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Radiology and imaging

Yannick Hurni, Andrea Poretti, Jacques Schneider, Raphael Guzman, Gian Paolo Ramelli
INTRODUCTION:  Hydrocephalus can be progressive or spontaneously arrested. In arrested hydrocephalus, the balance between production and absorption of the cerebrospinal fluid is restored. Patients are mostly asymptomatic, and no surgical treatment is necessary for them. METHODS:  We performed a two-center consecutive case series study, aimed at investigating the safety of nonsurgical management of hydrocephalus in selected pediatric patients. We retrospectively selected all consecutive patients, suspected to suffer from arrested hydrocephalus and referred to our two institutions between January 2011 and December 2013...
June 22, 2018: Neuropediatrics
Hakmin Lee, Sung Il Hwang, Hak Jong Lee, Seok-Soo Byun, Sang Eun Lee, Sung Kyu Hong
OBJECTIVES: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been shown to be an important component of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI). We compared performance of DWI for detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in peripheral zone (PZ) and transition zone (TZ) of prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed data of 460 subjects who underwent preoperative 3.0-Tesla mpMRI and subsequently radical prostatectomy. Level of suspicion for PCa was graded using 5-grade Likert-scale from DWI...
2018: PloS One
Mary E Air, Julian R Harrison, Joseph T Nguyen, Bryan T Kelly, Eric A Bogner, Peter J Moley
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have compared radiographic and computed tomography (CT) imaging for evaluation of pre-arthritic hip pain. However, the inter-modality, inter-rater, and intra-rater consistencies of those parameters have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To determine if radiographs with an anteroposterior pelvis view and 45°-Dunn lateral view reliably correlate with CT in the context of lateral center edge (LCE), Tonnis, alpha, and beta angle measurements for femoroacetabular impingement or hip dysplasia diagnosis...
June 19, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Yang Hou, Jingchuan Sun, Jiangang Shi, Guodong Shi, Guohua Xu, Yongfei Guo, Dan Han
OBJECTIVE: To introduce an innovative surgical technique named as trans-vertebral bone graft and augmentation(TBGA) and evaluate its clinical efficacy with balloon Kyphoplasty (BKP) as control for osteoporotic VCFs. METHODS: A total of 81 patients with one-level osteoporotic VCFs received the TBGA(n=38) or BKP(n=43) from October 2012 to January 2015. The average follow-up period of the patients was 27.9 months. The patients were evaluated using plain radiographs, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively...
June 19, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Khaled M Elsayes, Christine O Menias, Ali I Morshid, Akram M Shaaban, Kathryn J Fowler, An Tang, Victoria Chernyak, Janio Szklaruk, Mustafa R Bashir
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to illustrate the various pitfalls, mimics, and atypical features that can lead to inaccurate diagnosis of focal lesions in a noncirrhotic liver. The content includes relevant pathogenesis and background as well as specific clues that can be used to reach an accurate diagnosis. CONCLUSION: When assessing focal hepatic lesions, it is important to avoid pitfalls and misdiagnoses that can alter the management plan. Helpful strategies for avoiding pitfalls include paying close attention to the clinical history of the patient, carefully evaluating all of the available imaging studies, and being aware of the various radiologic mimics...
July 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Lei Jiang, Yan Huang, Qiying Tang, Qingping Zhao, Yuan Li, Xiaodong Wu, Huoqiang Wang
The radiological features of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (PSH) and pulmonary hamartoma are poorly specified. Thus, the present study aimed to compare and analyze the characteristics of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT) in PSH versus pulmonary hamartoma. 18 F-FDG PET/CT characteristic findings of 12 patients with PSH and 14 patients with pulmonary hamartoma were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 12 lesions were detected from the 12 patients with PSH, of which 3 masses exhibited calcification...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Jun Du, Liang-Liang Huang, Ao Xu, An-Li Zhang, Xue Kong, Min Ding, Wen Hu, Zhen-Li Guo, Wen Zhong, Si-Bai Sun, Heng Li, Jie Chen, Qian Shen, Lu-Lu Xu, Hai-Bo Wu
Undifferentiated sinonasal malignant melanoma (MM) is a rare type of tumor, which can be easily misdiagnosed. The present study reports a 41-year-old male patient who presented with a 4-day history of epistaxis. Clinical examination and radiological imaging lead to the detection of a mass in the right sinonasal region. Histopathological examination revealed that the mass was composed of malignant epithelioid cells arranged in nests and sheets. These cells displayed a hemangiopericytoma-like pattern with antler-like branching vessels...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Z Hosseini, J Matusinec, D A Rudko, J Liu, B Y M Kwan, F Salehi, M Sharma, M Kremenchutzky, R S Menon, M Drangova
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recently published North American Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis guidelines call for derivation of a specific radiologic definition of MS WM lesions and mimics. The purpose of this study was to use SWI and magnetization-prepared FLAIR images for sensitive differentiation of MS from benign WM lesions using the morphologic characteristics of WM lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 18 healthy control subjects were enrolled retrospectively...
June 21, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Altaib Al Yassin, Mohammad Salehi Sadaghiani, Suyash Mohan, R Nick Bryan, Ilya Nasrallah
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Efficiency is central to current radiology practice. Knowledge of report generation timing is essential for workload optimization and departmental staffing decisions. Yet little research evaluates the distribution of activities performed by neuroradiologists in daily work. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational study tracked radiologists interpreting 358 brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an academic practice over 9 months. We measured the total duration from study opening to report signing and times for five activities performed during this period: image viewing, report transcription, obtaining clinical data, education, and other...
June 18, 2018: Academic Radiology
Girard Cua, Neal Holland, Ashleigh Wright
BACKGROUND: Anticoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for pulmonary embolism. However, if bleeding unfortunately occurs, the risks and benefits of anticoagulation present a challenge. Management of one hemorrhagic complication, retroperitoneal hematoma, is rare, difficult, and controversial. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old white man presented with left lower extremity swelling and dyspnea. He was tachycardic, hypertensive, and demonstrated poor oxygen saturation of 81% on ambient air...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Mark A Pacult, Fraser C Henderson, Mathew D Wooster, Abhay K Varma
The authors report the case of a 76 year-old woman presenting with leg pain, numbness and weakness mimicking a lumbosacral radiculopathy. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated mild root compression but lumbar decompression afforded only transient symptomatic relief. Post-operative MRI of the lumbosacral plexus and sciatic nerve revealed a gluteal venous varix compressing the sciatic nerve just distal to the piriformis muscle. Neurolysis and surgical resection of the offending varix resulted in resolution of her symptoms...
June 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Sang-Yeon Lee, Dong-Han Lee, Yun Jung Bae, Jae-Jin Song, Ji Soo Kim, Ja-Won Koo
Background: Superficial siderosis (SS) is a rare condition in which hemosiderin, an iron storage complex, is deposited in neural tissues because of recurrent subarachnoid bleeding. Hemosiderin deposition in the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII), brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve can cause sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and postural imbalance, but much remains unknown about the vestibular manifestations of SS. Objectives: To report the clinical course, cochleovestibular status, and patterns of vestibulopathy during follow-up of a relatively large case series, and to discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanism of vestibular deterioration...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Shireen Dumont, Marc Péchère, Laurence Toutous Trellu
Background: Prurigo nodularis is a condition of unknown origin defined by papulonodular eruption and intense pruritus. Hodgkin lymphoma often presents nonspecific initial symptoms. An association between systemic malignancy and cutaneous manifestations has long been documented. We report a case of prurigo nodularis as a first presentation of Hodgkin lymphoma. Case: A 35-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of pruritus. Previously diagnosed with bedbugs, the pruritus persisted even after insect eradication, with the appearance of papulonodular lesions consistent with chronic prurigo...
May 2018: Case Reports in Dermatology
Catalin Vasile Ivan, Joseph H Mullineux, Vikas Shah, Ratan Verma, Arumugam Rajesh, James A Stephenson
Radiology misses have been the subject of much debate on both sides of the Atlantic in recent years. There is now greater focus in trying to reduce radiology errors by continuous education and changing the working environment to try and protect the radiologist, and ultimately the patient from potential harm. Duty of candour is a relevant and sensitive area. Developing robust validated reporting pathways within the healthcare structure is very important so as to encourage a "learning from discrepancies" culture and to put the patient and their families at the center of reporting and acknowledging errors in radiology...
June 21, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Brendan W Lunn, Laurel A Littrell, Doris E Wenger, Stephen M Broski
OBJECTIVE: To examine the imaging characteristics of intramuscular myxomas (IM) and myxoid liposarcomas (MLS) on 18 F-FDG PET/CT and MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With IRB approval, our institutional imaging database was searched for pathologically proven IM and MLS evaluated by 18 F-FDG PET/CT and MRI. PET/CT and MRI imaging characteristics were recorded and correlated with pathologic diagnosis. RESULTS: We found eight patients (2 M, 6 F) with IM (mean age 65...
June 20, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
Decai Tian, Xiaodong Zhu, Rong Xue, Peng Zhao, Yuanrong Yao
History In November 2012, a previously healthy 31-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a 2-month history of right-sided numbness, diplopia, and intermittent nausea and dizziness. She did not have a history of fever, weight loss, headache, photophobia, seizure, or extremity weakness. Physical examination revealed left abduction limitation and right-sided hypoesthesia. Kernig and Brudzinski signs were absent, and pathergy test results were negative. Laboratory evaluation revealed normal complete and differential blood counts, normal serum chemistry, and normal immune function...
July 2018: Radiology
Mine Araz, Derya Cayir, Bekir Ucan, Alper Dilli, Erman Çakal
OBJECTIVE: (1)To define a quantitative cutoff value for incidental pituitary Technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI) uptake above which is of clinical importance and (2) to investigate possible factors affecting the intensity of uptake in pituitary adenoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 55 patients with a simultaneous parathyroid single-photon emission computed tomography and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging were included...
June 20, 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Juliana R Villena-Suarez, William Vicente, Luis Taxa, Luis Cuéllar, Maria T Nuñez-Butrón, Valeria Villegas, Miluska Castillo, Carlos A Castañeda
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem that, due to the clinical variability of its presentation, can be confused with cancer. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical-radiological characteristics and to describe the methodology that allowed to achieve a TB diagnosis in patients referred to the National Institute of Neoplastic Diseases (INEN) with a presumed diagnosis of cancer between 2014 and 2016. The study included 170 patients (52.4% men) with an average age of 41.1 years; 18% presented a history of contact with TB, and 5...
January 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Jianbing Ma, Weiqiang Zhang, Yijuan Huang, Lizhang Wang, Jia Wang, Linna Yuan, Jingfeng Zhang
RATIONALE: Primary pulmonary angiosarcoma is a rare disease. Here, we report the case of primary pulmonary angiosarcoma diagnosed computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and discuss its specific imaging characteristics. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old man was admitted for cough and shortness of breath. Thoracic CTPA images demonstrated a high-attenuation lesion surrounding by a halo sign in upper lobe of right lung, and the dilated vessel was also seen in lower lobe of right lung...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
L Lorenzon, F Bini, M Quatrale, A Biondi, R Persiani, M Di Pietropaolo, F Landolfi, E Iannicelli, F Marinozzi, G Balducci, D D'Ugo
AIM: Recent studies focused on rectal cancer suggested that a 3D imaging segmentation obtained from MRI data could contribute in the definition of the circumferential resection margin (CRM) and in the assessment of the tumor regression following neo-adjuvant treatments. Here, we propose a method for defining and visualizing the circumferential margins using 3D MRI segmentation; this methodology was tested in a clinical study comparing 3D CRM assessment vs standard MRI imaging. PATIENTS AND METHODS: MRI scans performed before neo-adjuvant treatments were selected and reviewed...
May 2018: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
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