Chen, Chunlei Fan, Yuhan Chen, Hui Liu, Shanshan Wang, Peiling Dong, Lei Li, Huiguo Ding
AIM: To characterize the effect of hepatic steatosis (HS) on the progression of chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: A total of 162 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients confirmed by liver biopsy were involved in this study. All subjects were prospectively followed-up for 5 years in real-life clinical practice. Fibrosis stage was determined using aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI). The end-point was cirrhosis, liver cancer or death. The effects of steatosis on the biological behavior of hepatocellular carcinoma cells were investigated using oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2, HLE, PLC, and SMMC-7721 cells...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938490/expression-of-contactin-4-is-associated-with-malignant-behavior-in-pheochromocytomas-and-paragangliomas
#8
Lucie Evenepoel, Francien H van Nederveen, Lindsey Oudijk, Thomas G Papathomas, David F Restuccia, Eric J T Belt, Wouter W de Herder, Richard A Feelders, Gaston J H Franssen, Marc Hamoir, Dominique Maiter, Aurel Perren, Henri J L M Timmers, Susanne van Eeden, Laurent Vroonen, Selda Aydin, Mercedes Robledo, Miikka Vikkula, Ronald R de Krijger, Winand N M Dinjens, Alexandre Persu, Esther Korpershoek
Context: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) are rare neuroendocrine, usually benign tumors. Currently, the only reliable criterion of malignancy is the presence of metastases. Objective: The aim was to identify genes associated with malignancy in PPGL. Design: Transcriptomic profiling was performed on 40 benign and 11 malignant PPGL. Genes showing a significantly different expression between benign and malignant PPGL with a ratio ≥ 4 were confirmed, and subsequently tested in an independent series by qRT-PCR...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938489/prognostic-classifier-based-on-genome-wide-dna-methylation-profiling-in-well-differentiated-thyroid-tumors
#9
Mariana Bisarro Dos Reis, Mateus Camargo Barros-Filho, Fábio Albuquerque Marchi, Caroline Moraes Beltrami, Hellen Kuasne, Clóvis Antônio Lopes Pinto, Srikant Ambatipudi, Zdenko Herceg, Luiz Paulo Kowalski, Silvia Regina Rogatto
Context: Even though the majority of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) is indolent, a number of cases display an aggressive behavior. Cumulative evidences have suggested that the deregulation of DNA methylation has the potential to point out molecular markers associated with worse prognosis. Objective: To identify a prognostic epigenetic signature in thyroid cancer. Design: Genome-wide DNA methylation assays (450k platform, Illumina) were performed in a cohort of 50 non-neoplastic thyroid tissues (NT), 17 benign thyroid lesions (BTL) and 74 thyroid carcinomas (60 papillary, 8 follicular, 2 Hürthle cell, 1 poorly differentiated and 3 anaplastic)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938472/dopamine-neuron-restricted-leptin-receptor-lepr-signaling-reduces-some-aspects-of-food-reward-but-exacerbates-the-obesity-of-lepr-deficient-male-mice
#10
Maggie C Evans, Greg M Anderson
The contribution of leptin-induced modulation of dopamine neurons to feeding behavior and energy homeostasis remains unclear. Midbrain dopamine neurons regulate the reward value of food, and direct leptin administration to the midbrain reduces food intake. However, selective deletion of leptin receptors (Lepr) from dopamine neurons has no effect on body weight, food intake or hedonic responses, either suggesting leptin acts indirectly or demonstrating sufficient compensation occurs to mask any direct leptin-dopamine effects...
August 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938418/androgens-support-male-acrobatic-courtship-behavior-by-enhancing-muscle-speed-and-easing-the-severity-of-its-trade-off-with-force
#11
Matthew J Fuxjager, Meredith C Miles, Franz Goller, John Petersen, Julia Yancey
Steroid hormone action in the brain regulates many animals' elaborate social displays used for courtship and competition, but it is increasingly recognized that the periphery may also be a site for potent steroidal modulation of complex behavior. However, the mechanisms of such "bottom up" regulation of behavioral outflow are largely unclear. To study this problem, we examine how androgenic sex hormones act through the skeletal muscular system to mediate elaborate courtship acrobatics in a tropical bird called the golden-collared manakin...
August 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938250/listening-effort-how-the-cognitive-consequences-of-acoustic-challenge-are-reflected-in-brain-and-behavior
#12
Jonathan E Peelle
Everyday conversation frequently includes challenges to the clarity of the acoustic speech signal, including hearing impairment, background noise, and foreign accents. Although an obvious problem is the increased risk of making word identification errors, extracting meaning from a degraded acoustic signal is also cognitively demanding, which contributes to increased listening effort. The concepts of cognitive demand and listening effort are critical in understanding the challenges listeners face in comprehension, which are not fully predicted by audiometric measures...
September 21, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938227/do-prereaders-auditory-processing-and-speech-perception-predict-later-literacy
#13
Sophie Vanvooren, Hanne Poelmans, Astrid De Vos, Pol Ghesquière, Jan Wouters
Developmental dyslexia has frequently been linked to deficits in auditory processing and speech perception. However, the presence and precise nature of these deficits and the direction of their relation with reading, remains debated. In this longitudinal study, 87 five-year-olds at high and low family risk for dyslexia were followed before and during different stages of reading acquisition. The processing of different auditory cues was investigated, together with performance on speech perception and phonology and reading...
September 19, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938222/inter-hemispherical-asymmetry-in-default-mode-functional-connectivity-and-baiap2-gene-are-associated-with-anger-expression-in-adhd-adults
#14
R Hasler, M G Preti, D E Meskaldji, J Prados, W Adouan, C Rodriguez, S Toma, N Hiller, T Ismaili, J Hofmeister, I Sinanaj, P Baud, S Haller, P Giannakopoulos, S Schwartz, N Perroud, D Van De Ville
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by resting-state alterations, including abnormal activity, connectivity and asymmetry of the default-mode network (DMN). Concurrently, recent studies suggested a link between ADHD and the presence of polymorphisms within the gene BAIAP2 (i.e., brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-associated protein 2), known to be differentially expressed in brain hemispheres. The clinical and neuroimaging correlates of this polymorphism are still unknown. We investigated the association between BAIAP2 polymorphisms and DMN functional connectivity (FC) asymmetry as well as behavioral measures in ADHD adults...
September 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938207/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-in-predicted-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-leading-to-behavioral-impairments-in-male-swiss-mice
#15
Joyce Moreira de Souza, Bruna de Oliveira Mendes, Abraão Tiago Batista Guimarães, Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues, Thales Quintão Chagas, Thiago Lopes Rocha, Guilherme Malafaia
Although the potential neurotoxic effects from the exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on humans and on experimental models have been reported in previous studies, the effects from the exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of them remain unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effects from the exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of ZnO NPs on the behavior of male Swiss mice. The animals were daily exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of ZnO NPs (5...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938201/achieving-enhanced-denitrification-via-hydrocyclone-treatment-on-mixed-liquor-recirculation-in-the-anoxic-aerobic-process
#16
Yi Liu, Hualin Wang, Yinxiang Xu, Qingsong Tu, Xiurong Chen
This work presents the novel application of hydrocyclones for mixed liquor recirculation (MLR) treatment in the anoxic/aerobic (A/O) process to enhance the denitrification process. An exhaustive investigation on treated activated sludge and A/O effluents was conducted in batch and continuous operation tests. The median diameter of the sludge flocs was decreased from 78.82 μm to 15.77-23.31 μm, and the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) desorption was observed, thus leading to the release of the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)...
September 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938182/the-genetic-epidemiology-of-substance-use-disorder-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Prom-Wormley, Jane Ebejer, Danielle M Dick, M Scott Bowers
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorder (SUD) remains a significant public health issue. A greater understanding of how genes and environment interact to regulate phenotypes comprising SUD will facilitate directed treatments and prevention. METHODS: The literature studying the neurobiological correlates of SUD with a focus on the genetic and environmental influences underlying these mechanisms was reviewed. Results from twin/family, human genetic association, gene-environment interaction, epigenetic literature, phenome-wide association studies are summarized for alcohol, nicotine, cannabinoids, cocaine, and opioids...
August 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938181/cortical-inhibitory-interneurons-control-sensory-processing
#18
REVIEW
Katherine C Wood, Jennifer M Blackwell, Maria Neimark Geffen
Inhibitory and excitatory neurons form intricate interconnected circuits in the mammalian sensory cortex. Whereas the function of excitatory neurons is largely to integrate and transmit information within and between brain areas, inhibitory neurons are thought to shape the way excitatory neurons integrate information, and they exhibit context-specific and behavior-specific responses. Over the last few years, work across sensory modalities has begun unraveling the function of distinct types of cortical inhibitory neurons in sensory processing, identifying their contribution to controlling stimulus selectivity of excitatory neurons and modulating information processing based on the behavioral state of the subject...
September 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938176/genotypic-differences-in-physiological-and-biochemical-responses-to-salinity-stress-in-melon-cucumis-melo-l-plants-prospects-for-selection-of-salt-tolerant-landraces
#19
Behrooz Sarabi, Sahebali Bolandnazar, Nasser Ghaderi, Jaleh Ghashghaie
Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is one of the most important horticultural crops in Iran often cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of the country with salinity problems. The objective of this work was to better understand the mechanisms of physiological and biochemical responses to salinity stress of five Iranian melon landraces "Samsuri", "Kashan", "Khatouni", "Suski-e-Sabz", and "Ghobadlu" from different geographical origins, and "Galia" F1 cultivar. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and irrigated with half-strength Hoagland solution containing 0, 30, 60, or 90 mM NaCl for 60 days...
September 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938171/behavior-of-radioactive-cesium-during-incineration-of-radioactively-contaminated-wastes-from-decontamination-activities-in-fukushima
#20
Hiroshi Fujiwara, Hidetoshi Kuramochi, Kazutaka Nomura, Tomoharu Maeseto, Masahiro Osako
Large volumes of decontamination wastes (DW) generated by off-site decontamination activities in Fukushima Prefecture have been incinerated since 2015. The behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of DW was investigated at a working incineration plant. The incineration discharged bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) with similar levels of radiocesium, and the leachability of the radiocesium from both types of ash was very low (<1%). These results are significantly different from those obtained for the incineration of contaminated municipal solid waste (CMSW) reported in earlier studies...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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