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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936239/a-broad-spectrum-chemokine-binding-protein-of-bovine-papular-stomatitis-virus-inhibits-neutrophil-and-monocyte-infiltration-in-inflammatory-and-wound-models-of-mouse-skin
#1
Saeed Sharif, Yoshio Nakatani, Lyn Wise, Michael Corbett, Nicola C Real, Gabriella S Stuart, Zabeen Lateef, Kurt Krause, Andrew A Mercer, Stephen B Fleming
Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) is a Parapoxvirus that induces acute pustular skin lesions in cattle and is transmissible to humans. Previous studies have shown that BPSV encodes a distinctive chemokine-binding protein (CBP). Chemokines are critically involved in the trafficking of immune cells to sites of inflammation and infected tissue, suggesting that the CBP plays a role in immune evasion by preventing immune cells reaching sites of infection. We hypothesised that the BPSV-CBP binds a wide range of inflammatory chemokines particularly those involved in BPSV skin infection, and inhibits the recruitment of immune cells from the blood into inflamed skin...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936140/time-dependent-regulation-of-il-2r-%C3%AE-chain-cd25-expression-by-tcr-signal-strength-and-il-2-induced-stat5-signaling-in-activated-human-blood-t-lymphocytes
#2
Alla N Shatrova, Elena V Mityushova, Irina O Vassilieva, Nikolay D Aksenov, Valery V Zenin, Nikolay N Nikolsky, Irina I Marakhova
The expression of the IL-2R α-chain (IL-2Rα) is regulated at the transcriptional level via TCR- and IL-2R-signaling. The question is how to precede in time the activation signals to induce the IL-2Rα expression in native primary T cells. By comparing the effects of selective drugs on the dynamics of CD25 expression during the mitogen stimulation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, we identified distinct Src- and JAK-dependent stages of IL-2Rα upregulation. PP2, a selective inhibitor of TCR-associated Src kinase, prevents CD25 expression at initial stages of T cell activation, prior to the cell growth...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936036/the-rs3957357c-t-snp-in-gsta1-is-associated-with-a-higher-risk-of-occurrence-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-european-individuals
#3
Hanane Akhdar, Said El Shamieh, Orlando Musso, Romain Désert, Wissam Joumaa, Dominique Guyader, Caroline Aninat, Anne Corlu, Fabrice Morel
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) detoxify toxic molecules by conjugation with reduced glutathione and regulate cell signaling. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GST genes have been suggested to affect GST functions and thus to increase the risk of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As GSTA1 is expressed in hepatocytes and the rs3957357C>T (TT) SNP is known to downregulate GSTA1 mRNA expression, the aims of this study were: (i) to explore the relationship between the TT SNP in GSTA1 and the occurrence of HCC; (ii) to measure GSTA1 mRNA expression in HCCs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935982/a-cost-effective-method-to-assemble-biomimetic-3d-cell-culture-platforms
#4
Sabreen Khalil, Nagwa El-Badri, Mohamed El-Mokhtaar, Saif Al-Mofty, Mohamed Farghaly, Radwa Ayman, Dina Habib, Noha Mousa
METHODS: We utilized the hAM to provide the biological and the three dimensional (3D) topographic components of the prototype. The 3D nano-roughness of the hAM was characterized using surface electron microscopy and surface image analysis (ImageJ and SurfaceJ). We developed additional macro-scale and micro-scale versions of the platform which provided additional shear stress factors to simulate the fluid dynamics of the in vivo extracellular fluids. RESULTS: Three models of varying complexities of the prototype were assembled...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935551/organotypic-soft-tissue-co-cultures-morphological-changes-in-microvascular-endothelial-tubes-after-incubation-with%C3%A2-iodinated-contrast-media
#5
S Kaessmeyer, J Sehl, M Khiao In, B Hiebl, R Merle, F Jung, R P Franke, J Plendl
INTRODUCTION: Clinical complications like thrombosis or anaphylaxis have been described to go along with the intra-venous or intra-arterial injection of iodinated contrast media (CM). It has been suggested that the administration of CM affects rheological parameters and thereby causes reduced blood velocity in microvessels. In vitro studies revealed significant buckling of endothelial cells after exposure to CM reducing the lumen of vessels. The aim of this study was to test the influence of CM on three-dimensional microvascular tubules with open lumina within an organotypic soft-tissue co-culture assay in vitro...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935524/urinary-potassium-excretion-renal-ammoniagenesis-and-risk-of-graft-failure-and-mortality-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#6
Michele F Eisenga, Lyanne M Kieneker, Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu, Else van den Berg, Petronella E Deetman, Gerjan J Navis, Reinold Ob Gans, Carlo Ajm Gaillard, Stephan Jl Bakker, Michel M Joosten
BACKGROUND: Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) have commonly been urged to limit their potassium intake during renal insufficiency and may adhere to this principle after transplantation. Importantly, in experimental animal models, low dietary potassium intake induces kidney injury through stimulation of ammoniagenesis. In humans, low potassium intake is an established risk factor for high blood pressure. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that low 24-h urinary potassium excretion [UKV; urinary potassium concentration × volume], the gold standard for assessment of dietary potassium intake, represents a risk factor for graft failure and mortality in RTRs...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935319/haplotype-association-and-synergistic-effect-of-human-aldosterone-synthase-cyp11b2-gene-polymorphisms-causing-susceptibility-to-essential-hypertension-in-indian-patients
#7
Uppuluri Mohana Vamsi, Nagalingam Swapna, Gunda Padma, Satti Vishnupriya, Tirunilai Padma
BACKGROUND: Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is a key enzyme involved in the terminal steps of aldosterone biosynthesis. Genetic variability in CYP11B2 gene has been associated with heterogeneous aldosterone production, which can affect sodium homeostasis and thereby regulation of blood pressure. Hence, the present study was aimed to explore the single-locus variations, haplotype and epistasis patterns of CYP11B2 (C-344T, intron-2 gene conversion and Lys173Arg) gene polymorphisms, and the risk contributed by them to the development of essential hypertension (EHT)...
December 9, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935265/modelling-mitral-valvular-dynamics-current-trend-and-future-directions
#8
Hao Gao, Nan Qi, Liuyang Feng, Xingshuang Ma, Mark Danton, Colin Berry, Xiaoyu Luo
Dysfunction of mitral valve causes morbidity and premature mortality and remains a leading medical problem worldwide. Computational modelling aims to understand the biomechanics of human mitral valve and could lead to the development of new treatment, prevention and diagnosis of mitral valve diseases. Compared with the aortic valve, the mitral valve has been much less studied owing to its highly complex structure and strong interaction with the blood flow and the ventricles. However, the interest in mitral valve modelling is growing, and the sophistication level is increasing with the advanced development of computational technology and imaging tools...
December 9, 2016: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935065/high-risk-of-heterosexual-transmission-of-human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-infection-in-brazil
#9
Arthur Paiva, Jerusa Smid, Michel E J Haziot, Tatiane Assone, Samara Pinheiro, Luiz A M Fonseca, Augusto C Penalva de Oliveira, Jorge Casseb
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 is transmitted primarily either through sexual intercourse or from mother to child. The current study investigated sexual transmission and compared the HTLV-1 proviral load between seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples by examining both men and women among the index partners without using subjective criteria to establish the direction of sexual transmission. Between January 2013 and May 2015, 178 HTLV-1-positive patients had spouses, 107 of which had tested partners, thus increasing the initial sample size (46 men and 61 women)...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935037/an-isogenic-blood-brain-barrier-model-comprising-brain-endothelial-cells-astrocytes-and-neurons-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#10
Scott G Canfield, Matthew J Stebbins, Bethsymarie Soto Morales, Shusaku W Asai, Gad D Vatine, Clive N Svendsen, Sean P Palecek, Eric V Shusta
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical in maintaining a physical and metabolic barrier between the blood and the brain. The BBB consists of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) that line the brain vasculature and combine with astrocytes, neurons and pericytes to form the neurovascular unit (NVU). We hypothesized that astrocytes and neurons generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could induce BBB phenotypes in iPSC-derived BMECs, creating a robust multicellular human BBB model...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934655/safety-and-tolerability-of-leucine-supplementation-in-elderly-men
#11
REVIEW
Rajavel Elango, Betina Rasmussen, Kenneth Madden
Leucine, a branched-chain amino acid, has been shown to stimulate muscle protein synthesis and has been suggested to play a role in the prevention of age-related muscle atrophy (sarcopenia). Although leucine supplementation may be beneficial, the efficacious dose of leucine is unknown. Before conducting studies with increased doses of leucine, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for leucine needs to be determined. The objective of this review is to describe 2 current studies to determine the UL for leucine in young and elderly men...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934591/generation-of-a-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-line-from-a-bernard-soulier-syndrome-patient-with-the-mutation-p-asn45ser-in-the-gpix-gene
#12
Lourdes Lopez-Onieva, Candela Machuca, Mar Lamolda, Rosa Montes, Maria Luisa Lozano, Vicente Vicente, José Rivera, Verónica Ramos-Mejía, Pedro J Real
Bernard Soulier Syndrome (BSS) is an inherited rare platelet disorder characterized by mutations in the platelet glycoprotein complex GPIb-IX-V. We generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from a BSS patient with a mutation p.Asn45Ser in the GPIX locus (BSS2-PBMC-iPS4F24). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were reprogrammed using non-integrative viral transduction. Characterization of BSS2-PBMC-iPS4F24 included mutational analysis of GPIX locus, analysis of conventional pluripotency-associated factors at mRNA and protein level and in vitro and in vivo differentiation studies...
November 8, 2016: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934481/minimum-transendothelial-electrical-resistance-thresholds-for-the-study-of-small-and-large-molecule-drug-transport-in-a-human-in-vitro-blood-brain-barrier-model
#13
Jennifer L Mantle, Lie Min, Kelvin H Lee
A human cell-based in vitro model that can accurately predict drug penetration into the brain as well as metrics to assess these in vitro models are valuable for the development of new therapeutics. Here, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are differentiated into a polarized monolayer that express blood-brain barrier (BBB)-specific proteins and have transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) values greater than 2500 Ω·cm(2). By assessing the permeabilities of several known drugs, a benchmarking system to evaluate brain permeability of drugs was established...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934219/resonance-raman-in-vitro-detection-and-differentiation-of-the-nitrite-induced-hemoglobin-adducts-in-functional-human-red-blood-cells
#14
Katarzyna M Marzec, Jakub Dybas, Stefan Chlopicki, Malgorzata Baranska
This work presents in vitro studies of the functional, isolated human red blood cells (RBCs) treated with various concentrations of Na(14)NO2 and Na(15)NO2 with the use of resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) at two different laser excitations supported by absorption spectrophotometry (UV-vis). The products of the reaction between oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) in isolated RBCs with NaNO2 were analyzed and identified in situ. The metHb-H2O was found to be the major product of this reaction; however, additional adducts were also clearly observed...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934197/multifunctional-wearable-device-based-on-flexible-and-conductive-carbon-sponge-polydimethylsiloxane-composite
#15
Yuan-Qing Li, Wei-Bin Zhu, Xiao-Guang Yu, Pei Huang, Shao-Yun Fu, Ning Hu, Kin Liao
Wearable devices that can be used to monitor personal health, track human motions, and provide thermotherapy, etc., are highly desired in personalized healthcare. In this work, a multifunctional wearable "wrist band" which works as both heater for thermotherapy and sensor for personal health and motion monitoring is fabricated from a flexible and conductive carbon sponge/polydimethylsiloxane (CS/PDMS) composite. The key functional material of the wrist band, namely, the conductive CS, is synthesized from waste paper by a freeze-drying and high-temperature pyrolysis process...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933903/proteomic-identification-and-analysis-of-arginine-methylated-proteins-of-plasmodium-falciparum-at-asexual-blood-stages
#16
Mohammad Zeeshan, Inderjeet Kaur, Joseph Joy, Ekta Saini, Gourab Paul, Abhinav Kaushik, Surbhi Dabral, Asif Mohmmed, Dinesh Gupta, Pawan Malhotra
Plasmodium falciparum undergoes a tightly regulated developmental process in human erythrocytes, and recent studies suggest an important regulatory role of post-translational modifications (PTMs). As compared to Plasmodium phosphoproteome, little is known about other PTMs in the parasite. In the present study, we performed a global analysis of asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum to identify arginine-methylated proteins. Using two different methyl arginine-specific antibodies we immunoprecipitated the arginine-methylated proteins from the stage-specific parasite lysates and identified 843 putative arginine methylated proteins by LC-MS/MS...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933817/peptide-mediated-platelet-capture-at-gold-micropore-arrays
#17
Kellie Adamson, Elaine Spain, Una Prendergast, Niamh Moran, Robert J Forster, Tia E Keyes
Ordered spherical cap gold cavity arrays with 5.4, 1.6, and 0.98 μm diameter apertures were explored as capture surfaces for human blood platelets to investigate the impact of surface geometry and chemical modification on platelet capture efficiency and their potential as platforms for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of single platelets. The substrates were chemically modified with single-constituent self-assembled monolayers (SAM) or mixed SAMs comprised of thiol-functionalized arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD, a platelet integrin target) with or without 1-octanethiol (adhesion inhibitor)...
November 30, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933748/exploring-glucocorticoid-receptor-agonists-mechanism-of-action-through-mass-cytometry-and-radial-visualizations
#18
Yann Abraham, Bertran Gerrits, Marie-Gabrielle Ludwig, Michael Rebhan, Caroline Gubser Keller
Recent advances in combining flow cytometry and mass spectrometry have led to the development of mass cytometry, allowing for the interrogation of complex cell populations on an unprecedented scale. The volumes and high dimensionality of mass cytometry data pose significant challenges in terms of analysis and visualization. We implement a method called Radviz (1-3), where multidimensional single cell data can be visualized as a projection that maintains the original dimensions and data complexity whilst facilitating analysis and visualization...
December 9, 2016: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933619/monocyte-mediated-activation-of-endothelial-cells-occurs-only-after-binding-to-extracellular-vesicles-from-red-blood-cell-products-a-process-mediated-by-%C3%AE-integrin
#19
Marleen Straat, Maike E van Hezel, Anita Böing, Anita Tuip-De Boer, Nina Weber, Rienk Nieuwland, Robin van Bruggen, Nicole P Juffermans
BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is associated with organ failure. The mechanism remains unknown, but may include adherence of blood cells to the microvasculature. We hypothesized that RBC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) interact with monocytes to activate endothelial cells. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with supernatant from fresh and stored RBC units either containing EVs or depleted from EVs, with or without the addition of immune cells...
December 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933426/characterization-of-the-first-fully-human-anti-tem1-scfv-in-models-of-solid-tumor-imaging-and-immunotoxin-based-therapy
#20
Xiaopeng Yuan, Mingjuan Yang, Xiang Chen, Xuhua Zhang, Shrey Sukhadia, Najia Musolino, Huijing Bao, Tingtao Chen, Chen Xu, Qirui Wang, Stephen Santoro, Daniel Ricklin, Jia Hu, Ruihe Lin, Wei Yang, Zhijun Li, Weijun Qin, Aizhi Zhao
Tumor endothelial marker 1 (TEM1) has been identified as a novel surface marker upregulated on the blood vessels and stroma in many solid tumors. We previously isolated a novel single-chain variable fragment (scFv) 78 against TEM1 from a yeast display scFv library. Here, we evaluated the potential applications of scFv78 as a tool for tumor molecular imaging, immunotoxin-based therapy and nanotherapy. Epitope mapping, three-dimensional structure docking and affinity measurements indicated that scFv78 could bind to both human and murine TEM1, with equivalent affinity, at a well-conserved conformational epitope...
December 8, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
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