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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333312/establishment-maintenance-and-functional-integrity-of-the-blood-testis-barrier-in-organotypic-cultures-of-fresh-and-frozen-thawed-prepubertal-mouse-testes
#1
C Rondanino, A Maouche, L Dumont, A Oblette, N Rives
STUDY QUESTION: Can the spatio-temporal formation of an intact blood-testis barrier (BTB), which is essential for the progression of spermatogenesis, be reproduced in cultures of fresh or frozen/thawed prepubertal mouse testes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Organotypic cultures allow the establishment and maintenance of major BTB components and the formation of a functional BTB in mouse testicular tissues. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In vitro maturation of prepubertal testicular tissues is a promising approach to restore fertility in adult survivors of childhood cancer...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330786/investigating-acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity-in-multi-cellular-organotypic-liver-models
#2
Sophia M Orbach, Margaret E Cassin, Marion F Ehrich, Padmavathy Rajagopalan
In vivo studies clearly demonstrate the participation and subsequent death of non-parenchymal liver cells (NPCs) with corresponding hepatocyte effects. This results in a critical need to investigate how major liver cell types function cohesively during hepatotoxicity. However, virtually no studies replicate these phenomena in vitro. We report the design of multi-cellular three-dimensional (3D) organotypic liver models of primary rat hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and Kupffer cells (KCs)...
March 19, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330493/loss-of-mmp-8-in-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-dcis-associated-myoepithelial-cells-contributes-to-tumour-promotion-through-altered-adhesive-and-proteolytic-function
#3
Muge Sarper, Michael D Allen, Jenny Gomm, Linda Haywood, Julie Decock, Sally Thirkettle, Ahsen Ustaoglu, Shah-Jalal Sarker, John Marshall, Dylan R Edwards, J Louise Jones
BACKGROUND: Normal myoepithelial cells (MECs) play an important tumour-suppressor role in the breast but display an altered phenotype in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), gaining tumour-promoter functions. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) is expressed by normal MECs but is lost in DCIS. This study investigated the function of MMP-8 in MECs and the impact of its loss in DCIS. METHODS: Primary normal and DCIS-associated MECs, and normal (N-1089) and DCIS-modified myoepithelial (β6-1089) cell lines, were used to assess MMP-8 expression and function...
March 23, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327550/significant-role-of-collagen-xvii-and-integrin-%C3%AE-4-in-migration-and-invasion-of-the-less-aggressive-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#4
Jyri M Moilanen, Stefanie Löffek, Nina Kokkonen, Sirpa Salo, Juha P Väyrynen, Tiina Hurskainen, Aki Manninen, Pilvi Riihilä, Ritva Heljasvaara, Claus-Werner Franzke, Veli-Matti Kähäri, Tuula Salo, Markus J Mäkinen, Kaisa Tasanen
Collagen XVII and integrin α6β4 have well-established roles as epithelial adhesion molecules. Their binding partner laminin 332 as well as integrin α6β4 are largely recognized to promote invasion and metastasis in various cancers, and collagen XVII is essential for the survival of colon and lung cancer stem cells. We have studied the expression of laminin γ2, collagen XVII and integrin β4 in tissue microarray samples of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its precursors, actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322333/squamous-epitheliotropism-of-enterovirus-a71-in-human-epidermis-and-oral-mucosa
#5
Win Kyaw Phyu, Kien Chai Ong, Chee Kwan Kong, Abdul Khalil Alizan, Tindivanam Muthurangam Ramanujam, Kum Thong Wong
Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a self-limiting paediatric infectious disease commonly caused by Enterovirus A71 (Genus: Enterovirus, Family: Picornaviridae). Typical lesions in and around the hands, feet, oral cavity and other places may rarely be complicated by acute flaccid paralysis and acute encephalomyelitis. Although virus is readily cultured from skin vesicles and oral secretions, the cellular target/s of Enterovirus A71 in human skin and oral mucosa are unknown. In Enterovirus A71-infected human skin and oral mucosa organotypic cultures derived from the prepuce and lip biopsies, focal viral antigens and viral RNA were localized to cytoplasm of epidermal and mucosal squamous cells as early as 2 days post-infection...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315313/transforming-growth-factors-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-are-essential-for-modeling-cholangiocarcinoma-desmoplasia-and-progression-in-a-three-dimensional-organotypic-culture-model
#6
Miguel A Manzanares, Akihiro Usui, Deanna J Campbell, Catherine I Dumur, Gabrielle T Maldonado, Michel Fausther, Jonathan A Dranoff, Alphonse E Sirica
To gain insight into the cellular and molecular interactions mediating the desmoplastic reaction and aggressive malignancy of mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), we modeled ICC desmoplasia and progression in vitro. A unique three-dimensional (3D) organotypic culture model was established; within a dilute collagen-type I hydrogel, a novel clonal strain of rat cancer-associated myofibroblasts (TDFSM) was co-cultured with a pure rat cholangiocarcinoma cell strain (TDECC) derived from the same ICC type as TDFSM...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306742/hpv16-and-18-genome-amplification-show-different-e4-dependence-with-16e4-enhancing-e1-nuclear-accumulation-and-replicative-efficiency-via-its-cell-cycle-arrest-and-kinase-activation-functions
#7
Nagayasu Egawa, Qian Wang, Heather M Griffin, Isao Murakami, Deborah Jackson, Radma Mahmood, John Doorbar
To clarify E1^E4's role during high-risk HPV infection, the E4 proteins of HPV16 and 18 were compared side by side using an isogenic keratinocyte differentiation model. While no effect on cell proliferation or viral genome copy number was observed during the early phase of either virus life cycle, time-course experiments showed that viral genome amplification and L1 expression were differently affected upon differentiation, with HPV16 showing a much clearer E4 dependency. Although E4 loss never completely abolished genome amplification, its more obvious contribution in HPV16 focused our efforts on 16E4...
March 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300838/membrane-association-and-release-of-wild-type-and-pathological-tau-from-organotypic-brain-slice-cultures
#8
Cara L Croft, Matthew A Wade, Ksenia Kurbatskaya, Pavlina Mastrandreas, Martina M Hughes, Emma C Phillips, Amy M Pooler, Michael S Perkinton, Diane P Hanger, Wendy Noble
The spatiotemporal transmission of pathological tau in the brain is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Release of both soluble and abnormal tau species from healthy neurons is increased upon stimulation of neuronal activity. It is not yet understood whether the mechanisms controlling soluble tau release from healthy neurons is the same as those involved in the spread of pathological tau species. To begin to understand these events, we have studied tau distribution and release using organotypic brain slice cultures...
March 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300597/gli2-is-a-regulator-of-%C3%AE-catenin-and-is-associated-with-loss-of-e-cadherin-cell-invasiveness-and-long-term-epidermal-regeneration
#9
Eleni Pantazi, Emilios Gemenetzidis, Muy-Teck Teh, Sreekanth Vootukuri Reddy, Gary Warnes, Chris Evagora, Giuseppe Trigiante, Michael P Philpott
Uncontrolled HH/GLI and WNT/β-catenin signaling are important events in the genesis of many cancers including skin cancer and are often implicated in tumour progression, invasion and metastasis. However, due to the complexity and context-dependency of both pathways, little is known about HH and WNT interactions in human carcinogenesis. In the current study we provide evidence of HH/GLI2-WNT/β-catenin signaling crosstalk in human keratinocytes. Over-expression of GLI2ΔN in human keratinocytes resulted in cytoplasmic accumulation and nuclear relocalization of β-catenin in vitro and in 3D-organotypic cultures, accompanied by upregulation of WNT genes...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299490/molecular-effects-of-fractional-ablative-erbium-yag-laser-treatment-with-multiple-stacked-pulses-on-standardized-human-three-dimensional-organotypic-skin-models
#10
Laurenz Schmitt, P M Amann, Y Marquardt, R Heise, K Czaja, P A Gerber, T Steiner, F Hölzle, Jens Malte Baron
The molecular changes in gene expression following ablative laser treatment of skin lesions, such as atrophic scars and UV-damaged skin, are not completely understood. A standardized in vitro model of human skin, to study the effects of laser treatment on human skin, has been recently developed. Therefore, the aim of the investigation was to examine morphological and molecular changes caused by fractional ablative erbium:YAG laser treatment on an in vitro full-thickness 3D standardized organotypic model of human skin...
March 15, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292843/translational-applications-of-adult-stem-cell-derived-organoids
#11
REVIEW
Jarno Drost, Hans Clevers
Adult stem cells from a variety of organs can be expanded long-term in vitro as three-dimensional organotypic structures termed organoids. These adult stem cell-derived organoids retain their organ identity and remain genetically stable over long periods of time. The ability to grow organoids from patient-derived healthy and diseased tissue allows for the study of organ development, tissue homeostasis and disease. In this Review, we discuss the generation of adult stem cell-derived organoid cultures and their applications in in vitro disease modeling, personalized cancer therapy and regenerative medicine...
March 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290985/synaptic-transmission-and-plasticity-require-ampa-receptor-anchoring-via-its-n-terminal-domain
#12
Jake F Watson, Hinze Ho, Ingo H Greger
AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission and are selectively recruited during activity-dependent plasticity to increase synaptic strength. A prerequisite for faithful signal transmission is the positioning and clustering of AMPARs at postsynaptic sites. The mechanisms underlying this positioning have largely been ascribed to the receptor cytoplasmic C-termini and to AMPAR-associated auxiliary subunits, both interacting with the postsynaptic scaffold. Here, using mouse organotypic hippocampal slices, we show that the extracellular AMPAR N-terminal domain (NTD), which projects midway into the synaptic cleft, plays a fundamental role in this process...
March 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285100/engineering-epithelial-stromal-interactions-in-vitro-for-toxicology-assessment
#13
REVIEW
David G Belair, Barbara D Abbott
Crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells drives the morphogenesis of ectodermal organs during development and promotes normal mature adult epithelial tissue homeostasis. Epithelial-stromal interactions (ESIs) have historically been examined using mammalian models and ex vivo tissue recombination. Although these approaches have elucidated signaling mechanisms underlying embryonic morphogenesis processes and adult mammalian epithelial tissue function, they are limited by the availability of tissue, low throughput, and human developmental or physiological relevance...
March 8, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280327/biocompatibility-of-very-small-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-in-murine-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-cultures-and-the-role-of-microglia
#14
Martin Pohland, Robert Glumm, Frank Wiekhorst, Jürgen Kiwit, Jana Glumm
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) are applied as contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and treatment of neurologic diseases despite the fact that important information concerning their local interactions is still lacking. Due to their small size, SPIO have great potential for magnetically labeling different cell populations, facilitating their MRI tracking in vivo. Before SPIO are applied, however, their effect on cell viability and tissue homoeostasis should be studied thoroughly...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275681/gastrointestinal-organoids-understanding-the-molecular-basis-of-the-host-microbe-interface
#15
REVIEW
David R Hill, Jason R Spence
In recent years, increasing attention has been devoted to the concept that microorganisms play an integral role in human physiology and pathophysiology. Despite this, the molecular basis of host-pathogen and host-symbiont interactions in the human intestine remains poorly understood owing to the limited availability of human tissue, and the biological complexity of host-microbe interactions. Over the past decade, technological advances have enabled long-term culture of organotypic intestinal tissue derived from human subjects and from human pluripotent stem cells, and these in vitro culture systems already have shown the potential to inform our understanding significantly of host-microbe interactions...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273917/alleviation-of-microglial-activation-induced-by-p38-mapk-mk2-pge2-axis-by-capsaicin-potential-involvement-of-other-than-trpv1-mechanism-s
#16
Harsharan S Bhatia, Nora Roelofs, Eduardo Muñoz, Bernd L Fiebich
Exaggerated inflammatory responses in microglia represent one of the major risk factors for various central nervous system's (CNS) associated pathologies. Release of excessive inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins and cytokines are the hallmark of hyper-activated microglia. Here we have investigated the hitherto unknown effects of capsaicin (cap) - a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist- in murine primary microglia, organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) and human primary monocytes...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270132/effects-of-the-lysosomal-destabilizing-drug-siramesine-on-glioblastoma-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#17
Stine S Jensen, Stine A Petterson, Bo Halle, Charlotte Aaberg-Jessen, Bjarne W Kristensen
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is the most frequent and most malignant brain tumor with the patients having a median survival of only 14.6 months. Although glioblastoma patients are treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy recurrence is inevitable. A stem-like population of radio- and chemoresistant brain tumor-initiating cells combined with the invasive properties of the tumors is believed to be critical for treatment resistance. In the present study, the aim was to investigate the effect of a novel therapeutic strategy using the lysosomotropic detergent siramesine on glioblastomas...
March 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264063/acute-death-of-astrocytes-in-blast-exposed-rat-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-cultures
#18
Anna P Miller, Alok S Shah, Brandy V Aperi, Shekar N Kurpad, Brian D Stemper, Aleksandra Glavaski-Joksimovic
Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) affects civilians, soldiers, and veterans worldwide and presents significant health concerns. The mechanisms of neurodegeneration following bTBI remain elusive and current therapies are largely ineffective. It is important to better characterize blast-evoked cellular changes and underlying mechanisms in order to develop more effective therapies. In the present study, our group utilized rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs) as an in vitro system to model bTBI. OHCs were exposed to either 138 ± 22 kPa (low) or 273 ± 23 kPa (high) overpressures using an open-ended helium-driven shock tube, or were assigned to sham control group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259702/in-vitro-cardiotoxicity-assessment-of-environmental-chemicals-using-an-organotypic-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-model
#19
Oksana Sirenko, Fabian A Grimm, Kristen R Ryan, Yasuhiro Iwata, Weihsueh A Chiu, Frederick Parham, Jessica A Wignall, Blake Anson, Evan F Cromwell, Mamta Behl, Ivan Rusyn, Raymond R Tice
An important target area for addressing data gaps through in vitro screening is the detection of potential cardiotoxicants. Despite the fact that current conservative estimates relate at least 23% of all cardiovascular disease cases to environmental exposures, the identities of the causative agents remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of a combinatorial in vitro/in silico screening approach for functional and mechanistic cardiotoxicity profiling of environmental hazards using a library of 69 representative environmental chemicals and drugs...
March 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257918/ceftriaxone-mediated-upregulation-of-the-glutamate-transporter-glt-1-contrasts-neurotoxicity-evoked-by-kainate-in-rat-organotypic-spinal-cord-cultures
#20
Dzejla Bajrektarevic, Andrea Nistri
Excitotoxicity is a major pathological trigger of neurodegenerative diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This process is caused by excessive release of the transmitter glutamate that overwhelms the capacity of astroglia transporters to maintain a low extracellular level of this aminoacid and strongly stimulates neurons. Using an in vitro model of rat organotypic spinal slice culture, we explored if the excitotoxicity caused by the potent glutamate analogue kainate, widely employed as a paradigm to evoke neurotoxicity in the central nervous system, was prevented by the antibiotic ceftriaxone known to enhance glutamate transporter expression...
March 1, 2017: Neurotoxicology
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