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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161580/artificial-intelligence-and-deep-learning-radiology-s-next-frontier
#1
REVIEW
Ray Cody Mayo, Jessica Leung
Tracing the use of computers in the radiology department from administrative functions through image acquisition, storage, and reporting, to early attempts at improved diagnosis, we begin to imagine possible new frontiers for their use in exam interpretation. Given their initially slow but ultimately substantial progress in the noninterpretive areas, we are left desiring and even expecting more in the interpretation realm. New technological advances may provide the next wave of progress and radiologists should be early adopters...
November 18, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160142/structural-fat-grafting-to-improve-outcomes-of-vocal-folds-fat-augmentation-long-term-results
#2
Giovanna Cantarella, Riccardo F Mazzola, Michele Gaffuri, Elisabetta Iofrida, Pietro Biondetti, Laura V Forzenigo, Lorenzo Pignataro, Sara Torretta
Objective Evaluating the long-term outcomes of vocal fold structural fat grafting. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting University hospital. Subjects and Methods Seventy-nine dysphonic patients (16-82 years; 55 with unilateral laryngeal paralysis and 24 with vocal fold scarring) underwent vocal fold fat injection. Fat was harvested by low-pressure liposuction and then processed by centrifugation. Refined fat aliquots were placed in the vocal fold and paraglottic space in multiple tunnels to enhance graft neovascularization...
November 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160086/anatomic-and-radiologic-study-of-renal-avascular-plane-brodel-s-line-and-its-potential-relevance-on-percutaneous-and-surgical-approaches-to-the-kidney
#3
Veronica Macchi, Edgardo Picardi, Antonino Inferrera, Andrea Porzionato, Alessandro Crestani, Giacomo Novara, Raffaele De Caro, Vincenzo Ficarra
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present anatomic and radiologic study was to evaluate the location, extension and characteristics of the Brödel's plane and eventually define its different patterns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated 15 human normal kidneys sampled from un-embalmed cadavers without clinical history or anatomical evidence of renal diseases. Kidneys with the surrounding perirenal fat tissue were removed en bloc with the abdominal segment of the aorta. The renal artery was injected with acrylic and radiopaque resins...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159606/preoperative-68-ga-dota-somatostatin-analog-pet-ct-hybrid-imaging-increases-detection-rate-of-intra-abdominal-small-intestinal-neuroendocrine-tumor-lesions
#4
Olov Norlén, Harald Montan, Per Hellman, Peter Stålberg, Anders Sundin
BACKGROUND: Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) are the most common form of neoplasm in the small bowel. Radiological identification of primary tumors (PT), which may be multiple, is difficult, and therefore palpation of the entire small bowel is routinely performed during laparotomy. The aim was to determine detection rates of PT and peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) with (68)Ga-DOTATOC/TATE-PET/CT in comparison with i.v. contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) and thus to clarify whether modern functional imaging can mitigate the need for palpation of bowel during surgery enabling oncologically adequate laparoscopic resection...
November 20, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159207/primary-breast-chondrosarcoma-imaging-and-pathological-findings
#5
Antonio Matteo Amadu, Daniela Soro, Vincenzo Marras, Giulia Satta, Paola Crivelli, Maurizio Conti, Giovanni Battista Meloni
We present the case of a 62 year-old woman who was admitted to our institute of radiological sciences for a breast mass developed in the last few months. The final diagnosis was primary breast chondrosarcoma and the surgical treatment performed, based on imaging and pathological findings, was the mastectomy.
2017: European Journal of Radiology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158061/machine-learning-in-radiology-applications-beyond-image-interpretation
#6
Paras Lakhani, Adam B Prater, R Kent Hutson, Kathy P Andriole, Keith J Dreyer, Jose Morey, Luciano M Prevedello, Toshi J Clark, J Raymond Geis, Jason N Itri, C Matthew Hawkins
Much attention has been given to machine learning and its perceived impact in radiology, particularly in light of recent success with image classification in international competitions. However, machine learning is likely to impact radiology outside of image interpretation long before a fully functional "machine radiologist" is implemented in practice. Here, we describe an overview of machine learning, its application to radiology and other domains, and many cases of use that do not involve image interpretation...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157898/radiologic-and-clinical-evaluation-of-a-bioabsorbable-collagen-implant-to-treat-partial-thickness-tears-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#7
Theodore F Schlegel, Jeffrey S Abrams, Brandon D Bushnell, J Logan Brock, Charles P Ho
BACKGROUND: Treatment of partial-thickness cuff tears remains controversial. Although conservative therapy may treat symptoms, these defects do not spontaneously heal and conversion to a full-thickness lesion with subsequent repair may alter the tendon footprint. The ability to induce new tissue formation and limit tear progression in intermediate- and high-grade partial-thickness tears without surgical repair may represent a significant advancement in the treatment paradigm for these lesions...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157550/imaging-of-radiation-and-medication-related-osteonecrosis
#8
REVIEW
Sanjay M Mallya, Sotirios Tetradis
Osteonecrosis is the devitalization of bone and consequent lytic changes. In the jaws, osteonecrosis is a pathologic consequence of prior radiation therapy (osteoradionecrosis) or certain antiresorptive medications. Herein, we review the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of these lesions, and describe the spectrum of radiologic findings in these conditions, and highlight the similarities and differences between the imaging appearances of these 2 entities.
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157548/imaging-of-benign-odontogenic-lesions
#9
REVIEW
William C Scarfe, Shiva Toghyani, Bruno Azevedo
Numerous benign cysts or solid tumors may present in the jaws. These arise from tooth-forming tissues in the dental alveolus or from nonodontogenic tissues in the basal bone of the mandible and maxilla. Radiologists provide 2 deliverables to assist in diagnosis and management: (1) appropriately formatted images demonstrating the location and extent of the lesion and (2) interpretive reports highlighting specific radiologic findings and an impression providing a radiologic differential diagnosis. This article provides guidance on essential image protocols for planning treatments, a radiologic differential diagnostic algorithm based on location and pattern recognition, and a summary of the main features of benign odontogenic lesions...
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157544/radiology-of-implant-dentistry
#10
REVIEW
Asma'a Abdurrahman Al-Ekrish
The article presents an overview of the goal of imaging at each stage of implant therapy and the usefulness and limitations of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in achieving those goals. Various MDCT protocols of use in implant imaging also are presented, with an emphasis on dose reduction and the use of iterative reconstruction techniques. Also discussed are options for viewing and analysis of CT images, issues related to appropriate image reformatting and interpretation, interactive treatment planning, and transfer of information from the images to the surgical field during implant surgery using surgical guides and CT-guided navigation systems...
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157541/imaging-of-dentoalveolar-and-jaw-trauma
#11
REVIEW
Reyhaneh Alimohammadi
Prior to the invention of cone beam CT, use of 2-D plain film imaging for trauma involving the mandible was common practice, with CT imaging opted for in cases of more complex situations, especially in the maxilla and related structures. Cone beam CT has emerged as a reasonable and reliable alternative considering radiation dosage, image quality, and comfort for the patient. This article presents an overview of the patterns of dental and maxillofacial fractures using conventional and advanced imaging techniques illustrated with multiple clinical examples selected from the author's oral and maxillofacial radiology practice database...
January 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157383/-18-f-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-pet-computed-tomography-evaluation-of-lung-cancer-in-populations-with-high-prevalence-of-tuberculosis-and-other-granulomatous-disease
#12
REVIEW
Alexandre Niyonkuru, Khamis Hassan Bakari, Xiaoli Lan
Pulmonary tuberculosis infects one-third of world's population and is responsible for the high mortality and morbidity in developing countries. The presence of a high number of macrophages and lymphocytes in active tuberculosis granulomas is associated with high uptake of (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose on PET imaging mimicking lung cancer. In many cases, radiological features of pulmonary tuberculosis are undistinguishable from lung cancer, which makes the diagnosis difficult. Clinical history and computed tomographic (CT) findings on a hybrid PET/CT are as important as findings on a PET in the diagnosis of lung cancer...
January 2018: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157168/burkitt-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-presenting-with-mental-neuropathy-numb-chin-syndrome-in-an-hiv-positive-patient
#13
N Vora, H Haryee, J C Dickson, R F Miller
Mental nerve neuropathy is usually due to local trauma or dental causes, but may be a manifestation of malignancy. A patient with virologically controlled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection presented with a 'numb chin' on the background of long-standing night sweats, malaise and weight loss, worsening respiratory symptoms, and lymphadenopathy. Burkitt non-Hodgkin lymphoma was diagnosed from histology of a lymph node. Imaging (magnetic resonance imaging and (18)fluorodeoxyglucose [FDG]-positron emission tomography-computed tomography [PET-CT]) showed abnormal intracranial enhancement of the right mandibular nerve and extensive (18)FDG-avid lymphadenopathy above and below the diaphragm, focal lesions in the spleen and within the right mandible...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156146/effectiveness-of-a-staged-us-and-unenhanced-mr-imaging-algorithm-in-the-diagnosis-of-pediatric-appendicitis
#14
Elizabeth H Dibble, David W Swenson, Claudia Cartagena, Grayson L Baird, Thaddeus W Herliczek
Purpose To establish, in a large cohort, the diagnostic performance of a staged algorithm involving ultrasonography (US) followed by conditional unenhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the imaging work-up of pediatric appendicitis. Materials and Methods A staged imaging algorithm in which US and unenhanced MR imaging were performed in pediatric patients suspected of having appendicitis was implemented at the authors' institution on January 1, 2011, with US as the initial modality followed by unenhanced MR imaging when US findings were equivocal...
November 20, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155645/from-images-to-actions-opportunities-for-artificial-intelligence-in-radiology
#15
Charles E Kahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155639/when-machines-think-radiology-s-next-frontier
#16
Keith J Dreyer, J Raymond Geis
Artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, and deep learning are terms now seen frequently, all of which refer to computer algorithms that change as they are exposed to more data. Many of these algorithms are surprisingly good at recognizing objects in images. The combination of large amounts of machine-consumable digital data, increased and cheaper computing power, and increasingly sophisticated statistical models combine to enable machines to find patterns in data in ways that are not only cost-effective but also potentially beyond humans' abilities...
December 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155621/science-to-practice-enhancing-photothermal-ablation-of-colorectal-liver-metastases-with-targeted-hybrid-nanoparticles
#17
Xiaoming Yang
Image-guided percutaneous thermal ablation has been one of the principal tools in management of unresectable liver malignancies, including colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) ( 1 ). Currently, however, this technique is suitable mainly for tumors less than 4-5 cm in diameter and also results in incomplete ablation at tumor margins ( 2 ). To solve these problems, efforts have been made to combine thermal ablation with other treatment options, such as systemic and intra-arterial administration of therapeutics ( 3 - 5 )...
December 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155345/the-relationship-between-hematoma-and-pachymeninges-in-an-interdural-hematoma-diagnosis-and-surgical-strategy
#18
Ko-Ting Chen, Hsu-Chen Huang, Ya-Jui Lin, Ming-Houng Chen, Tsung-Che Hsieh
BACKGROUND: The exact location of a hematoma in relation to the pachymeninges contributes to typical radiographic presentations. However, because of the complexity of hematoma evolution and neomembrane formation, an unexpected intraoperative finding may lead to a change of surgical strategy. Besides, the concentration of hemoglobin and its degradation products, the integrity of red blood cells (RBCs), and the infiltration of fibroblasts, polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and macrophages are factors that affect the imaging characteristics on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the hematoma ages...
November 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154725/non-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-when-is-a-second-angiography-indicated
#19
Asma Bashir, Ronni Mikkelsen, Leif Sørensen, Niels Sunde
Purpose Repeat imaging in patients with non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (NASAH) remains controversial. We aim to report our experience with NASAH with different hemorrhage patterns, and to investigate the need for further diagnostic workup to determine the underlying cause of hemorrhage. Method We conducted a retrospective analysis of all spontaneous SAH with an initial negative computed tomography (CT) with angiography (CTA) and/or digital subtraction angiography (DSA) from October 2011 through May 2017...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154676/effects-of-bone-regeneration-materials-and-tooth-movement-timing-on-canine-experimental-orthodontic-treatment
#20
Ferdinand Mabula Machibya, Yiyuan Zhuang, Weizhong Guo, Dongdong You, Shan Lin, Dong Wu, Jiang Chen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of bone regeneration materials and orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) timing on tooth movement through alveolar bone defects treated with guided bone regeneration (GBR) utilizing xenografts (Bio-Oss) and alloplast (β-TCP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four standard alveolar bone defects in six male beagle dogs were treated by GBR using either Bio-Oss or β-TCP (experimental), whereas the control defects were left empty. The defects were further grouped into early or late subgroups, depending on OTM timing after GBR (ie 1 month or 2 months, respectively)...
November 20, 2017: Angle Orthodontist
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