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Flora Lucena, Vanessa Foletto, Lucas Zanon Mascarin, Carlos Rogério Tonussi
AIMS: Rheumatoid arthritis brings great burdens to the patients. In addition to the highly expensive treatment, they are commonly associated with severe side-effects. In such context, the research for safe and affordable treatments is needed. MAIN METHODS: Arthritis was induced by CFA (0.5mg/mL) in female wistar rats. Trypsin was given p.o. (2.95mg/kg; 2mL) 24 hs after the intra-articular CFA injection. Articular incapacitation was measured daily by counting the paw elevation time (PET; s) during 1-min periods of stimulated walk, throughout the 7-days after intra-articular CFA injection...
October 8, 2016: Life Sciences
Marina Basalay, Svetlana Mastitskaya, Aleksander Mrochek, Gareth L Ackland, Ana Gutierrez Del Arroyo, Jenifer Sanchez, Per-Ove Sjoquist, John Pernow, Alexander V Gourine, Andrey Gourine
AIMS: Although the nature of the humoral factor which mediates cardioprotection established by remote ischaemic conditioning (RIc) remains unknown, parasympathetic (vagal) mechanisms appear to play a critical role. As the production and release of many gut hormones is modulated by the vagus nerve, here we tested the hypothesis that RIc cardioprotection is mediated by the actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). METHODS AND RESULTS: A rat model of myocardial infarction (coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion) was used...
October 4, 2016: Cardiovascular Research
Toru Kawada, Meihua Li, Can Zheng, Masaru Sugimachi
The arterial baroreflex system can be divided into the neural arc, from pressure input to efferent sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), and the peripheral arc, from SNA to arterial pressure (AP). Plotting the neural and peripheral arcs on a pressure-SNA plane yields a baroreflex equilibrium diagram. We examined the effects of vagotomy on the open-loop static characteristics of the carotid sinus baroreflex in normal control rats (NC, n = 10) and rats with heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI, n = 10). In the NC group, vagotomy shifted the neural arc toward higher SNA and decreased the slope of the peripheral arc...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
Min Ni, Hui Fu, Fang Huang, Ting Zhao, Ji-Kuai Chen, Dong-Jie Li, Fu-Ming Shen
BACKGROUND: Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (HIR) injury is a complication of liver surgery. As much as 50% of hepatocytes undergo apoptosis within the first 24 h of reperfusion. The neurotransmitters of the vagus nerve can activate α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) on macrophages. The function of Kupffer cells (KCs) determines HIR injury. We hypothesize that the vagus nerve could attenuate HIR-induced hepatocyte apoptosis by activating α7nAChR on KCs. METHODS: Hepatic vagotomized C57BL/6J mice, KC-eliminated C57BL/6J mice, and α7nAChR mice were used for HIR...
November 2016: Anesthesiology
Ikumi Ishibashi-Shiraishi, Seiji Shiraishi, Shinichi Fujita, Saori Ogawa, Masahiko Kaneko, Manabu Suzuki, Tatsuro Tanaka
Amino acids are not only constituents of proteins, but also have multiple physiologic functions. Recent findings have revealed that ingested amino acids either activate luminal receptors or are metabolized, causing physiologic reactions in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We examined the effect of oral L-arginine L-glutamate (ArgGlu), a pharmaceutical amino acid salt used i.v. for the treatment of hyperammonemia, on gastric motor function in rats and dogs. Gastric emptying was determined using phenol red and (13)C-breath test methods, whereas gastric relaxation was determined using the barostat method...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Yuka Okusha, Yoshiyuki Hirai, Hitoshi Maezawa, Kazunari Hisadome, Nobuo Inoue, Yutaka Yamazaki, Makoto Funahashi
To evaluate relative factors for anorectic effects of L-histidine, we performed behavioral experiments for measuring food and fluid intake, conditioned taste aversion (CTA), taste disturbance, and c-Fos immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cells before and after i.p. injection with L-histidine in rats. Animals were injected with saline (9 ml/kg, i.p.) for a control group, and saline (9 ml/kg, i.p.) containing L-histidine (0.75, 1.5, 2.0 g/kg) for a L-histidine group. Injection of L-histidine decreased the average value of food intake, and statistically significant anorectic effects were found in animals injected with 1...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Shino Oikawa, Yuko Kai, Masayuki Tsuda, Hisayuki Ohata, Asuka Mano, Naoko Mizoguchi, Shuei Sugama, Takahiro Nemoto, Kenji Suzuki, Atsushi Kurabayashi, Kazuyo Muramoto, Makoto Kaneda, Yoshihiko Kakinuma
We previously developed cardiac ventricle-specific choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene-overexpressing transgenic mice (ChAT tgm), i.e. an in vivo model of the cardiac non-neuronal acetylcholine (NNA) system or non-neuronal cardiac cholinergic system (NNCCS). By using this murine model, we determined that this system was responsible for characteristics of resistance to ischaemia, or hypoxia, via the modulation of cellular energy metabolism and angiogenesis. In line with our previous study, neuronal ChAT-immunoreactivity in the ChAT tgm brains was not altered from that in the wild-type (WT) mice brains; in contrast, the ChAT tgm hearts were the organs with the highest expression of the ChAT transgene...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
N N Krylov, O V Babkin, D O Babkin
AIM: to define the correlation between Mannheim peritonitis index scores and outcomes of different radical and palliative interventions for perforative duodenal ulcer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Treatment of 386 patients with perforative duodenal ulcer is presented. Different surgical techniques were analyzed including stomach resection, various methods of vagotomy with/without drainage, ulcer suturing and ulcerative edges excision with suturing in patients with Mannheim index scores <21, 21-29 and over 29...
2016: Khirurgiia
D N Păduraru, A Nica, D Ion, M Handaric, O Andronic
Gastric stump cancer (GSC) is the malignant tumor that develops in the gastric remnant after partial gastrectomy was performed both for benign and malignant lesions. This paper presents the results of the case studies from the scientific literature, which focused on GSC, and has been published in the last 10 years. The search was performed with the help of the specific tools offered by the international databases. The subject was approached because of the constant rising incidence of GSC in the past few years, now reaching values between 1% and 7%...
April 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
Piotr Wojciechowski, Małgorzata Szereda-Przestaszewska, Andrzej Wojciech Lipkowski
Experiments were performed in anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats to: (1) analyse the respiratory and cardiovascular effects of C-terminal fragment of substance P (AWL2077) as referred to those exerted by the parent undecapeptide, (2) determine the involvement of lung vagal afferents to these responses. Each peptide was injected intravenously at a dose of 0.3μmol/kg into neurally intact or midcervically vagotomized rats. Administration of both compounds decreased tidal volume, minute ventilation, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate, showing stimulatory (SP) and depressive (AWL2077) effects on the rate of breathing...
November 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Imre L Szabo, Jozsef Czimmer, Gyula Mozsik
BACKGROUND: The significant difference in the long lasting actions of surgical and chemical (atropine) vagotomy in peptic ulcer patients has been known for half century. OBJECTIVE: Authors establishing human clinical pharmacology aimed to know more details of the acute and chronic effects of surgical vagotomy and atropine treatment on gastrointestinal mucosal biochemisms and their actions altered by bioactive compounds and scavengers. METHOD: The observations were carried out in pylorus-ligated vagotomised or atropine treated rats under various experimental ulcer models, together with application of various mucosal protecting compounds...
July 19, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Undarmaa Jargalsaikhan, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Jumpei Matsumoto, Yusaku Takamura, Tomoya Nakamura, Etsuro Hori, Takashi Kondoh, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence suggests that traditional diets and nutrition have a significant impact on brain development, and could contribute to the promotion of mental health and prevention of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Moreover, deficits in parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive and/or GABAergic neurons are closely associated with various psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. To investigate the possible neural mechanisms of diet involvement in mental health, we analyzed the effects of dried-bonito dashi (Japanese fish broth) (DBD) on PV-immunoreactive neurons and emotional behaviors in young mice...
July 21, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Ragini G Gupta, Claire Schafer, Yolande Ramaroson, Michael G Sciullo, Charles C Horn
The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) can be as high as 80% in patients with risk factors (e.g., females, history of motion sickness). PONV delays postoperative recovery and costs several hundred million dollars annually. Cell-based assays show that halogenated ethers (e.g., isoflurane) activate 5-HT3 receptors, which are found on gastrointestinal vagal afferents and in the hindbrain - key pathways for producing nausea and vomiting. This project evaluated the role of the vagus and activation of the hindbrain in isoflurane-induced emesis in musk shrews, a small animal model with a vomiting reflex, which is lacking in rats and mice...
July 2, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Hung-Yu Chang, Li-Wei Lo, Yu-Hui Chou, Wei-Lun Lin, Yenn-Jiang Lin, Shinya Yamada, Shih-Ann Chen
BACKGROUND: Both extrinsic and intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous systems are important for initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to evaluate the effect of vagotomy on the activity of cardiac autonomic ganglionated plexi (GP) and the change of dominant frequency (DF) distribution in the left atrium (LA) during AF. METHODS: A mid-sternal thoracotomy was performed in 6 dogs. High frequency stimulation was applied to locate the GPs. There were four major LA GPs, which were located near the pulmonary vein ostia, and a superior vena cava-aorta (SVC-Ao) GP that was located near the superior vena cava-right atrial junction...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Hanna Schweighöfer, Christoph Rummel, Joachim Roth, Bernhard Rosengarten
BACKGROUND: Stimulation of the vagus nerve has modulating, anti-inflammatory effects on the cellular immune response in the blood and the spleen, stabilizing brain function. Here, we aimed to investigate its potential effects on immune-to-brain communication focusing on neurophysiological readouts and leukocyte migration to the brain during severe sepsis-like endotoxemia. METHODS: Systemic inflammation was induced by intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 mg/kg)...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Christopher J Madden, Shaun F Morrison
In dramatic contrast to rats on a control diet, rats maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD) failed to activate brown adipose tissue (BAT) during cooling despite robust increases in their BAT activity following direct activation of their BAT sympathetic premotor neurons in the raphe pallidus. Cervical vagotomy or blockade of glutamate receptors in the nucleus of the tractus solitarii (NTS) reversed the HFD-induced inhibition of cold-evoked BAT activity. Thus, a HFD does not prevent rats from mounting a robust, centrally driven BAT thermogenesis; however, a HFD does alter a vagal afferent input to NTS neurons, thereby preventing the normal activation of BAT thermogenesis to cooling...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sandra Lucinei Balbo, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro, Mariana Carla Mendes, Camila Lubaczeuski, Ana Claudia Paiva Alegre Maller, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro, Maria Lúcia Bonfleur
Herein, we investigated whether subdiaphragmatic vagotomy has benefits on obesity, body glucose homeostasis, and insulin secretion in cafeteria (CAF)-obese rats. Wistar rats were fed a standard or CAF diet for 12 weeks. Subsequently, CAF rats were randomly submitted to truncal vagotomy (CAF Vag) or sham operation (CAF Sham). CAF Sham rats were hyperphagic, obese, and presented metabolic disturbances, including hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Mortimer Gierthmuehlen, Debora Aguirre, Oscar Cota, Josef Zentner, Thomas Stieglitz, Dennis T T Plachta
OBJECTIVE: Selective-afferent vagal nerve stimulation (sVNS) may be a treatment option for therapy-resistant hypertension, as it lowers blood pressure (BP) in rats without causing significant side effects. Alpha-2-agonists are widely used for the treatment of withdrawal, chronic pain and other disorders, and even if sVNS becomes a treatment option for therapy resistant hypertension, in some patients it might be necessary to combine sVNS with an alpha-2-agonist like clonidine. Alpha-2-agonists exhibit a central and peripheral mechanism of action...
August 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Martina Di Giovangiulio, Goele Bosmans, Elisa Meroni, Nathalie Stakenborg, Morgane Florens, Giovanna Farro, Pedro J Gomez-Pinilla, Gianluca Matteoli, Guy Boeckxstaens
Vagotomy (VGX) increases the susceptibility to develop colitis suggesting a crucial role for the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the regulation of the immune responses. Since oral tolerance and the generation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial to preserve mucosal immune homeostasis, we studied the effect of vagotomy and the involvement of α7 nicotinic receptors (α7nAChR) at the steady state and during colitis. Therefore, the development of both oral tolerance and colitis (induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or via T cell transfer) was studied in vagotomized mice and in α7nAChR(-/-) mice...
June 14, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Jack M J Pickard, Sean M Davidson, Derek J Hausenloy, Derek M Yellon
The cardioprotection afforded by remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) is mediated via a complex mechanism involving sensory afferent nerves, the vagus nerve, and release of a humoral blood-borne factor. However, it is unknown whether release of the protective factor depends on vagal activation or occurs independently. This study aimed to evaluate the co-dependence of the neural and humoral pathways of RIC, focussing on the vagus nerve and intrinsic cardiac ganglia. In the first study, anesthetised rats received bilateral cervical vagotomy or sham-surgery immediately prior to RIC (4 × 5 min limb ischemia-reperfusion) or sham-RIC...
July 2016: Basic Research in Cardiology
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