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Ghazaul Dezfuli, Richard A Gillis, Jaclyn E Tatge, Kimbell R Duncan, Kenneth L Dretchen, Patrick G Jackson, Joseph G Verbalis, Niaz Sahibzada
Background/Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that abolishing vagal nerve activity will reverse the obesity phenotype of melanocortin 4 receptor knockout mice ( Mc4r -/- ). Subjects/Methods: In two separate studies, we examined the efficacy of bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (SDV) with pyloroplasty in the prevention and treatment of obesity in Mc4r -/- mice. Results: In the first study, SDV prevented >20% increase in body weight (BW) associated with this genotype. This was correlated with a transient reduction in overall food intake (FI) in the preventative arm of the study...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Weijie Chen, Zenan Xia, Wei Liu, Xiaodong He, Weimin Zhang
PURPOSES: Our aim was to investigate the effects of selective celiac branch vagotomy on food intake and glycemic control after ileal transposition (IT) and the possible roles of the vagus on the improvement of diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty non-obese rats with diabetes underwent either IT, IT + celiac branch vagotomy (ITV), sham IT (SI), or sham IT + celiac branch vagotomy (SIV). They were pair fed, and the food intake, body weight, fasting plasma glucose, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) level were monitored...
March 10, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Stylianos Kykalos, Evangelia Ntikoudi
Dear Editor, delayed gastric emptying due to bilateral vagotomy after esophagectomy, has been associated with increased aspiration rates, prolonged hospital stay and impaired quality of life. A pyloric drainage procedure in an effort to reduce its incidence, most commonly a pyloroplasty, represented for years a standard part of distal esophagectomy. This trend has been reevaluated nowadays and the question that still remains open is whether we should further keep on draining pylorus during esophagectomy or not...
January 2018: Chirurgia
Stefan Fritz, Katharina Feilhauer, André Schaudt, Hansjörg Killguss, Eduard Esianu, René Hennig, Jörg Köninger
BACKGROUND: Pylorotomy and pyloroplasty in thoracoabdominal esophagectomy are routinely performed in many high-volume centers to prevent delayed gastric emptying (DGE) due to truncal vagotomy. Currently, controversy remains regarding the need for these practices. The present study aimed to determine the value and role of pyloric drainage procedures in esophagectomy with gastric replacement. METHODS: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was performed for all consecutive patients who underwent thoracoabdominal resection of the esophagus between January 2009 and December 2016 at the Katharinenhospital in Stuttgart, Germany...
March 1, 2018: BMC Surgery
Olivia F O'Leary, Ebere S Ogbonnaya, Daniela Felice, Brunno R Levone, Lorraine C Conroy, Patrick Fitzgerald, Javier A Bravo, Paul Forsythe, John Bienenstock, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Accumulating evidence suggests that certain gut microbiota have antidepressant-like behavioural effects and that the microbiota can regulate neurogenesis and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. The precise mechanisms underlying these effects are not yet clear. However, the vagus nerve is one of the primary bidirectional routes of communication between the gut and the brain and thus may represent a candidate mechanism. Yet, relatively little is known about the direct influence of vagus nerve activity on hippocampal function and plasticity...
February 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Carolina R Cawthon, Claire B de La Serre
Contemporary techniques including the use of germ-free models and next generation sequencing have deepened our understanding of the gut microbiota dynamics and its influence on host physiology. There is accumulating evidence that the gut microbiota can communicate to the CNS and is involved in the development of metabolic and behavioral disorders Vagal afferent terminals are positioned beneath the gut epithelium where they can receive, directly or indirectly, signals produced by the gut microbiota, to affect host behavior, including feeding behavior...
January 19, 2018: Brain Research
Rodger A Liddle
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative condition associated with tremor, rigidity, dementia, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation, nausea and vomiting. The pathological hallmarks of PD are Lewy bodies and neurites in the brain and peripheral nerves. The major constituent of Lewy bodies is the neuronal protein α-synuclein. Misfolding of α-synuclein confers prion-like properties enabling its spread from cell to cell. Misfolded α-synuclein also serves as a template and induces misfolding of endogenous α-synuclein in recipient cells leading to the formation of oligomers that progress to fibrils and eventually Lewy bodies...
January 31, 2018: Brain Research
Yusaku Iwasaki, Mio Sendo, Katsuya Dezaki, Tohru Hira, Takehiro Sato, Masanori Nakata, Chayon Goswami, Ryohei Aoki, Takeshi Arai, Parmila Kumari, Masaki Hayakawa, Chiaki Masuda, Takashi Okada, Hiroshi Hara, Daniel J Drucker, Yuichiro Yamada, Masaaki Tokuda, Toshihiko Yada
Overeating and arrhythmic feeding promote obesity and diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are effective anti-obesity drugs but their use is limited by side effects. Here we show that oral administration of the non-calorie sweetener, rare sugar D-allulose (D-psicose), induces GLP-1 release, activates vagal afferent signaling, reduces food intake and promotes glucose tolerance in healthy and obese-diabetic animal models. Subchronic D-allulose administered at the light period (LP) onset ameliorates LP-specific hyperphagia, visceral obesity, and glucose intolerance...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Yannong Dou, Jinque Luo, Xin Wu, Zhifeng Wei, Bei Tong, Juntao Yu, Ting Wang, Xinyu Zhang, Yan Yang, Xusheng Yuan, Peng Zhao, Yufeng Xia, Huijuan Hu, Yue Dai
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that oral administration of curcumin exhibited an anti-arthritic effect despite its poor bioavailability. The present study aimed to explore whether the gut-brain axis is involved in the therapeutic effect of curcumin. METHODS: The collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model was induced by immunization with an emulsion of collagen II and complete Freund's adjuvant. Sympathetic and parasympathetic tones were measured by electrocardiographic recordings...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Junpei Yamamoto, Junta Imai, Tomohito Izumi, Hironori Takahashi, Yohei Kawana, Kei Takahashi, Shinjiro Kodama, Keizo Kaneko, Junhong Gao, Kenji Uno, Shojiro Sawada, Tomoichiro Asano, Vladimir V Kalinichenko, Etsuo A Susaki, Makoto Kanzaki, Hiroki R Ueda, Yasushi Ishigaki, Tetsuya Yamada, Hideki Katagiri
Under insulin-resistant conditions such as obesity, pancreatic β-cells proliferate to prevent blood glucose elevations. A liver-brain-pancreas neuronal relay plays an important role in this process. Here, we show the molecular mechanism underlying this compensatory β-cell proliferation. We identify FoxM1 activation in islets from neuronal relay-stimulated mice. Blockade of this relay, including vagotomy, inhibits obesity-induced activation of the β-cell FoxM1 pathway and suppresses β-cell expansion. Inducible β-cell-specific FoxM1 deficiency also blocks compensatory β-cell proliferation...
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
Fangyu Wang, Zhiqiang Lu, Xue Wang, Youcai Zhang
Bile acids (BAs) circulate between the liver and intestine, and regulate the homeostasis of glucose, lipid, and energy. Recent studies demonstrated an essential role of BAs in neurological diseases, suggesting an interaction between BAs and the nervous system. In the present study, we showed that impaired vagus function in rats induced by vagotomy resulted in an increase in bile flow without causing liver injury. The concentrations of unconjugated and glycine-conjugated BAs were increased in both serum and bile of rats after vagotomy, which was due to impaired tight junctions and thus increased passive absorption of BAs in the intestine...
January 1, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Zhuang Li, Chun-Xia Yi, Saeed Katiraei, Sander Kooijman, Enchen Zhou, Chih Kit Chung, Yuanqing Gao, José K van den Heuvel, Onno C Meijer, Jimmy F P Berbée, Marieke Heijink, Martin Giera, Ko Willems van Dijk, Albert K Groen, Patrick C N Rensen, Yanan Wang
OBJECTIVE: Butyrate exerts metabolic benefits in mice and humans, the underlying mechanisms being still unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of butyrate on appetite and energy expenditure, and to what extent these two components contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects of butyrate. DESIGN: Acute effects of butyrate on appetite and its method of action were investigated in mice following an intragastric gavage or intravenous injection of butyrate. To study the contribution of satiety to the metabolic benefits of butyrate, mice were fed a high-fat diet with butyrate, and an additional pair-fed group was included...
November 3, 2017: Gut
Shiying Li, Yong Lei, Jiande D Z Chen
OBJECTIVES: Acupuncture or electroacupuncture (EA) has been applied for treating chemotherapy-induced emesis with limited success. The aims of this study were to investigate the anti-emetic effect of EA and to explore underlying anti-emetic mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were chronically implanted with a pair of stainless steel leads at acupoint pericardium 6 (PC6). Effects of EA with different parameters on cisplatin-induced nausea were assessed by pica (intake of kaolin, a surrogate of nausea in species without vomiting reflex)...
November 1, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Rituraj Khound, Jennifer Taher, Christopher Baker, Khosrow Adeli, Qiaozhu Su
OBJECTIVE: Perturbations in hepatic lipid and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and hepatic insulin resistance. The objective of this study is to delineate the mechanism of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy in preventing obesity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. APPROACH AND RESULTS: By subjecting the complete subdiaphragmatic vagotomized mice to various nutritional conditions and investigating hepatic de novo lipogenesis pathway, we found that complete disruption of subdiaphragmatic vagal signaling resulted in a significant decrease of circulating VLDL-triglyceride compared with the mice obtained sham procedure...
December 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
I Braghetto, O Korn, A Csendes, J C Frias
Almost 10% of patients with Crest syndrome associated with severe gastroesophageal reflux and 5-10% of patients with failed cardiomyotomy for achalasia present with cardial or distal esophageal organic stricture. Some of these cases are poor risk patients for surgery and therefore the surgeon must offer a safe procedure with low morbimortality, keeping in mind the pathophysiological motor pattern of these patients.In order to treat the stricture to improve the esophageal transit we treated patients with esophagocardioplasty associated with vagotomy-antrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy, thereby avoiding the potential acid or biliary reflux in poor risk patients in whom esophagectomy would be a very deleterious procedure...
November 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen, Melahat Gök, R Alberto Travagli
The expression of apelin and its receptors (APJ) in central autonomic networks suggests that apelin may regulate gastrointestinal motor functions. In rodents, central administration of apelin-13 has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying, however, the mechanisms involved remain to be determined. Using male adult Sprague-Dawley rats, the aims of the present study were i) to determine the expression of APJ receptor in DVC, ii) to assess the effects central application of apelin-13 into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) on gastric tone and motility and iii) to investigate the neuronal pathways responsible for apelin-induced alterations...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Suyan Li, Jian Lv, Jianguo Li, Zhaolong Zhao, Hui Guo, Yanni Zhang, Shichao Cheng, Jianbin Sun, Hongming Pan, Shaopeng Fan, Zhongxin Li
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) remains poorly understood. Vagus nerve plays an important role in gut-microbiota-brain axis. This study aimed to investigate whether vague nerve is a key mediator of the impact of intestinal microbiota on SAE. METHODS: Male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=20): SHAM (SH) group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) +LPS group, and vagotomy (VGX)+LPS+FMT group...
October 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Hidetoshi Miyazaki, Teppei Nakamura, Kohji Ohki, Katsuya Nagai
The bioactive peptides Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) and Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) are believed to improve blood pressure and arterial function. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the action of these peptides, we investigated their effects upon autonomic neurotransmission and blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Both IPP and VPP caused a significant reduction in cutaneous arterial sympathetic nerve activity (CASNA) and reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP); however, both of these effects were eliminated following sub-diaphragmatic vagotomy...
September 29, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Camila Lubaczeuski, Luciana Mateus Gonçalves, Jean Franciesco Vettorazzi, Mirian Ayumi Kurauti, Junia Carolina Santos-Silva, Maria Lúcia Bonfleur, Antonio Carlos Boschero, José Maria Costa-Júnior, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on insulin sensitivity, secretion, and degradation in metabolic programmed mice, induced by a low-protein diet early in life, followed by exposure to a high-fat diet in adulthood. Weaned 30-day-old C57Bl/6 mice were submitted to a low-protein diet (6% protein). After 4 weeks, the mice were distributed into three groups: LP group, which continued receiving a low-protein diet; LP + HF group, which started to receive a high-fat diet; and LP + HFvag group, which underwent vagotomy and also was kept at a high-fat diet...
2017: Neural Plasticity
Z Chen, H Chen, F Chen, D Gu, L Sun, W Zhang, L Fan, Y Lin, R Dong, K Lai
Neuronal activity in the medulla oblongata and neurogenic inflammation of airways were investigated in a guinea pig model induced by repeated intra-esophageal instillation of hydrochloric acid (HCl) after vagotomy. Unilateral vagotomy was performed in the vagotomy group, while a sham-operation was performed in the sham group. Operation was not conducted in sham control group. Airway inflammation was observed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. C-fos protein was measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB)...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
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