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Vagotomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896830/vagal-nerve-endings-in-visceral-pleura-and-triangular-ligaments-of-the-rat-lung
#1
Feng-Bin Wang, Yi-Han Liao, Yao-Chen Wang
The inner thoracic cavity is lined by the parietal pleura, and the lung lobes are covered by the visceral pleura. The parietal and visceral plurae form the pleural cavity that has negative pressure within to enable normal respiration. The lung tissues are bilaterally innervated by vagal and spinal nerves, including sensory and motor components. This complicated innervation pattern has made it difficult to discern the vagal vs. spinal processes in the pulmonary visceral pleura. With and without vagotomy, we identified vagal nerve fibres and endings distributed extensively in the visceral pleura ('P'-type nerve endings) and triangular ligaments ('L'-type nerve endings) by injecting wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase as a tracer into the nucleus of solitary tract or nodose ganglion of male Sprague-Dawley rats...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851789/dietary-2-fucosyllactose-enhances-operant-conditioning-and-long-term-potentiation-via-gut-brain-communication-through-the-vagus-nerve-in-rodents
#2
Enrique Vazquez, Alejandro Barranco, Maria Ramirez, Agnes Gruart, Jose M Delgado-Garcia, Maria L Jimenez, Rachael Buck, Ricardo Rueda
2´-fucosyllactose (2´-FL) is an abundant human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) in human milk with diverse biological effects. We recently reported ingested 2´-FL stimulates central nervous system (CNS) function, such as hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP) and learning and memory in rats. Conceivably the effect of 2´-FL on CNS function may be via the gut-brain axis (GBA), specifically the vagus nerve, and L-fucose (Fuc) may play a role. This study had two aims: (1) determine if the effect of ingested 2´-FL on the modulation of CNS function is dependent on the integrity of the molecule; and (2) confirm if oral 2´-FL modified hippocampal LTP and associative learning related skills in rats submitted to bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806092/effect-of-portal-glucose-sensing-on-systemic-glucose-levels-in-sd-and-zdf-rats
#3
Atanu Pal, David B Rhoads, Ali Tavakkoli
BACKGROUND: The global epidemic of Type-2-Diabetes (T2D) highlights the need for novel therapeutic targets and agents. Roux-en-Y-Gastric-Bypass (RYGB) is the most effective treatment. Studies investigating the mechanisms of RYGB suggest a role for post-operative changes in portal glucose levels. We investigate the impact of stimulating portal glucose sensors on systemic glucose levels in health and T2D, and evaluated the role of sodium-glucose-cotransporter-3 (SGLT3) as the possible sensor...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805869/knockdown-of-neuropeptide-y-in-the-dorsomedial-hypothalamus-promotes-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-in-male-rats
#4
Lin Li, C Barbier de La Serre, Ni Zhang, Liang Yang, Hong Li, Sheng Bi
Recent evidence has shown that alterations in dorsomedial hypothalamic (DMH) neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling influence glucose homeostasis, but the mechanism through which DMH NPY acts to affect glucose homeostasis remains unclear. Here we report that DMH NPY descending signals to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) modulate hepatic insulin sensitivity to control hepatic glucose production in rats. Using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, we revealed that knockdown of NPY in the DMH by adeno-associated virus-mediated NPY-specific RNAi promoted insulin's action on suppression of hepatic glucose production...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798536/influences-of-vagotomy-on-gut-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#5
Motonari Ri, Kazuhiko Fukatsu, Taiki Miyakuni, Masashi Yanagawa, Satoshi Murakoshi, Hiroshi Yasuhara, Yasuyuki Seto
BACKGROUND: How vagotomy affects host responses to gut ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Exp.1: Male Institute of Cancer Research mice (n = 22) were assigned to the I/R or the vago-I/R group. The I/R mice underwent 45-minute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion. The vago-I/R mice received vagotomy before SMA occlusion. Survival was observed for 48 hours.Exp.2: Mice (n = 55) were divided into 4 groups (Sham, vago, I/R, vago-I/R)...
October 26, 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729269/analgesic-and-anti-edematogenic-effects-of-oral-trypsin-were-abolished-after-subdiaphragmatic-vagotomy-and-spinal-monoaminergic-inhibition-in-rats
#6
Flora Lucena, Vanessa Foletto, Lucas Zanon Mascarin, Carlos Rogério Tonussi
AIMS: Rheumatoid arthritis brings great burdens to the patients. In addition to the highly expensive treatment, they are commonly associated with severe side-effects. In such context, the research for safe and affordable treatments is needed. MAIN METHODS: Arthritis was induced by CFA (0.5mg/mL) in female wistar rats. Trypsin was given p.o. (2.95mg/kg; 2mL) 24 hs after the intra-articular CFA injection. Articular incapacitation was measured daily by counting the paw elevation time (PET; s) during 1-min periods of stimulated walk, throughout the 7-days after intra-articular CFA injection...
October 8, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702763/glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-mediates-cardioprotection-by-remote-ischaemic-conditioning
#7
Marina V Basalay, Svetlana Mastitskaya, Aleksander Mrochek, Gareth L Ackland, Ana Gutierrez Del Arroyo, Jenifer Sanchez, Per-Ove Sjoquist, John Pernow, Alexander V Gourine, Andrey Gourine
AIMS: Although the nature of the humoral factor which mediates cardioprotection established by remote ischaemic conditioning (RIc) remains unknown, parasympathetic (vagal) mechanisms appear to play a critical role. As the production and release of many gut hormones is modulated by the vagus nerve, here we tested the hypothesis that RIc cardioprotection is mediated by the actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). METHODS AND RESULTS: A rat model of myocardial infarction (coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion) was used...
October 4, 2016: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594790/acute-effects-of-vagotomy-on-baroreflex-equilibrium-diagram-in-rats-with-chronic-heart-failure
#8
Toru Kawada, Meihua Li, Can Zheng, Masaru Sugimachi
The arterial baroreflex system can be divided into the neural arc, from pressure input to efferent sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), and the peripheral arc, from SNA to arterial pressure (AP). Plotting the neural and peripheral arcs on a pressure-SNA plane yields a baroreflex equilibrium diagram. We examined the effects of vagotomy on the open-loop static characteristics of the carotid sinus baroreflex in normal control rats (NC, n = 10) and rats with heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI, n = 10). In the NC group, vagotomy shifted the neural arc toward higher SNA and decreased the slope of the peripheral arc...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560466/vagus-nerve-attenuates-hepatocyte-apoptosis-upon-ischemia-reperfusion-via-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-on-kupffer-cells-in-mice
#9
Min Ni, Hui Fu, Fang Huang, Ting Zhao, Ji-Kuai Chen, Dong-Jie Li, Fu-Ming Shen
BACKGROUND: Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (HIR) injury is a complication of liver surgery. As much as 50% of hepatocytes undergo apoptosis within the first 24 h of reperfusion. The neurotransmitters of the vagus nerve can activate α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) on macrophages. The function of Kupffer cells (KCs) determines HIR injury. We hypothesize that the vagus nerve could attenuate HIR-induced hepatocyte apoptosis by activating α7nAChR on KCs. METHODS: Hepatic vagotomized C57BL/6J mice, KC-eliminated C57BL/6J mice, and α7nAChR mice were used for HIR...
November 2016: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535977/l-arginine-l-glutamate-enhances-gastric-motor-function-in-rats-and-dogs-and-improves-delayed-gastric-emptying-in-dogs
#10
Ikumi Ishibashi-Shiraishi, Seiji Shiraishi, Shinichi Fujita, Saori Ogawa, Masahiko Kaneko, Manabu Suzuki, Tatsuro Tanaka
Amino acids are not only constituents of proteins, but also have multiple physiologic functions. Recent findings have revealed that ingested amino acids either activate luminal receptors or are metabolized, causing physiologic reactions in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We examined the effect of oral L-arginine L-glutamate (ArgGlu), a pharmaceutical amino acid salt used i.v. for the treatment of hyperammonemia, on gastric motor function in rats and dogs. Gastric emptying was determined using phenol red and (13)C-breath test methods, whereas gastric relaxation was determined using the barostat method...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535568/effects-of-intraperitoneally-administered-l-histidine-on-food-intake-taste-and-visceral-sensation-in-rats
#11
Yuka Okusha, Yoshiyuki Hirai, Hitoshi Maezawa, Kazunari Hisadome, Nobuo Inoue, Yutaka Yamazaki, Makoto Funahashi
To evaluate relative factors for anorectic effects of L-histidine, we performed behavioral experiments for measuring food and fluid intake, conditioned taste aversion (CTA), taste disturbance, and c-Fos immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cells before and after i.p. injection with L-histidine in rats. Animals were injected with saline (9 ml/kg, i.p.) for a control group, and saline (9 ml/kg, i.p.) containing L-histidine (0.75, 1.5, 2.0 g/kg) for a L-histidine group. Injection of L-histidine decreased the average value of food intake, and statistically significant anorectic effects were found in animals injected with 1...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528769/non-neuronal-cardiac-cholinergic-system-influences-cns-via-the-vagus-nerve-to-acquire-a-stress-refractory-propensity
#12
Shino Oikawa, Yuko Kai, Masayuki Tsuda, Hisayuki Ohata, Asuka Mano, Naoko Mizoguchi, Shuei Sugama, Takahiro Nemoto, Kenji Suzuki, Atsushi Kurabayashi, Kazuyo Muramoto, Makoto Kaneda, Yoshihiko Kakinuma
We previously developed cardiac ventricle-specific choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene-overexpressing transgenic mice (ChAT tgm), i.e. an in vivo model of the cardiac non-neuronal acetylcholine (NNA) system or non-neuronal cardiac cholinergic system (NNCCS). By using this murine model, we determined that this system was responsible for characteristics of resistance to ischaemia, or hypoxia, via the modulation of cellular energy metabolism and angiogenesis. In line with our previous study, neuronal ChAT-immunoreactivity in the ChAT tgm brains was not altered from that in the wild-type (WT) mice brains; in contrast, the ChAT tgm hearts were the organs with the highest expression of the ChAT transgene...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459483/-mannheim-peritonitis-index-as-a-surgical-criterion-for-perforative-duodenal-ulcer
#13
N N Krylov, O V Babkin, D O Babkin
AIM: to define the correlation between Mannheim peritonitis index scores and outcomes of different radical and palliative interventions for perforative duodenal ulcer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Treatment of 386 patients with perforative duodenal ulcer is presented. Different surgical techniques were analyzed including stomach resection, various methods of vagotomy with/without drainage, ulcer suturing and ulcerative edges excision with suturing in patients with Mannheim index scores <21, 21-29 and over 29...
2016: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453741/considerations-on-risk-factors-correlated-to-the-occurrence-of-gastric-stump-cancer
#14
REVIEW
D N Păduraru, A Nica, D Ion, M Handaric, O Andronic
Gastric stump cancer (GSC) is the malignant tumor that develops in the gastric remnant after partial gastrectomy was performed both for benign and malignant lesions. This paper presents the results of the case studies from the scientific literature, which focused on GSC, and has been published in the last 10 years. The search was performed with the help of the specific tools offered by the international databases. The subject was approached because of the constant rising incidence of GSC in the past few years, now reaching values between 1% and 7%...
April 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453558/cardiorespiratory-activity-of-c-terminal-pentapeptide-of-substance-p-in-anaesthetized-rats
#15
Piotr Wojciechowski, Małgorzata Szereda-Przestaszewska, Andrzej Wojciech Lipkowski
Experiments were performed in anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats to: (1) analyse the respiratory and cardiovascular effects of C-terminal fragment of substance P (AWL2077) as referred to those exerted by the parent undecapeptide, (2) determine the involvement of lung vagal afferents to these responses. Each peptide was injected intravenously at a dose of 0.3μmol/kg into neurally intact or midcervically vagotomized rats. Administration of both compounds decreased tidal volume, minute ventilation, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate, showing stimulatory (SP) and depressive (AWL2077) effects on the rate of breathing...
November 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440445/cellular-energetical-actions-of-chemical-and-surgical-vagotomy-in-gastrointestinal-mucosal-damage-and-protection-similarities-differences-and-significance-for-brain-gut-function
#16
Imre L Szabo, Jozsef Czimmer, Gyula Mozsik
BACKGROUND: The significant difference in the long lasting actions of surgical and chemical (atropine) vagotomy in peptic ulcer patients has been known for half century. OBJECTIVE: Authors establishing human clinical pharmacology aimed to know more details of the acute and chronic effects of surgical vagotomy and atropine treatment on gastrointestinal mucosal biochemisms and their actions altered by bioactive compounds and scavengers. METHOD: The observations were carried out in pylorus-ligated vagotomised or atropine treated rats under various experimental ulcer models, together with application of various mucosal protecting compounds...
July 19, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439452/ingestion-of-dried-bonito-broth-dashi-facilitates-pv-parvalbumin-immunoreactive-neurons-in-the-brain-and-affects-emotional-behaviors-in-mice
#17
Undarmaa Jargalsaikhan, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Jumpei Matsumoto, Yusaku Takamura, Tomoya Nakamura, Etsuro Hori, Takashi Kondoh, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence suggests that traditional diets and nutrition have a significant impact on brain development, and could contribute to the promotion of mental health and prevention of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Moreover, deficits in parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive and/or GABAergic neurons are closely associated with various psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. To investigate the possible neural mechanisms of diet involvement in mental health, we analyzed the effects of dried-bonito dashi (Japanese fish broth) (DBD) on PV-immunoreactive neurons and emotional behaviors in young mice...
July 21, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396693/role-of-the-abdominal-vagus-and-hindbrain-in-inhalational-anesthesia-induced-vomiting
#18
Ragini G Gupta, Claire Schafer, Yolande Ramaroson, Michael G Sciullo, Charles C Horn
The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) can be as high as 80% in patients with risk factors (e.g., females, history of motion sickness). PONV delays postoperative recovery and costs several hundred million dollars annually. Cell-based assays show that halogenated ethers (e.g., isoflurane) activate 5-HT3 receptors, which are found on gastrointestinal vagal afferents and in the hindbrain - key pathways for producing nausea and vomiting. This project evaluated the role of the vagus and activation of the hindbrain in isoflurane-induced emesis in musk shrews, a small animal model with a vomiting reflex, which is lacking in rats and mice...
July 2, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390967/effect-of-vagotomy-on-the-activity-of-cardiac-autonomic-ganglia-insight-from-left-atrial-high-density-frequency-mapping
#19
Hung-Yu Chang, Li-Wei Lo, Yu-Hui Chou, Wei-Lun Lin, Yenn-Jiang Lin, Shinya Yamada, Shih-Ann Chen
BACKGROUND: Both extrinsic and intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous systems are important for initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to evaluate the effect of vagotomy on the activity of cardiac autonomic ganglionated plexi (GP) and the change of dominant frequency (DF) distribution in the left atrium (LA) during AF. METHODS: A mid-sternal thoracotomy was performed in 6 dogs. High frequency stimulation was applied to locate the GPs. There were four major LA GPs, which were located near the pulmonary vein ostia, and a superior vena cava-aorta (SVC-Ao) GP that was located near the superior vena cava-right atrial junction...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357828/modulatory-effects-of-vagal-stimulation-on-neurophysiological-parameters-and-the-cellular-immune-response-in-the-rat-brain-during-systemic-inflammation
#20
Hanna Schweighöfer, Christoph Rummel, Joachim Roth, Bernhard Rosengarten
BACKGROUND: Stimulation of the vagus nerve has modulating, anti-inflammatory effects on the cellular immune response in the blood and the spleen, stabilizing brain function. Here, we aimed to investigate its potential effects on immune-to-brain communication focusing on neurophysiological readouts and leukocyte migration to the brain during severe sepsis-like endotoxemia. METHODS: Systemic inflammation was induced by intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 mg/kg)...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
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