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Radiology and imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457229/radiomics-analysis-of-pulmonary-nodules-in-low-dose-ct-for-early-detection-of-lung-cancer
#1
Wookjin Choi, Jung Hun Oh, Sadegh Riyahi, Chia-Ju Liu, Feng Jiang, Wengen Chen, Charles White, Andreas Rimner, James G Mechalakos, Joseph O Deasy, Wei Lu
PURPOSE: To develop a radiomics prediction model to improve pulmonary nodule (PN) classification in low-dose CT. To compare the model with the American College of Radiology (ACR) Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) for early detection of lung cancer. METHODS: We examined a set of 72 PNs (31 benign and 41 malignant) from the Lung Image Database Consortium image collection (LIDC-IDRI). 103 CT radiomic features were extracted from each PN. Before the model building process, distinctive features were identified using a hierarchical clustering method...
February 19, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456852/xanthogranulomatous-pituitary-adenoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
Guihong Li, Chaochao Zhang, Yuxue Sun, Qingchun Mu, Haiyan Huang
Xanthogranuloma, also referred to as cholesterol granuloma or xanthogranulomatous reaction, is a granulomatous lesion that is infrequently found in the sellar and parasellar regions. Xanthogranulomatous pituitary adenoma is relatively rare and, thus, the etiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of this condition remain incompletely understood. We herein report the case of a 56-year-old female patient who presented to our institution with intermittent headache, vomiting and distending pain in the bilateral orbital regions...
March 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456392/chest-x-ray-findings-comparison-between-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-drug-sensitive-tuberculosis
#3
Aziza Ghanie Icksan, Martin Raja Sonang Napitupulu, Mohamad Arifin Nawas, Fariz Nurwidya
Background: Imaging has a big role in tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and chest X-ray is preferable because it is available in primary health care and can point out the location, area, and morphology of lesions, such as cavity, consolidation, pleural effusions, and fibrosis. We aimed to compare the chest X-ray findings in multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) and in drug-sensitive TB (DS-TB) cases. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study which compares chest X-ray findings of two groups of patients, involving 183 DS-TB patients and 183 MDR-TB patients...
January 2018: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455879/transient-and-regional-ischemia-related-to-continuous-saline-solution-infusion-during-radial-artery-access
#4
Nicholas Xiao, Jonathan Lindquist, Robert L Vogelzang
This case series illustrates a radial access complication seen in 7 of 9 consecutive patients (age range, 44-53 y) undergoing uterine artery embolization in May and June 2017. Demonstrative images and videos identify a transient and clinically consequential skin ischemia caused by intraprocedural saline solution infusion through the occlusive radial artery sheath. All complications documented were classified as mild adverse events (class A) according to Society of Interventional Radiology criteria. Complication severity ranged from transient blanching to ischemic necrosis of the skin...
March 2018: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455674/aggressive-fibromatosis-in-the-infratemporal-fossa-presenting-as-trismus-a-case-report
#5
Sunil Munakomi
BACKGROUND: Here we report a very rare entity of an infratemporal region aggressive fibromatosis in a 23-year-old Tharu man who had presented with the symptoms of painless but progressive trismus. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of aggressive fibromatosis in a 23-year-old Tharu man. Radiological imaging as well as an immunohistochemistry panel from a biopsy indicated a diagnosis of an aggressive fibromatosis. Since there was no aggravation in his trismus following surgery and because of his poor socioeconomic status, he was advised to attend regular follow-up visits without any adjuvant therapy...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455086/combination-of-pre-treatment-dwi-signal-intensity-and-s-1-treatment-a-predictor-of-survival-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-receiving-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-and-sequential-s-1
#6
Yu Zhang, Xiaofei Zhu, Ri Liu, Xianglian Wang, Gaofeng Sun, Jiaqi Song, Jianping Lu, Huojun Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To identify whether the combination of pre-treatment radiological and clinical factors can predict the overall survival (OS) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) treated with stereotactic body radiation and sequential S-1 (a prodrug of 5-FU combined with two modulators) therapy with improved accuracy compared with that of established clinical and radiologic risk models. METHODS: Patients admitted with LAPC underwent diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) scan at 3...
February 15, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455080/optimized-multi-level-elongated-quinary-patterns-for-the-assessment-of-thyroid-nodules-in-ultrasound-images
#7
U Raghavendra, Anjan Gudigar, M Maithri, Arkadiusz Gertych, Kristen M Meiburger, Chai Hong Yeong, Chakri Madla, Pailin Kongmebhol, Filippo Molinari, Kwan Hoong Ng, U Rajendra Acharya
Ultrasound imaging is one of the most common visualizing tools used by radiologists to identify the location of thyroid nodules. However, visual assessment of nodules is difficult and often affected by inter- and intra-observer variabilities. Thus, a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system can be helpful to cross-verify the severity of nodules. This paper proposes a new CAD system to characterize thyroid nodules using optimized multi-level elongated quinary patterns. In this study, higher order spectral (HOS) entropy features extracted from these patterns appropriately distinguished benign and malignant nodules under particle swarm optimization (PSO) and support vector machine (SVM) frameworks...
February 7, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455017/thrombectomy-devices-in-the-treatment-of-acute-mesenteric-ischemia-initial-single-center-experience
#8
Bruno Freitas, Yvonne Bausback, Johannes Schuster, Matthias Ulrich, Sven Bräunlich, Andrej Schmidt, Dierk Scheinert
INTRODUCTION: To report our preliminary experience with endovascular revascularization of patients with acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI), using thrombectomy devices. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients admitted to our hospital due to AMI and who were subjected to concomitant or exclusive endovascular treatment, from January 2011 to January 2016. Patients were admitted at the emergency department, underwent imaging investigation and were referred to the endovascular specialist...
February 15, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454589/a-retrospective-review-of-registrar-out-of-hours-reporting-in-a-university-hospital-the-effect-of-time-and-seniority-on-discrepancy-rates
#9
V Lam, J A Stephenson
AIM: To assess the influence of time, intensity, and trainee seniority on radiology registrars' major and minor discrepancy rates during weekend reporting at a university teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 12-month retrospective review was performed of out-of-hours trainee provisional reports for computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a university teaching hospital. From Friday 9.00 pm to Sunday 9.00 pm, the out-of-hours service is provided by a single registrar rotating every 12 hours...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454377/chronic-recurrent-multifocal-osteomyelitis-a-case-report
#10
Maria Francesca Gicchino, Mario Diplomatico, Carmela Granato, Daniela Capalbo, Pierluigi Marzuillo, Alma Nunzia Olivieri, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice
BACKGROUND: Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), also known as chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis, is a rare, noninfectious inflammatory disorder that causes multifocal bone lesions with swelling and pain. Lytic and sclerotic bone lesions could be found on X-ray. Short tau inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (STIR MRI) shows bone marrow oedema, bone expansion, lytic areas and periosteal reaction. CRMO is characterized by periodic exacerbations and remissions of unclear/unknown pathogenesis...
February 17, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454314/a-prospective-study-to-investigate-the-role-of-serial-serum-mesothelin-in-monitoring-mesothelioma
#11
Duneesha de Fonseka, David T Arnold, Louise Stadon, Anna Morley, Emma Keenan, Michael Darby, Lynne Armstrong, Paul Virgo, Nick A Maskell
BACKGROUND: Radiological monitoring of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) using modified RECIST criteria is limited by low sensitivity and inter-observer variability. Serial serum mesothelin measurement has shown utility in the assessment of treatment response during chemotherapy but has never been assessed in the longer term follow up of patients. METHODS: This is a single centre study of consecutive patients diagnosed with MPM who received chemotherapy or best supportive care (BSC)...
February 17, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453776/syndromic-sebaceous-nevus-current-findings
#12
Oumama El Ezzi, Anthony S de Buys Roessingh, Michèle Bigorre, Guillaume Captier
BACKGROUND: Sebaceous nevus is a congenital malformation of the skin that usually occurs on the scalp or face. Syndromic forms do rarely exist with associated cerebral and ocular malformations. The skin lesions are pale at birth and become irregular by puberty. In the adult patient, tumors (usually benign) develop from sebaceous nevus. Their surgical excision during childhood can give a better result in terms of the definitive scar. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to analyze our cases of syndromic sebaceous hamartoma, perform a review of the existing literature, and propose guidelines for the therapeutic plan...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453512/global-and-japanese-regional-variations-in-radiologist-potential-workload-for-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-examinations
#13
Kanako K Kumamaru, Akihiro Machitori, Ritsuko Koba, Shinpei Ijichi, Yasuo Nakajima, Shigeki Aoki
PURPOSE: To investigate the global variation in radiologist potential workload for CT and MRI examinations, and the regional variation in potential workload and extent of radiologists' involvement in CT and MRI examinations in Japan. METHODS: "Radiologist potential workload" was defined as the annual number of CT plus MRI examinations divided by the total number of diagnostic radiologists. The extent of radiologists' involvement was measured as the proportion of CT and MRI examinations to which "Added-fees for Radiological Managements on Imaging-studies (ARMIs)" were applied among eligible examinations...
February 16, 2018: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453166/skull-metastasis-revealing-a-renal-tumor-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Mohamed Badri, Ghassen Gader, Kamel Bahri, Ihsen Zammel
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinomas represent 85% of malignant renal tumors. Typically, the tumor remains asymptomatic a long time before the appearance of urologic clinical signs. In some cases, metastasis can precede the manifestations of the primary tumor. Different sites are potential metastatic localizations for renal tumors, including skull metastases who represent a very rare location. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a 65-year-old man presented after the appearance of a skull mass...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453163/incidentally-discovered-persistent-m%C3%A3-llerian-duct-syndrome-in-a-45-year-old-male-presenting-with-germ-cell-tumor-and-bilateral-cryptorchidism-a-rare-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Turki Z Al Harbi, Kareem Ayman Azzam, Ayman Azzam, Tarek Amin, Nasir Bakshi
INTRODUCTION: Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS) is a rare sexual disease. It is characterized by the presence of female reproductive structures such as uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes and upper part of vagina in a normal genotypically and phenotypically male. The diagnosis is usually incidental since the patients will present with normal external genitalia and secondary sexual characteristics. Imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scan, or ultrasound (US) could help in the diagnosis...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452616/tuberculosis
#16
REVIEW
Alfred O Ankrah, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Alex Maes, Christophe Van de Wiele, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Mariza Vorster, Mike M Sathekge
Tuberculosis (TB) is currently the world's leading cause of infectious mortality. Imaging plays an important role in the management of this disease. The complex immune response of the human body to Mycobacterium tuberculosis results in a wide array of clinical manifestations, making clinical and radiological diagnosis challenging. 18 F-FDG-PET/CT is very sensitive in the early detection of TB in most parts of the body; however, the lack of specificity is a major limitation. 18 F-FDG-PET/CT images the whole body and provides a pre-therapeutic metabolic map of the infection, enabling clinicians to accurately assess the burden of disease...
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451656/posterior-fossa-decompression-with-duraplasty-in-chiari-surgery-a-technical-note
#17
Marcelo Ferreira Sabba, Beatriz Souza Renor, Enrico Ghizoni, Helder Tedeschi, Andrei Fernandes Joaquim
Chiari malformation (CM) is the most common and prevalent symptomatic congenital craniocervical malformation. Radiological diagnosis is established when the cerebellar tonsils are located 5 mm or more below the level of the foramen magnum on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Surgical treatment is indicated whenever there is symptomatic tonsillar herniation or syringomyelia/hydrocephalus. The main surgical treatment for CM without craniocervical instability (such as atlantoaxial luxation) is posterior fossa decompression, with or without duraplasty...
November 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451435/safe-insertion-of-s-2-alar-iliac-screws-radiological-comparison-between-2-insertion-points-using-computed-tomography-and-3d-analysis-software
#18
Kentaro Yamada, Yuichiro Abe, Shigenobu Satoh
OBJECTIVE S-2 alar iliac (S2AI) screws are commonly used as anchors for lumbosacral fixation. A serious potential complication of screw insertion is major vascular injury due to anterior or caudal screw deviation. To avoid screw deviation, the pelvic inlet view on intraoperative fluoroscopy images is recommended. However, there has been no detailed investigation of optimal fluoroscopic incline with the pelvic inlet view. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety margins and to optimize fluoroscopic settings to avoid screw deviation with 2 reported insertion techniques using 3D analysis software and CT...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450852/major-pancreatic-resections-normal-postoperative-findings-and-complications
#19
Marco Chincarini, Giulia A Zamboni, Roberto Pozzi Mucelli
OBJECTIVES: (1) To illustrate and describe the main types of pancreatic surgery; (2) to discuss the normal findings after pancreatic surgery; (3) to review the main complications and their radiological findings. BACKGROUND: Despite the decreased postoperative mortality, morbidity still remains high resulting in longer hospitalisations and greater costs. Imaging findings following major pancreatic resections can be broadly divided into "normal postoperative alterations" and real complications...
February 15, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450207/fixation-of-traumatic-chondral-only-fragments-of-the-knee-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-athletes-a-retrospective-multicenter-report
#20
Peter D Fabricant, Yi-Meng Yen, Dennis E Kramer, Mininder S Kocher, Lyle J Micheli, J Todd R Lawrence, Theodore J Ganley, Benton E Heyworth
Background: While traditional biological principles have suggested that fragments consisting of cartilage alone cannot be reaffixed to bone with expectable long-term healing, case reports of successful healing after fixation in younger patients indicate that this concept remains incompletely explored. Purpose: To evaluate the presenting features, techniques, healing rates, and clinical and radiological results in a cohort of pediatric and adolescent athletes who underwent fixation of traumatic chondral-only fragments in the knee...
February 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
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