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Vagotomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091707/gastric-distension-causes-changes-in-heart-rate-and-arterial-blood-pressure-by-affecting-the-crosstalk-between-vagal-and-splanchnic-systems-in-anesthetised-rats
#1
Maurizio Sabbatini, Elena Grossini, Claudio Molinari, David A S G Mary, Giovanni Vacca, Mario Cannas
Various hindbrain nuclei have been demonstrated to be involved in the control of the cardiovascular reflexes elicited by both non-noxious and noxious gastric distension, through parasympathetic and sympathetic activation. The different role played by the branches of autonomic nervous system in exerting these effects and their crosstalk in relation to low-/high-pressure distension rate has not been examined yet. Therefore, in the present work, monolateral and bilateral vagotomy and splanchnicotomy were performed in anesthetised rats to analyse the involvement of hindbrain nuclei in haemodynamic changes caused by gastric distension at high (80 mmHg) and low (15 mmHg) pressure...
January 13, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089918/cardiovascular-and-respiratory-activity-of-pk20-opioid-and-neurotensin-hybrid-peptide-in-anesthetized-and-awake-rats
#2
Katarzyna Kaczyńska, Piotr Wojciechowski, Monika Jampolska, Andrzej W Lipkowski, Patrycja Kleczkowska
AIM: Chimeric compound - PK20 despite its therapeutic activity on nociceptive and inflammatory processes may affect respiration and blood pressure. Our objective was to evaluate influence of the hybrid composed of endomorphin-2 and neurotensin fragments on ventilation, heart rate and blood pressure in anesthetized and awake rats. METHODS: The effects of PK20 (1mg/kg) were studied either after its intravenous administration in anesthetized rats or intraperitoneal injection in awake state...
January 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065837/vagal-regulation-of-group-3-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-the-immunoresolvent-pctr1-controls-infection-resolution
#3
Jesmond Dalli, Romain A Colas, Hildur Arnardottir, Charles N Serhan
Uncovering mechanisms that control immune responses in the resolution of bacterial infections is critical for the development of new therapeutic strategies that resolve infectious inflammation without unwanted side effects. We found that disruption of the vagal system in mice delayed resolution of Escherichia coli infection. Dissection of the right vagus decreased peritoneal group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3) numbers and altered peritoneal macrophage responses. Vagotomy resulted in an inflammatory peritoneal lipid mediator profile characterized by reduced concentrations of pro-resolving mediators, including the protective immunoresolvent PCTR1, along with elevated inflammation-initiating eicosanoids...
January 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044208/hepatic-vagus-nerve-regulates-kupffer-cell-activation-via-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-in-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#4
Takahiro Nishio, Kojiro Taura, Keiko Iwaisako, Yukinori Koyama, Kazutaka Tanabe, Gen Yamamoto, Yukihiro Okuda, Yoshinobu Ikeno, Kenji Yoshino, Yosuke Kasai, Masayuki Okuno, Satoru Seo, Takaki Sakurai, Masataka Asagiri, Etsuro Hatano, Shinji Uemoto
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease ranges from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Kupffer cells play a central role in promoting hepatic inflammation, which leads to the development of NASH. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of hepatic vagus-mediated stimulation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) on Kupffer cells in NASH pathogenesis. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) mice undergoing hepatic vagotomy (HV) were fed a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 1 week...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013057/neural-control-of-ventilation-prevents-both-over-distension-and-de-recruitment-of-experimentally-injured-lungs
#5
Lukas Brander, Onnen Moerer, Göran Hedenstierna, Jennifer Beck, Jukka Takala, Arthur S Slutsky, Christer Sinderby
BACKGROUND: Endogenous pulmonary reflexes may protect the lungs during mechanical ventilation. We aimed to assess integration of continuous neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (cNAVA), delivering assist in proportion to diaphragm's electrical activity during inspiration and expiration, and Hering-Breuer inflation and deflation reflexes on lung recruitment, distension, and aeration before and after acute lung injury (ALI). METHODS: In 7 anesthetised rabbits with bilateral pneumothoraces, we identified adequate cNAVA level (cNAVAAL) at the plateau in peak ventilator pressure during titration procedures before (healthy lungs with endotracheal tube, [HLETT]) and after ALI (endotracheal tube [ALIETT] and during non-invasive ventilation [ALINIV])...
December 22, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977613/acid-reducing-vagotomy-is-associated-with-reduced-risk-of-subsequent-ischemic-heart-disease-in-complicated-peptic-ulcer-an-asian-population-study
#6
Shih-Chi Wu, Chu-Wen Fang, William Tzu-Liang Chen, Chih-Hsin Muo
Persistent exacerbation of a peptic ulcer may lead to a complicated peptic ulcer (perforation or/and bleeding). The management of complicated peptic ulcers has shifted from acid-reducing vagotomy, drainage, and gastrectomy to simple local suture or non-operative (endoscopic/angiographic) hemostasis. We were interested in the long-term effects of this trend change. In this study, complicated peptic ulcer patients who received acid-reducing vagotomy were compared with those who received simple suture/hemostasis to determine the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941177/effect-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-on-cancer-progression-depends-on-the-type-of-tumor-solid-are-more-affected-then-ascitic-tumors
#7
L Horvathova, B Mravec
OBJECTIVES: A number of recently published studies have shown that the sympathetic nervous system may influence cancer progression. There are, however, some ambiguities about the role of the parasympathetic nerves in the modulation of growth of different tumor types. Moreover, tumor models used for investigation of the autonomic neurotransmission role in the processes related to the cancer growth and progression are mainly of the solid nature. The knowledge about the nervous system involvement in the modulation of the development and progression of malignant ascites is only fragmental...
October 1, 2016: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930533/association-of-vagus-nerve-severance-and-decreased-risk-of-subsequent-type-2-diabetes-in-peptic-ulcer-patients-an-asian-population-cohort-study
#8
Shih-Chi Wu, William Tzu-Liang Chen, Chu-Wen Fang, Chih-Hsin Muo, Fung-Chang Sung, Chung Y Hsu
Vagus nerve may play a role in serum glucose modulation. The complicated peptic ulcer patients (with perforation or/and bleeding) who received surgical procedures with or without vagotomy provided 2 patient populations for studying the impact of vagus nerve integrity. We assessed the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in peptic ulcer patients without and with complications by surgical treatment received in a retrospective population study using the National Health Insurance database in Taiwan.A cohort of 163,385 patients with peptic ulcer and without Helicobacter pylori infection in 2000 to 2003 was established...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923809/role-of-autonomic-nervous-system-in-chronic-cns-mediated-antidiabetic-action-of-leptin
#9
Alexandre A da Silva, John E Hall, Sydney P Moak, Jackson Browning, Haley J Houghton, Giovana C Micheloni, Jussara M do Carmo
This study tested whether chronic ganglionic blockade or hepatic vagotomy attenuates the chronic CNS-mediated antidiabetic and cardiovascular effects of leptin. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with telemetry probes and arterial and venous catheters for determination of blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), blood sampling and intravenous (IV) infusions. An intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula was placed into the brain lateral ventricle for infusion of leptin or vehicle. After control measurements, streptozotocin (STZ) was injected IV (50 mg/kg) to induce diabetes and 5 days later leptin (n=6) or saline vehicle (n=5) was infused ICV for 12 days via osmotic pumps...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896830/vagal-nerve-endings-in-visceral-pleura-and-triangular-ligaments-of-the-rat-lung
#10
Feng-Bin Wang, Yi-Han Liao, Yao-Chen Wang
The inner thoracic cavity is lined by the parietal pleura, and the lung lobes are covered by the visceral pleura. The parietal and visceral plurae form the pleural cavity that has negative pressure within to enable normal respiration. The lung tissues are bilaterally innervated by vagal and spinal nerves, including sensory and motor components. This complicated innervation pattern has made it difficult to discern the vagal vs. spinal processes in the pulmonary visceral pleura. With and without vagotomy, we identified vagal nerve fibres and endings distributed extensively in the visceral pleura ('P'-type nerve endings) and triangular ligaments ('L'-type nerve endings) by injecting wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase as a tracer into the nucleus of solitary tract or nodose ganglion of male Sprague-Dawley rats...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851789/dietary-2-fucosyllactose-enhances-operant-conditioning-and-long-term-potentiation-via-gut-brain-communication-through-the-vagus-nerve-in-rodents
#11
Enrique Vazquez, Alejandro Barranco, Maria Ramirez, Agnes Gruart, Jose M Delgado-Garcia, Maria L Jimenez, Rachael Buck, Ricardo Rueda
2´-fucosyllactose (2´-FL) is an abundant human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) in human milk with diverse biological effects. We recently reported ingested 2´-FL stimulates central nervous system (CNS) function, such as hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP) and learning and memory in rats. Conceivably the effect of 2´-FL on CNS function may be via the gut-brain axis (GBA), specifically the vagus nerve, and L-fucose (Fuc) may play a role. This study had two aims: (1) determine if the effect of ingested 2´-FL on the modulation of CNS function is dependent on the integrity of the molecule; and (2) confirm if oral 2´-FL modified hippocampal LTP and associative learning related skills in rats submitted to bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806092/effect-of-portal-glucose-sensing-on-systemic-glucose-levels-in-sd-and-zdf-rats
#12
Atanu Pal, David B Rhoads, Ali Tavakkoli
BACKGROUND: The global epidemic of Type-2-Diabetes (T2D) highlights the need for novel therapeutic targets and agents. Roux-en-Y-Gastric-Bypass (RYGB) is the most effective treatment. Studies investigating the mechanisms of RYGB suggest a role for post-operative changes in portal glucose levels. We investigate the impact of stimulating portal glucose sensors on systemic glucose levels in health and T2D, and evaluated the role of sodium-glucose-cotransporter-3 (SGLT3) as the possible sensor...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805869/knockdown-of-neuropeptide-y-in-the-dorsomedial-hypothalamus-promotes-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-in-male-rats
#13
Lin Li, C Barbier de La Serre, Ni Zhang, Liang Yang, Hong Li, Sheng Bi
Recent evidence has shown that alterations in dorsomedial hypothalamic (DMH) neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling influence glucose homeostasis, but the mechanism through which DMH NPY acts to affect glucose homeostasis remains unclear. Here we report that DMH NPY descending signals to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) modulate hepatic insulin sensitivity to control hepatic glucose production in rats. Using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, we revealed that knockdown of NPY in the DMH by adeno-associated virus-mediated NPY-specific RNAi promoted insulin's action on suppression of hepatic glucose production...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798536/influences-of-vagotomy-on-gut-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#14
Motonari Ri, Kazuhiko Fukatsu, Taiki Miyakuni, Masashi Yanagawa, Satoshi Murakoshi, Hiroshi Yasuhara, Yasuyuki Seto
BACKGROUND: How vagotomy affects host responses to gut ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Exp.1: Male Institute of Cancer Research mice (n = 22) were assigned to the I/R or the vago-I/R group. The I/R mice underwent 45-minute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion. The vago-I/R mice received vagotomy before SMA occlusion. Survival was observed for 48 hours.Exp.2: Mice (n = 55) were divided into 4 groups (Sham, vago, I/R, vago-I/R)...
October 26, 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729269/analgesic-and-anti-edematogenic-effects-of-oral-trypsin-were-abolished-after-subdiaphragmatic-vagotomy-and-spinal-monoaminergic-inhibition-in-rats
#15
Flora Lucena, Vanessa Foletto, Lucas Zanon Mascarin, Carlos Rogério Tonussi
AIMS: Rheumatoid arthritis brings great burdens to the patients. In addition to the highly expensive treatment, they are commonly associated with severe side effects. In such context, the research for safe and affordable treatments is needed. MAIN METHODS: Arthritis was induced by CFA (0.5mg/mL) in female wistar rats. Trypsin was given p.o. (2.95mg/kg; 2mL) 24h after the intra-articular CFA injection. Articular incapacitation was measured daily by counting the paw elevation time (PET; s) during 1-min periods of stimulated walk, throughout the 7-days after intra-articular CFA injection...
December 1, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702763/glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-mediates-cardioprotection-by-remote-ischaemic-conditioning
#16
Marina V Basalay, Svetlana Mastitskaya, Aleksander Mrochek, Gareth L Ackland, Ana Gutierrez Del Arroyo, Jenifer Sanchez, Per-Ove Sjoquist, John Pernow, Alexander V Gourine, Andrey Gourine
AIMS: Although the nature of the humoral factor which mediates cardioprotection established by remote ischaemic conditioning (RIc) remains unknown, parasympathetic (vagal) mechanisms appear to play a critical role. As the production and release of many gut hormones is modulated by the vagus nerve, here we tested the hypothesis that RIc cardioprotection is mediated by the actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). METHODS AND RESULTS: A rat model of myocardial infarction (coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion) was used...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594790/acute-effects-of-vagotomy-on-baroreflex-equilibrium-diagram-in-rats-with-chronic-heart-failure
#17
Toru Kawada, Meihua Li, Can Zheng, Masaru Sugimachi
The arterial baroreflex system can be divided into the neural arc, from pressure input to efferent sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), and the peripheral arc, from SNA to arterial pressure (AP). Plotting the neural and peripheral arcs on a pressure-SNA plane yields a baroreflex equilibrium diagram. We examined the effects of vagotomy on the open-loop static characteristics of the carotid sinus baroreflex in normal control rats (NC, n = 10) and rats with heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI, n = 10). In the NC group, vagotomy shifted the neural arc toward higher SNA and decreased the slope of the peripheral arc...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560466/vagus-nerve-attenuates-hepatocyte-apoptosis-upon-ischemia-reperfusion-via-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-on-kupffer-cells-in-mice
#18
Min Ni, Hui Fu, Fang Huang, Ting Zhao, Ji-Kuai Chen, Dong-Jie Li, Fu-Ming Shen
BACKGROUND: Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (HIR) injury is a complication of liver surgery. As much as 50% of hepatocytes undergo apoptosis within the first 24 h of reperfusion. The neurotransmitters of the vagus nerve can activate α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) on macrophages. The function of Kupffer cells (KCs) determines HIR injury. We hypothesize that the vagus nerve could attenuate HIR-induced hepatocyte apoptosis by activating α7nAChR on KCs. METHODS: Hepatic vagotomized C57BL/6J mice, KC-eliminated C57BL/6J mice, and α7nAChR mice were used for HIR...
November 2016: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535977/l-arginine-l-glutamate-enhances-gastric-motor-function-in-rats-and-dogs-and-improves-delayed-gastric-emptying-in-dogs
#19
Ikumi Ishibashi-Shiraishi, Seiji Shiraishi, Shinichi Fujita, Saori Ogawa, Masahiko Kaneko, Manabu Suzuki, Tatsuro Tanaka
Amino acids are not only constituents of proteins, but also have multiple physiologic functions. Recent findings have revealed that ingested amino acids either activate luminal receptors or are metabolized, causing physiologic reactions in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We examined the effect of oral L-arginine L-glutamate (ArgGlu), a pharmaceutical amino acid salt used i.v. for the treatment of hyperammonemia, on gastric motor function in rats and dogs. Gastric emptying was determined using phenol red and (13)C-breath test methods, whereas gastric relaxation was determined using the barostat method...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535568/effects-of-intraperitoneally-administered-l-histidine-on-food-intake-taste-and-visceral-sensation-in-rats
#20
Yuka Okusha, Yoshiyuki Hirai, Hitoshi Maezawa, Kazunari Hisadome, Nobuo Inoue, Yutaka Yamazaki, Makoto Funahashi
To evaluate relative factors for anorectic effects of L-histidine, we performed behavioral experiments for measuring food and fluid intake, conditioned taste aversion (CTA), taste disturbance, and c-Fos immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cells before and after i.p. injection with L-histidine in rats. Animals were injected with saline (9 ml/kg, i.p.) for a control group, and saline (9 ml/kg, i.p.) containing L-histidine (0.75, 1.5, 2.0 g/kg) for a L-histidine group. Injection of L-histidine decreased the average value of food intake, and statistically significant anorectic effects were found in animals injected with 1...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
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