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Peptic ulcer disease

Eitaro Aihara, Andrea L Matthis, Rebekah A Karns, Kristen A Engevik, Peihua Jiang, Jiang Wang, Bruce R Yacyshyn, Marshall H Montrose
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The peptic ulcer heals through a complex process, although the ulcer relapse often occurs several years later after healing. Our hypothesis is that even after visual evidence of healing of gastric ulceration, the regenerated epithelium is aberrant for an extended interval, increasing susceptibility of the regenerated epithelium to damage and further diseases. METHODS: Gastric ulcers were induced in mice by serosal topical application of acetic acid...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Jiunn-Wei Wang, Chien-Ning Hsu, Wei-Chen Tai, Ming-Kun Ku, Tsung-Hsing Hung, Kuo-Lun Tseng, Lan-Ting Yuan, Seng-Howe Nguang, Chih-Ming Liang, Shih-Cheng Yang, Cheng-Kun Wu, Pin-I Hsu, Deng-Chyang Wu, Seng-Kee Chuah
The association of Helicobacter pylori eradication with the occurrence of renal dysfunction in patients with peptic ulcer diseases is still unclear. This study aimed to clarify the relevance of H. pylori eradication to the occurrence of chronic kidney diseases in patients with peptic ulcer diseases. Data that were available from 2000-2011 were extracted from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan, and all patients with peptic ulcer diseases (n = 208 196) were screened for eligibility. We divided randomly selected patients into an H...
2016: PloS One
Shou-Wu Lee, Han-Chung Lien, Chi-Sen Chang, Teng-Yu Lee, Yen-Chun Peng, Hong-Zen Yeh
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome has been highlighted as a risk factor for several gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus (BE). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of metabolic syndrome with erosive esophagitis (EE) and BE. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from patients who visited the Medical Screening Center at Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan from January 2006 to December 2009...
October 15, 2016: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Verena Königer, Lea Holsten, Ute Harrison, Benjamin Busch, Eva Loell, Qing Zhao, Daniel A Bonsor, Alexandra Roth, Arnaud Kengmo-Tchoupa, Stella I Smith, Susanna Mueller, Eric J Sundberg, Wolfgang Zimmermann, Wolfgang Fischer, Christof R Hauck, Rainer Haas
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) strains that carry the cag type IV secretion system (cag-T4SS) to inject the cytotoxin-associated antigen A (CagA) into host cells are associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. CagA translocation by Hp is mediated by β1 integrin interaction of the cag-T4SS. However, other cellular receptors or bacterial outer membrane adhesins essential for this process are unknown. Here, we identify the HopQ protein as a genuine Hp adhesin, exploiting defined members of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule family (CEACAMs) as host cell receptors...
October 17, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Amy Po Yu Tsai, Jimmy Po-Nien Tsai, Lauren Stewart, Jeffrey Brubacher, Ka Wai Cheung
OBJECTIVES: Patients who are tobacco users present to the emergency department (ED) with many medical conditions that are causally or potentially causally related to smoking. Previous studies have shown increased cessation rates for patients who accurately perceive that their ED visit is smoking-related. Our study goals were 1) to determine the prevalence of potential smoking-related conditions among tobacco users at a tertiary care academic ED, and 2) to determine which medical conditions are more or less likely to be perceived by patients as smoking-related...
October 17, 2016: CJEM
Abhijit Maity, Mithun Pal, Suman Som, Sanchi Maithani, Sujit Chaudhuri, Manik Pradhan
The (13)C-urea breath test ((13)C-UBT), developed a few decades ago, is widely used as a non-invasive diagnostic method to detect only the presence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori infection; however, the actual disease state, i.e. whether the person harbouring H. pylori has peptic ulcer disease (PUD) or non-ulcerous dyspepsia (NUD), is still poorly understood. Nevertheless, the present (13)C-UBT has numerous limitations, drawbacks and pitfalls owing to the ingestion of (13)C-labelled external urea...
October 17, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Ari Garber, Sunguk Jang
Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the most common etiology of which is peptic ulcer disease, remains a persistent challenge despite a reduction in both its incidence and mortality. Both pharmacologic and endoscopic techniques have been developed to achieve hemostasis, with varying degrees of success. Among the pharmacologic therapies, proton pump inhibitors remain the mainstay of treatment, as they reduce the risk of rebleeding and requirement for recurrent endoscopic evaluation. Tranexamic acid, a derivative of the amino acid lysine, is an antifibrinolytic agent whose role requires further investigation before application...
September 2016: Clinical Endoscopy
K Thorsen, J A Søreide, K Søreide
BACKGROUND: Perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is a surgical emergency associated with high short-term mortality. However, studies on long-term outcomes are scarce. Our aim was to investigate long-term survival after surgery for PPU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population-based, consecutive cohort of patients who underwent surgery for PPU between 2001 and 2014 was reviewed, and the long-term mortality was assessed. Survival was investigated by univariate analysis (log-rank test) and displayed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves...
October 12, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Kuang-Wei Huang, Yi-Chun Kuan, Nai-Fang Chi, Yao-Hsien Huang, Jiing-Chyuan Luo, Li-Nien Chien
BACKGROUND: The association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the risk of recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) remains unclear. In this study, we compared the risk of recurrent PUB between patients with and those without COPD. METHODS: Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we first selected patients newly diagnosed with PUB in 2002-2009. Two groups comprising 13,732 COPD cases and 13,732 non-COPD matched controls were created using propensity score matching, thereby making the differences in basic demographics, medication use, and disease conditions between the two groups negligible...
October 7, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Mahmoud Bahmani, Amir Sarrafchi, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Sedigheh Asgari, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a group of drugs which are used for a wide variety of diseases including pain and inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, musculoskeletal disorders, and other comorbid complications. However, this group of drugs have undesirable effects such as peptic ulcer, bleeding and renal failure. Some of these side effects are associated with or caused by generation of oxidative stress. Following the withdrawal of a cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor drug, rofecoxib (VIOXX®) due to cardiovascular complications, scientists suggested that natural COX-2 inhibitors might provide valuable alternatives to COX inhibitors...
October 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Łukasz Hołubiuk, Jacek Imiela
Helicobacter pylori infection has accompanied man for thousands of years. In some infected patients, a complex and dynamic pathogen-host reaction triggers pathogenic pathways resulting in development, inter alia, of atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (both gastric and duodenal), gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Large-scale eradication therapy is associated with a rapid increase in antibiotic resistance, gut flora composition disturbances, and increased risk of development, inter alia, of paediatric infectious diarrhoeas, atopic diseases, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma...
2016: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Thomas G Blanchard, Steven J Czinn
Establishment of Helicobacter pylori infection as an etiologic agent of peptic ulcer disease and other gastric pathologies marked a revolution in gastroenterology which spurred an enormous interest in gastric physiology and immunology research. The association was soon also demonstrated in children as well. Application of antimicrobial therapies have proven remarkably efficacious in eradicating H. pylori and curing pediatric patients of duodenal ulcers as well as gastritis, negating a lifetime of ineffective therapy and life-threatening disease...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Research
Jing Yu Ng, Dedrick Kok Hong Chan, Ker Kan Tan
BACKGROUND: The use of fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in the screening for colorectal cancer is long established. However, more than 50 % of patients with positive FITs have a negative colonoscopy. The role of a subsequent oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (OGD) is debatable. The aim of this study is to evaluate the yield of OGD in patients with positive FITs. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective review of patients who underwent colonoscopy for a positive FIT between Jan...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Mohammad Bagher Javadi, Gerd Katzenmeier
Helicobacter pylori is a human-specific Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium which colonizes the gastric mucosal layer in the stomach causing diseases such as peptic ulcer, adenocarcinoma, and gastric lymphoma. It is estimated that approximately half of the world's population is infected with H. pylori making it the most intensively characterized microbial pathogen up to now. Hemolysis has been suggested to significantly contribute to colonization of the stomach and disease progression by H. pylori. In a number of earlier studies, TlyA was characterized as a putative pore-forming cytolysin...
December 2016: Current Microbiology
Iftikhar Ahmad Asim Syed, Syed Hasan Abbas Naqvi
Proton pump inhibitors are most widely prescribed medicines all over the world. Since their introduction in pharmacy, life of millions of people has changed completely. Their ability to inhibit acid secretion in stomach has changed the natural history of many once-dreaded conditions like peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Operation like gastrectomy and partial gastrectomy are carried out very rarely. These medicines are considered very cost-effective, have excellent safety profile, and provide prompt symptomatic relief...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Yao-Jong Yang, Bor-Shyang Sheu
As a barrier, gut commensal microbiota can protect against potential pathogenic microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. Crosstalk between gut microbes and immune cells promotes human intestinal homeostasis. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota has been implicated in the development of many human metabolic disorders like obesity, hepatic steatohepatitis, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Certain microbes, such as butyrate-producing bacteria, are lower in T2D patients. The transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome, but the exact pathogenesis remains unclear...
February 16, 2016: Microorganisms
Hamideh Mesali, Abolghasem Ajami, Hadi Hussein-Nattaj, Alireza Rafiei, Zeinab Rajabian, Hossein Asgarian-Omran, Vahid Hosseini, Tarang Taghvaei, Mohsen Tehrani
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T Cells (Tregs) and Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSCs) are two main regulatory cells modulating the immune responses in inflammation and cancer. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare Tregs and MDSCs in peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. METHODS: Patients with dyspepsia were selected and divided into three groups of non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD, n=22), peptic ulcer disease (PUD, n=25), and gastric cancer (GC, n=27) according to their endoscopic and histopathological examinations...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
Yingli Fu, Yaqin Yu, Shibin Wang, Joseph Sam Kanu, Yueyue You, Yingyu Liu, Yangyu Zhang, Yawen Liu, Bo Li, Yuchun Tao, Changgui Kou
Many factors affect menopausal age, and early or late onset of menopause may be associated with many chronic health problems. However, limited data are available regarding this phenomenon in the Northeast China population. For this study, 2011 elderly women were selected as a sample from participants in a cross-sectional survey performed using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods. Early menopause was more prevalent in subjects born from 1943 to 1947 (OR = 1.708, 95% CI = 1.205, 2.420) and 1933 to 1937 (OR = 2...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Nader Bagheri, Fatemeh Azadegan-Dehkordi, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Ghorbanali Rahimian, Majid Asadi-Samani, Hedaytollah Shirzad
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) usually colonizes the gastric mucosa of more than 50% of the human population, causing an infection that may appear in early childhood and can persist for life. H. pylori is suggested as the main cause of peptic ulcer and chronic gastritis. It is also associated with gastric cancer. Its severity and symptoms depend on environmental factors, host susceptibility and bacterial components, which allow H. pylori to switch between commensalism and pathogenicity. H. pylori is genetically highly variable, and the variability which affects H...
September 22, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Emmanuel A Agaba, Tarunjeet Klair, Ojinika Ikedilo, Prathiba Vemulapalli
INTRODUCTION: The discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) as the culprit in peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has revolutionized its management. Despite the presence of effective drug treatments and an increased understanding of its etiology, the percentage of patients who require emergent surgery for complicated disease remains constant at 7% of hospitalized patients. This study aims at reviewing the incidence of complicated PUD and analyze changes in surgical management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2002 to September 2012, records of all patients with a clinical or radiologic diagnosis of perforated PUD were evaluated...
October 2016: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
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