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Peptic ulcer disease

Alexandra K Eicher, H Matthew Berns, James M Wells
Gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, are highly prevalent in human beings. Despite this, the cellular biology of the stomach remains poorly understood relative to other gastrointestinal organs such as the liver, intestine, and colon. In particular, little is known about the molecular basis of stomach development and the differentiation of gastric lineages. Although animal models are useful for studying gastric development, function, and disease, there are major structural and physiological differences in human stomachs that render these models insufficient...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
M D Basson
The mucosal response to injury can best be understood as a complex layering of different responses that may be invoked depending upon the size and nature of the injury, the persistence of the injurious stimulus, and the availability of various trophic host factors that stimulate repair. There is a hierarchy of responses that ranges from small rapid resealing of acute apical membrane or single cell wounds through the long term attempt to heal a giant peptic ulcer or respond to inflammatory bowel disease. Although much previous attention has been paid to the local factors that regulate these pathways and responses, there is increasing interest in systemic factors that may act either by the production of cytokines and trophic factors or by the direct migration of bone marrow derived stem cells into the mucosal wound...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Bader Hamza Shirah, Hamza Asaad Shirah, Syed Husham Zafar, Khalid B Albeladi
Backgrounds/Aims: Postcholecystectomy syndrome represents a heterogeneous group of symptoms and findings in patients who have previously undergone cholecystectomy. It is rare and under-reported in Saudi Arabia. It can be attributed to many complications such as bile duct injury, biliary leak, retained common bile duct stones, recurrent bile duct stones, and bile duct strictures. In this study, we aimed to analyze the causes and evaluate the approach to postcholecystectomy syndrome in our local Saudi Arabian community because of the vast number of cases encountered in our hospital for gallbladder clinical conditions and its related complications...
February 2018: Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
Johann Hammer
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of functional dyspepsia (FD) is challenging due to the lack of reliable biological markers to support the diagnosis. We assessed the relevance of a previously validated simple test for chemical hypersensitivity in the setting of a gastrointestinal outpatient department. METHODS: A total of 224 outpatients who were referred for evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms in the absence of alarm symptoms swallowed a capsule containing 0.75 mg capsaicin...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Xiaoli Shu, Guofeng Yin, Mingnan Liu, Kerong Peng, Hong Zhao, Mizu Jiang
BACKGROUND: The decreasing eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori is mainly because of the progressive increase in its resistance to antibiotics. Studies on antimicrobial susceptibility of H. pylori in children are limited. This study aimed to investigate the resistance rates and patterns of H. pylori strains isolated from children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gastric mucosa biopsy samples obtained from children who had undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were cultured for H...
March 12, 2018: Helicobacter
Yen-I Chen, Theodore James, Amol Agarwal, Todd H Baron, Takao Itoi, Rastislav Kunda, Jose Nieto, Majidah Bukhari, Olaya Brewer Gutierrez, Omid Sanaei, Robert Moran, Lea Fayad, Mouen A Khashab
Background and study aims:  Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE) in malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) appears to be promising; however, its role in benign GOO is unclear. The aim of this study was to ascertain the clinical efficacy and safety of EUS-GE in benign GOO. Patients and methods : This was an international retrospective series involving 5 tertiary centers. Consecutive patients who underwent EUS-GE between 1/2013 - 10/2016 for benign GOO were included...
March 2018: Endoscopy International Open
Jun Nishikawa, Ayumu Hosokawa, Mayo Fuchino, Shunsuke Takatori, Masaya Iwamoto, Yoshiro Kashii, Tadashi Bando, Tetsuro Shimizu, Masami Minemura, Toshiro Sugiyama
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been widely used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease. Although they have a potent acid suppressive effect and excellent efficacy in acid-related diseases, PPI-induced rhabdomyolysis has been reported. Here, we report the case of a patient with reflux esophagitis who developed rhabdomyolysis after esomeprazole treatment. A 67-year-old man with reflux esophagitis who had started esomeprazole treatment for the preceding 10 months complained of back and limb fatigue and myalgia...
2018: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
Ronald Samuel, Mohammad Bilal, Obada Tayyem, Praveen Guturu
Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The most common causes include peptic ulcer disease, Mallory-Weiss syndrome, erosive gastritis, duodenitis, esophagitis, malignancy, angiodysplasias and Dieulafoy's lesion. Initial assessment and early aggressive resuscitation significantly improves outcomes. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy continues to be the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. We present a comprehensive review of literature for the evaluation and management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding...
March 7, 2018: Disease-a-month: DM
Hamid Nisar Khan, Amir Suleman, Raza Ullah, Azmat Abdullah, Shahida Naz
BACKGROUND: There is an association of Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study was designed to determine the frequency of GERD in COPD patients. METHODS: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in the Pulmonology Unit Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad. Patients more than 40 years of age of both genders presenting with features of COPD such as cough and breathlessness for more than 6 months and confirmed by spirometry were included in the study...
January 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Małgorzata Kujawska, Anna Olejnik, Grażyna Lewandowicz, Przemysław Kowalczewski, Renata Forjasz, Jadwiga Jodynis-Liebert
BACKGROUND: Peptic ulcer disease, including its complications and functional dyspepsia, are prevalent gastrointestinal diseases, etiopathogenesis of which is associated with mucosal inflammation. Research into new therapeutics capable of preventing or curing gastrointestinal mucosal damage has been steadily developing over past decades. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether a spray-dried preparation of potato juice is applicable for treating and preventing gastrointestinal mucosal damage...
February 24, 2018: Nutrients
Hideo Takahashi, Matthew T Allemang, Andrew T Strong, Mena Boules, Zubaidah Nor Hanipah, Alfredo D Guerron, Kevin El-Hayek, John H Rodriguez, Matthew D Kroh
BACKGROUND: With the worldwide epidemic of obesity, an increasing number of bariatric operations and antireflux fundoplications are being performed. Despite low morbidity of the primary foregut surgery, completion gastrectomy may be necessary as a definitive procedure for complications of prior foregut surgery; however, the literature evaluating outcomes after completion gastrectomy with esophagojejunostomy (EJ) for benign diseases is limited. We present our experience of completion gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y EJ in the setting of benign disease at a single tertiary center...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Nader Bagheri, Alireza Razavi, Batoul Pourgheysari, Fatemeh Azadegan-Dehkordi, Ghorbanali Rahimian, Ashkan Pirayesh, Mohammedhadi Shafigh, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Rana Fereidani, Kamran Tahmasbi, Hedayatollah Shirzad
BACKGROUND: During Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection CD4+ T cells in the gastric lamina propria are hyporesponsive and polarized by Th1/Th17 cell responses controlled by Treg cells. The objective of this study was to determine the number of Th17 cells in gastric mucosa of patients with gastritis and peptic ulcer and determined the relationship between main virulence factor of H. pylori and Th17 cells. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 89 H. pylori-infected gastritis patients, 63 H...
February 23, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Tzu-Chan Wu, Keng-Liang Wu, Wen-Long Hu, Jer-Ming Sheen, Cheng-Nan Lu, John Y Chiang, Yu-Chiang Hung
BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal disorders are common in clinical practice, for example, gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Panendoscopy or upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is viewed as the primary tool for examining the upper gastrointestinal mucosa, and permitting biopsy and endoscopic therapy. Although panendoscopy is considered to be a safe procedure with minimal complications, there are still some adverse effects, and patients are often anxious about undergoing invasive procedures...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kate M Scott, Sukanta Saha, Carmen C W Lim, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Jordi Alonso, Corina Benjet, Evelyn J Bromet, Ronny Bruffaerts, José Miguel Caldas-de-Almeida, Giovanni de Girolamo, Peter de Jonge, Louisa Degenhardt, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep M Haro, Chiyi Hu, Elie G Karam, Viviane Kovess-Masfety, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Zeina Mneimneh, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Marina Piazza, José Posada-Villa, Nancy A Sampson, Juan Carlos Stagnaro, Ronald C Kessler, John J McGrath
BACKGROUND: Previous work has identified associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and general medical conditions (GMCs), but their temporal direction remains unclear as does the extent to which they are independent of comorbid mental disorders. METHODS: In total, 28 002 adults in 16 countries from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys were assessed for PEs, GMCs and 21 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders...
February 26, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Tuure Saarinen, Ulla Kettunen, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Anne Juuti
BACKGROUND: Consensus on the necessity of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) before bariatric surgery is lacking. Recommendations and practices vary by country and unit. Several reports have expressed concerns on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its consequences after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and the risk of leaving a premalignant lesion in the excluded stomach after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). OBJECTIVES: We explored the number and types of clinically significant findings in preoperative EGDs and how they associate with preexisting GERD-symptoms (SG) and premalignant lesions (RYGB)...
February 14, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Benjamin Scally, Jonathan R Emberson, Enti Spata, Christina Reith, Kelly Davies, Heather Halls, Lisa Holland, Kate Wilson, Neeraj Bhala, Christopher Hawkey, Marc Hochberg, Richard Hunt, Loren Laine, Angel Lanas, Carlo Patrono, Colin Baigent
BACKGROUND: Gastroprotectant drugs are used for the prevention and treatment of peptic ulcer disease and might reduce its associated complications, but reliable estimates of the effects of gastroprotectants in different clinical settings are scarce. We aimed to examine the effects of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), prostaglandin analogues, and histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) in different clinical circumstances by doing meta-analyses of tabular data from all relevant unconfounded randomised trials of gastroprotectant drugs...
February 20, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Chia-Huei Peng, Chin-Hung Wei, Chun-Yan Yeung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Davide G Ribaldone, Dario Mazzucco, Sharmila Fagoonee, Lucia Crocellà, Alessandro Lavagna, Mario Fracchia, Gian P Caviglia, Daniele Simondi, Rodolfo Rocca, Marco Astegiano
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative bacterium, usually acquired during childhood, whose natural habitat is the gastric lumen. H. pylori is accepted as the most important cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer in humans. Nevertheless, its important role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer as well as in several extra-gastroduodenal diseases has been confirmed. The aim of this work is to discuss, for the first time in a single article, all publications concerning H. pylori infection arising from Piedmont region, Italy, where in 1893 Giulio Bizzozero was the first who observed and described spiral organisms in the stomach of animal models...
February 19, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
György M Buzás
The subject of Helicobacter pylori continues to elicit worldwide interest in many research fields. Epidemiological data suggest that the prevalence of the infection is decreasing in Western/developed countries and even in some developing regions, but this is masked by the high prevalence in the most populous regions. Chronic gastritis, caused invariably by the bacterium, was again classified in Kyoto and Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis was included as a distinct entity. The prevalence of peptic ulcers is decreasing, but bleeding ulcers are a challenging problem, with stable mortality levels even in the endoscopic era...
February 19, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Mehdi Tourani, Maryam Habibzadeh, Ahmad Karkhah, Javad Shokri-Shirvani, Ladan Barari, Hamid Reza Nouri
Peptic ulcer is a lesion in the mucosa of the digestive tract affecting many people all around the world. Recent investigations have indicated that produced inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β in response to gastric infection by Helicobacter pylori play an important role in the development of peptic ulcer. With regard to the significance of these cytokines in peptic ulcer development and the high prevalence of this disease in the developing countries, this study aimed to investigate the association of TNF-α and IL-1β with peptic ulcer in the presence of H...
February 15, 2018: Cytokine
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